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FI ESSRx

VOLUME 14 NUMBER 4

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO HEALTH AND FITNESS FOR WOMEN!


TM
M

YOUR ULTIMATE
LTIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR
RT
THE
HE P
PERFECT
ERFECT B
BODY
ODY

GET TOUGH
BOOT CAMP
with UFC Fighter Holly Holm

TOTAL BODY
HIGH-INTENSITY
Workouts Inside!

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

HARD
FACTS

25
AUGUST 2016

On Nutrition and Performance


O

BATTLING ROPES

DISPLAY UNTIL AUGUST 31, 2016

FITNESS Rx

EXPLOSIVE

20 SSeconds to Better Fitness!

FITNESSRXWOMEN.COM

BEST EXERCISE
FOR FAT LOSS

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO HEALTH AND FITNESS

FitRx inside PEEK


BY

FITNESSRx

TM

ELYSE BLECHMAN AND JENNIFER BLECHMAN-TURNER


CO-PUBLISHERS

YOUR ULTIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR THE PERFECT BODY

Co-Publishers
Elyse Blechman
Jennifer Blechman-Turner

FIGHT
FAT FOR
SUMMER

ve Your Best Body in 2016

Summer is here! We love putting together the August issue of FitnessRx for Women,
because this is the time for you to really shine. Youve been putting in the hard work all year, and
its time to rock that bikini with confidence!
But even if you feel you still have more training to do to get in your best shape, theres still
time to tighten up. This issue of FitnessRx features some cutting-edge, fat-blasting, highintensity workouts meant to take your training and physique to a whole new level. All you need is
the latest scientific research on healthy eating, diets and training and its all here in this issue!
In November, Holly Holm, our cover model this month, took the UFC bantamweight title from
Ronda Rousey, a much-anticipated match that ended with Holm knocking Rousey out with a
head kick. Holm then lost her title to Miesha Tate in March, but Holm is not one to give up without
a fight. Now, determined for a rematch with Tate and gearing up for her next fight in July, Holm
is more motivated than ever to train hard and win. In Get Tough Boot Camp with Holly Holm
by Lisa Steuer on page 44, Holly shares two total body, fat-blasting workouts that can inspire
you to train tough like Holly. Find out more about how Holly trains to be her best, how she finds
motivation and much more.
Youve most likely been doing plenty of squatting and lunging in an effort to get your best
bikini body, but have you neglected your arms along the way? And after all, we all want sculpted,
shapely arms to enhance those summer sleeveless looks. In Fabulous Arms With IFBB Pro
Janelle McGuire: Get Sculpted With Active Rest by Jaime Baird on page 52, Janelle shares her
not-so-typical arm workout intensified with active rest sets, which in this program is abdominal
work and includes exercises emphasizing the stubborn lower abs. So this is a really efficient
workout, as the ab exercises keep the time between arm sets short to maximize hypertrophy and
maintain blood flow. Get ready to feel the burn!
Competing at the Arnold Sports Festival, the multi-sports weekend held every year in
Columbus, Ohio, is for the top athletes in the industry. These are the athletes who have worked
long and hard to craft a physique worthy to complete among the best. Melissa Andrews of
Georgia, winner of this years FitnessRx for Women and MHP Arnold Model Search, is one of
those athletes who has worked very hard on her fitness goals, but she has more to offer than
a winning physique and a captivating smile. In Melissa Andrews: An Ambassador of Fitness:
FitnessRx for Women and MHP 2016 Arnold Model Search Winner by Alan Golnick on page 60,
Melissa offers her tips for living a healthy lifestyle and her workout plan.
While training hard is essential to achieving your best body, you also need the best nutrition
and performance tips to get you there. In 25 Hard Facts on Nutrition and Performance:
Cutting-Edge Research by Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey Ed.D. on page 64, check out
some of the best cutting-edge research on nutrition to take you to the next level in fitness and
health. All these tips are based on the best and most innovative scientific research out there, so
get ready to get in your best shape this year, armed with the top nutritional and performance
information.
This is only a portion of what youll find in this months issue. Were excited to always bring you
the best cutting-edge tips, workouts and advice from the experts, as well as scientifically backed
research on exercise and healthy eating. Its your summer to shine so lets get to work!

Elyse & Jennifer


6 FITNES S R X AU G U S T

2016

FOR WOMEN

Editor-in-Chief
Steve Blechman
Design/Art Director
Elyse Blechman
Chief Financial Officer
Denise Gehring
Managing Editor
Lisa Steuer
Associate Editor
Alan Golnick
Digital Creative Director and
Design Consultant
Chris Hobrecker
Contributing Photographers
Michael Neveux
Jason Ellis
Contributing Illustrator
Bill Hamilton
Administrative Assistant
Fernanda Machado
Circulation Consultants
Irwin Billman and Ralph Pericelli
fitnessrxwomen.com
Online Editor
Callie Bundy
editor@fitnessrxwomen.com

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FITNESS RX (ISSN 1543-3730)
is published six times a year by Advanced Research Media, 21
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NIGHTTIME

FitRx MAIL Room


LETTER OF THE MONTH

BARE ARMS
Thanks for the feature with Gennifer Strobo about improving your form
for arm training [Bare Arms: Improve Your Form to Get Sculpted with
IFBB Figure Pro Gennifer Strobo, June 2016]. I feel like its really easy
with arm training to have bad form, which means you could be hindering
results and even cause injury to yourself. I definitely learned a thing or
two from this feature, and I really appreciate it because other magazines
dont go into such details about how to correct form. Thanks for the awesome workout!
Jeanette Peters
Email

KILLER CORE
I love following Ashley Kaltwasser on
social media, as well as her weekly column
on your website. She always has the best
tips for workouts and eating healthy, and
she is a big inspiration to me! So I was definitely excited to see her core-training article in the June issue [8 Killer Core Moves
with Three-Time Ms. Bikini Olympia Ashley
Kaltwasser, June 2016]. The moves in this
workout have helped me to really switch
things up with my core training. Plus I love
that most of these moves can be done anywhere and that they are so easy to incorporate into my workout regimen.
Good luck this year, Ashley! I will be
rooting for you as always!
Colleen Evans
Email

KICK BUTT WITH


MANDY ROSE
Loved seeing Mandy Rose on the June
cover of FitnessRx for Women! I am a big
fan of Total Divas and Tough Enough, so it
was really great to see Mandys workouts
and learn more about how she trains and
stays in shape [The Kick-butt GluteBlasting Program with WWE Diva Mandy
Rose, June 2016]. Those WWE girls really
are tough, and inspiring! It just goes to
show that a girl can be strong and fit but
still be feminine. I love that you feature girls
like Mandy who are truly motivating.
Stephanie King
Email

8 FITNES S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

EXERCISING
THE TRUTH
FitnessRx is my favorite fitness
magazine because of the research
and studies included in each issue. In
the June issue, the 25 facts on training were especially interesting
[Exercising the Truth: 25 Hard Facts
on Training, June 2016]. These tips are
really easy to incorporate into my
workout and training plan, and I was
surprised by some of the findings.
Thank you for always reporting the
most relevant and best information on
fitness and training!
Jessica Tozier
Email

KEEPING THE WEIGHT OFF


While each issue of FitnessRx for Women
is filled with great information, I have to
admit that the first column I turn to each
month is Nicole Wilkins column! Her
advice is so simple and easy to include in
daily life. She makes it all very easy to
understand, and I find that with her
advice, its easier to make fitness a lifestyle rather than a one-time goal. Her
advice in the latest issue [The Fit Life,
June 2016] about keeping the weight off
once and for all was one of my favorites.
Often, we are so focused on reaching a certain goal or milestone in our training and
nutrition that we forget that once we reach
that goal, it can be hard to maintain that
new goal. In fact, its sometimes harder to
maintain than it was to reach that goal in
the first place! Once again, she offered
some great tips on how to manage. Thank
you, Nicole!
Jaclyn Bailey
Email

Send us your comments!


editor@fitnessrxmag.com or
Advanced Research Media
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Setauket, NY 11733

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THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO HEALTH AND FITNESS

FOR WOMEN

E SRx

TM

YOUR ULTIIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR THE PERFECT BOD


DY
FEATURES
S

52 FABULOUS ARMS
WITH IFBB PRO
JANELLE MCGUIRE

60 MELISSA ANDREWS: AN
AMBASSADOR OF FITNESS
44 GET TOUGH BOOT
CAMP WITH HOLLY
HOLM

FITNESSRX FOR WOMEN AND MHP 2016 ARNOLD


MODEL SEARCH WINNER

TWO EXPLOSIVE TOTAL BODY,


AB-BLASTING WORKOUTS

ON THE
O
E
COVER:
O
:
HOLLY HOLM
M
Photo
MC
NEVEUX
X
Ph
t BY MICHAEL
l
Styling:
T
TRISH
STELLA
A
Hair and Makeup:
p MARISSA
A

LAFAYETTE
A A
E
Clothing:NIKE
l
E

64 25 HARD FACTS ON
NUTRITION AND PERFORMANCE
CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

10
0 FIT
F NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

w
www.fitnessrxwo
f t ess
omen.com

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52

60

44
2
IN THIS ISSUE
6

INSIDE PEEK

Message from the


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MAIL ROOM

12 ONLINE NOW!
At FitnessRxwomen.com

85

WARM UP

COOL DOWN

16 TRAINING
INFO-BITS

38 FAT-BLASTING
RECIPES

20 FAT LOSS
INFO-BITS

77 CARDIO BURN

24 NUTRITION
INFO-BITS

88 SUPPLEMENT
EDGE
Omega-3 Update

Sweat More in Less Time:


Cutting-Edge Cardio

Outdoor Exercise and the


Risks of Sun Exposure

78 FAT ATTACK

28 SUPPLEMENTS
INFO-BITS

The Thermo Heat Weight Loss


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30 HEALTH
INFO-BITS

81 FLAT ABS

34 BEAUTY & SPA


INFO-BITS

104

90

90 WOMENS HEALTH

4 Plank Variations for a Strong,


Sculpted Core

82 TONE & SCULPT


The Best Exercise Method For
Fat Loss: Metabolic Resistance
Training

92 ULTIMATE IN
NUTRITION
Is There a Limit to How
Much Protein You Can
Use for Muscle Building in
One Sitting?

94 SUPPLEMENT
REVIEW
Stimerex-ES From Hi-Tech
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85 YOGA TRENDS

81

The Diverse Healing


Powers of Yoga

86 SUPPLEMENT
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38

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ASK THE EXPERTS


70 THE FIT LIFE

72 GLUTE LAB

By Nicole Wilkins

By Bret Contreras, MS, CSCS

71

74 WHAT WOULD GUNNAR DO?

FITNESS EXPERT Q&A

By Jamie Eason Middleton


www.fitnessrxwomen.com

75 BIKINI CHAMPION Q&A


Ashley Kaltwasser

By Gunnar Peterson
AUGUST 2016

FITNES S RX 11

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WarmUP
FitRx

THE LATEST NEWS AND RESEARCH FROM THE WORLD OF FITNESS

AUGUST 2016
IN THIS SECTION

16-18
TRAINING

ONE-MINUTE EXERCISE
PROGRAM BUILDS FITNESS;
SEQUENTIAL EXERCISE AND
DIETING BEST FOR
WEIGHT LOSS

20-22
FAT LOSS
SECRETS OF LONG-TERM
WEIGHT CONTROL; ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN
DIET IS LINKED TO LOWER
ABDOMINAL FAT

24-26
NUTRITION
HEALTH EFFECTS OF INCREASED PROTEIN INTAKE;
DARK CHOCOLATE MAY IMPROVE ENDURANCE
PERFORMANCE

28-29

SUPPLEMENTS
GARCINIA MANGOSTANA
DOES NOT PREVENT FATIGUE
DURING EXERCISE; LONGTERM MULTIVITAMIN USE
LINKED TO REDUCED RISK OF
HEART ATTACK AND STROKE

30-32
HEALTH
FISH CONSUMPTION LINKED
TO LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE;
EXERCISE PREVENTS MENTAL
DETERIORATION IN
AGING BRAINS

34-36
BEAUTY
DEALING WITH OILY SKIN;
HEALTHY SUMMER HAIR TIPS

14 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

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FitRxWarmUP

TRAINING INFO-BITS
BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

SLOW-REP SPEED SQUATS

INCREASE STRENGTH
AND MUSCLE SIZE, BUT NOT POWER
Performing squats at slow speeds
using moderate weights increases
muscle size and strength but has
no effect on power according to
researchers from the National
Institute of Fitness and Sports in
Japan. During an eight-week training program, subjects performed
squats either slowly (three seconds
down, three seconds up) or normally (down under control, up fast).
Slow-rep training performing
exercises slowly under high tension is very popular with some. It
is not a good way to train because

it does not overload the fast-twitch


muscles, so only some of the muscle fibers grow. Few athletic movements are slow, so this type of
training is not applicable to power
athletes. While the method is novel
and interesting at first, it hurts and
gets boring, so you might be less
likely to stick with the program. In
balance, slow-rep training is OK if
you need a taste of something different, but it is not appropriate as
your main training dish.
(International Journal of Sports
Medicine, 37: 305-312, 2016))

COLD-WATER IMMERSION
MIGHT PROMOTE RECOVERY
FROM INTENSE EXERCISE
Post-exercise
immersion in
cold water might
improve recovery and prevent
muscle soreness
in intensely
training athletes according
to Kane Hayter
from James
Cook University
in Australia and
colleagues.
Untrained subjects were

immersed in
57-degree water
for 15 minutes
following weighttraining workouts of moderate
intensity. Cold

water-immersed
subjects
performed 10
percent better
than control
subjects on a
bicycle sprint
24 hours after
the workout.

This was a
small study
using untrained
subjects. Other
studies using
larger samples,
however, show
that post-exercise water
immersion promotes recovery
from intense
exercise. (Peer J,
published online
March 28, 2016)

INTERMITTENT ALTITUDE EXPOSURE


IMPROVES ENDURANCE
AND FAT METABOLISM

Exposure to simulated high altitude for 15 minutes, four times a day, enhanced fat metabolism and improved endurance in
mice, compared to sea-level training according to researchers from Japan. The endurance-trained animals were housed in a
low-oxygen environment (simulated altitude of 15,000 feet; 12 percent oxygen) for four 15-minute sessions per day for three
weeks. Intermittent exposure to low-oxygen environments improved endurance by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. Companies
such as Higher Peak (www.higherpeak.com) manufacture relatively inexpensive portable tents and chambers that allow humans
to experience simulated altitude exposure at sea level. While they are becoming more popular with serious endurance athletes,
the effectiveness of these devices is controversial. (Physiological Reports, 4: e12744, 2016)

16 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

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FitRxWarmUP

TRAINING INFO-BITS

ONE-MINUTE
EXERCISE
PROGRAM
BUILDS FITNESS
Leading fitness organizations recommend
150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity
exercise, 75 minutes of intense exercise or a
combination of both. Martin Gibala, Jenna
Gillen and colleagues from McMaster
University in Canada showed that 12 weeks of
high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increased
cardiovascular capacity and metabolic health
as well as training 45 minutes, three times per
week for 12 weeks. The HIIT group did three
sets of 20-second maximal sprints on a stationary bike with two minutes of active rest
between sets a total of one minute of intense
exercise per training session. The traditional
aerobics group rode a stationary bike for 45
minutes, three times per week. Both training
methods increased aerobic capacity by 19
percent, improved blood sugar control
and increased muscle mitochondria (energy centers of the cells). While these results
are exciting, it is too early to tell if HIIT provides the same health benefits as larger-volume aerobic training. (PLOS ONE, published
online April 26, 2016, DOI:10.1371/journal.
pone.0154075 )

Multiple Sets BURN MORE


Calories Than Single-Set
Weight-Training Programs
Weight training does not burn many calories, but multiple-set
programs burn more calories than single-set programs according to
Swapan Mookerjee from Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania and
colleagues. Caloric expenditure was 170 calories (kcal) during a threeset, five-exercise workout and 71 calories during a similar workout with
one set per exercise. Men burned more calories than women during
both workouts. Multiple-set workouts also stimulated greater
increases in heart rate, breathing rate and volume, and carbohydrate
use. Weight training does not trigger large increases in caloric
expenditure, but multiple sets result in greater increases than single
sets. (Journal Strength and Conditioning Research, 30: 1447-1452,
2016)

SEQUENTIAL EXERCISE AND


DIETING BEST FOR WEIGHT LOSS
Most people use low-calorie diets, increased physical activity or a combination of diet and exercise to lose weight.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise followed by rest is marginally effective for losing weight. Low-calorie diets without exercise trigger weight loss but also decrease lean muscle mass.
Researchers from Spain and the United States found that a sequential program of 16 weeks of HIIT followed by 16
weeks of a low-calorie diet was more effective for altering body composition than combining diet and exercise at the
same time. Exercise then dieting resulted in the greatest changes in weight, body mass index, waist circumference and upper body fat. Regular exercise has significant beneficial effects on metabolic health, which go beyond
weight loss, so sequential exercise and diet programs are probably not very practical or beneficial in the long run.
(International Journal Sports Medicine, 37: 274-281, 2016)

18 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

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LOW METABOLIC RATE


PERSISTS IN

BIGGEST
LOSERS
The Biggest Loser is a wildly
successful television show started
in the United States in 2004, and
adapted by television stations
around the world. Grossly obese
men and women competed for a
cash prize to lose the most weight.
A long-term study of 14 Biggest
Loser contestants led by Erin
Fothergill and Kevin Hall from the
National Institutes of Health in
Bethesda, Maryland found that
contestants lost an average of 130
pounds, but regained about 90
pounds after six years. Resting
metabolic rate the rate of caloric
expenditure decreased by 610
calories per day at the end of the
study, but six years later, it
decreased further to 704 calories
per day. Weight regain was almost
inevitable because of the large
decrease in resting metabolism.
The contestants might have gained
even more weight if they were not
in the public eye. (Obesity, published
online April 19, 2016)

DIET OR
EXERCISE FOR
LONG-TERM
WEIGHT
CONTROL?
20 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

Secrets of
Long-Term
WEIGHT
CONTROL
Only about five percent of people who
lose a significant amount of weight keep it
off for more than one year. Despite these
depressing statistics, some people lose
weight and manage to keep it off. The
National Weight Control Registry keeps
track of people who successfully lost
more than 30 pounds and kept it off for
one year or more. These people share one
characteristic in common they burn an
extra 3,000 calories weekly, which means
they exercise about one hour daily.
Successful weight-losers also restricted
calories moderately.
Good strategies for long-term weight
control include:
1. Exercise every day. Try to accumulate
a total of at least 45 to 90 minutes of
additional physical activity daily.
2. Lift weights two to three times weekly. Resistance training increases muscle
size, boosting the number of tissue insulin
receptors.
3. Lose weight. Studies show that losing
10 to 15 pounds improves insulin resistance, which then makes it easier to lose
abdominal fat.
4. Follow the Mediterranean diet high
in fish, fresh fruits and vegetables, lean
meats, olive oil and other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and whole
grains. (American Journal Clinical
Nutrition, 82: 222S-225S, 2005)

Energy balance the balance between energy in and energy out


determines weight gain and weight loss. Over time, few people can
control bodyweight through exercise alone. While exercise burns calories, it can also increase appetite in some people. Exercise, however,
triggers positive metabolic changes that promote long-term
weight control according to a study from the University of
Missouri, Columbia on obesity-prone rats. Researchers compared
changes in weight and metabolic health in animals that were either
exercised or given a low-calorie diet. Weight changes were equal in
both groups, but the physically active animals showed increased fat
burning, greater spontaneous physical activity, positive changes in gut
microbes and increased activity of brown fat all of which increase fat
burning and caloric expenditure. Exercise is superior to reduced-calorie diets because it improves metabolic health. (Medicine Science
Sports Exercise, published online April 29, 2016)

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Caloric restriction, high-intensity weight training and intervals, and


high-protein diets caused substantial changes in body composition in
only four weeks according to scientists from McMaster University in
Hamilton, Canada led by Stuart Phillips and Thomas Longland. Test
subjects cut calories by 40 percent and consumed either 1.2 grams
of protein (LP, low protein) or 2.4 grams of protein (HP, high protein)
per kilogram of bodyweight per day. Both groups performed intense
exercise six days per week. The high-protein group lost almost 11
pounds of fat and gained more than 2.5 pounds of lean mass in
four weeks, compared to nearly eight pounds and 0.2 pounds,
respectively, in the low-protein group. The study showed that
high-intensity exercise plus caloric restriction triggers substantial
changes in body composition and strength, and that the changes are
most significant during a high-protein diet. (American Journal
Clinical Nutrition, published online January 27, 2016)

ADHERENCE TO THE
MEDITERRANEAN
DIET IS LINKED
TO LOWER
ABDOMINAL FAT
People who strictly follow the Mediterranean diet
tend to have lower body mass index (a measure of the
proportion of weight to height) and waist circumference according to a large population study led by
Simona Bertoli from the Nutritional Research Center
in Milan, Italy. The Mediterranean diet is high in fish,
fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats, olive oil and
other mono and polyunsaturated fats and whole
grains. This diet reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol, and
maintains blood sugar levels on an even keel. The diet
does not affect insulin resistance, but maintains daylong insulin and blood sugar concentrations at lower
levels for extended durations. We have good evidence
that the Mediterranean diet promotes metabolic
health, prevents obesity and may increase longevity.
(Clinical Nutrition, 34: 1266-1272, 2016)

22 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

Image: Gregory James

HIGH PROTEIN
INTAKE PLUS
INTENSE
EXERCISE
CAUSES RAPID
FAT LOSS

Brown Fat:
The New
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(brown adipose tissue, BAT) that converts
food energy directly into heat. White fat
does the opposite it stores energy. BAT is
an important heat-generating tissue that
helps animals and humans adapt to the
cold. Individual differences in BAT content
and activity play important roles in human
obesity. A review of literature led by Antonio
Giordano from the University of Pavia in
Italy concluded that converting abdominal
fat to BAT might result in a breakthrough in
the obesity epidemic. Increasing brown

fat activation helps people expend more


calories and burn more fat. Key nutrients, such as L-arginine, L-citrulline and
L-glutamate, can increase brown fat activity, which will increase caloric expenditure
and promote fat burning. Scientists are
actively seeking drugs to turn on brown fat
and promote weight loss. (Nature Reviews
Drug Discoveries, published online March
11, 2016)
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NUTRITION INFO-BITS
BY

CHERRY JUICE

Might LOWER HIGH


Blood Pressure
Cherry juice is the real deal for promoting cell health.

Karen Keane and co-workers from Northumbria University in the United Kingdom found that two ounces
of Montmorency cherry juice reduced systolic blood
pressure by 7 mmHg within three hours. Cherry juice
is an excellent food for intensely training athletes.
A recent British study found that cherry juice accelerated recovery after a marathon (Scand J Med Sci Sports,
20:843, 2010). A second British study showed that Montmorency cherry juice promoted recovery and prevented
muscle damage following intense weight training. Chemicals in cherry juice, such as flavonoids and anthocyanins,
improve cell health and prevent muscle oxidative damage
and inflammation associated with exercise. (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, published online May 4,
2016)

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

Eat
MORE PROTEIN

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein


is 0.8 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per day, which
equals 56 grams per day for the average man and 46
grams per day for the average woman. These recommendations were based on studies using nitrogen balance, a
technique that estimates the ratio of protein consumption versus protein use. A new technique called indicator
amino acid oxidation (IAAO) estimates protein requirements based on depletion of key amino acids. IAAO measurements suggest that minimum protein requirements
have been underestimated by 30 to 50 percent. A review
of literature led by Paul Pencharz from the University of
Toronto in Canada concluded that the RDA should be increased to 1.5 to 2.2 grams of high-quality protein per day.
High-quality protein such as whey and casein are better than plant proteins for meeting essential amino acid
requirements. (Applied Physiology Nutrition Metabolism, 41:
577-580, 2016)

HEALTH
EFFECTS
OF

INCREASED
PROTEIN
INTAKE
The buzz among nutritional
scientists is that the Recommended
Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein
of 0.8 grams per kilogram of bodyweight
per day significantly underestimates the
true protein requirements. Stuart Phillips from McMaster University in Canada, and
colleagues, concluded that higher protein intake
prevents age-related muscle loss and decreases in
strength that lead to disability and decreased quality
of life. Greater protein intake will suppress hunger,

maximize athletic performance and promote weight


control. Increasing the recommended protein intake to 1.2
to 1.6 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per day will have no
effect on kidney or bone health. (Applied Physiology Nutrition Metabolism, 41: 565-572, 2016)

24 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

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NUTRITION INFO-BITS

DARK CHOCOLATE MAY


IMPROVE ENDURANCE

Dark chocolate is high in flavonoids that increase nitric oxide an important chemical secreted by the inner lining of the blood vessels that controls
blood flow. A small study by British researchers showed that feeding dark
chocolate before exercise to recreationally trained cyclists improved endurance performance during a bike ride at 80 percent of maximum effort, and
during a two-minute maximal time trial. The results were compared to identical exercise sessions after consumption of white chocolate. (Journal
International Society Sports Nutrition, 12:47, 2015)

Diets HIGH IN
MONOUNSATURATED FATS
Better Regulate Fat Cells
The body tries to maintain balance to it its function
through a process called homeostasis. The same is true
of fat cells. Spanish researchers found greater activity in
genes responsible for fat breakdown following a diet high
in monounsaturated fatty acids. Typical foods include
olive oil, canola oil, nuts and avocados. Other diets
studied included high saturated fat diets, low-fat, high
complex carbohydrate diets and a placebo diet (mixed
diet). The study showed that the fat composition of diets
could influence the activity of fat cells. (European Journal
of Nutrition, published online March 30, 2016)

NITRATES
IMPROVE
WEIGHT-TRAINING
PERFORMANCE
Foods high in nitrates, such as beetroot juice, increase
the production of nitric oxide by the cells lining the blood
vessels (endothelium). Nitric oxide is a gas that promotes
blood flow and is an important measure of metabolic
health. Scientists from Edge Hill University in the UK
found that feeding athletes 400 milligrams of nitrate in
the form of a beetroot juice sports drink increased
weightlifting, endurance and total weight lifted during a
weight-training workout, compared to a placebo (fake
beetroot). There were no differences between groups in
the perception of fatigue, so beetroot has little effect on
promoting energy levels during workouts. Dietary nitrates
promote muscle blood flow and may prevent fatigue during exercise. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research,
published online April 2, 2016)

26 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

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SUPPLEMENT INFO-BITS
BY

CONJUGATED
LINOLEIC
ACID DOES
NOT PROMOTE
FAT LOSS

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

Conjugated linoleic acid


(CLA) is a popular supplement for promoting weight
loss and increasing lean
muscle, but its effectiveness remains controversial.
CLA may promote muscle
protein synthesis by
increasing testosterone levels and improving blood
sugar regulation. Alex
Ribeiro from Londrina State
University in Brazil, and coworkers, found that supple-

menting 3.2 grams per day


of CLA for eight weeks during an endurance-training
program had no effect on
endurance, leg or trunk fat,
or total body fat beyond the
effects of endurance exercise alone. The study found
that CLA has no effect on
fat loss in obese women.
(International Journal
Sports Nutrition Exercise
Metabolism 26: 135-144,
2016)

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS


Enhance Fat Loss But NOT Muscle Growth
Supplementing five grams of fish oil high in omega-3 fatty acids daily, plus 30 grams of whey protein following weight
workouts, had no effect on muscle hypertrophy beyond training and whey protein alone according to an eight-week
study led by Chris McGlory from the University of Stirling in Scotland. Fish oil suppressed anabolic signaling, which could
have negative long-term effects even though it might promote fat loss and cardiovascular health. Oily fish, such as
tuna and salmon, contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, which are recommended to prevent heart attack and type 2
diabetes and promote blood vessel health. Animal studies found that increased intake of omega-3s prevented weight
gain in animals consuming obesity-promoting diets, and reduced fat in overweight animals. Omega-3s should have some
positive effects on weight control in humans because they suppress appetite and destroy fat cells. Omega-3s also trigger changes in human gene activity in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, intestines and adipose tissue that prevent fat deposition, promote fat use and increase energy expenditure. We need more research before we can recommend omega-3
fatty acid supplements (fish oil). (Physiological Reports, 4(6), e12715, 2016)

Beetroot Juice or Sodium Nitrate for BOOSTING NITRIC OXIDE?


Nitric oxide is a gas secreted by the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. It is critical for regulating blood flow, and
optimal nitric oxide metabolism is an important measure of metabolic health. Increasing nitric oxide with nitrate supplements
such as beetroot juice or sodium nitrate decreases blood pressure, improves endurance exercise efficiency, boosts endurance
and promotes strength during weight-training programs. Beetroot juice is a miracle food. Unfortunately, beetroot is expensive
and hard to find. A one-liter bottle at specialty grocery stores costs about $6 if you can find it. Making your own beetroot
juice is an option but requires a relatively expensive juicer. Joelle Flueck from the University of Zrich in Switzerland, and colleagues, found that sodium nitrate supplements increased blood nitrate levels as well as beetroot juice but were not as effective for producing changes in oxygen consumption. Overall, beetroot seems to be more effective for enhancing exercise performance and lowering blood pressure than sodium nitrate. (Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 41:1-9, 2016)

28 FITNE S S R X AUGUS T

2016

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRxWarmUP

SUPPLEMENT INFO-BITS

TAURINE HAS

NO EFFECT ON HIGHINTENSITY ENDURANCE


PERFORMANCE

Taurine does not improve high-intensity running performance according to a


Brazilian study. Taurine is an amino acid that helps regulate cell fluid balance and
calcium levels, protects cells against reactive oxygen species, stabilizes cell membranes and decreases inflammation. It is found in high concentrations in nerve and
muscle cells. It is also a prominent ingredient in many energy drinks and supplements. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and is involved in a variety of brain functions. However, few studies have examined its effectiveness in improving athletic
performance. (Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 14:498-503, 2016)

GARCINIA
MANGOSTANA

DOES NOT
Prevent
Fatigue
During
Exercise

Purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical tree native to


Southeast Asia. It bears a fruit similar
to citrus fruits. In Chinese medicine, it
is heralded as a food that promotes
mental acuity and prevents fatigue.
Taiwanese researchers found that
administration of 250 milliliters of
mangosteen juice one hour before a
cycling endurance test had no effect
on performance, heart rate, perceived
exertion or biochemical markers of
fatigue. However, the drink had a positive effect on mood state, which might
be important during prolonged,
intense exercise. (Journal International Society Sports Nutrition, 13: 20,
2016)

LONG-TERM MULTIVITAMIN USE LINKED TO REDUCED

RISK OF HEART ATTACK AND STROKE

Physicians consuming multivitamins for 20 years or more had a 44 percent lower risk of heart attack and stroke according
to researchers from Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. The study
also showed that vitamin consumption reduced the risk of cancer by eight percent. The results were a follow-up to an
earlier examination of 18,000 male physicians in the Physicians Health Study that showed no relationship between vitamin supplementation and heart disease after 12 years of taking vitamin supplements. Vitamin supplements might promote metabolic
health by reducing oxidative damage and inflammation, and improving the function of the cells lining the blood vessels. (Journal
of Nutrition, published online April 27, 2016)
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 29

FitRxWarmUP

HEALTH INFO-BITS
BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

THE PLUSES
&
MINUSES
OF
SUN EXPOSURE
Dermatologists advise avoiding sun exposure to reduce
the risk of melanoma a deadly form of skin cancer. Jeff Lynn
from Slippery Rock University, and colleagues, discussed the
good, the bad and the ugly of spending time in the sun. Some
exposure increases vitamin D production, improves mood and
sleep quality, and lowers resting blood pressure. It can reduce
the risk of depression in people living in northern latitudes.
Excessive sunning increases the risk of skin cancers. Reduce
the risk by wearing clothing and hats that protect the skin,
applying broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF rating of
15 or more, and avoiding peak ultraviolet radiation hours of
10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Sunglasses protect the eyes from the
sun. Spending time in the sun is healthy and enjoyable, but too
much is deadly. (ACSMceOnline, 20 (3): 11-15, 2016)

FISH CONSUMPTION
LINKED TO LOWER
BLOOD PRESSURE
Each serving of fish consumed per week reduces blood pressure by 2.3 points (mmHg) according to researchers from Ecuador and the United States. They studied 677 people living in rural
coastal areas of Ecuador. Blood pressure decreased pro-

gressively with up to five servings of fish per week.

LOW THYROID
TREATMENT
UNDER FIRE

Consuming six or more servings had no further effect on blood


pressure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends one to
two servings of fish per week. This study showed that increasing
fish intake above these levels might have added cardiovascular
benefits. The study did not examine the effects of fish oil supplements. Other studies found that fish oil is good for the heart and
circulation. (Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 18: 337-341, 2016)

Low thyroid gland output (hypothyroidism) is a common hormone


disorder linked to fatigue, weight gain, depression, constipation
and cold intolerance. Hypothyroidism affects about 0.4 percent
of the population, but synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine
or Synthroid) is one of the most prescribed drugs in the world.
Increasingly, patients are complaining that their symptoms are not
improving from thyroid hormone prescriptions, even when blood
thyroid hormone levels are normalized. Other conditions such as
obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea, depression, kidney failure, congestive
heart failure and chronic fatigue sometimes have symptoms similar
to hypothyroidism. Physicians should explore other causes of these
symptoms before resorting to the easy fix of a thyroid hormone
prescription. (The Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2016)

30 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRxWarmUP

HEALTH INFO-BITS

EXERCISE PREVENTS
MENTAL DETERIORATION
IN AGING BRAINS
Exercise is the new brain food. Even moderate
physical activity can improve brain health and function, and delay the decline in cognitive function that
occurs in many people as they age according to the
30-year-long Cardiovascular Health Study by scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles. Physically active older adults had greater brain
volume than sedentary people, and brain gray matter
increased in older people who increased physical
activity. Exercise improves the brains ability to
learn, remember, think and reason. It promotes the
creation of new nerve cells throughout the nervous
system and enhances the nervous systems plasticity its ability to change and adapt. Exercise protects
the brain as people age, helping to delay or prevent
brain disorders such as Alzheimers disease. Exercise
is the true Fountain of Youth.. (Journal of Alzheimers
Disease, published online March 11, 2016)

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE


RISK OF HEART DISEASE:

THE GOLDILOCKS EFFECT


Just as theres an ideal temperature for porridge,
there is an optimal amount of exercise that promotes
heart and blood vessel health. A 25-year study from
the Medical University of Lodz in Poland showed that
moderate-intensity exercise reduced blood markers
linked to coronary artery disease, while chronic and
intense exercise increased them. Longtime marathon
runners showed increases in inflammation and dangerous blood fats, compared to moderate-intensity exercisers. Regular, moderate-intensity exercise promotes good
health, while excessive exercise may cause inflammation
and premature death. Fahey and Swanson (Med Sport 12
(4): 124-128, 2008), in an analysis of 20,000 subjects from
the Physicians Health Study, predicted that 30 minutes
of exercise was best for avoiding heart-related sudden
cardiac death. People who exercised more or less than
that were at increased risk. Moderation is the key. (BMC
Cardiovascular Disorders, 16: 65, 2016)

SHOPPING
CARTS are
BAD FOR
YOUR HEALTH

Shopping carts are among the dirtiest objects you will encounter during
the day. They are more germ-laden
than toilet seats, public restrooms,
diaper-changing tables, chair armrests
or playground equipment according
to University of Arizona microbiology
professor Charles Gerba. He found
more E. coli bacteria on shopping carts
than on escalators, ATM machines,
restaurant tabletops and ketchup dispensers. Shopping cart contamination
may contribute to winter colds and flu.
Many grocery stores offer disinfectant
wipes for their customers to clean
shopping carts use them! (MorningNewsBeat, April 11, 2016)

32 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

HUMAN KINETICS STRONG SCIENCE


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all written with a womans ultimate physique in
mind. Youll access step-by-step instructions,
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Delaviers Womens Strength Training Anatomy


Workouts is a visually stunning guide featuring 157
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www.HumanKinetics.com

FitRxWarmUP

BEAUTY INFO-BITS
BY

LISA STEUER

BEAUTY QUESTION
OF THE MONTH
with Dr. Jennifer Haley
I have really
oily skin. Do I
still need to
moisturize,
and how do I go about it? In general,
what's best way to deal with oily
skin?
Lets discuss a few things that tend to make skin oily:
AGE: Skin becomes more oily during puberty when there
is a surge in hormones. Oily skin generally improves after
puberty, and most people develop drier skin as they age.
ENVIRONMENT: Humid, hot weather will cause skin to be
oilier than dry weather. Most people need a different skin
care routine in the summer than the winter.
STRESS: Stress will also affect hormone levels and cause
a surge in oil production and possibly breakouts. Sometimes
taking a B complex supplement twice daily can help
moderate oil production. B vitamins are easily depleted with
stress (physical, mental or emotional).
DIET: A diet loaded with high-glycemic carbohydrates,
sugar and refined oils will also lead to an increased
production of oil in the skin. Dairy, including whey protein,
can cause a surge in insulin production, which results in
increased oil production in some individuals.
GENETICS: You cannot change this, but it doesnt mean
you need to live with oily skin or have the large pores your
grandmother had.
Even though I am in my 40s and live in the desert, I still
struggle with oily skin when it is hot, I am having a stressful
day or my diet is suboptimal. Understanding what products
to use and when to use them is essential to achieving
balanced skin and overcoming these external influences.
This will take some practice and patience. Managing oily skin
is not just about using the right moisturizer; you want to use
the right products in all steps of your regimen.
CLEANSE: Wash twice a day with a salicylic acid cleanser.
Salicylic acid is lipophilic (attracted to oil) and is effective at
unplugging pores without irritating skin. SkinCeuticals
purifying cleanser and LHA cleansing gel are very effective
without being harsh. I recommend applying a small amount
of cleanser to dry skin and using a Philips PureRadiance or
Clarisonic cleansing brush moistened with lukewarm water

34 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

to wash for two minutes. The sonic technology will gently


unplug oil and dead skin cells from pores. Harsh soaps and
aggressive rubbing can actually stimulate more oil
production, so avoid this. If you need a little more oil control
than twice daily washing, a salicylic acid or lactic acid toner,
such as PCA Skin Smoothing toner, can be used with an
exfoliating cotton round. I would only add a toner after a
few weeks if your skin is still very oily. Dont overdo it initially
or your skin will become irritated. You definitely want to
avoid any astringent with alcohol, as this will be too harsh
for even oily skin.
PROTECT: In the morning after cleansing, apply a
medical-grade vitamin C product, such as SkinCeuticals
Phloretin CF gel or PCA Skin C-strength. Once dry, apply an
SPF 30-plus sunscreen with zinc oxide. My favorite for oily
skin is EltaMD UV Clear SPF 46. This can be either
transparent or tinted, which is useful for covering up any
blemishes and can be used as a makeup base.
HYDRATE: At night after cleansing, apply an oil-free
moisturizer. The right moisturizer will keep the skin healthy
and balanced. Since most people have combination skin and
tend to be oily in the T-zone but dryer to the cheeks, vary
the amount of moisturizer applied depending on if your skin
is oily or dry in that area. Over-the-counter CeraVe PM is a
nice basic nightly moisturizer for oily skin. Always care for
your neck and chest similarly to your face, using sun
protection and moisturizer. And, be aware that all skin types
need an eye cream (dry) or serum (oily).

IN SUMMARY:
Morning: Cleanse, vitamin C, sunscreen, then makeup.
Night: Cleanse, oil-free moisturizer, eye cream or serum.
You will notice that you will need to modify your skin care
routine depending on weather, stress and your diet. Give any
new routine at least two months to achieve the desired
effect. Using too many or too much product will confuse
and aggravate your skin.
Most people find that oily skin doesnt age as quickly as
dry skin and tends to look healthier overall, so embrace the
positive.
Have a skin-related question for Dr. Haley? Email your question to editor@
fitnessrxwomen.com and you could see it answered in the next issue!
Jennifer Haley, MD, FAAD is a board-certified dermatologist with a degree
in Nutrition Science from Cornell University. She has been an NPC bikini
competitor and a consultant to the US Capitol. She enjoys an active lifestyle
in Scottsdale, AZ and Montrose, CO with her husband and three boys.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRxWarmUP

BEAUTY INFO-BITS

SUNBLOCK YOUR BUDGET:


6 WAYS TO SAVE ON SKIN CARE
Protecting your skin should be straightforward, but the myriad
of skin care products makes the task cumbersome and expensive. To sunblock your budget while protecting yourself and your
family from skin cancer, follow these six savings from Andrea
Woroch, a money-saving expert who has been featured on Good
Morning America, Today, CNN, Dr. OZ, New York Times, MONEY
Magazine, Consumer Reports, Forbes and many more.
1. GET A FREE SCREENING. The American Academy of Dermatology wants to help prevent the spread of skin cancer by
offering free screenings at hospitals around the country. Use
their search tool to find a free cancer screening or sign up for an
eAlert to get notified when one becomes available in your area.
2. BUY GENERIC SUNSCREEN. There's no need to buy brandname sunscreen when lower-cost generic brands are just as
effective. What's most important is finding a solution you like (so
you'll actually wear it) that features broad-spectrum coverage,
or protection against both UVA and UVB rays.
3. FIND COUPONS. Like other personal care items, you can
often find discounts or manufacturer's coupons to cut the cost
of sunscreen. Target shoppers should download the Cartwheel
app for savings like 5 percent off Neutrogena and Aveeno sun
protection. Brand lovers can search for skin care coupons on
sites like CouponSherpa.com, where you can print manufactur-

er's coupons like $1 off any Coppertone sunscreen product.


4. USE AS DIRECTED. While it's important to get effective
coverage from your lotion or sunscreen, you needn't use the
entire bottle in one sitting. A nickel-sized dollop of sunscreen
should be applied to your face, while at least two tablespoons of
product should cover the remaining exposed areas of your body.
Reapply every two hours and after swimming, sweating or drying
off.
5. DAILY DEAL IT. Groupon and LivingSocial know you have
summer on the mind, which is why you're seeing a proliferation
of daily deals for facials, peels and microdermabrasion. These
services not only help refresh skin and treat damaged areas,
but skin care professionals can advise on the best products
and treatments for your skin type. While you should research
user reviews of providers before you buy, you can save up to 65
percent on a service with these deals.
6. GET EVERY LAST DROP. Some estimates suggest that 25
percent of lotion, shampoo, conditioner and other product is left
unused and ultimately wasted. Make sure to use every last drop
of sunscreen and other skin care items to get the most bang for
your buck. Invert bottles so remaining product falls to the top
of the container or even consider cutting the bottle for easier
access to remaining product.

HEALTHY
SUMMER
HAIR
Although Summer is the perfect time to be outdoors, it is also a time to be extra caring toward your
hair, said Desiree Savo, a licensed cosmetologist and makeup artist who operates the blog desireandattire.com. Desiree, who also has a weekly Beauty Talk column on Fitnessrxwomen.com, shared fived tips to
protect your hair from the heat, sun and humidity during the hottest days of summer!

1. Wear head accessories. Hats, scarves, or anything that protects your hair from the sun. This is the easiest and
most effective way to protect your gorgeous hair from the sun and the heat. Plus, there are so many cute floppy
hats or scarves, so it's also a great way to add some style to your outfit. It's a win-win!
2. Reduce extra heat. It's already hot outside, so try not to add any additional heat with heat styling. Too much
heat during the summer can cause your hair to look more dry, brittle and faded. If you absolutely have to use a flat
iron to style, then try to let your hair air dry before. Avoiding a dryer or hot tools also helps to retain your hair's natural moisture.
3. Use a good deep conditioner. Summer sun can steal the moisture right out of your hair, so keep up with your
deep conditioners weekly even twice per week if you have color-treated hair! This will ensure your hair stays
smooth, shiny and moisturized.
4. Seal your hair before swimming. Whether you are swimming in an ocean, a lake or pool, it's very important to
make sure you spritz and seal your hair before doing so! Fully wet your hair and add a leave-in conditioner, coconut
oil or hair serum before swimming. We all know oil and water do not mix, so this acts as a barrier and protects your
hair from any chemicals or bacteria that saturate your hair from the water.
5. Sunscreen. Don't forget it on your body or your hair! After putting sunscreen on your body, use the residual
sunscreen left on your hands and run it through your hair. An added plus, it also helps with humidity and flyaways!

36 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

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that combines amino acids L-Glutamine and
L-Alanine. This unique combination works on
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Copyright 2016 KYOWA HAKKO U.S.A., INC. All Rights Reserved.

FAT-BLASTING RECIPES
BY

STRAWBERRY ALMOND
CHIA PUDDING

INGREDIENTS:
2 CUPS UNSWEETENED COCONUT MILK
1/2 CUP CHIA SEEDS
1/4 CUP VANILLA WHEY PROTEIN
1/4 CUP (OR TO YOUR TASTE) GRANULATED STEVIA
(OR YOUR PREFERRED SWEETENER)
1 TSP. ALMOND EXTRACT
1/2 TSP. VANILLA EXTRACT
AD-INS:
8 LARGE STRAWBERRIES, SLICED
4 TB SLICED ALMONDS
4 TSP. CACAO NIBS
(OR UNSWEETENED/DARK CHOCOLATE), CRUSHED

38

FITNESSRX AUGUST 2016

ALLISON FRAHN

Prepare this delicious pudding at night to


have ready for an amazing breakfast treat
the next day OR make it in the morning and
look forward to a yummy pre-made dessert
in the evening.

DIRECTIONS:
1. Whisk coconut milk, chia seeds, whey protein, stevia, and extracts together in a mixing bowl for approximately 30 seconds, or
until completely smooth and well blended.
2. Pour mixture evenly into 4 glass bowls and place in the fridge for
at least 6 hours (overnight is best) to allow the chia seeds to gel
and thicken to form the pudding.
3. Once set, evenly divide the strawberries, almonds, and cacao
nibs on top of each of the puddings for an added treat (or choose
your own add-ins). Enjoy!

Nutrition Data Per Serving:


(recipe serves four):

80%
CARBS

Calories: 220
Protein: 12 grams
Carbohydrates: 12 grams
(11 grams fiber)
Fat: 13.5 grams

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FAT-BLASTING RECIPES
INGREDIENTS:
8 CUPS ARUGULA
2 KIWI, SLICED
1 SMALL CUCUMBER, PEELED AND SLICED
4 TB CHOPPED WALNUTS
DRESSING:
3 TB FRESH ORANGE JUICE
2 TB OLIVE OIL
2 TSP. APPLE CIDER VINEGAR
1 TSP. HONEY (OR YOUR PREFERRED
SWEETENER)
1/4 TSP. SALT, OR TO TASTE
1/8 TSP. BLACK PEPPER

Nutrition Data Per Serving


(recipe serves four):
Calories: 165
Protein: 4 grams
Carbohydrates: 11 grams
(2.5 grams fiber)

KIWI ARUGULA SALAD


The variety of different flavors and textures in this salad sends
your taste buds into overdrive. The bittersweet arugula, combined
with the sweet kiwi, fresh cucumber, creamy walnuts, and zesty
dressing are sure to please your palate. Serve with your favorite
protein, such as chicken or fish.*

DIRECTIONS:
1. Place the arugula into a large bowl or onto a plate.
2. Top with the sliced kiwis, cucumber slices and walnuts. (TIP: if you are serving
with a protein such as chicken or fish, arrange the kiwi and cucumber slices along the
side so you can put your protein in the middle.)
3. For the dressing, combine all ingredients in a bowl and mix with a whisk (or fork)
to thoroughly combine. Immediately pour over the prepared salad. Thats it! A super
simple summer salad! Enjoy!

Fat: 12 grams
*Not included in above nutrition information

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016 FITNESS RX

39

FAT-BLASTING RECIPES

SWEET N SAVORY
CHICKEN APPLE KEBABS

This quick and simple meal is the perfect combination of sweet and savory with practically no
cleanup, so you can spend more time enjoying the warm weather outdoors with friends and family!
INGREDIENTS:
1.25 LB. BONELESS, SKINLESS CHICKEN BREAST,
CUT INTO BITE-SIZE PIECES
1 LARGE FUJI APPLE
(OR YOUR FAVORITE APPLE)
HONEY MUSTARD GLAZE:
3 TB HONEY
1 TB LEMON JUICE
1 TSP. DIJON MUSTARD
1 TSP. OLIVE OIL
1/4 TSP. POULTRY SEASONING
1/8 TSP. CELERY SALT
BLACK PEPPER, TO TASTE
YOU WILL NEED:

BAMBOO SKEWERS.

DIRECTIONS:
1. First, soak skewers in water for at least an hour to prevent burning.
2. Make the glaze. In a small bowl, mix together honey, lemon juice, mustard, oil,
seasoning, salt, and pepper until well blended.
3. Next, prepare the kebabs. Divide and skewer chicken and apple chunks evenly
onto each of the 4 skewers, alternating the ingredients.
4. Place skewers on a grill over medium hot heat. Cook, turning once, until chicken
is no longer pink, about 3-5 minutes.
5. Brush skewers generously with honey glaze, cooking and turning until chicken is
cooked through and apples are golden brown. Enjoy!

Nutrition Data Per Serving


(recipe serves four):
Calories: 230 calories
Protein: 33 grams
Carbohydrates: 18 grams
(1 gram fiber)
Fat: 3 grams

40

FITNESSRX AUGUST 2016

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

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FAT-BLASTING RECIPES

TRIPLE FRUIT POPSICLES

These popsicles not only look absolutely beautiful, but also are a tasty, no-sugar-added,
fat-free treat to enjoy on a hot summer day with fewer than 100 calories per pop. Plus, its
an easy way to get 3 grams of fiber into your diet (your kids wont know, either)!
INGREDIENTS:
NOTE: YOU MAY ADD GRANULATED STEVIA
(OR YOUR DESIRED SWEETENER)
TO ANY OF THE FRUIT PUREES BELOW
IF YOU PREFER SWEETER.

WATERMELON
1 CUP CHOPPED WATERMELON
1/2 TSP. LIME JUICE

MANGO
1/2 LARGE MANGO, PEELED AND CHOPPED
(APPROXIMATELY 1 CUP)
1/2 TSP. LIME JUICE
PINCH SALT

KIWI
4 KIWIS, PEELED
(SHOULD YIELD ABOUT 1 CUP KIWI PUREE)
1 TSP. LIME JUICE

YOU WILL NEED: 1 POPSICLE MOLD


THAT HOLDS 6 X 6 8-INCH POPSICLES
(MAKES APPROXIMATELY 4-OUNCE
POPSICLES), AND 6 POPSICLE STICKS

Nutrition Data Per Popsicle


(recipe serves six):
Calories: 85
Protein: 1 gram
Carbohydrates: 20 grams
(3 grams fiber)
Fat: 0 grams

DIRECTIONS:
1. Have the popsicle molds ready to go before you begin to puree the watermelon.
2. WATERMELON: Puree the watermelon, lime juice, and sweetener (optional) in a blender until smooth.
Divide and pour about 2 inches of the mixture into each of the 6 popsicle molds (you may have extra puree).
Put in the freezer until slightly firm, approximately 1 hour.
3. Right before you take out of the freezer, make the mango puree.
4. MANGO: Puree the mangoes, lime juice, salt, and sweetener (optional) in a blender until smooth. Divide and pour
about 2 inches of the mixture into each of the 6 popsicle molds, right on top of the watermelon (you may have extra puree).
5. Insert popsicle sticks into the center all the way down to the firm watermelon so that they stay in place.
6. Put back into the freezer until slightly firm, approximately 1 hour.
7. Right before you take out of the freezer, make the kiwi puree.
8. KIWI: Puree the kiwi, lime juice, and sweetener (optional) in a blender until smooth. Divide and pour about 2 inches of
the mixture into each of the 6 popsicle molds, right on top of the mango (you may have extra puree).
9. Put back into the freezer until the popsicles are completely firm: approximately 1-2 hours.
Tip: To make the popsicles easier to remove from the mold, dip them in a bowl of warm water for a few seconds. Enjoy!

Recipes prepared by Allison Frahn, IFBB Figure Pro, four-time Olympian and owner of Allis Slim Pickins. As her company tagline states, Alli
provides healthy recipes that offer: 100% Taste & 0% Guilt. Healthy food does not need to taste bland, and she is here to prove that to you! For
more of Allisons recipes, be sure to visit www.fitnessrxwomen.com/nutrition/recipes/allis-slim-pickins (a new recipe is posted each week).

42

FITNESSRX AUGUST 2016

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

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FROM THE MAKERS OF

FitRx TRAINING

GET TOUGH
BOOT CAMP
WITH HOLLY HOLM

As Previous UFC Champ Holly Holm


Prepares for a Comeback,
She Shares Two
Explosive Total Body, Ab-Blasting Workouts
By LISA STEUER
Photography By MICHAEL NEVEUX
IN NOVEMBER, AS THE WORLD WATCHED,
HOLLY HOLM WENT UP AGAINST RONDA ROUSEY,
A MUCH-ANTICIPATED UFC MATCH THAT ENDED
WITH HOLM KNOCKING ROUSEY OUT WITH A HEAD
KICK. As a result of the fight, Holm took the UFC
bantamweight title from Rousey, who before that had been
unbeaten in 12 UFC fights. It has even been called the biggest
upset in Ultimate Fighting Championship history.
It was one of the best days of my life, Holm said. You
work so hard for that moment, and right now Im at a low
because I lost it.
Holms at a low because she lost that title to Miesha Tate
in March a fight that ended in a fifth-round choke. But even
though it was a loss for Holm, it showed that she truly does
not give up without a fight. Now, determined for a rematch
with Tate and gearing up for her next fight in July, Holm is
more motivated than ever to train hard and win.
I got there once, she said. I can do it again.

44 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

I WANT TO GET
BETTER. I WANT TO
LEARN, AND THERES
ONLY ONE WAY TO
GET THAT DONE
JUST GET IN THERE
AND TRAIN HARD.

Styling by TRISH STELLA


Hair and Makeup by MARISSA LAFAYETTE
Black outfit, Blue bra: ONZIE
Blue shorts, pink bra, striped leggings,
footwear: NIKE
Location: GLOBAL FITNESS, GARDENA, CA

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6 FITNESS RX

45

FitRx TRAINING

FIGHT LIKE
A GIRL
OF COURSE, MIXED MARTIAL ARTS IS
A SPORT OF HIGHS AND LOWS. AFTER
HER LOSS TO HOLM, RONDA ROUSEY REPORTED THAT SHE WAS SO DEPRESSED
THAT SHE EVEN CONTEMPLATED SUICIDE. BUT AFTER HER OWN LOSS, TO
TATE, HOLM IS JUST LOOKING TO IMPROVE.
You go from being on a high, biggest win
of my life, to the biggest loss, Holm said.
What can you do, though? Im not going to sit here and sulk about it, because
thats not going to make me get any better. I want to get better. I want to learn,
and theres only one way to get that done
just get in there and train hard.
In regard to the match against Tate,
Holm knows where she went right and
wrong. I knew I was winning the fight.
Next thing you know, shes on my back, and
there are a lot of things I did wrong. When
she first got on my back, and I stood up,
it was probably one of the worst things to
do I exposed my neck. There were things
I did wrong.
Despite being at what she described as
a low point after that loss, mixed martial
arts is Hollys passion, and she cant imagine doing anything else.
I wanted to experience something I
hadnt experienced before, Holm said,
about choosing to get into this sport. I
tried one fight and loved it, and the next
thing I know Im hooked to it. Its just all
you against them; your best against their
best. Youre fully exposed. Its the worst
feeling in the world when you lose, but its
the best feeling in the world when you win.
Of course, these fights come with a lot
of pressure, hype and sometimes negative
talk. But it doesnt faze Holm, who chooses
to focus on whats most important.
Its as simple as this, if everybody else
is paying attention to what Im doing, then
maybe theyre not so interested in what
theyre doing. So if theyre saying something negative, I dont even care, said
Holm. A lot of people dont have the nerve
to do what we do anyway. Theres a reason why people love to watch fighting its
a very vulnerable thing to do. You walk in
there and you might be made a fool in front
of millions of people. Youre the one taking
a chance and theres a reason why youre
there and somebody else isnt. Its because
you dont mind doing that, and the reward
is the victory, and the victory makes it all
worth it. Regardless of what other people
say, Im here to do my thing. This is my passion and I dont want anybody else to stop
me from doing my passion.

46 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

WORK
OUT WITH HOLLY
Holly put together two MMA-style full-body workouts that will help get you
in killer shape. Get ready to sweat with Holly.

WORKOUT 1
EXERCISE
SET 1: :JUMP ROPE:

REPS/TIME
3 ROUNDS, 5 MINUTES
EACH ROUND

SET 2: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


BOX JUMPS OR SQUAT JUMPS:
KETTLEBELL SWINGS:

SET 3: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


DEADLIFTS:
ONE-ARM MEDICINE BALL
THROWS:

20 REPS
20 REPS
6 REPS IF HEAVY,
15 IF LIGHT
12 REPS EACH SIDE

SET 4: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


KICKS ON HEAVY BAG
(HIGH INTENSITY):
RING CRUNCHES:

SET 5: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


ROCKY ABS:

30 SECONDS EACH LEG


15 REPS

8 REPS

WORKOUT 2
EXERCISE
SET 1: COMPLETE 4 TIMES
BARBELL SQUATS:

REPS/TIME
6 REPS IF HEAVY,
15 IF LIGHT

SET 2: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


25-YARD SPRINT
DROP STRAIGHT INTO 20 BURPEES
25-YARD SPRINT BACK
30 SECONDS REST

SET 3: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


OVERHEAD PRESS:
PULL-UPS:
SET 4: COMPLETE 4 TIMES
DIAGONAL PLATE TWIST:
BAG CRUNCH (ADVANCED MOVE,
SO CAN ALSO SUBSTITUTE
REGULAR CRUNCHES):

12 REPS
10 REPS

12 EACH SIDE

10 REPS

SET 5: COMPLETE 4 TIMES


PLANK:
30 SECONDS REST IN BETWEEN

1 MINUTE

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

TRAINING AND
LOOKING AHEAD
Holly does multiple workouts almost
every day. Every morning starts out
with sparring, grappling or wrestling.
Two nights a week she goes back to
grapple and does mitt work about twice
a week (three or four times a week when
she gets closer to a fight). She also runs
on average five miles about five days a
week. Plus, she will do workouts like the
ones you see in this feature with burpees, box jumps, etc. She sometimes
likes to do sprints and burpees together (as seen in Workout 2 of this feature).
In addition, having a strong core is
essential for mixed martial arts, so Holly makes sure she does core training
with her strength workouts.
Everything you throw, you use
your core. With wrestling or even just
punching, you use your core to torque
for more power, and every time you
kick you need your core for torque,
Holly said.
Since MMA and kickboxing-type
workouts work the entire body, Holly
said they are good for everyone to do
even if your only goal is to stay in shape.
Its an all-over workout; you use a lot
of different muscles. Its a lot of cardio and builds a lot of strength in your
body. So I think its a great workout for
anybody.
Of course, it took a lot of hard work
for Holly to get where she is, but it also
took a lot of patience. A lot of people
say, Oh, Ill fight for a living and that
will be my job. Well, it doesnt happen
overnight. You dont get your doctorate
degree overnight; you dont get to the
top of the chain in any business overnight. It takes patience, and with that it
takes a lot of dedication and time.
Up next, Holly is set to take on Valentina Shevchenko July 23 in Chicago,
Holms first fight since surrendering
her title to Tate.
I just like to chase the victory, said
Holly. I think thats it the victory
makess it worth it. That
Thatss all there is to it.

JUMP ROPE:

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

EXERCISE
DESCRIPTIONS
SQUAT JUMPS:
Stand with feet about shoulder-width apart. Bend down
into squat position and explode upward into a full jump,
pushing from the heels. Land
on your toes and immediately
return back to your squat position and continue for reps.

BOX JUMPS:
Stand with your feet about shoulder-width
apart. Drop quickly into a quarter squat, extend your hips and
swing your arms
and jump up onto
the box, landing
with knees bent.
Step down one
leg at a time and
repeat.

KETTLEBELL SWING:
Stand with your feet
about shoulder-width
apart, holding the
kettlebell with both
arms hanging in front
of you. Soften your
knees and shift your
bodyweight into your
heels as you lower
your butt down. Driving through your
heels, explode through
the hips, and send the
weight swinging up.
Let the weight drop
again as you go back
into the low position,
and keep repeating.
AU G U S T 2016 FITNESS RX

47

FitRx TRAINING
DEADLIFT:
Stand with your
feet about hip-width
apart in front of the
barbell. Bend at
the hip to grip the
barbell at shoulder
width. Look forward and keep your
chest up as you
drive through your
heels and move the
weight upward. At
the top, pull your
shoulder blades
together and drive
your hips forward
into the bar. Bend at
the hips to lower the
bar and repeat.

RING CRUNCHES:
Hang on a set of rings
and crunch legs up toward chest
as
pictured,
before
slowly
lowering down.
Make sure
to hold
arms at
90-degree
angle,
keeping
good
control,
no momentum.

ONE-ARM
MEDICINE
BALL THROW:
Begin holding a
medicine ball in
your left hand.
Forcefully extend
the arm forward,
releasing the ball,
and repeat.

48 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

ROCKY ABS:
This is an advanced
move for abs. Lie
with your back at
against a bench and
your arms gripping
the edge of the bench
behind your head.
Use your hands
to keep your body
rigid as you bring
your legs up above
you and your torso
pointed directly to the ceiling. Also slowly breathe out
as you do so. Hold that position for a moment and then
lower back down with control until your glutes are just a
couple inches off the bench.

BARBELL SQUAT:

ITS JUST ALL YOU AGAINST


THEM; YOUR BEST AGAINST THEIR
BEST. YOURE FULLY EXPOSED.
ITS THE WORST FEELING IN THE
WORLD WHEN YOU LOSE, BUT
ITS THE BEST FEELING IN THE

Begin by resting
a straight bar high
on the back of your
neck. Assume a
shoulder-width
stance, grasping the
bar with both hands.
Slowly lower your
body until your
thighs are parallel
with the ground.
Your lower back
should be slightly
arched and your
heels should stay
in contact with the
oor at all times.
When you reach a
seated position,
reverse direction by
straightening your
legs and return to
the start position.

WORLD WHEN YOU WIN.

HOLLYS SUPPLEMENTS:
Off The Chain Aminos: One to
two scoops prior to training
Joint Rx: Taken with each meal
NitroPro Protein: Two to three
shakes each day
All supplements by
Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AU G U S T 2016 FITNESS RX

49

FitRx TRAINING
OVERHEAD PRESS:
Hold dumbbells at shoulder height
with elbows out to the sides and
palms facing
forward. Lift
the dumbbells
straight up
until they almost
touch and your
arms are just
short of straight.
Lower dumbbells and repeat.

BAG CRUNCH:
This is an advanced
core move. As an
alternative, perform
basic crunches off
the oor.
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DIAGONAL PLATE
TWIST:
Stand with your feet hip-distance
apart holing a plate. Take a step
back with your left foot into a
lunge. Twist your torso up and to
the left before lowering back to
starting position. Repeat.

25-YARD SPRINT
DROP TO BURPEES:

THERES
A REASON
WHY PEOPLE LOVE
TO WATCH
FIGHTING
ITS A VERY
VULNERABLE THING
TO DO. YOU WALK IN THERE AND YOU MIGHT BE MADE
A FOOL IN FRONT OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE. YOURE
THE ONE TAKING A CHANCE AND THERES A REASON
WHY YOURE THERE AND SOMEBODY ELSE ISNT.

PULL UPS:

PLANK:

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 51

FitRx TRAINING

s
u
o
l
u
B
fA
S
B PRO
WITH IFBE McGUIRE

JANELL

M
R
A
D
E
T
P
L
U
GET SCTIVE REST
C
A
H
T
I
W

We know youve been squatting and lunging


your way to your best bikini body. But, have
you neglected your arms along the way?
To help make things interesting, weve asked IFBB Bikini Pro Janelle McGuire to
share her not-so-typical arm workout intensified with active rest sets. Active rest is
something I incorporate with smaller muscle groups and when I am pressed for time.
It is a great way to ensure I get all my exercises in and my heart rate up! explains
Janelle.
For this program, the active rest will be abdominal work and includes exercises
emphasizing the stubborn lower abs. Ab training is a perfect complement to the
arm workout, as it targets alternate muscles, allowing the bis and tris to recover
between sets.
The abdominal active rest exercises are also a great way to manage the rest
interval. Taking no more than one minute to complete, the ab exercises keep the
time between arm sets short to maximize hypertrophy and maintain blood flow. And,
Janelle adds, Nothing beats a good arm day pump!

By JAIME BAIRD | Photography by MIKE NEVEUX


52 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

PROFILE
IFBB Bikini Pro
Personal Trainer | Nutritionist | Model
Cytosport Monster Milk Athlete
Lives in Murrieta, California
30 years old

Hair and Make-up by


Krystle Randall
Styling by Trish Stella
Sports Bra and Capris by Onzie
Sneakers by Nike
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 53

FitRx TRAINING

THE WORKOUT
WHAT IS
COMPLETING THE ACTIVE REST SET,
ACTIVE REST? AFTER
IMMEDIATELY BEGIN THE NEXT LIFT.
Performing active rest sets means
that you perform an activity
between working sets rather than sit
on the bench and wait for your next
set. This activity could be anything
that would complement your training
goals rather than detract from it.
Some examples include light cardio,
stretching, rehearsing exercise form
or performing exercises using muscles other than the ones recruited in
the main movement.
The benefits of active rest include:
(1) maintaining body temperature
between sets, (2) keeping neuromuscular activity high, (3) improving
recovery between sets (4) burning
more calories and (5) saving time.
The key to effective active rest
is to not overdo it. If you push too
hard during your active rest sets, you
wont have the energy to invest in
your working sets. The key is to keep
moving and working without adding
excessive stress to the body.
For this program, you will perform
abdominal exercises for your active
rest sets. If any of these moves feel
too difficult initially, begin with standard stability ball crunches and work
up to these more challenging moves.

EXERCISE

SETS

REPS

SEATED INCLINE DUMBBELL CURLS


ACTIVE REST:
STABILITY BALL REVERSE CRUNCH

12

12

REVERSE GRIP DUMBBELL


TRICEPS EXTENSION
ACTIVE REST:
STABILITY BALL ALTERNATING V PASS

12

8
EACH SIDE

BARBELL DRAG CURLS


SUPERSET WITH
CABLE TRICEPS KICKBACKS
ACTIVE REST:
STABILITY BALL ROLL-OUTS

12

12

15

SINGLE-ARM TRICEPS DIPS

8
EACH ARM,
NO REST
BETWEEN
ARMS

THE EXERCISES

SEATED INCLINE
DUMBBELL CURLS
Sitting on an incline
bench, hold dumbbells in
each hand and extend
your arms to your sides.
Curl the dumbbells up
and then slowly lower to
the starting position.
JANELLES TIP: Keep your
elbows steady like a hinge
on a door to maximize
bicep engagement.

54 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

STABILITY BALL
REVERSE CRUNCH
Lie on stability ball positioned
near a bench. Reach back and grab
onto the bench your lower back
should be centered on the ball.
Contracting the abdominals, draw
your knees up and then lower until
feet are just short of the ground.
JANELLES TIP: Dont let your
feet rest on the floor between
reps keep tension in the abs.

Nothing beats a
good arm day pump!

REVERSE GRIP
DUMBBELL
TRICEPS
EXTENSION
Hold dumbbells
overhead with a
reverse grip (palms
facing backwards) and
arms extended
straight. Keeping
elbows stationary and
facing forward, lower
the weight behind
your head. Then, press
the weight back to the
starting position.
JANELLES TIP: Select
a weight that enables
full range of motion
and control.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 55

FitRx TRAINING
STABILITY BALL
ALTERNATING V PASS
Lie on the ground holding a stability
ball overhead with both hands.
Contracting the abdominals, lift your
right arm and left leg off the floor and
position the ball between your left
foot and right hand. Squeeze the ball
with your foot and hand. Then, lift your
left hand and right leg to grip the ball
while simultaneously lowering your
right arm and left leg. Thats one rep.

CABLE TRICEPS
KICKBACKS
Using the long rope
attachment, position
the cable pulley at the
lowest level. Take a
few steps back, bend
forward at the waist
and lift the elbows to
align with your torso.
Keeping the elbows
high and locked in,
extend the arms
straight back and
squeeze the triceps.
JANELLES TIP: Brace
your core to stabilize
your body and focus
the work in the triceps.

JANELLES TIP:
Keep the motion
slow and steady so
you dont lose
your balance.

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AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

BARBELL
DRAG CURLS
Grasp barbell with a shoulderwidth underhand grip. Drag the
barbell up the body until your
elbows are fully flexed. Your
elbows will travel behind the
torso. Keeping the barbell close
to the body, extend the elbows
to straighten the arms.
JANELLES TIP: This is great move
to prevent your delts from taking
over. Youll have to use a lighter
barbell than you normally would.

SINGLE-ARM TRICEPS DIP


STABILITY BALL
ROLL-OUTS
Kneel behind the ball
with the wrists and
hands on the ball.
Roll the ball out
to a kneeling plank.
Initiating the
movement from the
abdominals, return to
the starting position.
Focus on keeping
your hip flexors
and torso tight
and aligned.
JANELLES TIP:
To prevent your
lower back from
collapsing or arching,
contract your glutes
and stabilize your
hips before
rolling forward.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

Sitting on a bench, grab onto its edge


with one hand. Lower your body down by
bending your elbow; stop when your
upper arm is about parallel to the floor.
Then, push back up and tighten your
triceps.
JANELLES TIP: Be sure to get full range
of motion. Bring feet closer to the bench
to make it easier.

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 57

FitRx TRAINING

GET TO KNOW JANELLE


Janelle squashes a fitness myth,
dishes out her best advice and more!

FITRX: Tell us about your fitness background. FITRX: Any other fitness advice?
JANELLE: I have always been active.
JANELLE: Yes, primarily focus on
I grew up riding equestrian and competing
in Hunter Jumper and Dressage. I was
also a cheerleader and played volleyball
I loved them both and enjoyed the change
from riding to team driven sports.

FITRX: What do you love the most about


fitness?

JANELLE: The transformations. Im not


just referring to the physical portion
what primarily touches my heart are the
spiritual, emotional and mental
transformations!
FITRX: If you could squash any fitness myth
once and for all, what would it be?
JANELLE: That you have to spend hours
in the gym and eat six to eight times a day
to achieve your fitness goals.

FITRX: Best advice for a women wanting


to get in shape like you?
JANELLE: Focus on nutrition. I see it
far too often people decide to make a
positive change by starting to exercise but
continue a poor diet or, worse, barely eat
at all! Then they give up because they
arent getting the results they desire.
Little do they know that making a few
adjustments to eating habits can make
the world of difference.

RECOVER
FASTER
TOUGH WORKOUT?
SPEED RECOVERY AND
RESULTS WITH THESE
KEY SUPPLEMENTS.

58 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

compound lifts, which are multi-joint


movements that use many muscle groups
(i.e., squats, deadlifts, pull-ups, bench press).
These should be the foundation and focus of a
strength-training program rather than wasting
a ton of time on machines, cardio or small
isolation movements. AND I recommend
that you hire me! I offer online and in-person
training and nutritional programs!

FITRX: You inspire women all over the world


who and what inspires you?

JANELLE: All of my strength, inspiration and


motivation comes from the Lord. When my eyes
are set on Him, I can conquer anything because
of his love and grace. He gives me the will and
ability to achieve any task at hand even when
my fears and insecurities are getting the best
of me!

FITRX: Is there a quote that sums up


your approach to fitness, life or both?

JANELLE: Dead fish float


down the stream, live fish swim
up it. This is a quote by W.C.
Fields that encourages me.
When life is hard or a struggle,
I gather strength and swim up
a strong stream of resistance
rather than just shutting down
and giving up.

PROTEIN POWDER
After an intense
workout, your
muscles are hungry
for nutrients, especially protein, to
initiate the recovery
and repair process.
A fast-absorbing
protein source like
whey is a convenient
nd great-tasting
an
ost-workout choice.
po
ust throw a shaker
Ju
up with a scoop of
cu
owder in your gym
po
ag, and youre ready
ba
to go! Janelles first
hoice in protein is
ch
Cytosports Monster
Cy
Milk.
Mi

KEEP UP WITH JANELLE


FOR MORE TIPS AND MOTIVATION FROM
JANELLE, FOLLOW HER ON FACEBOOK
(JANELLE SAITONE MCGUIRE) AND INSTAGRAM
(JANELLE_MCGUIRE_FIT). INTERESTED IN
WORKING WITH HER? DROP HER AN EMAIL
AT JANELLEMCGUIREFIT@YAHOO.COM.

BRANCHED-CHAIN
AMINO ACIDS (BCAAs).
Amino acids, the building blocks of protein, help
improve performance,
speed recovery and support
muscle-building goals. While
individuals can take BCAAs
at any time, pre- and intraworkout doses are especially
effective at reducing muscle
fatigue, which allows you to
train harder, longer. While
there are many BCAA options on the market, choose
a product that provides 10
grams of high-quality amino
acids (i.e., 3:2:1 or 2:1:1 ration
of Leucine: Isoleucine: Valine).
Janelle opts for Cytosports
Monster Aminos.

GLUTAMINE.
This amino acid, which
is not a branchedchain, has been shown
to aid in recovery,
reduce protein catabolism and increase
protein metabolism. It
is found in the blood,
gut and muscles and
plays a significant role
in immune function.
During intense training,
Glutamine levels deplete, which diminishes
strength and recovery.
Supplement with 5
grams per day postworkout to help restore
levels and thus hasten
recovery.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRx TRAINING

MELISSA ANDREWS:
An Ambassador of Fitness
FitnessRx for Women and MHP 2016 Arnold Model Search Winner
By Alan Golnick
Competing at the Arnold Sports
Festival means you have worked long
and hard to craft a physique worthy of
standing among the best athletes in the
industry. The multi-sports weekend is held

60 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

Photos by JASON ELLIS

every year in Columbus, Ohio and is the vision


of Arnold Schwarzenegger, who has expanded
the event to global competitions.
If youre a competitor who has made it to the
Arnold, youve climbed the ladder to just about
the top of your game. Anyone who comes home
from the Arnold as a winner is in a league of
their own, launched into the stratosphere of
fitness by emerging victorious at one of the
most prestigious sporting events in the world.
Someone in a league of her own is Melissa
Andrews of Georgia, winner of this years
FitnessRx for Women and MHP Arnold Model
Search. The judges had some difficult decisions
to make, as a wide field of fitness competitors
took to the stage at this years Arnold Sports
Festival. All of the athletes worked long and
hard to be able to showcase their incredible
physiques in front of thousands of fitness
enthusiasts. Top female and male models earned
MHP sponsorships.
Melissa has more to offer than a winning
physique and a captivating smile. She is a
professional woman and self-described
ambassador of fitness who leads a busy life
and makes time for fitness. We spoke with this
years Arnold Model Search winner, who offered
plenty of advice for living a healthy lifestyle.
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FITRX: Youre now an MHP-sponsored athlete. What has


it been like working with MHP, and what do you hope to
bring to the table?
MELISSA: Being an MHP-sponsored athlete is an honor.
Im thankful for the opportunity, and truly stand firm as
someone who works in the medical community as a
physician assistant and treats patients/athletes, day in and
out, on the validity of their product and the scientific
evidence that it provides.
FITRX: MHP was looking for the IT Factor when
selecting the winners of the MHP Model Search. What are
the ideal qualities of a fit, strong woman?
MELISSA: Embracing your natural femininity. Being
passionate about the sport of bodybuilding and fitness with
a good work ethic. Being confident and self-assured, yet
humble at the same time. Understanding how to take
constructive criticism with integrity, and always striving to
be better.
FITRX: Youve been active in sports your entire life. Did
this help you prepare for Figure competition? Did you
acclimate to weights and exercise naturally?
MELISSA: Absolutely I think the mental preparation of
playing basketball and running track has had a strong
influence. I have always been super competitive, not
committing myself to something unless I knew I was able
to give it my all. Weight training and exercise did somewhat
come naturally, with my athletic background.
FITRX: Youre a physician assistant. Do your fitness
achievements enable you to better guide your patients
toward a healthy lifestyle, since youre such a tremendous
role model? Do you consider yourself an ambassador of
fitness?
MELISSA: It has definitely been a conversation starter
amongst a lot of the patients who have seen my progress
documented on social media and local news broadcasts.
My specialty is orthopedics/sports medicine and I do
consider myself an ambassador of fitness. The community
has been so receptive and engaging, and it has been
rewarding to be able to discuss with them the benefits of
exercise, weight training and nutrition on their body and
preventing chronic joint and muscle disease.
FITRX: Whats your exercise program consist of? How
often do you lift weights and do cardio?
MELISSA: I lift five to six times per week. I train legs two
to three times a week, and it has been a main focus on
mine. I usually train the other muscle groups once per
week, and add two to three HIIT workouts weekly as my
cardio.

and also being able to have some variety at my meals. I


dont believe healthy eating has to be bland, and I have
tried to provide options for healthy snacks, recipes and
meals on my social media page.
FITRX: Who are your role models, and why?
MELISSA: Im a huge fan of IFBB Figure Pro Latorya
Watts, who is winning everything she competes in, and Im
excited to see her hold on to her title at the Olympia this
September. Latorya and I are from the same hometown.
Its exciting to see someone who comes from the same
area be at the top of their sport.
C.T. Fletcher raw, uncensored and uncut! Sometimes I
need a little kick in the behind, and always count on his
videos to give it to me. I follow his workouts and he was
super cool when I met him in Columbus, Ohio after winning
the Arnold Model Search he even recognized me and said,
Heres the champ.
FITRX: Whats your advice for people who want to get
into better shape?
MELISSA: Follow your journey and pace yourself.
Remember, every pro was once an amateur and every
expert was once a beginner. Set realistic goals, and dont
give up and if you find yourself wanting remember why
you started.
FITRX: What is your favorite quote that sums everything
up?
MELISSA: Your body can stand almost anything it is
your mind you have to convince.

Create a lifestyle not a


fad. Workouts
shouldnt
be centered
around a
season or a
resolution.
Make tness
a way of
life, and the
results will
come.

FITRX: Congratulations on winning the 2016 Arnold


Model Search. How did it feel to be the champion among
such a large group of competitors?
MELISSA: It is an unbelievable feeling, especially knowing
my bodybuilding journey began last year. Im blessed and
humbled to have been able to compete on such a grand
stage at the Arnold Sports Festival, and winning the title of
Arnold Fitness Model USA was the icing on the cake.

FITRX: What is your diet like, and what are your


nutritional rules to live by?
MELISSA: I follow a macro diet and it has worked great
for me. I love being able to have control over what I eat
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 61

MELISSAS WINNING WORKOUT

SUNDAY Shoulders and Abs (3 sets x 15 reps) and HIIT


TRISET
Cable Forward Front Raises
Cable Lateral Raises
Decline Bench Abs With Rotation
TRISET
Dumbbell Shoulder Press
Reverse/Rear Delt Flye Machine
Hanging Leg Raises
HIIT 5 rounds with 1-minute rest between each round;
do each exercise for 30 seconds with 15-second rest.
Burpees
Jump Squats
Mountain Climbers
Plank Twists
Jumping Jacks
Push-ups

SUPERSET
Standing Unilateral Hamstring Curls
Hip Thrusters
Prone Hamstring Curls

THURSDAY Chest and Triceps (3 sets x 15 reps)


SUPERSET
Incline Cable Chest Flyes
Overhead Triceps Extensions
SUPERSET
Machine Pec Deck
Cable Triceps Pushdowns
SUPERSET
Decline Chest Press
Skull-Crushers

FRIDAY OFF

MONDAY Back and Biceps


(4 sets x 15, 12, 10, 8 reps, increasing weight every set)

SATURDAY Legs (Quads)


(4 sets x 15, 12, 10, 8 reps,
increasing weight every set)

SUPERSET
Wide-Grip Pull-ups
Cable Bicep Curls

WARM-UP HIIT
Treadmill, 15 minutes

SUPERSET
Lat Pulldowns
Machine Preacher Curls
SUPERSET
Iso-Lateral Machine Pulldowns
Dumbbell Biceps Curls
SUPERSET
Lumbar Machine Extensions
Wide-Grip Seated Cable Rows

TUESDAY OFF
WEDNESDAY Glutes and Hamstrings (4 sets x 15 reps)
WARM-UP HIIT
Treadmill, 20 minutes
MINUTES
0-2
2-3
3-5
5-6
6-8
8-8:30
8:30-10
10-18
18-20

INTENSITY
Jog 40-50% (4.5-5.0)
Run 85% (6.0)
Jog 50% (5.0)
Run 90% (6.5)
Jog 50% (5.0)
Run 95-100% (7.0)
Jog 50%
Repeat minutes 8-10
Walk 25% (cooldown 3.0-ish)

Stiff-leg Deadlifts
SUPERSET
Cable Leg Kickbacks
Banded Jump Squats

62 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

MINUTES
0-3
3-3:30
3:30-5
5-6
6-7
7-10
10-10:30
10:30-13
13-14
14-15

I consider myself an
ambassador of tness. The community
has been so receptive
and engaging, and it
has been rewarding
to be able to discuss
with them the benets
of exercise, weight
training and nutrition
on their body and preventing chronic joint
and muscle disease.

INTENSITY
Jog 50% (5.0)
Sprint 100% (7.0)
Run 70% (6.6)
Jog 50% (5.0)
Sprint 100% (7.0)
Jog 60% (6.2)
Sprint 100% (7.0)
Run 70% (6.6)
Jog 50% (5.0)
Walk (cooldown 3.5)

FitRx TRAINING

Barbell Squats
Hack Squats
Barbell Box Squats
Knee Extensions
Bulgarian Split Squats
Leg Press

Melissas Sample Diet

I work a full-time job as a physician assistant, Melissa


explains, so I understand the difficulties of not being able
to devote all day in the gym. We make time for what we
want, and my day usually starts early.
WAKE UP 5:00 a.m.
Gym
MHP BCAA 10X Energy and Glutamine-SR
BREAKFAST 7:00 a.m.
Protein pancakes (3)
Turkey sausage egg white omelet
Turkey bacon (2)
Protein shake: MHP Probolic-SR protein, unsweetened
almond milk, PB2, cocoa and frozen bananas
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

MID-MORNING SNACK 9:30 a.m.


Hard-boiled egg whites (3)
LUNCH 11:30 a.m.
Turkey meatballs (6)
Barbecue Popchips (1 oz)
Caramel corn rice cake (1)
MIDDAY SNACK3:00 p.m.
MHP Fit & Lean Brownie
DINNER 7:00 p.m.
Atlantic salmon (6 oz)
Baked sweet potato fries (200g)
Steamed broccoli (85g)
Melissa tells us, I love to cook, and have shared
various recipes and meal preps on my fitness Facebook page.

Melissas Top 5 Fitness Tips


1. Create a lifestyle not a fad. Workouts shouldnt be centered around a
season or a resolution. Make fitness a way of life, and the results will come.
2. Plan ahead. Always plan meals the night before. It is easier to have this
done versus figuring out something on the go, which is more than likely not
the best option.
3. Lift heavy, with short rest periods. No need to spend all day in the gym.
Make a plan, get in and work. With shorter rest periods, your heart rate
stays elevated without actually doing organized cardio.
4. Use proper form and gradual progression in your workouts. Injuries from improper technique or normal muscle soreness are a couple of
reasons why gym-goers discontinue their workouts. Recognize your bodys
response to each, and know the difference.
5. Find something you love mix it up. I dont lift all the time. I love the
atmosphere of going to a fitness class and being able to work out with
people, and encourage and push them as they push me.

BCCA 10X ENERGY


PROBOLIC-SR PROTEIN POWDER
GLUTAMINE-SR
CARNITINE 1500
FIT & LEAN PROTEIN BROWNIE AND PUDDING
FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT MHPSTRONG.COM.

Follow your journey


and pace yourself.
Remember, every pro
was once an amateur
and every expert was
once a beginner.

MELISSAS MHP SUPPLEMENTS

About Melissa Andrews


Melissa Andrews is a member of Team MHP, a WNBF
Figure Pro, an Arnold Fitness Model, Muscle Club apparel
athlete, an Egg Whites International athlete and a VIP
member of Fitnessmodels.com.

Melissas Contest History

2016 Arnold Model Search Champion


2015 Drug Free Athletes Coalition, Georgia
First Place and Novice Figure Winner
2015 World Natural Bodybuilding Federation, Georgia
Second Place, Fit Body and Figure
2015 Drug Free Athletes Coalition, World Finals
Fourth Place, Figure
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

Keep Up With Melissa


Facebook: Melissa Andrews- Fitness, Melissa Andrews
Instagram: @mkeawda

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 63

FitRx FEATURE

25 HARD
FACTS
ON NUTRITION
&
PERFORMANCE
CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH
WHEN YOURE IN THE GYM EVERY DAY WORKING ON YOUR
SUMMER BODY, YOU ALSO NEED THE RIGHT NUTRITION AND
PERFORMANCE INFORMATION TO SUPPORT YOUR GOALS.
SO WE GATHERED SOME OF THE BEST CUTTING-EDGE
RESEARCH ON NUTRITION TO TAKE YOU TO THE NEXT
LEVEL IN FITNESS AND HEALTH. GET IN YOUR BEST SHAPE
THIS YEAR WITH THESE 25 RESEARCH-BASED TIPS!
By STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY ED.D.
64 FIT NE S S R X

AUGUST 2016

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

1. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IMPROVE ENDURANCE


Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, walnuts, soybeans, beef
and shrimp promote blood vessel health and reduce the risk
of heart attack and stroke. Polish researchers found that
omega-3 supplements improved endurance capacity in
cyclists by increasing concentrations of nitric oxide by eight
micromoles per liter, and boosting muscle blood flow by over
five percent compared to a placebo (fake omega-3). This
study agrees with several investigations from the University
of Tokyo, which found that supplementing omega-3 rich fatty
acids boosted exercise efficiency. Subjects took a daily dose
of 3.6 grams per day of the omega-3s EPA and DHA.
(European Journal of Sports Science, 15: 305-314, 2015)
2. CHERRY JUICE REDUCES UPPER RESPIRATORY
PROBLEMS AFTER MARATHON RUN
Upper respiratory infections are common following
competitive marathon running. Extreme levels of exercise cause
general body inflammation and suppress the immune system.
British researchers found that marathon runners who took
cherry juice after a race showed reduced inflammation as
measured by levels of C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin A,
immunoglobulin B, and a reduced incidence of upper respiratory
infections compared to a placebo (fake cherry juice).
Cherry juice is the real deal for protecting muscle tissue
from damage during intense exercise ranging from marathons
to monster weight-training workouts. Chemicals in cherry
juice, such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, prevent muscle
oxidative damage and inflammation associated with exercise
recovery. Cherry juice might be useful for reducing sports
injuries, preventing upper respiratory infections and
promoting recovery. (Journal International Society Sports
Nutrition, 12:22, 2015)
3. WHEY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS DECREASE
ABDOMINAL FAT
Whey protein supplements consumed with whole milk
suppress the typical increase in blood fats that occurs
following consumption of a high-fat meal according to a
study led by Mette Bohl from Aarhus University Hospital in
Denmark, and co-workers. They measured the blood fat
response to a high-fat meal accompanied by supplements of
either way or casein protein. The researchers concluded that

consuming whey protein with major meals could have a


positive affect on cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Drinking a whey protein shake with your lunch or dinner
meals could keep belly fat under control. (American Journal
of Clinical Nutrition, 101: 870-878, 2015)
4. HIGH-PROTEIN DIETS PROMOTE WEIGHT LOSS
Diets containing 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram
bodyweight are adequate for maintaining protein balance.
However, high-protein diets (e.g., 1.5 grams of protein per
kilogram bodyweight) benefit people losing weight and active
people such as athletes and soldiers. High-protein diets spare
lean muscle during weight loss, help control appetite,
enhance blood sugar regulation and optimize calcium
absorption for healthy bones. High-protein diets supply
essential amino acids that activate protein synthesis, even in
the face of low energy intake. Whey and casein protein are
particularly important because they provide rapid and
sustained delivery of essential amino acids (amino acids the
body cant make). High-protein diets are particularly
important for those who are trying to increase lean muscle
while minimizing body fat. (Journal of Food Science, 80:
A2-A7, 2015)
5. TRAINING WITH REDUCED CARBOHYDRATE
AVAILABILITY ENHANCES FITNESS
Interval training repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise
interrupted by short rest periods increases fitness rapidly.
Researchers from McMaster University in Canada found that
subjects practicing interval training two times per day for two
weeks gained fitness faster when they consumed only small
amounts of carbohydrates between sessions. Interval
training consisted of five sets of four-minute cycling at 60
percent of maximum effort followed by two minutes of
recovery, practiced twice a day. Subjects consumed either
195 or 17 grams of carbohydrate between exercise sessions.
Gains in peak power output were approximately 50 percent
greater in test subjects consuming low amounts of
carbohydrates between training sessions. These subjects
were active but not well trained, so it is not known if these
effects would apply to serious athletes or extend longer than
two weeks. (International Journal Sports Nutrition Exercise
Metabolism, published online March 26, 2015)

6. WHEY PROTEIN PROLONGS PROTEIN SYNTHESIS MORE THAN SOY PROTEIN


Consuming whey protein results in more prolonged muscle protein synthesis than consuming soy protein according to
researchers from the University of Auckland in New Zealand. They fed older men (age 60 to 75 years of age) 30 grams of
either soy or whey protein and measured a marker of muscle protein synthesis (P70S6 kinase) from a muscle biopsy. Protein
synthesis increased for two hours following consumption of soy protein but continued for four hours following the whey
protein trial. Decreased muscle mass in older adults (called sarcopenia) is a serious health problem that leads to loss of
mobility, premature death, decreased bone mass and poor blood sugar metabolism. A daily supplement of 30 grams of whey
protein can promote muscle protein synthesis in older adults and might prevent sarcopenia. (Journal International Society
Sports Nutrition, 12:6, 2015)
7. HIGH-PROTEIN DIETS LINKED TO HEALTHIER BODY COMPOSITION
Many studies have shown that increasing dietary protein improves body composition and reduces cardiovascular risk in
obese people. A study led by Stefan Pasiakos from the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in
Natick, Massachusetts found that people who consumed more protein in the diet had higher levels of HDL cholesterol (the
good cholesterol), lower body mass index (the proportion of weight to height) and a smaller waist circumference. Researchers
concluded that Americans who consume one to 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day have a reduced risk
of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Their conclusions were based on a large health survey (NHANES) involving nearly
25,000 U.S. adults. (Journal of Nutrition, 145: 605-614, 2015)
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

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8. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IMPROVE NEUROMUSCULAR
PERFORMANCE
Myelin is a nerve covering that speeds the rate of
conduction of nerve impulses. The myelin covering
increases when athletes learn skills, which makes
movements faster, smoother and stronger. Myelin is
composed mainly of fat and water, so increasing intake of
a high-quality fat might be beneficial to the nervous
system in athletes. Evan Lewis from the University of
Toronto, and colleagues, found that supplementing
omega-3 fatty acids for three weeks increased muscle
activation, as measured by electromyography, and
prevented fatigue during a maximum sprint test on a
stationary bike (Wingate test). Test subjects took five
milliliters of seal oil per day, which contained 375
milligrams of EPA, 230 milligrams of DPA and 510
milligrams of DHA. Athletes may benefit from omega-3
supplements, particularly when they are working on skill
development. (Journal International Society Sports
Nutrition, 12:28, 2015)
9. CARBOHYDRATE MOUTH RINSE FIGHTS FATIGUE
Carbohydrate is the principal fuel at exercise intensities
above 65 percent of maximum effort. Eating
carbohydrates prevents fatigue during prolonged exercise.
A study led by Matt Jensen from the University of Victoria
in Canada found that a carbohydrate mouth rinse
prevented fatigue by approximately three percent in
athletes performing prolonged isometric knee extensions.
Researchers concluded that a carbohydrate mouth rinse
might play a small role in preventing fatigue during
exercise requiring high muscle tensions. British
researchers (Curr Opin Clin Nut Met Care, 13: 44, 2010)
found that the nervous system senses carbohydrates as
soon as they enter the mouth, and boosts performance.
However, other studies found no effects. It is likely that
carbohydrate mouth rinses have only small effects on
performance, if they work at all. (International Journal
Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 25: 252-261, 2015)
10. WHICH IS HEALTHIER: FARM OR WILD SALMON?
Salmon is a healthy food because it contains omega-3
fatty acids that protect against heart attack and stroke,
promote infant brain development and help ease the
symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease,
psoriasis and postpartum depression. A public health
service group called the Environmental Working Group said
that farm-raised salmon fillets sampled in three major cities
contained unsafe levels of chemicals called PCBs that make
their consumption dangerous particularly in pregnant
women. The PCB levels are above those recommended by
the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
but within those set by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). Healthy fish choices high in omega-3s
include wild salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel. Fish
high in mercury, another dangerous contaminant, include
albacore tuna, swordfish, shark, red snapper and halibut. In
late 2015, the FDA approved genetically engineered farmed
salmon and will not require specific source labels.
(ConsumerLab.com, January 3, 2016)

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11. WHEY PROTEIN INHIBITS


MUSCLE CARNITINE
ACCUMULATION
Carnitine is a chemical
compound formed from the
amino acids lysine and
methionine. It is critical for
transporting fatty acids from
the cell interior into the
mitochondria. Carnitine helps
break down long-chain fatty
acids and promotes oxygen
consumption. The
mitochondria are the
powerhouses of the cells that
provide the bodys energy
needs, determine endurance
exercise capacity and greatly
influence life span. Carnitine is
poorly absorbed into muscle
cells. It is insulin-dependent. A
study from the University of
Nottingham in the U.K. found
that muscle carnitine uptake
was increased following
consumption of a highcarbohydrate beverage, but
decreased following ingestion
of whey protein. Carnitine
should not be taken at the
same time as whey protein
supplements. (American
Journal Clinical Nutrition, 103:
276-282, 2016)
12. BEETROOT JUICE
IMPROVES BLOOD VESSEL
HEALTH
Foods high in nitrates, such
as beetroot juice, stimulate the
inner lining of blood vessels to
secrete nitric oxide, a chemical
that controls blood flow.
Beetroot juice has positive
effects on blood pressure,
sexual performance and
endurance exercise capacity.
Beetroot juice has
cardiovascular benefits in
patients with high cholesterol
according to a six-week study
led by Shanti Velmurugan from
the William Harvey Research
Institute in London, U.K.
Subjects receiving beetroot
juice showed a 24 percent
improvement in blood vessel
performance (flow-mediated
dilatation). Beetroot juice also
reduced platelet stickiness by
10 percent, which decreases

the risk of blood clot


formation and heart attack.
Beetroot juice is a hearthealthy food that improves
blood vessel health. (American
Journal Clinical Nutrition,
103:25-38, 2016)
13. ACSM ISSUES SPORTS
NUTRITION GUIDELINES
The American College of
Sports Medicine (ACSM)
made the following
recommendations for
optimizing nutrition in active
athletes:
Consume adequate
calories during high-intensity
or long-duration training
Eat a variety of foods to
help you stay healthy and
injury free
The ideal body
composition depends on sex,
age, genetics and sport
Carbohydrates are critical
for the brain and muscles,
particularly during intense
exercise
Consume 1.2 to 2.0 grams
of protein per kilogram of
bodyweight
Consume 20 to 35
percent of calories as fat
Meet the Recommended
Dietary Allowance (RDA) for
all micronutrients
Maximize carbohydrate
intake in sports, dependent
upon carbohydrate availability
Foods and fluids
consumed before exercise
contribute to carbohydrate
stores, so pregame and prepractice nutrition is
important
During recovery, replace
fluids lost during exercise
Consume carbohydrates
during prolonged endurance
events
Restoration between
intense training sessions
requires appropriate intake of
fluids, electrolytes, calories
and carbohydrates.
Optimal nutrition can make
the difference between
success and failure in sports.
(Medicine Science Sports
Exercise, 116: 501-528, 2016)

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14. NUTRITIONISTS
RECOMMEND HIGHER
PROTEIN INTAKE
The United States
Department Of
Agriculture (USDA)
recommends a protein
intake of 0.8 grams per
kilogram of bodyweight.
Recent research on older
adults, people trying to
lose weight and athletes
suggest that the protein
intake recommendation
should be higher. A review
of literature by Stuart
Phillips from McMaster
University in Canada, and
co-workers, concluded
that the recommended
protein intake should be
at least 1.2 to 1.6 grams
of protein per kilogram of
bodyweight. In older
adults, high protein intake
prevents sarcopenia
(muscle loss) as well as
decreased muscle mass
and strength, which
impairs blood sugar
regulation, mobility and
autonomy. High protein
intake promotes weight
control. Recently, Philips
et al. (2016) reported that
high protein intake (2.3
grams per kilogram of
bodyweight) plus intense
weight training and
interval training
increased lean mass and
decreased body fat in
people consuming a
low-calorie diet. In
active people, high
protein intake promotes
tissue healing and
muscle protein
remodeling after
exercise. The authors
could find no evidence
linking high-protein diets
to kidney disease or
impaired bone health.
They concluded that
increasing the protein
intake recommendations
for adults would promote
optimal health. (Applied
Physiology Nutrition and
Metabolism, 41: 1-8, 2016)

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15. SLEEP-LOW CARB


DIET BOOSTS
ENDURANCE
Nighttime carbohydrate
restriction (sleep-low)
following an intense
workout improved
endurance performance
during a 10K run,
compared to a group with
free access to carbohydrates (control)
according to a study led
by Laurie-Anne Marquet
and Christophe
Hausswirth from the
French National Institute
of Sport in Paris. Four
days per week during a
three-week diet trial, the
sleep-low group trained
vigorously in the afternoon, restricted
carbohydrate intake at
night, exercised
moderately in the
morning and then
consumed a highcarbohydrate breakfast.
The control group
followed the same
workout, but could eat
carbs in the evening. Both
groups consumed the
same amount of
carbohydrates in a
24-hour period. The sleeplow group improved
10-kilometer race time by
three percent, while the
control group did not
change. Sleep-low
carbohydrate restriction
also improved submaximal
cycling endurance time by
nine percent. Carbohydrates are the main fuel at
exercise intensities above
65 percent of maximum
effort. Restricting
carbohydrate intake at
night several times a week,
while maintaining total
carb intake, might improve
performance by improving
fat use during exercise or
enhancing carbohydrate
storage in the muscles and
liver. (Medicine Science
Sports Exercise, 48: 663672, 2016)

16. POST-INJURY NUTRITION IMPORTANT FOR OPTIMAL


HEALING
Athletic injuries pose severe metabolic challenges to athletes.
A healthy diet is essential for optimal healing according to June
Kloubec and Cristen Harris from Bastyr University in
Washington. Athletes should consume enough calories to
promote healing and fuel the 15 to 20 percent increase in
metabolic rate that accompanies injuries. Caloric intake should
be less than when training intensely but more than when
sedentary. Recovering athletes need more protein than normal
at least 1.5 to 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight
per day. Carbohydrates are important but they should not be
overemphasized, in order to prevent weight gain. Carb intake
should be approximately five to eight grams per kilogram of
bodyweight. Adequate fiber intake prevents constipation
promoted by post-injury medications. Athletes should also
consume foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E,
beta-carotene, vitamin A, selenium and zinc to help control free
radical damage and excessive inflammation. Foods such as
blueberries, strawberries, carrots, broccoli and pineapple are
good post-injury foods. Recovering athletes should eat a variety
of healthy foods and avoid calorie-dense junk foods. (ACSMs
Health & Fitness Journal, 20(2): 7-11, 2016)
17. DIETS HIGH IN MONOUNSATURATED FATS BETTER
REGULATE FAT CELLS
The body tries to maintain balance in its function through a
process called homeostasis. The same is true of fat cells.
Spanish researchers found greater activity in genes responsible
for fat breakdown following a diet high in monounsaturated fatty
acids. Typical foods include olive oil, canola oil, nuts and
avocados. Other diets studied included high saturated fat diets,
low-fat, high complex carbohydrate diets and a placebo diet
(mixed diet). The study showed that the fat composition of diets
could influence the activity of fat cells. (European Journal of
Nutrition, published online March 30, 2016)
18. SOY PROTEIN REDUCES STRENGTH GAINS FROM WEIGHT
TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS
Whey protein plus weight training promotes muscle protein
synthesis in older adults and prevents sarcopenia loss of
muscle tissue that occurs with age. Rebecca Thompson and
colleagues from the University of South Australia in Adelaide, in
a study on aging men, found that supplementing diets with 27
grams of soy protein immediately after weight training caused
lower strength gains, compared to a group receiving dairy
protein. Estrogen-like compounds called phytoestrogens found
in soya, tofu and legumes bind to estrogen receptors, decrease
sperm counts and have feminizing effects. A product found in
soy-based foods called genistein acts like a weak estrogen.
Soy protein might have reduced strength gains in
older men because of its effects on testosterone. Messina and
colleagues (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2007) found that
soy protein supplements (approximately 55 grams per day for a
month) decreased blood testosterone levels by 19 percent and
increased estrogen receptor activity. Testosterone levels
returned to normal within two weeks of discontinuing the soy
supplement. (Clinical Nutrition, 35: 27-33, 2016)
19. HIGH-PROTEIN DIET PLUS WEIGHT TRAINING IMPROVES
BODY COMPOSITION
The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends a daily protein
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67

FitRx FEATURE
intake of 0.8 grams per kilogram of bodyweight. Active people
might benefit from as much as 1.5 grams per kilogram. Jose
Antonio from Nova Southeastern University in Florida, and
colleagues, found that high protein intake (3.4 grams per
kilogram of bodyweight per day) plus a periodized weighttraining program for eight weeks showed greater decreases in
bodyweight, percent fat and fat mass than a group consuming
2.3 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight. There were
no differences in fat-free mass (largely composed of muscle).
Previous studies showed overfeeding protein without weight
training did not alter body composition. The researchers
concluded that intensely training athletes would benefit from
protein intakes greater than two grams of protein per kilogram
of bodyweight per day. (Journal International Society Sports
Nutrition, 13: 3, 2016)

21. CARB RESTRICTION ENHANCES


TRAINING ADAPTATIONS TO HIIT
Carbohydrate is the principal fuel
during exercise at exercise intensities
above 65 percent of maximum effort.
We have known for more than 50 years
that people have better endurance
when they consume high-carbohydrate
diets. Scientists from McMaster
University in Canada found that power
output is increased more following lowcarbohydrate diets than when training
with high-carb diets. Researchers
introduced the concept of Hi-LO carb
training. Subjects practiced two
interval-training workouts per day for
two weeks. Each workout was preceded
by a high and then low carb intake (HiLO). Another group consumed high
carbohydrate intake (HI-HI) before each
workout. The high-low carb
consumption protocol resulted in
greater power output by the end of the
study. The researchers used only
moderately trained college students, so
it is not clear whether the results would
apply to serious or elite athletes.
(International Journal Sport Nutrition
Exercise Metabolism, 25: 463-470, 2015)
22. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS INCREASE
BLOOD PRESSURE
Many people, particularly women, take
calcium supplements to maintain or
increase bone density. This could be a
mistake. The United States Preventive
Services Task Force, an independent
think tank that reviews studies and
develops clinical recommendations,
advised women to avoid calcium
supplements because they dont

68 FIT NE S S R X

AUGUST 2016

20. DHA REDUCES MUSCLE INFLAMMATION AFTER


HEAVY TRAINING
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that
is a structural part of the brain, skin, sperm, testicles and
eyes. Fish oil is the most significant dietary source of DHA.
Many studies suggest that DHA reduces inflammation and the
risk of heart disease. Frank DiLorenzo, Chris Drager and Janet
Rankin from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University found that DHA supplements (two grams per day)
reduced blood markers of inflammation (creatine kinase and
interleukin 6) during four days of eccentric training
(negatives). However, DHA had no effects on muscle soreness
or range of motion during the four-day period or an additional
13 days of weight training in untrained people. (Journal
Strength Conditioning Research, 28: 2768-2774, 2014)

increase bone density and might


increase the risk of heart attack. A
study from the University of Auckland in
New Zealand found that calcium
supplements increased blood pressure
and blood coagulation for up to eight
hours. Calcium supplements might have
severe and potentially deadly side
effects. (British Journal Nutrition, 114:
1868-1874, 2015)
23. GINGER PREVENTS POSTEXERCISE MUSCLE SORENESS AND
INFLAMMATION
Increasing ginger consumption might
promote recovery from intense weight
training involving eccentric muscle
contractions (lengthening contractions
or negatives), and reduce inflammation
following intense endurance exercise
according to a literature review by
Patrick Wilson from the University of
Nebraska, Lincoln. An analysis of seven
studies showed that consuming two
grams of ginger per day will help relieve
post-exercise muscle soreness and
promote recovery. Ginger has no effect
on body composition, metabolic rate,
muscle strength or perceived exertion
during exercise. It is not clear whether
these results apply to long-term use in
accomplished athletes. (Journal
Strength Conditioning Research,
published online July 11, 2015)
24. LOW-CARBOHYDRATE DIETS
REDUCE POWER OUTPUT
During the first six months of weight
loss, low-carbohydrate diets are more
effective than low-fat or mixed diets.
This has encouraged some athletes to

use low-carb diets to fuel their training


sessions. This is a mistake. Research
since the 1960s has shown definitively
that carbs are the main fuel for exercise
at intensities above 65 percent of
maximum effort. Endurance decreases
markedly during low-carb dieting,
particularly during repeated training
sessions. A Brazilian study showed that
low-carbohydrate diets decreased highintensity exercise capacity (max watts)
and endurance in physically active men.
However, the perception of effort was
not different between low- and highcarbohydrate diets. In other words, you
dont feel any worse during exercise on
low-carb diets, but you cant exercise as
hard. Eat your carbs when youre
training hard. (International Journal
Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism,
24: 532-542, 2014)
25. GRAPE JUICE IMPROVES
ENDURANCE
Consuming grape juice for 28 days
improved endurance by 15.3 percent in
a small group of recreational runners,
compared to a control group that
consumed grape-flavored water. The
Brazilian study found no differences in
aerobic capacity or anaerobic threshold.
Grape juice increased total antioxidant
capacity and vitamin A but had no
effect on C-reactive protein, a measure
of inflammation. If the results can be
replicated, consuming grape juice might
be an effective, healthy way of
promoting metabolic health and
improving endurance capacity. (Applied
Physiology Nutrition Metabolism, 40:
899-906, 2015)
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

ASK THE EXPERTS

THE FIT LIFE

BY IFBB OLYMPIA FIGURE CHAMPION NICOLE WILKINS

AVOIDING POST-CONTEST PITFALLS


Competing has been one of the most rewarding experiences for me. It is a true test of determination,
strength, willpower and commitment, and you will be an inspiration to many of your friends and family
and even people you have never met. As with other sports that practice all year round, this is no different. It is important to view this as a lifestyle with slight modifications in the off-season to find balance.
Here are some of my Dos and Donts post-competition to set you up for a smooth transition into
your off-season:

DO: ENJOY A POST-CONTEST


MEAL.
You have worked hard, regardless of where you
placed, and have earned a celebratory meal. Plan
it, enjoy it with friends and dont regret one bite.

DONT: GET COMPLETELY STUFFED TO


THE POINT YOU CANT MOVE.
Ive seen men and women have cheat meals after
contests that night and they could literally not stop eating for hours or days. That is not a cheat meal. That is an
extended cheat and a sure-fire way to get you headed down
the wrong path.

DONT: FAIL TO PREPARE FOODS FOR THE


DAY AND WEEK AFTER THE COMPETITION.
Continue to eat every two to three hours like usual and
get back to your normal routine ASAP. This means preparing
your foods and eating the majority of your meals at home,
just like you did leading up to your contest. Tracking my daily
intake in MyFitnessPal helps me a TON.

DO: EXPECT TO GAIN ABOUT THREE TO


FIVE POUNDS.
This is completely normal. The weight you gain will be
from the water weight from the added carbs, drinking water,
veggies and sodium you add back into your diet. But dont
worry, this will regulate out after the first week or even the
first few days.

DO: DRINK A LOT OF WATER.


Shoot for 1 to 1.5 gallons, or 6 liters, a day. This will help
flush the body of toxins from your cheat meal and reduce
water retention from the influx of increased sodium and
sugar.

DONT: GO OVERBOARD ON SALTS AND


SAUCES THE FIRST WEEK AFTER THE
CONTEST.
Gradually add sodium back in starting with egg whites,
protein powders and condiments like mustard, sea salt and
salsa.

DO: GIVE YOUR BODY AT LEAST THREE TO


SEVEN DAYS TO RECOVER FROM YOUR
POST-CONTEST CHEAT MEAL.
Your bodyweight will level out after this point and once it

stays stable for about four days, you can gradually increase
calories by around 50-200 each week depending on how
your body responds. The changes to your diet should be
gradual. If your weight keeps going up, give it another week
or two before changing anything.

DO: GET BACK IN THE GYM AND TRAIN.


When preparing for a contest, especially the 48 hours
prior to getting onstage, your body is in a depleted state.
Take advantage of the surplus of calories and the postcontest cheat meal to hit the gym hard and work on areas of
your physique you feel need improvement. Use those extra
calories wisely.

DONT: SKIP CARDIO.


Its easy to get sick of cardio after those countless hours
on the StepMill or treadmill and want to take a few days off
after the show. But dont give in to that urge. You have been
like clockwork with your training and cardio for the last 1214 weeks, and you are in a good routine. Slipping out of that
routine is very easy. Getting back on it is very hard. Even if
you dont feel like doing it at all, just get yourself on a machine, or outside for a run. Getting there is sometimes the
hardest part. Trust me, youll be glad you did once you get
started. Remember, this is a lifestyle.

DO: UNDERSTAND THAT YOU WILL BE


HUNGRIER THE WEEK AFTER THE CONTEST.
This is normal. Your metabolism will speed up from your
cheat meal. Stay mentally strong and resist the urge to
binge because when that happens, the weight piles on
FAST. I have seen competitors gain 20 pounds the week
after a show and not have any idea how it happened so
quickly.

DO: REALIZE THAT THE ABOVE PART IS


EXTREMELY IMPORTANT.
The week after your contest is THE MOST CRUCIAL. This
is what separates those who are serious about their fitness
journey and living a healthy lifestyle and those who could
possibly enter the very dangerous and unhealthy realm of
contest yo-yo dieting.
I hope you take this advice and follow it. It isnt easy. But
making it a priority and even a challenge similar to how you
challenged yourself when preparing for your contest is a
big step in the right direction.

Visit www.nicolewilkins.com for full-length workout videos, recipes, meal plans and much more including Nicoles NEW clothing line! For more
information and locations for PHAT Fitness Camps for women of all ages and athletic abilities
hosted by Nicole Wilkins, check out www.getphatwithnicole.com!
Nicole Wilkins is three-time Figure International and four-time Figure Olympia champion, as
well as a Met-Rx sponsored athlete and certified personal trainer. For more with Nicole, check
out The Fit Life series on www.fitnessrxwomen.com. You can also follow Nicole on Facebook,
and Twitter: @Nicole Wilkins.

70 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

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ASK THE EXPERTS

FITNESS EXPERT Q&A

Q:

Q:
A:

A:

Q:
A:

IM 26 YEARS OLD AND HAVE RECENTLY


BEEN DIAGNOSED WITH IRON-DEFICIENCY
ANEMIA. IVE BEEN COMMITTED TO RUNNING
SINCE HIGH SCHOOL AND LOVE TO RUN AND
TRAIN FOR MARATHONS. MY DOCTOR
WOULD LIKE FOR ME TO STOP RUNNING FOR
THREE MONTHS WHILE I TAKE IRON SUPPLEMENTS AND FOLLOW A DIET HE HAS OUTLINED FOR ME. HE SAID THAT I COULD DO
SOME LIGHT WEIGHT TRAINING IN PLACE OF
THE RUNNING BUT DIDNT GIVE ME ANY
DETAILS. CAN YOU PLEASE GIVE ME AN IDEA
OF WHAT LIGHT WEIGHT TRAINING MIGHT
BE? THANKS!

Im sorry you are having to give up running right


now, but hopefully it will only be for a short while and
youll soon be back at it! The great news is that
restoring your iron levels through supplementation
and your food choices can really help improve your
running performance by helping to improve your VO2
max, the rate at which you utilize oxygen and hopefully improve your endurance. Look at this time off as a
step in your training to improve your running.
As for light weight training, youll want to do fewer
sets and reps for strength training than usual and
youll want to use lighter weights. Id recommend
using 25 percent less weight than you can typically
lift if youve been training with weights before and
only perform two sets of eight to 10 reps. If you
havent been lifting at all, Id recommend using 50
percent less weight than your one rep max (the heaviest you can lift one time) for one to two sets of eight
to 10 reps. There will likely be days when you dont
feel like going to work out, so try and organize your
workout split to account for this. Perhaps aim for a
two-day split of upper body and lower body workouts,
or if that ends up being too much volume for a single
session, try chest and shoulders, back and arms, abs
and legs for a three-day workout split.
You can find lots of great workout plans within
these pages or online at www.fitnessrxwomen.com.
Just be mindful of adjusting the reps, sets and
amount of weight youre lifting to suit your needs. It
will be important to really listen to your body and not
push past fatigue. With low iron, you could really wear
your body down and end up sick. With the help of
your doctor and going easy on your workouts, Im
sure youll be back to hitting the pavement in no time!

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

BY

JAMIE EASON MIDDLETON

A FRIEND OF MINE SWEARS THAT DRINKING WATER MIXED

WITH APPLE CIDER VINEGAR HAS HELPED HER LOSE WEIGHT.

HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE?


Some people will mix about a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar with about 8 ounces of water to help control cravings
throughout the day. Some studies show that drinking it
before meals can be beneficial. The acids in the vinegar
reduce the speed at which the stomach empties, helping
them feel fuller longer. Drinking apple cider vinegar has been
shown to keep sugar and carbohydrates from entering the
bloodstream too quickly, which helps prevent insulin spikes
that typically trigger cravings. Whether it will work
for you remains to be seen the only way to find
out is to try it!

WHEN IM FEELING SAD, I START CRAVING JUNK


LIKE COOKIES AND DOUGHNUTS. SOMETIMES ALL IT
TAKES IS ONE OR TWO TO MAKE ME FEEL BETTER, BUT
IM DOING THIS A FEW TIMES A WEEK AND I KNOW
ILL NEVER REACH MY FITNESS GOALS THIS WAY.
HOW CAN I STOP THIS DESTRUCTIVE PATTERN?
Carbs stimulate production of the
feel good hormone serotonin.
Without it we often feel stressed,
tired and even sad. The foods you
are craving act like instant pickme-ups with a shot of serotonin
and a soothing hit of dopamine. So
what can you do? Believe it or not, eat
carbohydrates! Thats right, you
need carbs because your body
needs serotonin. Just try to limit
yourself to healthier carbs. Aim
for about 25 grams via wholegrain bread or even a wholegrain cereal. Eat this before
you train to boost your workout and give you energy. The
combo of exercise and
healthier carbohydrates
should help to improve your
mood. And if youre
stressed, consider jotting
down your worries in a journal.
Youll become more aware of
negative triggers and hopefully
find better ways to cope.
Have a question for Jamie? E-mail it to
editor@fitnessrxwomen.com.

JAMIE EASON MIDDLETON IS A FORMER NFL CHEERLEADER AND


FIGURE COMPETITOR. JAMIE HOLDS A BACHELORS DEGREE IN

COMMUNICATION AND HAS APPEARED IN HUNDREDS OF MAGAZINES


BOTH AS A MODEL AND A CONTRIBUTING WRITER.

AS CREATOR OF
LIVEFIT TRAINER, JAMIE HAS HELPED HUNDREDS OF
THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE REACH THEIR FITNESS GOALS.
THE POPULAR

AU G U S T 2016 FITNESS RX

71

FitRxCoolDOWN

GLUTE LAB

WITH THE GLUTE EXPERT


BY

BRET CONTRERAS, Ph.D. CSCS

Gaining strength is paramount in resistance


training, even when the goal is purely physiquebased. In general, the stronger you are at any given
bodyweight, the leaner youll be, because lifting additional
weight over time requires more muscle mass. More muscle
mass without additional body mass requires a loss in fat
mass, and hence a leaner body. So its to all of our best
interests to get stronger overall in order to attain the level
of leanness we desire.
But how do we most effectively go about gaining strength
and engaging in progressive overload? Do we simply go all
out each week and try to add five pounds to the bar on
every occasion? Or, is there a more effective strategy that
we can implement?
Ive been lifting weights for
24 years and training others
as a certified personal trainer
for 19 years. In my experience,
training all out each week and
trying to add weight to the bar
on every session results in
frustration and failure. You
wont always add five pounds
to the bar each week or even
each month for that matter.
For example, if you could
squat five more pounds each month, in five years youd be
squatting with 300 more pounds on the bar. This will not
happen.
Along the same lines, you wont always add an extra rep
each week or even each month for that matter. For example,
if you could gain an extra chin-up repetition each month, in
five years youd be able to bust out 60 more chin-ups than
you currently perform. This wont happen, either. Strength
gains are not linear; they are wavy and fluctuating even
when we seemingly do everything right.
A better strategy is to plan your personal record (PR)
attempts. At my Glute Lab, I implement two strategies that I
believe help maximize my clients results. First, I create fourweek plans with fluctuating effort. During week one, the goal
is to practice excellent mechanics and get a good feel for
what loads to use the following week. During the next three
weeks, effort is ramped up so that theyre going hard on
week two, extra hard on week three, and extremely hard on
week four. During week four, their goal is to set a PR and
achieve something they never previously achieved in the
gym. At the end of the fourth week, theyre ready for an
easier week with new exercises to focus on, which leads me
to my next point.
Second, I rotate the exercise focus every four weeks. Each
month, were performing the best glute exercises such as
hip thrusts, squats, deadlifts, lunges, glute bridges and back
extensions, in addition to the best upper body exercises
such as bench press, incline press, push-ups, military press,

Photos of Ashley Kaltwasser byy Gregory James

PLANNING YOUR
MONTHLY GLUTE
TRAINING
chin-ups and inverted rows. However, I select one lower
body lift and one upper body lift to prioritize each month,
and the other exercises go on the backburner. What my
clients find is that theyre almost always able to set PRs in
the lifts theyre focusing on while easily maintaining their
strength on the lifts theyre not prioritizing. Sometimes
strength is gained on lifts that are not being prioritized. For
example, it is not uncommon for clients to set PRs on the
deadlift during a squat or hip thrust month.
Ive found that when prioritizing squats and hip thrusts,
clients can usually perform the lift three times per week in
varying set and rep schemes. However, with deadlifts, it is
usually ideal to go heavy and close to failure just once per
week. An additional deadlift session during the week can
certainly be employed, but not with heavy loading and while
making sure to stay far away
from muscular failure. The
exercises that get prioritized
should be placed first and
second in the workout, with
additional exercises being
performed afterward.
If youre confused, heres an
example three-month scenario.
For month one, you could focus
on squats and close-grip bench
press, performing each on three
separate occasions throughout the week. For month two,
you could focus on hip thrusts and underhand grip lat
pulldowns, performing each on three separate occasions
throughout the week. And for month three, you could focus
on deadlifts and military press, performing each on two
separate occasions. Additional exercises will still be
performed after the prioritized lifts, but not necessarily with
the goal of setting PRs throughout the month. I like to end
each training session with a glute burn and pump, so
hopefully you read my previous column on the 10-minute
glute circuits.
If you have a strategy, youre already miles ahead of the
vast majority of lifters who seem to wander aimlessly
around the gym, spinning their wheels. I hope this column
has provided you with some food for thought and causes
you to rethink your current program design strategy.

Strength gains are not linear;


they are wavy and fluctuating
even when we seemingly
do everything right.

72 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

Bret Contreras is the founder and owner of the world-renowned


research and training facility, The Glute Lab. Considered by many
as the worlds foremost expert on glute training, Bret is also the
inventor of the glute-sculpting machine called the Hip Thruster, the
coauthor of Strong Curves, the author of Bodyweight Strength
Training Anatomy, the cofounder of Get Glutes, the cofounder of
Strength & Conditioning Research, and editor in chief of Personal
Trainer Quarterly. Bret obtained his Ph.D. in sports science at AUT
University. Check out Brets popular blog at www.BretContreras.
com and his FitnessRx online column at www.fitnessrxwomen.com/
author/bret-contreras.
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

$BTTJF$BSSPM
4VQQ5FDI"UIMFUF

ASK THE EXPERTS

WHAT WOULD GUNNAR DO?


BY

GUNNAR PETERSON

FOR BEST RESULTS, IS IT BETTER TO DO MORE REPS WITH


A LOWER WEIGHT, OR FEWER REPS WITH MORE WEIGHT?
So many variables here! Different people
respond to different training stimuli and even that
can vary over your years of training. What worked
in 2003 when you were in college with way less real life pressure may not
get the job done in 2016 when you are answering to a boss whose inside
voice is the same decibel level as a Kanye concert. Remember the definition of doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result? Right. I would suggest trying as many different approaches to your training as possible and taking note of your body results not
only physically but also of how you feel in that body. Feel may be a very
California word, but it really comes into play when you look at the big
picture of training. Your goals are valid and it is great to have them.
Feeling great along the way is important. From where I sit, enjoying the
process is as important, no, at this stage MORE important, than the
results. Light weight and heavy weight are relative terms at best.
Reaching technical failure in a set somewhere in the eight- to 15-rep
range depending on the movement will probably get you where youre
trying to go.
Photo:
h
Peter Z. Jones

ONCE I GET TO THE MUSCLE SIZE I WANT, WHATS THE BEST


WAY TO MAINTAIN IT WITHOUT GETTING BIGGER?
Maintaining is a funny concept, especially as it relates to
something organic like YOU. We are all constantly changing
(remember how your ex changed?!). On a cellular level, we are
never the same. Bear that in mind when mapping out your
training and be open to trying something that you didnt like
in the past; you might be surprised.
I would suggest sticking with what got you to where you
are if youre happy. As long as you are not adding calories
above and beyond what youre burning and/or lifting weight
to failure every set, you will probably be able to dance around
your current state of perfection for quite a while.
My bet is that your eyes will start to mess with you and
youll want more/less of fill-in-the-blank before too long but
really, thats what makes the fitness journey so wonderful!

CAN DAIRY BE PART OF A HEALTHY DIET? I HAD A TRAINER


TELL ME TO CUT OUT ALL DAIRY, AND I FIND THIS HARD TO
STICK TO. WHAT DO YOU RECOMMEND?
I recommend listening to your trainer. My go-to nutritionist
Dr. Philip Goglia once told me dairy was moderately hard
phlegm and that was just about all I needed to hear on the
subject. Im a quick learner like that. Makes it easy when hes so
eloquent, doesnt it?
Not to oversimplify, but once we are out of our formative
years, there are a lot better choices that could be made. If you
like that milky taste I would go with almond milk, and Id even
keep that in check. If you need ice cream (and I understand
that, believe me!) try sorbet instead. Truth be told, I eat it
almost every night and it keeps the ice cream demons at bay.
Or, have the dairy and if your body is not where you want it to
be after a couple of weeks, cut it out and see where that takes
you. After all, youre the captain of your ship and your trainer is
just the first mate.

74 FITNE S S R X

AUGUST 2 0 1 6

IM REALLY TRYING TO BUILD MORE


MUSCLE IN MY ARMS AND SHOULDERS.

ARE FREE WEIGHTS OR MACHINES


BETTER FOR MAXIMUM RESULTS?
Yes. I mean, YES! The key to building muscle is overload, sufficient calories to support
the building of said muscle and sleep/recovery. Free weights require stabilization to
keep you following the desired path of movement, and that stabilization comes from your
muscles in the form of new and different firing and recruitment patterns. All of that
equals more work. Machines (cables excluded and youll see why) follow a fixed path, so
you will recruit and fire more similarly rep
for rep, assuming that you are not squirming
around while on the machine. All of that
equals less of that work, BUT it does put you
in a position to overload safely and with a
greatly reduced risk of injury. There are pros
and cons to both, so make use of the pros to
cancel out the cons!

IS IT BETTER TO TAKE EVERY SET TO FAILURE


OR ONLY THE LAST SET OF AN EXERCISE?
While there have been successful programs designed around the one set to failure per exercise approach (Nautilus, Mike
Mentzer) they were targeting niche populations and were never espoused by all. In a
pinch, you could get by training like this from
time to time, but you would most likely be
courting injury and eventually that check
comes due. Going to positive failure (when
you can no longer move the weight in the
concentric phase) is fine for the last set if
you are a fitness veteran. Going to negative
failure (when you can no longer control the
eccentric phase of a lift) is a more advanced
technique and should probably be done with
a qualified spotter NOT your spouse. See
how I got espoused and spouse in the
same answer? Thats a talent.
GOT A QUESTION FOR GUNNAR?
EMAIL IT TO:
EDITOR@FITNESSRXMAG.COM
GUNNAR PETERSON IS A BEVERLY HILLS-BASED PERSONAL TRAINER
WHOSE CLIENTS INCLUDE CELEBRITIES, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES, AND
EVERYDAY PEOPLE. CERTIFIED BY THE NATIONAL STRENGTH AND
CONDITIONING ASSOCIATION AND A GRADUATE OF DUKE UNIVERSITY,
GUNNAR HAS MORE THAN 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN THE FITNESS
INDUSTRY AND REGULARLY OFFERS HIS EXPERT ADVICE IN NUMEROUS
PUBLICATIONS AND IN TELEVISION APPEARANCES. FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT WWW.GUNNARPETERSON.COM.
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

ASK THE EXPERTS

BIKINI CHAMPION Q&A


BY

I CARRY A LOT O
OF FAT
IN MY GLUTES AN
ND AM
HAVING A HARD T
TIME
WITH THAT. ANY
EXERCISES OR
R TIPS
THAT YOU CAN
N
RECOMMEND
D?
Unfortunately, you cannot
spot reduce fat in
n any certain
area. Leaning outt will take
time and consis
stency. But
you can, howe
ever, increase
the muscle size in a muscle group to
o make it
shapelier! IIf youve been
training glutes
onc
ce per week,
increase it to
tw
wice per week.
Re
eally focus on
mind-tto-muscle
connection when
lifting (an
ny body part).
Also try incorrporating
burn-out sets a
at the end;
they can be very helpful.

WHAT ARE YOUR TH


HOUGHTS ON
WEIGHT TRAINING AND
D CARDIO IN
THE SAME WORKOUT? FOR BEST
RESULTS, IS IT BETTER TO SEPARATE
WEIGHT TRAINING AND CARDIO DAYS? HOW DO YOU
APPROACH THIS?
I would say if you have a schedule that allows it, try cardio
in the morning and weightlifting at night. I think cardio is a
good idea in the morning because it really wakes you up and
gets your day started off right! You have less food in your body
in the morning and its easier for you to burn fat this way. In
fact, if you can handle it, you can also try fasted cardio in the
morning.
I would prefer to lift weights later in the day because by
then, youll have more fuel in your body and you will be fully
woken up and ready to go! Of course, everyone is different,
but this is what works best for me.

will help bring your squat game to a whole new level.


The butt wink is one of the MOST common flaws of a
squat. When squatting low, its very common for the butt to
turn in and the lower back to round. This happens when the
pelvis shifts from an anterior tilt to a posterior tilt. Most
people think this is a strength issue. Its NOT! Ninety percent of the time its hamstring mobility. Here are a few tips
to fix the wink:
1: HAMSTRING MOBILITY: A lacrosse ball is the best way
to attack hamstring tightness. Place the ball under your
hamstring muscle while sitting up on something like a chair,
table or box. The pressure you can apply to tight spots is
better than a foam roller.
2: THE PSOAS QUAD STRETCH is an effective way to get
down in a lunge position with your knee on the ground. Use
something for cushioning like a blanket or a pillow. Squeeze
the glute of the rear leg and drive the knee back and into
the ground, while having the hip sink down and forward.
Now youre ready for a test drive!

Corrective exercise: THE GOBLET PAUSE SQUAT is a


great way to build strength and stability in a deep squat.
Grab a kettlebell with both hands and hold it close to your
chest. Stand just wider than shoulder-width apart and
squat down until your hamstrings are touching your upper
calves. Pause and hold for three to five seconds, then push
through your heels and return to a standing position.

I NEED SOME HELPED STAYING MOTIVATED DURING MY


WORKOUTS. DO YOU HAVE A PLAYLIST OR FAVORITE
SONGS THAT YOU LISTEN TO DURING WORKOUTS TO KEEP
YOURSELF PUMPED UP?
Yes, absolutely! Good music is a good way to get in the
mood to train! My current workout playlist is as follows:
Me, Myself & I by G-Eazy
All Me by Drake
Middle by DJ Snake
Sugar by Robin Schulz
Summer Sixteen by Drake
You Be Killin Em by Fabolous
Trap Queen by Fetty Wap
All Day by Kanye West
Weekend by Priory
Seen It All by Young Jeezy

MOST OF MY WORKOUTS DURING THE WEEK INCLUDE SQUATS,

About the Money by T.I.

BUT NO MATTER WHAT, I JUST CANT SEEM TO GET THAT LOW. DO


YOU HAVE ANY TIPS OR STRETCHES OR EXERCISES TO HELP ME
GET LOWER IN MY SQUAT?
Squatting properly into lower depths requires good balance
and hip, ankle and shoulder flexibility and mobility. Performing
these few simple stretching, mobility and corrective exercises
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

ASHLEY KALTWASSER

Have a question for Ashley?


Email it to
editor@fitnessrxwomen.com.

IFBB BIKINI PRO


ASHLEY KALTWASSER IS
THE 2015 BIKINI
OLYMPIA CHAMPION.
ASHLEY BELIEVES THAT
SERIOUS FITNESS DOESNT
HAVE TO BE BORING.

BE

SURE TO CHECK OUT

ASHLEYS KEEP IT
FRESH COLUMN ON
FITNESSRXWOMEN.COM,
WHERE SHE SHARES WAYS
TO KEEP YOUR TRAINING
AND NUTRITION FUN AND
FLAVORFUL.

FOLLOW
ASHLEY ON TWITTER @
ASHLEYKFIT AND
FACEBOOK. FOR SPONSORSHIP, APPEARANCES,
ETC, CONTACT FITNESS
MANAGEMENT GROUP.

AU G U S T 2016 FITNESS RX

75

CoolDOWN
FitRx

THE BEST IN TRAINING, HEALTH

NUTRITION AND SUPPLEMENTATION INFORMATION

IN THIS SECTION
N

77
CARDIO BURN

78
FAT ATTACK

81
FLAT ABS

82
TONE & SCULPT

85
YOGA TRENDS

86
SUPPLEMENT REVIEW

88
SUPPLEMENT EDGE

90
WOMEN'S HEALTH

92
ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION

94

SUPPLEMENT REVIEW

76 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRxCoolDOWN

CARDIO BURN
BY

LISA STEUER

SWEAT MORE IN LESS TIME


When your goal is to get in better shape,
it helps to have the most effective
training methods that work fast
especially when your busy
schedule limits gym time
(something most of us can relate
to!). So, we looked at some of the best
cutting-edge research and reports on
cardio to find the most efficient ways
to increase calorie burn in the least
amount of time. Take a look at what we
found and get ready to sweat!

BATTLING ROPES AND


BURPEES ARE BEST
Anyone who does burpees and
battling ropes as part of their exercise
routine knows that both exercises are
tough and will really make you work.
So its no surprise that research is
showing that these are some of the
most effective exercises for increasing
energy expenditure.
As reported in ACSMs Health and
Fitness Journal, a study published in
the Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research measured
metabolic response to exercises,
including burpees and battling ropes.
In the study, the participants had their
heart rate, ventilation, respiratory
exchange ratio and oxygen
consumption measured during the
three sets of the exercises that were
performed. It was found that oxygen
consumption and calorie burning were
highest during the battling ropes
exercise, and that burpees had the
second largest energy expenditure.
The participants performed the
battling ropes in three sets of
30-second bouts with two-minute rest
intervals between sets. In each set,
the participants did 10 seconds of
each of the following: single-arm
alternating waves, double-arm waves
with a half squat and double-arm rope
slams with a half squat. The burpees
were done in three sets of 10
repetitions with two-minute rest
intervals in between.
The study reveals that if you want
to burn the largest number of
calories and elicit a greater
metabolic response, battling
ropes and burpees are the way
to go. Other effective exercises
in the study included squats,
deadlifts, front lunges and push-ups
with a lateral crawl. According to the
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

study, performing three sets of 10 repetitions with twominute rest intervals seems ideal.
Another study published in the Journal of Strength and
Conditioning Research also showed the positive effects of
battling ropes. In the study, 11 physically active individuals
participated in 10-minute bouts of rope training. The
participants did 15 seconds of vertical double arm waves,
followed by 45 seconds of rest, for a total of 10 repetitions.
Researchers estimated the metabolic cost from heart rate,
lactate, resting O2 uptake, exercise O2 uptake and excess
post-exercise O2 consumption measurements. As a result,
researchers found that just this 10-minute bout of battling
rope training is a vigorous-intensity workout that results in
high heart rate and energy expenditure.
References:
Ratamess, NA, et al. Comparison of the Acute Metabolic
Responses to Traditional Resistance, Body-Weight, and Battling
Rope Exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
(2014). Published Ahead of Print - DOI: 10.1519/
JSC.0000000000000584
Yoke, Mary. What Are The Best Weight Room Exercises for
Increasing Energy Expenditure? ACSMs Health and Fitness
Journal; May/June 2016 - Volume 20 - Issue 3 - p 2830

HAVE A MINUTE TO EXERCISE?


WHAT IF WE TOLD YOU THAT 60 SECONDS OF INTENSE
45 MINUTES
OF MODERATE EXERCISE? IT ALMOST SOUNDS TOO GOOD
TO BE TRUE, BUT A STUDY HAS FOUND THAT THIS MAY BE
THE CASE, AS REPORTED THE NEW YORK TIMES.
THE STUDY WAS DONE BY RESEARCHERS AT MCMASTER
UNIVERSITY IN HAMILTON, ONTARIO AND INVOLVED 25
OUT-OF-SHAPE YOUNG MEN. ACCORDING TO THE NEW
YORK TIMES, PARTICIPANTS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED
INTO THREE GROUPS. ONE GROUP CHANGED NOTHING
ABOUT THEIR CURRENT NONEXISTENT EXERCISE ROUTINES.
ANOTHER GROUP STARTED DOING A TYPICAL ENDURANCE
WORKOUT ROUTINE (RIDING AT A MODERATE PACE ON A
STATIONARY BIKE FOR 45 MINUTES WITH TWO-MINUTE
WARM-UP AND THREE-MINUTE COOL-DOWN), AND
EXERCISE MAY HAVE THE SAME BENEFITS AS

ANOTHER GROUP DID THE SHORTEST WORKOUT WITH


INTERVAL TRAINING.

THAT

THIRD GROUP WITH THE

SHORTEST WORKOUT WARMED UP FOR TWO MINUTES ON A


STATIONARY BICYCLE, PEDALED AS HARD AS POSSIBLE FOR

20

SECONDS, WENT AT A SLOW PACE FOR TWO MINUTES,

PEDALED AS HARD AS POSSIBLE AGAIN FOR

20 SECONDS,

FOLLOW BY ANOTHER TWO MINUTES OF SLOW RIDING AND


ANOTHER

20 SECONDS OF ALL-OUT SPRINT. ALL GROUPS

DID THREE SESSIONS OF THEIR WORKOUT EVERY WEEK FOR

12 WEEKS.
WHEN THE

STUDY WAS COMPLETE, THE RESEARCHERS

FOUND THAT IT DIDNT SEEM TO MATTER WHETHER THE


PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED LONGER ENDURANCE WORKOUTS
OR SHORTER MORE GRUELING WORKOUTS.

AT THE END OF

THE STUDY, ALL THE EXERCISES SHOWED NEARLY IDENTICAL


GAINS, INCREASING ENDURANCE BY ALMOST

20 PERCENT

AND SHOWING IMPROVEMENTS IN INSULIN RESISTANCE.

SO, THE STUDY REVEALS THAT YOU CAN EXERCISE FOR LESS
TIME AND STILL MAY GET THE BENEFITS OF A LONGER, MORE
MODERATE WORKOUT. OF COURSE, EVERYONE IS
DIFFERENT, BUT ITS WORTH GIVING IT A TRY!
References:
Reynolds, Gretchen. 1 Minute of All-Out Exercise May
Have Benefits of 45 Minutes of Moderate Exertion. The
New York Times, 27 Apr. 2016. Web. 11 May 2016.

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 77

FitRxCoolDOWN

FAT ATTACK

THE THERMO
WEIGHT LOSS
A true revolution absolutely requires a
paradigm shift that fundamentally contradicts previously held notions. The widely held belief that all body fat is bad is currently
being heavily scrutinized, due to the recent discovery of a different type of fat in humans
known as brown fat. This type of body fat can
actually burn off energy in the form of heat by a
process known as thermogenesis, which can
ultimately reduce overall body fat. This discovery
has provided the requisite paradigm shift spawning a new revolution in weight loss that is the
primary focus of the recently released book, Thermo Heat
Weight Loss Revolution by Advanced Research Media.
The body has two forms of fat: white fat, or the unwanted
fat that can lie directly underneath the skin, detracting from
the physique, and brown fat, which often is found in the
shoulder blade region or the neck. Unlike white fat, brown fat
is good, as it can actually burn calories. The more brown fat
you have, the more calories you burn. Brown fat is packed
with mitochondria loaded with UCP-1, the protein that uncouples fat burning with ATP (energy) production instead converting the energy into heat via thermogenesis, making the
mitochondria effectively the furnace of the cell. The emergence of brown fat as a readily available fat-burning furnace
is revolutionary, but, like any fire, it requires the proper kindling materials. The ability to get lean by producing extra

IGNITING YOUR BODYS


FAT-BURNING FURNACE
Many fat-burning products claim
that they will be able to reduce body fat
and make you lean by increasing the
rate at which fat is burned (oxidized) in
your body. While statements like this
appear, at first glance, to be plausible,
they are essentially inaccurate. That is
because an increase in fatty acid
oxidation within white fat simply
converts the energy produced during
fatty acid oxidation into the highenergy compound adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). The increased
energy production in the form of ATP
resulting from burning fat is not
accompanied by an increased level of
energy expenditure, which generates an
overall energy surplus that prevents
the reduction of body fat as the body
will simply convert much of this ATP
surplus back into body fat within a

78 FIT NE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

BY MICHAEL J. RUDOLPH, PH.D.

HEAT

REVOLUTION!

brown fat or enhancing the activity of existing


brown fat represents a promising way to burn fat
and lose weight. Several landmark discoveries
and approaches to enhancing brown fat function
are being explored at major research centers and
universities worldwide, with great excitement.
Brown fat research is a hot topic today. Thermo
Heat Weight Loss Revolution is a groundbreaking, scientific plan based on research involving
brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat.
Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution offers
its readers a nutrition, diet and exercise program
that targets brown fat, along with an informational guide on
the best thermogenic nutritional supplements. Additionally, a
section of the book is devoted to appropriate brown-fat activating food choices and easy-to-follow thermogenic, fatburning meal plans. Followers of this scientifically developed
program will find that they are able to harness the power of
brown fat, maximize their energy expenditure, reach and
maintain their ideal weight and achieve reduced body fat while
preserving a lean, muscular physique improving overall
health and well-being. The subsequent paragraphs briefly
review the contents of the book, which goes into the critical details required to really understand the remarkable
capacity of brown fat to stimulate the thermogenic loss of
those unwanted pounds, and how to maintain that weight
loss for a lifetime.

rather short period of time. So, the


fundamental problem with merely
converting body fat into ATP is that this
process does not increase the amount
of energy expenditure, which is the only
valid way to reduce body fat.
This newfound information regarding
energy expenditure evoked interest in
thermogenesis which systematically
drives fatty acid oxidation while
simultaneously increasing energy
expenditure by uncoupling the process
of fat burning from the production of
cellular energy (ATP). It is important to
note that there are marked differences
between how white adipose tissue
burns fat and the way brown adipose
tissue burns fat. When white adipose
tissue burns up its fatty deposits, the
energy generated is stored in the form
of ATP; the outcome of this is that
there is only a minimal expenditure of
energy. Conversely, when brown fat is

called upon to utilize its stores of fat,


the biochemical process known as
thermogenesis (the generation of heat)
is stimulated and, with it, the
generation of energy in the form of
heat instead of ATP. And the human
body has the ability to release this heat
energy, effectively increasing energy
expenditure, which promotes efficient
fat loss and the production of lean
muscle mass. Brown fat, but not white
adipose tissue, has the ability to
increase energy expenditure
thermogenically because it contains
the protein UCP-1 (also known as
thermogenin). This protein is unique in
that it inhibits fatty acid oxidation from
generating ATP. Instead, the energy
derived from brown fat gets converted
into heat, which radiates off into the
atmosphere.
Of all the cells of the human body, it
is the brown fat cell that is the most
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FAT ATTACK
THERMO HEAT WEIGHT LOSS REVOLUTION IS A GROUNDBREAKING, SCIENTIFIC
PLAN BASED ON RESEARCH INVOLVING BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE (BAT) OR BROWN FAT.
proficient in undergoing thermogenesis due to its high
concentration of mitochondria that are chock-full of UCP-1.
However, there is only a small quantity of this fat-burning
cell in the adult human body and, also, the stimuli that cause
brown fat to undergo thermogenesis are not always
desirable ones. The chief mechanism that permits brown fat
thermogenesis is exposure to prolonged cold temperatures,
which brings about the activation of transient receptor
potential vanilloid (TRPV) receptor sites within the brain.
TRPV triggers the sympathetic nervous system to release its
noradrenaline stores, which once released, interact with the
beta-adrenergic receptors that are embedded inside the cell
membranes of brown adipose tissue. This process initiates
uncoupled fatty acid oxidation, generating heat instead of
ATP, which then radiates through the skin to provide us with
a protective thermo blanket. Although exposure to cold
temperatures for two hours or more can trigger brown fat
activity and fat loss1, such an approach is fraught with
danger. Not only is this modality time consuming and
uncomfortable, but the slightest error can lead to the
consequences of hypothermia, which include panniculitis,
shock, gangrene, frostbite and even death.
It has been demonstrated that factors other than cold
can activate those members of the TRPV family that are
located outside the brain. At this time, the most studied
group is capsaicin, the spice found in chili peppers that
contributes to its hot and spicy flavor. Capsaicin has an
affinity for binding directly to TRPV receptor sites found
throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract,
including the oral cavity. These TRPV receptors act very
similarly to the TRPV-1 receptor sites found within the brain.
They, too, have the ability to activate the sympathetic
nervous system and turn on thermogenesis within brown
adipose tissue. Several studies indicate that just a single
ingestion of capsaicin has the ability to activate brown fat
thermogenesis.2,3 Even more interesting is the clinical finding
that long-term consumption of capsaicin can significantly
increase thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and
produce a reduction in body fat. Other compounds have
been identified that also induce brown fat thermogenesis,
either by directly stimulating noradrenaline release or by
activating the adrenergic receptor sites found within brown
fat. Several other thermogenic compounds can directly
influence brown adipose tissue capacity to increase
intercellular UCP-1 production. Enhanced thermogenesis is
the beneficial result.

THERMO HEAT IGNITES YOUR BODYS


FAT-BURNING FURNACE
Overall, there has been an abundance of scientific
evidence that demonstrates thermogenesis increases
energy expenditure while it decreases body fat levels in
adults.4,5,6 Additionally, researchers have made great strides

THE ABILITY TO GET LEAN BY PRODUCING EXTRA


BROWN FAT OR ENHANCING THE ACTIVITY OF EXISTING BROWN FAT REPRESENTS A PROMISING

WAY TO BURN FAT AND LOSE WEIGHT.


www.fitnessrxwomen.com

in uncovering several naturally occurring compounds that


help turn on thermogenic-induced fat loss. After years of
delving through the literature and scrutinizing countless
articles on fat reduction and thermogenesis, Advanced
Molecular Labs (AML) has selectively incorporated several of
these ingredients into the cutting-edge product Thermo
Heat that is going to transform the capacity for fat loss by
vigorously increasing fatty acid oxidation and energy
expenditure!

SUPPRESS APPETITE WITH THERMO HEAT


While increased fat loss and energy expenditure are two
key elements in the battle against body fat, their
enhancement will likely initiate homeostatic mechanisms
that conserve bodyweight by triggering hunger, resulting in
increased food consumption. This will not only be
counterproductive in achieving further fat loss, but may also
contribute significantly to regaining some or most of the
lost weight. Consequently, the barrier to success that food
craving and increased appetite represent must also be
addressed if the loss of body fat is to be maintained. Thermo
Heat, used in conjunction with the nourishing diet program
found in the Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution, will help
address the difficulties associated with increased hunger
typically caused by weight loss with its exclusive blend of
body fat-attacking compounds that also help potently
suppress appetite.

AFTER YEARS OF DELVING THROUGH THE LITERATURE AND


SCRUTINIZING COUNTLESS ARTICLES ON FAT REDUCTION
AND THERMOGENESIS, A DVA NCED MO LECU LAR

LABS ( AM L) HAS SELECTIVELY INCORPORATED SEVERAL INGREDIENTS INTO THE CUTTING-EDGE PRODUCT
THERMO HEAT THAT IS GOING TO TRANSFORM
THE CAPACITY FOR FAT LOSS BY VIGOROUSLY
INCREASING FATTY ACID OXIDATION AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE.

BURN FAT WHILE YOU SLEEP WITH


THERMO HEAT NIGHTTIME
Although the scientists at AML appreciate the role that
stimulants have in promoting fat loss and exercise
performance, they are cognizant of the disruption they can
have on our circadian rhythm, including the sleep-wake
cycle. It is while we sleep that the growth and repair of our
overused muscles take place. Sleep is also when most
weight loss occurs. As physiologic sleep is an integral
component of any successful weight-loss and exercise
program, Steve Blechman and AML formulated a nighttime
preparation that complements AMLs daytime product. This
product, Thermo Heat Nighttime, when consumed with an
evening meal or at bedtime, can elevate nocturnal levels of
thermogenic fat burning, aid in managing stress and
promote restful sleep. It achieves this goal by replacing
Thermo Heats stimulatory components (tyrosine, caffeine,
p-synephrine and thyroid hormone activators) with several
others that are capable of inducing relaxation, curbing
appetite and burning fat.
AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 79

FitRxCoolDOWN

FAT ATTACK

ADVANCE METABOLIC FUNCTION WITH


THERMO HEAT MULTI
It is well known that human health is enhanced when diets
are rich in essential vitamins and minerals. These
micronutrients promote and sustain a wide array of the
metabolic processes required for the maintenance of proper
physiologic function. The term essential indicates that the
body itself is unable to manufacture these key components
(intrinsic) and that outside (extrinsic) sources have to be
relied on to meet the bodys needs. As todays diets tend to
be calorically dense and nutritionally deficient, most of us
fail to consume even the minimal daily requirement of many
of these essential vitamins and minerals. Meeting the minimal
daily requirements of many nutrients allows us to stay
healthy.7 Multivitamin and mineral supplements have been
available to the public at large for nearly a century, and were
initially designed to fill the significant nutritional voids in
most diets, even back then. Most of todays multivitamins
and mineral products fall short in their objectives as being an
adjunct to enhance performance. Ongoing research at AML,
covered in-depth for the reader in the Thermo Heat Weight
Loss Revolution, has enabled production of a revolutionary
new product, Thermo Heat Multi, which has the capacity to
enhance metabolism as no other multivitamin or mineral
product has ever done before, maximizing overall metabolic
health. Thermo Heat Multi contains a blend of vitamins that
have long been shown to enhance health and wellness, along
with other compounds that boost thyroid function and
reduces oxidative stress. Thermo Heat Multi also has a
novel blend of spices and polyphenols to help suppress
appetite and thermogenically incinerate fat.

THE THERMO HEAT HIIT WORKOUT


In general, the more calories burned during exercise
results in more body fat burned. So, you might assume,
based on this knowledge, that burning as many calories as
possible with more cardiovascular exercise would improve
your physique more rapidly making you more ripped and
muscular in no time at all. However, the assumption that
cardiovascular exercise optimally promotes the development
of your physique and will make you lean and muscular more
quickly has not been observed clinically. In fact, extensive
cardiovascular training diminishes anabolism and increases
catabolism, and so it will inhibit your ability to increase
muscle and preserve lean body mass.
On the other hand, high-intensity interval training (HIIT)
burns plenty of calories and body fat without promoting
muscle breakdown. In addition, recent research has
confirmed the role of HIIT in increasing the levels and
activity of the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome
proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activator-1 alpha
(PGC-1 alpha).8 PGC-1 alpha is able induce the expression of
the protein, irisin, which has the ability to bind to the
receptor sites situated on the surface of white adipose
tissue (WAT).9 It was observed that the induction of BATassociated proteins, such as UCP-1 (the thermogenic driver),
increased during this interaction and irisin has the unique
ability to alter the structure of WAT so that it bears a striking
similarity to BAT. This conversion of WAT into a BAT-like cell
resulted in significant increases in total-body energy
expenditure and promoted more efficient fat burning.
Altogether, the Thermo Heat HIIT Workout is a scientifically

80 FIT NE S S R X AU G U S T

20 1 6

proven fat-incinerating exercise plan that preserves lean


muscle mass. The correctly combined use of this workout
with the potent, thermogenic-enhancing Thermo-Heat
products described in detail in the Thermo Heat Weight
Loss Revolution should further catapult, and maintain,
thermogenic-driven weight loss.
Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution also provides the
reader with a comprehensive Thermo Heat thermogenic
nutrition and meal plan that clearly explains the optimal use
of macronutrients to further boost the thermogenic loss of
unwanted body fat. This fantastic nutritional strategy also
describes other thermogenic spicy foods and healthy fats
that have the ability to stimulate thermogenesis and help the
body burn fat. In addition, this section of the book contains
several appetizing Thermo Heat thermogenic bat-burning
recipes that will support a healthier diet that enhances the
capacity to torch body fat.

Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution


can be purchased on amazon.com or
advancedmolecularlabs.com.
For most of Michael Rudolphs career he has been engrossed in the
exercise world as either an athlete (he played college football at
Hofstra University), personal trainer or as a research scientist (he
earned a B.Sc. in Exercise Science at Hofstra University and a Ph.D.
in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Stony Brook University).
After earning his Ph.D., Michael investigated the molecular biology of
exercise as a fellow at Harvard Medical School and Columbia
University for over eight years. That research contributed seminally
to understanding the function of the incredibly important cellular
energy sensor AMPK leading to numerous publications in peerreviewed journals including the journal Nature. Michael is currently a
scientist working at the New York Structural Biology Center doing
contract work for the Department of Defense on a project involving
national security.
REFERENCES
1. Yoneshiro T, Aita S, et al. Brown adipose tissue, whole-body energy
expenditure, and thermogenesis in healthy adult men. Obesity (Silver Spring)
2011;19, 13-16.
2. Yoneshiro T, Aita S, et al. Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids)
increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue
in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95, 845-850.
3. Saito M and Yoneshiro T. Capsinoids and related food ingredients
activating brown fat thermogenesis and reducing body fat in humans. Curr
Opin Lipidol 2013;24, 71-77.
4. Nedergaard J, Bengtsson T and Cannon B. Unexpected evidence for
active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
2007;293, E444-452.
5. Saito M, Okamatsu-Ogura Y, et al. High incidence of metabolically
active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold
exposure and adiposity. Diabetes 2009;58, 1526-1531.
6. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Vanhommerig JW, et al. Cold-activated
brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009;360, 1500-1508.
7. Lv J, Qi L, et al. Consumption of spicy foods and total and cause
specific mortality: population based cohort study. Bmj 2015;351, h3942.
8. Little JP, Safdar A, et al. An acute bout of high-intensity interval
training increases the nuclear abundance of PGC-1alpha and activates
mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul
Integr Comp Physiol 2011;300, R1303-1310.
9. Bostrom P, Wu J, et al. A PGC1-alpha-dependent myokine that drives
brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature
2011;481, 463-468.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

FLAT ABS
BY

LISA STEUER

4 PLANK

VARIATIONS
FOR A STRONG,
SCULPTED CORE

Straight-arm plank

No matter what workout youre doing, its never


a bad idea to end it with a core move like a plank.
In addition, there are so many different plank variations that
youll never get bored with this exercise. The different plank
variations also work different muscles, so youll keep your
body guessing while strengthening your core and upper body.
Plus, there are no excuses planks can be done virtually
anywhere!
Planks are effective because they are one of the best
core-strengthening exercises there is. In this article, we
included some effective plank variations and how to
complete them. You can try these at the end of your
workout, or if youre already doing these, why not try a 30- or
60-day plank challenge? Try a plank every day and then each
day, increase your time youre in the plank or add a new
variation. Before you know it, youll have a strong and
sculpted core!

Straight-arm plank
This, along with the forearm plank, is probably the plank
youre most familiar with. If youre new to planking, this is the
best way to begin and to improve on the time you can hold a
plank. In addition, this is the baseline plank youll want to use
for more challenging variations, like the plank knee cross
thats also included in this article.
This plank is basically the top of a push-up position. Make
sure your hands are directly under your shoulders and that
from your head to your heels, your body is in line. Try to hold
for at least 60 seconds or as long as you can. Try for three to
five sets.

Forearm plank
This plank works your core more than when youre
positioned on your hands, since youre holding your body at a
lower angle and more core muscles are used. In addition,
this plank does more than just work your core. When you are
performing this plank, youre also increasing shoulder
stability and even building wrist and forearm strength.
When performing this plank, make sure to keep your back
straight, making sure your hips do not sag to the floor or
that you push them up too high. Your hands can either be in
fists, as pictured, or you can have your hands flat on the
floor.
Try to hold for at least 60 seconds or as long as you can.
Try for three to five sets.

maintain the
plank position
and do not let
your hips sway.
Push up with one
hand and then
the other, until
you are in a
standard
straight-arm
plank. Lower back
down one arm at a
time and keep
repeating. Halfway
through you can
switch the arm you
are leading off with.
Try two to three
sets of 15 to 20
repetitions (up and down is
one rep).

Forearm plank

Up and down plank

Plank knee cross


Get in your straight-arm
plank. Squeezing your abs,
bring your right leg up to
your left arm and back,
then repeat with opposite
leg.
Try two to three sets of
15 to 20 repetitions on
each side.

Plank knee cross

BONUS Bodyweight Move for Abs:


Heel Touches
This isnt a plank, but its a great ab exercise to add to the
end of your workout. Plus, just like these planks, it can be
done anywhere.
Begin by lying on the floor with your knees bent and your
arms at your sides. Raise your head and shoulders a few
inches off the floor. Reach toward your right ankle with your
right hand, then go back to the start position. Then do the
same on the left side, making a twisting motion as you go
back and forth.
Try two to three sets of 10 to 12 repetitions on each side.

Up and down plank


This combination of a forearm plank and straight-arm
plank will work your core, abs, lower back, triceps and even
your glutes and quads. So its a great way to add even more
variety to your core training.
Begin in a forearm plank. The whole time, make sure to
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6 FITNESS RX

81

FitRxCoolDOWN

TONE & SCULPT


BY

NICK TUMMINELLO

The BEST Exercise Method For Fat Loss:

METABOLIC
RESISTANCE TRAINING
1. Resistance (RT) was more effective than
endurance training (ET) or a combination of RT and
ET, (particularly when progressive training volume of two to
three sets for six to 10 reps at an intensity at or greater
than 75 percent of 1RM, utilizing whole-body and freeweight exercises).

2. When exercising for the purpose of


maximizing fat loss, the focus of the resistance training
should be on producing a large metabolic stress.1
The take-home point from these results is: When training
for the goal of maximizing fat loss, you want to use
metabolic resistance training. Metabolic resistance training
is designed to help you maximize fat loss while minimizing
muscle loss by maximizing the metabolic demand of each
resistance-training workout. This increases the caloric
expenditure, not only during the workout, but also for up to
two days after the workout due to the effects of excess
post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), otherwise
known as the afterburn.2

The Three Cs of Metabolic


Resistance Training
When it comes to using resistance training concepts with
the primary goal of maximizing the metabolic cost of each
workout in order to accelerate metabolism and decrease
body fat while building and keeping muscle, there are three
training concepts I emphasize in my book, Strength Training
for Fat Loss, which I call the three Cs of metabolic
strength training:
1. Strength-training circuits: A continuous series of
exercises using multiple pieces of equipment, which involves
sequences of three, four or five compound exercises using
heavy loads and alternating between upper- and lowerbody exercises. For example, a Big Four Circuit would look
like this: six to eight reps of an upper-body pushing exercise
(e.g., bench press), six to eight reps of a lower-body hip
exercise (e.g., deadlift), six to eight reps of an upper-body
pulling exercise (e.g., one-arm dumbbell row), lower-body
leg exercise (e.g., dumbbell reverse lunge). Thats one round
of the circuit. Youd perform three to four rounds, resting
two to three minutes between rounds.
2. Strength-training complexes: A continuous series of

82 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

exercises using the same piece of equipment. As an


example, perform the following exercises back-to-back
without resting between exercises: eight to 10 reps of
dumbbell chest presses plus eight to 10 reps (on each arm)
of one-arm dumbbell rows, plus eight to 10 reps of
dumbbell squat jumps (holding the dumbbells by your sides),
then finish by performing 10-12 reps of overhead shoulder
presses. Thats one set of the complex. Youd perform two
to four sets, resting two to three minutes between sets.
3. Strength-training combinations: Multiple strengthtraining movements blended together to make one exercise,
using the same piece of equipment. An example is to grab a
barbell (with the appropriate load for your strength level)
and perform a bent-over row plus deadlift plus hang clean
plus overhead push press. That would be one rep of the
combination exercise. Of course, youd repeat this sequence
for six to eight reps per set. Youd do three to four sets,
resting two to three minutes between sets.

Four Reasons the Three Cs


Are So Effective
There are four reasons why the three Cs of metabolic
strength training are extremely effective at helping you to
burn fat.

1. Theyre high intensity.


Workouts that utilize the three Cs use
challenging loads or lighter loads moved fast, both of which
create a high intensity in nature and force you to work hard
each time you move the weight. The higher the intensity, the
greater the metabolic impact!3

2. They involve the entire body.


Since the metabolic cost of a given exercise relates
directly to the amount of muscle worked,4 each of the three
Cs of metabolic strength training uses the entire body,
involving your upper body, lower body and core muscles.
Put simply, the more muscle you work, the calories you
burn, the more productive your workouts will be and the
faster you will lose body fat.

3. They demand extended repetitive effort.


Research consistently reports that a direct relationship
exists between the duration of exercise and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), which is the number
of calories expended (above resting values) after an
exercise bout.2 Metabolic resistance training methods take
more time to complete than traditional weight-training
sets. So, not only do they require you to perform highintensity, total-body efforts, but also youll be performing
them for extended bursts.

4. Youre less likely to lose muscle when youre


using it.

image: Gregory James

A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis


published in the Journal of Diabetes and
Metabolic Disorders came to two conclusions
about the preponderance of evidence when it
comes to exercise and fat loss. These two
conclusions are:

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TONE & SCULPT


A 1999 study published in the Journal of the American
College of Nutrition looked at two groups of obese subjects
put on identical very low (800) calorie diets. One group was
given an aerobic exercise only protocol (walking, biking or
jogging four times per week), and the other group was given
resistance training only three times per week. After 12 weeks,
both groups lost weight. The aerobic exercise group lost 37
pounds, 27 of which was fat and 10 of which was muscle.
However, the resistance-training group lost 32 pounds and
32 pounds were fat, while zero was muscle.5
In other words, the resistance-training group lost
significantly more fat and didnt lose any muscle. Not to
mention, when resting metabolic rate was calculated after
the study, it was found that the aerobic (cardio) group was
burning 210 fewer calories daily. In contrast, the resistancetraining group had increased their metabolism by 63 calories
per day.
You dont have to be an exercise scientist to see how the
combination of these four factors will burn a ton of calories
and be super effective for losing fat and building metabolic
muscle something that a morning stroll on the treadmill
simply cant match.

A Word on Cardio and Nutrition


for Fat Loss
In the past, you may have heard about research, such as
the 2012 study published in the Journal of Applied
Physiology, which looked at the effects of aerobic and/or
resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight
or obese adults, and concluded that a program of combined
Aerobic Training and Resistance Training did not result in

significantly more fat mass or body mass reductions


overAerobic Training alone.6 Although it seems these results
contradict the research discussed here, its far more likely
that those who did cardio lost more fat than those who did
strength training simply because cardio burns more calories
per minute than traditional strength-training methods. And,
its well established in the research that fat loss comes from
being in a caloric deficit (i.e., burning more calories than you
consume).7
Its important to note this isnt to discount that some
calories are more nutrient dense than others; weve all heard
the term empty calories before, but one can still gain fat
from eating healthy nutrient dense foods if they eat too
many calories.
Now, there are two ways to create a caloric deficit. You can
either eat fewer calories or you can eat the same amount of
calories and increase your activity level to burn more
calories. With this in mind, instead of spending the extra time
doing more cardio to burn (lets say) 300 calories, you can
simply cut 300 calories out of your diet each day and end up
with the same result without having to bother with all the
boredom and time consumption involved with the additional
cardio. This is why cardio training isnt emphasized in my
book, Strength Training for Fat Loss, as in most cases, you
essentially eliminate the need for it (from a fat loss
perspective) when you simply eat fewer calories to create a
deficit.
Its important to note that this information is not intended
to convince you to quit running or cycling, especially if you
enjoy these activities. Its simply to inform you that these
activities have not lived up to their hype as being the
necessary part of the fat loss process.

FitRxCoolDOWN

TONE & SCULPT

The Bottom Line


In summary, when it comes to fat loss, you wont find a more science-based
exercise programming, sensible strategy than this: Focus on strength training to
improve the shape of your body and watch your diet (instead of doing lots of extra
cardio) to reveal your shape.

EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS:
BENCH PRESS: Lying on a bench, use a
wide overhand grip to dismount the
barbell from the rack over the upper
chest. Lower the weight to the chest and
press upward until arms are extended,
and repeat.
BARBELL DEADLIFT: Bending at the
knees and hips, grab a loaded barbell with
an overhand grip, a littler wider than
shoulder-width apart. Stand up without
allowing your lower back to round, and
thrust your hips forward as you squeeze
your glutes. Pause for a moment before
lowering the bar back to the floor, keeping
it as close to your body as you can.
ONE-ARM DUMBBELL ROW: Using a flat
bench and a dumbbell, position your
body on the bench, with one knee and
one hand on the bench, while the other
foot is planted firmly on the ground, and
the arm on the same side as the foot on
the ground is grasping the dumbbell.
Begin with your arm straight, back
straight, head up and chest out. Using
your back, pull the dumbbell toward your
body. Slowly lower and repeat.
DUMBBELL CHEST PRESS: Lie down on a
flat bench with a dumbbell in each hand.
Raise the dumbbells up above you before
slowly lowering and repeating.
OVERHEAD SHOULDER PRESS: Standing
with your feet about shoulder-width
apart, hold a dumbbell in each hand,
raising them to head height and elbows
at about 90 degrees. Lift the dumbbells
straight up until they almost touch and
pause for moment at the top. Lower
dumbbells and repeat.
DUMBBELL REVERSE LUNGE: Stand with
dumbbells at your sides. Step back into a
lunge with one leg until the knee of rear
leg almost touches the floor. Keep your

torso upright. Return to start position


and repeat with other leg, alternating
legs each time.
DUMBBELL SQUAT JUMP: Holding
dumbbells at your side, start with feet a
little closer than shoulder-width apart,
toes facing forward in a deep squat
position. Jump up and when you come
back down, land back into a squat.
Repeat.
BENT-OVER ROW: With knees slightly
bent and holding a barbell in front of
you, bend over with back straight. Pull
the bar to your upper waist and then
return to starting position, extending
arms until shoulders are stretched
downward. Repeat.
HANG CLEAN: Stand with a barbell,
holding it with an overhand grip slightly
wider than shoulder width. Feet should
be pointed forward and be hip-width
apart or slightly wider. Bend your knees
and hips so that the barbell touches the
middle of your thigh with your shoulders
over bar and arms straight. Execute the
motion by jumping upward, shrugging
shoulders and pulling barbell upward
with the arms, allowing the elbows to
flex out to the sides. The bar should be
kept close to the body during this
movement. Catch the bar on the
shoulders while getting into a squat
position. At the bottom of the squat,
immediately stand up.
OVERHEAD PUSH PRESS: Grasp the
barbell with an overhand grip, slightly
wider than shoulder-width apart. The bar
should be positioned chest high, and
retract your head back. Execute the
motion by bending the knees, hips and
ankles slightly. Then, explosively drive
upward with the legs, driving the barbell
up off the shoulders and extending the
arms overhead. Return barbell to
shoulders and repeat.

Nick Tumminello is the owner of Performance University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Hes also
the author of the book Strength Training for Fat Loss and the DVD by the same name.
For more information visit www.NickTumminello.com.
REFERENCES
1. Clark JE. Diet, exercise or diet with exercise: comparing the effectiveness of treatment options for weight-loss and changes in fitness for adults (18-65 years old) who are overfat, or obese;
systematic review and meta-analysis. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2015 Apr 17;14:31.
2. Chantal A. Vella, PhD, Len Kravitz, PhD. Exercise After-Burn: A Research Update. IDEA Fitness Journal. November 2004.
3. George Abboud, et. al., Effects of Load-Volume on EPOC After Acute Bouts of Resistance Training in Resistance-Trained Men, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(7), 2013.
4. Elliot, DL, Goldberg, L, and Kuehl, KS. Effect of resistance training on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. J Appl Sport Sci Res 6: 77-81, 1992.
5. Bryner RW, et al. Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999 Apr;18(2):115-21.
6. Willis et al., Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults. J App Phys., vol. 113 no. 12: 1831-1837; 2012
7. Frank M. Sacks, M.D., George A. Bray, M.D., et al. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 2009;
360:859-873February 26, 2009

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FitRxCoolDOWN

YOGA TRENDS

BY LISA STEUER

THE DIVERSE HEALING


POWERS OF

YOGA

THE LATEST REPORTS


Most yogis are aware of yogas power to heal.
But more research is showing that yoga may have healing
powers beyond simply relaxation and flexibility. Here are
some of the most recent reports about how yoga can be
beneficial for a diverse range of ailments.

COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
A study led by a team of researchers from UCLA and the
University of Adelaide in Australia found that yoga and
meditation might help improve cognitive function, according
to CTV News. The study, which was published in the Journal
of Alzheimers Disease, involved 25 participants who were all
age 55 and over and all shown signs of mild cognitive
impairment, reporting problems like easily misplacing things
or forgetting names, faces or appointments.
During the course of three months, the participants did
either yoga and meditation or memory training, and received
brain scans and completed memory tests at both the
beginning and end of the study. Eleven of the participants did
memory enhancement training and practiced memory
exercises daily, and the other 14 participants attended
Kundalini yoga classes and did 20 minutes of Kirtan Kriya
meditation every day (this involves hand movements and
visualization of light and chanting). At the end of the study, it
was found that although all participants showed similar
improvements in verbal memory skills (which are needed for
remembering names), the yoga and meditation group
participants showed better improvements in visual-spatial
memory skills important for helping to recall locations and
navigating. The yoga/meditation group also showed
improvements in levels of depression, anxiety, coping skills
and resilience to stress. According to the report on the
study, these are all skills needed when coming to the terms
with the onset of cognitive impairment.
If you or your relatives are trying to improve your memory
or offset the risk for developing memory loss or dementia, a
regular practice of yoga and meditation could be a simple,
safe and low-cost solution to improving your brain fitness,
senior author Helen Lavretsky told CTV News.
Reference:
Yoga and meditation combo could help cognitive impairment. CTV News, 16
May 2016. Web 17 May 2016.

DEPRESSION
Patricia Kinser, an assistant professor at Virginia
Commonwealth Universitys School of Nursings Department
of Family and Community Health Nursing, and former
prenatal yoga instructor, has decided to study how prenatal
yoga affects depression during and after pregnancy,
according to a report in the Richmond Times-Dispatch. A
grant from the National Institutes of Health will allow Kinser
to discover whether her Mindful Moms intervention is a good
option for pregnant women who want ways to cope with their
depression.
The 12-week intervention includes yoga as well as
motivational interviews with a nurse who sits with the
participants and talks through their depression experiences,
according to the Richmond Times-Dispatch. The plan is for
Kinser and her staff to work with 40 pregnant women who
have not yet reached 20 weeks gestation to ensure that they
can participate in the entire 12-week intervention.
The results will be interesting to see, especially because
yoga has already shown to have positive effects on the mind
and depression. In fact, a few years ago, Kinser herself
conducted a study that found yoga to be positive for women
with severe depression, according to the Richmond TimesDispatch. That previous study found that the womens
depression symptoms decreased with yoga, and also that
these positive results continued a year after the
intervention even with those who stopped practicing yoga
regularly.
Reference:
Demeria, Katie. Yoga may be the key to treating postpartum depression.
Richmond Times-Dispatch, 15 May 2016. Web 17 May 2016.

AUTISM
Special yoga classes are being offered to kids by the
Autism Society of Berks County in Pennsylvania, and the
response been extremely positive, according to a report by
WFMZ-TV. Since children with autism tend to experience
sensory issues and anxiety, yoga helps these children to
cope, according to the report. The yoga allows the children
to relax, release their muscles, stretch and release some
stress.
Reference:
VanAllen, Amanda. Children with autism find relief at yoga studio. WFMZ-TV,
11 May 2016. Web 17 May 2016.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6 FITNESS RX

85

FitRxCoolDOWN

SUPPLEMENT REVIEW
BY

TEAM FITRX

Trim X3 Complete
FROM BETANCOURT NUTRITION

Like most of us fit girls, you could probably use


a little boost, even if youre already working out
hard and sticking to your workout plan. Thats
why finding supplements with the right
combinations of ingredients that work to support
your goals is essential. After all, you want to be
able to sweat longer, push farther, complete more
reps and burn as much fat as you can in the least
amount of time. This is especially true with the
warmer weather hitting summer is here, and the
time to achieve your beach body is running out! So
when it comes to improving energy to push harder
through your workouts and increasing fat burn,
Trim X3 Complete from Betancourt Nutrition is one
supplement you need in your stack.
When youre working hard in the gym day in and
day out, sweating it out in order to be the best
version of yourself, Trim X3 Complete is what youll
want by your side. After all, Trim X3 Complete truly
does give you everything you want in a supplement,
because it includes ingredients that help give you
energy for your workouts, help with appetite
suppression and increase caloric expenditure.

WHAT IT DOES:
Increases metabolism
Promotes thermogenesis and increases
in metabolic rate
Improves energy levels
Appetite control
Creates a feeling of fullness

INGREDIENTS THAT WORK


Lets take a closer look at the ingredients in Trim
X3 Complete and why they are so effective. As you
can see, its a winning combination of ingredients
that increase energy while helping you to burn
more fat. Heres how the ingredients work:
Slendesta: Has been shown to help control
hunger when used with a sensible diet and exercise
regimen. The active constituent in Slendesta is a
special protein called proteinase inhibitor, which
helps to induce feelings of fullness and satiety.

86 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

6 paradol:
Has been
shown to be a
promising fatloss ingredient
by triggering
the
thermogenic
activity of
brown adipose
tissue.
Teacrine:
Works with the
bodys natural
metabolic
processes to
allow the body
to participate in more intense and longer lasting
workouts, delivering energy to the muscles,
promoting mental clarity, and improving mood and
motivation. Teacrine has been shown to deliver
energy that lasts up to six hours.
Capsimax: A concentrated, highly-active
natural capsaicin extract that delivers levels of
capsaicinoids without the oral and gastric burning
sensation you might get from unprotected red hot
peppers. These capsaicinoids promote a healthy
metabolism, lipolysis (the mobilization of fats for
energy production) and thermogenesis.

WHAT ARE YOU WAITING FOR?


We know that you train hard, but everyone could
use a little extra push to keep things going and to
keep seeing results. And as you increase your
activity levels, youll also want to keep your
appetite in check. Trim X3 Complete will do that for
you while helping to increase your calorie burn and
increase metabolism. Its truly a complete formula
that youll want in your supplement stack!

For more information, visit:


betancourtnutrition.com

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

FitRxCoolDOWN

SUPPLEMENT EDGE
BY

For many years, the fats in our diets were


vilified. The politics and misguided policies of the 80s
resulted in a fat-free fad where all of the palatable fats in our
foods were replaced by sugars. We are now realizing the
political and economic follies of our ways. Theres a crisis of
the metabolic syndrome that includes obesity,
hyperlipidemia, hypertension and insulin resistance that now
drains our medical systems and tax dollars.
Unfortunately, sports nutritionists still believe that
carbohydrates are the driving force behind athletic
performance. As a result, the essential nutrients that can
really boost our performance are treated with benign neglect
by the nutrition
policymakers
and demonized
by the media.
The reality is
that the
essential amino
acids from
protein and the
essential fats
are critical to
our well-being
and lean muscle
potential.
All
macronutrients
are not created
equal by their
calorie content.
The branchedchain amino
acid leucine is a
special anti-kryptonite that fights the damaging effects of
sugar on our performance, thus making leucine-rich proteins
more valuable in fitness.5 This month, I would like to point out
that among the fats, all fats are not created equal.
It is clear that the omega-3 fatty acids are especially
important in our health. Initial interest in the cardiovascular
benefits of fish oils was incited by the finding that Eskimos
and other populations that consume diets rich in these fatty
acids have extraordinarily low incidences of cardiovascular
diseases. The effects of these fatty acids appear to be on
many different physiological processes, including a reduction
of inflammation, improved blood flow, positive changes in
lipid metabolism and the list goes on.1

Fish Oils for Fat Burning


Over the past 30 years, theres been significant interest in
the therapeutic potential of fish oils for a variety of
inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory

88 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

VICTOR R. PRISK, M.D.

bowel diseases and asthma in humans. Fish oil, rich in


omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), exerts antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory effects, making them
useful as a nutritional combatant to exercise-induced
inflammation and immune suppression resulting from intense
training. The long-chain omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in fish oil
appear to have additional anti-inflammatory properties,
primarily through their effects on the neutrophil and
macrophage constituents of the inflammatory response.
These are white blood cells that attack infections and help
rebuild tissues.
New
data suggests
that the types
of macrophages in our
fat changes
as we go from
lean to fat.
Initially, we
have healthy
macrophages
that produce
mediators
that reduce
inflammation
and improve
the metabolic
function of
our adipose
tissue. As we
get fatter,
inflammation
builds up and unhealthy or bad macrophages come in and
perpetuate metabolism-crushing inflammation. Since EPA
from fish oil is particularly known to have strong antiinflammatory effects, it was hypothesized by scientists that
supplementation with EPA could help limit the damaging
effects of bad fat.2
Scientists fed mice a high-fat, calorie-rich diet with the
goal to make them obese and induce inflammation.2 In one
group of mice, the researchers replaced 15 percent of the fat
with EPA to see if it improved their physiologic function.
Amazingly, the EPA-treated mice showed significantly
reduced bodyweight and adiposity or fatness, while
decreasing the size of fat cells and reducing the amount of
inflammation, compared to the high-fat fed controls.
Furthermore, when the mice that became fat were given EPA,
they reversed their fat cell size and reduced inflammation.
Mechanistically, EPA also improved the fat cells ability to
burn fat and utilize oxygen.
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

SUPPLEMENT EDGE
Improved Exercise Performance
Although some of the literature is conflicting between
endurance training and strength training, there appears to
be a net beneficial effect to using omega-3 fatty acids from
fish oils to improve exercise performance.1 It appears that
the anti-inflammatory effect reduces muscle damage and
delayed-onset muscle soreness, and the improved blood
flow brings in more nutrients to grow. You must remember,
though, that the omega-3 fatty acids used in these studies
are the long-chain fatty acids, especially EPA, derived from
fish oil. The omega-3 fatty acids from foods like flaxseed oil
have to be elongated by enzymes in your body that are very
inefficient at doing so. So suck it up, and slurp down some
cod liver oil. Just kidding take the pills its easier.
Because fish oils have such profound effects on our
muscle and fat metabolism, a particular area of research
interest is the treatment of complications related to aging.
Our sensitivity to leucine decreases as we age and thus
our ability to maintain and increase lean muscle becomes
more difficult. We must make a concerted effort to eat
leucine-rich foods. Furthermore, as we age, we experience
more tissue breakdown and inflammation in our bodies that
we can combat with omega-3s. After age 50, we can lose
more than one percent of our lean muscle per year, and lose
more than two percent of our strength as a result. This even
occurs in the diehard exercisers. The result is falling and hip
fractures, which can lead to death in 50 percent of those
over 80.
Studies on patients wasting away from cancers and
inflammatory problems like rheumatoid arthritis have
demonstrated that fish oil supplementation can significantly
reduce the decline in muscle mass seen from these
conditions.3 Thus, doctors decided to experiment with
feeding the elderly Lovaza, a prescribed fish oil supplement
containing 1.86 grams of EPA and 1.5 grams of DHA, and
observed their muscle mass and function over a six-month
period. The amount of fish oil provided was equivalent to the
amount one might find in seven to 14 ounces of salmon.
Amazingly, this simple intervention significantly increased
lean muscle and strength in this population of 70-year-olds.
Laboratory data supports that fish oil-derived omega-3s
cannot only enhance muscle protein synthesis, but can also
prevent the catabolic pathways that break muscle down.3

le
levels
of IGF-1 correlate to increased risk of heart failure
an
nd mortality from heart disease. Since omega-3 fish oils
arre capable of limiting mortality in heart disease, scientists
exxplored whether omega-3 supplementation could be
ha
having
an effect on the IGF-1.4 They performed a
ra
randomized,
placebo-controlled trial of eight weeks where
th supplemented subjects with 720 milligrams of EPA and
they
48 milligrams of DHA per day. Amazingly, the omega-3
480
su
supplementation
not only improved the low IGF-1 levels in
th
these
patients with cardiovascular disease, but it also
iincreased the bioavailability of the IGF-1 by decreasing
le
evels of the IGFBP-3.
Now, although omega-3 supplementation was able to
iincrease IGF-1 in a chronically lowered state, this data does
no
ot suggest that healthy individuals with normal IGF-1 levels
w experience a rise in IGF-1 above normal. However, in
will
ch
hronically stressed states like overtraining and lack of
sl
sleep,
your IGF-1 levels may be too low to build the lean
m
muscle
you want. Those who are training with great intensity
m also have exceedingly high levels of inflammation in
may
th bodies, which could lead to metabolic dysfunction in
their
bo muscle and adipose tissue. This dysfunction could lead
both
to a failure to increase lean muscle and mobilize fat for
bu
burning.
According to the studies presented in this article,
om
mega-3s could help you to restore normal physiology to
th bug-laden system.
this
I will admit that I am a huge proponent of supplementing
yo body with the essentials. Whether its a multivitamin,
your
le
eucine or a conditionally essential nutrient like creatine,
su
supplements
help you achieve your training goals. Your body
ca
an make creatine however, if you want to increase lean
m
muscle,
you need to get more from your diet. If you arent
ea
ating at least one pound of fish per day, you need to get
so
some
extra fish oil through a supplement.

Dr Victor Prisk is a board certified orthopaedic surgeon


Dr.
an
nd IFBB professional bodybuilder in Pittsburgh, PA. Dr.
Prrisk is an active member of the GNC Medical Advisory
Bo
oard and creator of the G.A.I.N. Plan. He is an NCAA AllAm
merican gymnast, champion swing dancer and NPC
W
Welterweight
National Champion.

Muscle Growth and Metabolism


Another omega-3 science update in 2015 suggests that
omega-3 supplementation may express some of its benefit
through modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).4
IGF-1 is a protein hormone that travels in the bloodstream,
bound to other proteins called IGF-binding proteins
(IGFBP). When released by these proteins, the IGF-1 can
exert its effects on lean muscle growth and metabolism.
IGF-1 is mainly released by the liver in response to growth
hormone, but can also be released by other tissues like
muscle, to act locally.
Patients with cardiovascular disease have chronically low
levels of IGF-1. Statistics suggest that reductions in serum

FISH OIL-DERIVED OMEGA-3s


CANNOT ONLY ENHANCE MUSCLE
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, BUT CAN ALSO
PREVENT THE CATABOLIC
PATHWAYS THAT BREAK MUSCLE DOWN.

REFERENCES
1. Mickleborough T, Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Physical Performance Optimization. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;Feb;23(1):83-96.
2. LeMieux MJ, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice in an adiposity-independent manner. J Nutr 2015; Mar;145(3):411-7.
3. Smith GI, et al. Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;May 20. [Epub, ahead of print]
4. Gholamhosseini S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid differentially modulated serum levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3 in men with CVD: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Nutrition 2015;Mar;31(3):480-4.
5. Prisk V. The Leucine Factor Diet, Ulysses Press 2015.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 89

FitRxCoolDOWN

WOMENS HEALTH

BY JENNIFER HALEY, MD, FAAD

OUTDOOR EXERCISE
AND THE RISKS OF
SUN EXPOSURE
As the days get longer and
the weather gets nicer, most of
us take our exercise routines
outdoors. The benefits are numerous:
exposure to bright morning light is
effective against insomnia,
premenstrual syndrome and seasonal
affective disorder. In addition, vitamin
D which acts like a hormone to
strengthen the health of the brain, skin
and bones helps prevent certain
cancers and can be made in the skin
through UVB rays, and ultraviolet rays
produce mood-boosting endorphins.
While these benefits seem wonderful,
excessive and chronic sun exposure has
serious, yet avoidable, risks.

Skin Cancer
The sun gives off two types of
ultraviolet, or UV, rays: UVA and UVB.
Both UVA and UVB rays damage the
skins cellular DNA, producing genetic
mutations that can develop into skin
cancer. One in five Americans will
develop skin cancer. The incidence of
skin cancer is more than all other
cancers combined. While the rates of
most cancers are decreasing, skin
cancer rates have been increasing
every decade. People spend more
leisure time outdoors and it has been
trendy to be tan. This has to change if
we are going to decrease the epidemic
of skin cancer.
Basal cell cancer is the most
common type of skin cancer, and
usually presents as a pimple that wont
go away. While it is rarely life
threatening, it can be very disfiguring.
Squamous cell cancer, the second most
common type of skin cancer, presents
as a thick scaly area or bump that
doesnt go away. Both are associated
with chronic sun exposure. Melanoma
a deadly skin cancer is the most
common form of cancer in ages 25-29.
One person dies of melanoma every
hour. A person has a higher risk of
melanoma if they have a relative with it,
has a history of five or more sunburns,
has a large number of unusual moles
and has used a tanning booth.
Melanoma can look like a mole that

90 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 2 0 1 6

has no symmetry you should be able


to draw an imaginary line through the
center of each of your moles, making
sure the color and shape are identical
on each side. If it isnt, get it checked
immediately. Everyone also has a
pattern to their moles where all moles
look similar. If you have one that looks
like it doesnt belong to the rest, get it
checked immediately. Most cancers are
treatable if diagnosed early. Early
detection = early cure.

Aging and Saggy Skin


Most people who exercise and live a
healthy life will appreciate the cosmetic
effects the sun has on the skin. The sun
destroys collagen and elastic tissue in
the skin, leading to sagging. Even
beautiful muscle tone is unattractive
when draped with lax skin. When
supportive collagen is damaged,
cellulite is more evident. Cellulite is
basically pockets of fat that protrude
through the connective tissue support
structure. When the connective tissue
is damaged, cellulite is more obvious.
Sun causes discoloration both dark
and white of the skin. Sun also gives
the weathered, coarse wrinkled
appearance no one wants and is
difficult to erase with even the best
cosmetic procedures.
UVA, the rays that give us a tan,
penetrate the skin more deeply and
play a big role in photoaging, resulting
in those dreaded wrinkles and dark
spots. UVB rays are the main cause of
sunburns, and while the
damage seems to be limited to the
outer layers of the skin, they also
contribute to photoaging and skin
cancer. UV rays also damage the eyes,
lead to cataracts, and weaken the
immune system, which makes it difficult
for your body to fight disease.

How to Enjoy Your Life While


Minimizing the Risks
Wear sun-protective clothing: When
outside, a wide-brimmed hat, SPF
clothing and sunglasses is your best
guarantee for sun protection. There are
so many great products nowadays you

just have to find the right fit for your


lifestyle and sport. My favorite hats are
found at www.sundayafternoons.com,
and the Womens Under Armour
CoolSwitch long sleeve run shirt is
amazing even in 100-degree Arizona
weather.
Sunscreen: Put on a high-quality
sunscreen every day before leaving the
house. Basically, if you dont need a
flashlight outside, you need sunscreen
on all exposed areas of skin: face, neck,
chest and hands. Most people wear
sunscreen when they are at the beach
or spending an entire day outside. The
real damage happens on a daily,
cumulative basis thats 10 minutes a
day running errands to/from the car,
one hour a week, 50-plus hours a year
we didnt even know we were in the sun!
That causes some serious damage.
Plus, UVA goes through windows, which
is why us dermatologists see more
wrinkles, brown spots and cancers on
the left side of the face just from
driving.

Sunscreens prevent UV
rays from penetrating your
skin in one of two ways:
PHYSICAL BLOCKING: Physical
sunscreens contain ingredients that
reflect sunlight away from skin. The
minerals zinc oxide and titanium dioxide
are the most common physical
blockers. They do not decompose
through sun exposure, so they are
longer lasting. My favorite is the EltaMD
brand of sunscreens.
CHEMICAL BLOCKING: Chemical
sunscreens work by absorbing UV rays.
The longer in the sun, the more these
ingredients dissipate and the less
effective they become. Some of these
chemicals may also be potential
endocrine disruptors that affect
hormones, which is why I do not
recommend using them.
SPF stands for Sun Protection
Factor, a measure of sunscreens ability
to prevent UVB rays from burning the
skin. It is a measure of the time it would
take to get sunburned without
sunscreen compared to the time it
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

WOMENS HEALTH
would take with sunscreen on. A sunscreen with SPF 15
blocks about 94 percent of UVB rays, one with SPF 30 blocks
about 97 percent of UVB rays. Its a good idea to reapply
every two hours, and if youve been sweating, swimming or
wiping your body, it should be reapplied more frequently.
Unfortunately, many people will get a false sense of
security with sunscreens labeled SPF 30-plus. The SPF is
graded only on how well a product protects the skin from
UVB or burning rays. There is no grading system for UVA,
so look for products that contain zinc oxide or titanium
dioxide to protect your skin from the entire UV spectrum. It
is also important to think of sunscreen as a back-up plan in
addition to wise sun-protective strategies hat, protective
clothing, seeking shade and avoiding outside activities during
the peak daylight hours of 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Seek shade and schedule activities early in the morning
or late in the day: If you are running, hiking or doing your
favorite high-intensity interval training workout outside,
choose the shadiest area. Remember, even if youre in the
shade, youre still being exposed to some UV rays, and
surfaces like concrete or sand can amplify the effect by
reflecting UV rays. Use other sun-protective methods even
when you are in the shade.
Avoid tanning beds: Tanning beds will advertise that you
do not get burned, and that you will only get a nice brown
tan. This happens because most tanning beds will have UVA
rays only. Think of UVA rays as the aging rays and UVB
rays as the burning rays. The burn occurs to warn you of
too much sun! When you avoid the burn warning, those UVA
rays are deeply penetrating, causing permanent DNA
damage to cells, setting your skin up for skin cancer, plus
they produce no vitamin D, and cause the most collagen
damage and wrinkles. Stick with the spray tan.
Protect your skin from the inside out: Heliocare is an

over-the-counter fernblock extract that can protect your


skin from the suns damage to cellular DNA. You can also
protect your skin from UV from the inside out by making sure
you include phytonutrients and probiotics in your diet.
Colorful fruits and vegetables can help protect skin against
the redness caused by UV exposure and add a natural golden
hue to your skin, making you look healthier.
Even with these precautions, you cant avoid all UV
exposure, and it is cumulative over a lifetime. Check yourself
every month and get an annual skin exam. If you notice
something strange on your skin, especially something like a
growing bump, a changing mole or a dry, scaly rough patch,
see a dermatologist. When found and treated early, most
skin cancers can be cured.

Jennifer Haley, MD, FAAD is a board-certified


dermatologist with a degree in Nutrition Science from
Cornell University. She has been an NPC bikini competitor
and a consultant to the US Capitol. She enjoys an active
lifestyle in Scottsdale, AZ and Montrose, CO with her
husband and three boys.
REFERENCES
UV Exposure and Sun Protective Practices. Cancer Trends Progress Report March 2015 Update. National
Cancer Institute.
Increasing incidence of melanoma among young adults: an epidemiological study in Olmsted County,
Minnesota(link is external). Reed KB, Brewer JD, Lohse CM, et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(4):328334.
Chen TC, Lu Z, and Holick MF. Photobiology of Vitamin D. In Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology and Clinical
Applications by Holick MF. Humana Press, 2010.
Ultraviolet-Radiation-Related Exposures. Broad-Spectrum UVR, pp. 1-5. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2014.
Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Public Health Service. www.skincancer.org
Moan J, Dahlback A, Porojnicu AC. At what time should one go out in the sun?Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;624:86-8.
doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-77574-6_7.
Bosch R, Philips N, Surez-Prez JA, Juarranz A, Devmurari A, Chalensouk-Khaosaat J, Gonzlez S. Mechanisms
of Photoaging and Cutaneous Photocarcinogenesis, and Photoprotective Strategies with Phytochemicals.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2015 Mar 26;4(2):248-68. doi: 10.3390/antiox4020248. Review.
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Apr; 116(4): A160A167. Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human HealthM.
Nathaniel Mead
Taylor CR, Stern RS, Leyden JJ, Gilchrest BA. Photoaging/photodamage and photoprotection. J Am Acad
Dermatol 1990; 22:1-15.

FitRxCoolDOWN

ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION
BY

BRAD SCHOENFELD, PH.D., CSCS, FNSCA

IS THERE A LIMIT
TO HOW MUCH
PROTEIN YOU CAN
USE FOR BUILDING

LEAN MUSCLE?

A long-held belief is that your body can only


absorb a fairly small amount of protein in a single
feeding. The exact dosage varies depending on
who you listen to, but its generally purported to
be somewhere around 20-30 grams of protein per
meal. While the claim is often taken as gospel, lets take a
close look at the research to draw evidence-based
conclusions on the topic.
First and foremost, its important to note that from a
nutritional standpoint, the term absorption refers to the
passage of nutrients from the gut into circulation and in this
context, there is virtually no limit to protein absorption. Once
digested, the constituent amino acids of a given protein are
transported through the intestinal cells (enterocytes) and
then enter the bloodstream pretty much all the amino acids
consumed become available for use by tissues. The only
potential issue with absorption is when you ingest individual
free-form amino acids, as this can cause competition at the
enterocytes, whereby the amino acids present in the highest
concentrations are absorbed at the expense of those that are
less concentrated.6
The more relevant question here is whether theres an
upper limit to how much protein your body can use for lean
muscle-building purposes. This question is a lot more
complex, and an evidence-based answer requires a good deal
of extrapolation based on the limitations of current research.
Some researchers have proposed that muscle protein
synthesis tops out at approximately 20-25 grams of protein
per serving, for young adults. Protein consumed above this
dosage is thought to be oxidized for energy rather than used
for tissue-building purposes a phenomenon called the
muscle-full effect.11 In what is often cited as the definitive
support for this contention, Areta et al.1 investigated the
effect of different protein boluses on resistance-trained men.
All subjects performed a bout of resistance training and were
then confined to rest, where they consumed 80 grams of
protein over a 12-hour recovery period in one of the following
three conditions: eight servings of 10 grams every 1.5 hours;
four servings of 20 grams every three hours; or two servings
of 40 grams every six hours. Over the course of the recovery
period, the greatest effect on stimulation of muscle protein
synthesis was seen in the group consuming four servings of
20 grams of protein. This would seem to indicate that there
was no added benefit to consuming the higher dosage (40
grams), and that the additional amino acids were indeed
oxidized for energy.
Case closed, right?

92 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

Not so fast.
Several variables influence the metabolism of protein and
amino acids, including the composition of the given protein
source, the composition of the meal and the dose of the
protein or amino acids consumed.4 Individual factors such as
age, training status and the amount of lean body mass also
come into play. The subjects in the Areta et al. study
consumed only whey protein during the post-workout period.
Whey is a fast-acting protein, with an absorption rate
estimated to be up to 10 grams an hour.4 A 20-gram whey
bolus, therefore, would be completely absorbed in a two-hour
period. Although this rapid assimilation can transiently spike
rates of muscle protein synthesis, it also causes a greater
oxidation of the constituent amino acids and thus can result
in a lower net protein accretion, compared to a slowabsorbing protein source.5 On the other hand, cooked egg
protein is absorbed at a rate of approximately three grams an
hour.4 Thus, the same 20-gram protein bolus consumed as an
omelet would take over seven hours for full absorption,
potentially allowing for a greater per-meal dosage without
causing undue amino acid oxidation. Moreover, in real life,
youll generally be consuming whole foods that contain a
combination of carbs and fats along with the protein
component. This substantially slows down digestion, resulting
in a much more time-released effect on amino acids into the
body. In addition, the study only provided 80 grams of protein
over the course of the day to a group of resistance-trained
men. This amounts to less than one-half gram per pound of
body mass well below the amount needed to maximize postworkout muscle protein synthesis.9
A recent study by Kim et al.7 provides contrary evidence on
the topic. Subjects came to the lab on two separate
occasions: during one session, they consumed 40 grams of
beef protein and in the other session, they consumed 70
grams of the same protein source. One group consumed the
protein after a total-body resistance-training bout, while
another did so in the absence of exercise. Results showed that
while both conditions promoted increases in whole-body
nitrogen balance a marker of anabolism the higher protein
intake resulted in a significantly greater anabolic response,
which was largely attributed to a greater reduction in protein
breakdown. A major difference between this study and that of
Areta et al.1 is that subjects consumed mixed meals
containing not only protein, but also carbohydrates and
dietary fats as well. Thus, the transit time of protein release
would necessarily be much slower in this study, potentially
accounting for dose-dependent differences in anabolism.
A limitation of the Kim et al. study is that measures of
www.fitnessrxwomen.com

ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION
To get a true grasp on the upper limit to protein intake in a single sitting, we
need to look at long-term training studies that measure actual changes in lean mass.
anabolism were not specific to muscle,
but rather taken at the whole-body level.
It is likely that much of the superior
anabolic response noted with the higher
protein intake was from tissues other
than muscle, most notably the gut.
However, protein turnover in the gut can
allow these additional amino acids to be
released into the bloodstream and
subsequently used for muscle protein
synthesis. The extent to which this
phenomenon affects muscle building is
not clear, but it conceivably provides the
potential for enhanced lean muscle
building.
While the results of the
aforementioned studies provide a sound
basis for speculation, it is important to
note that measures of acute muscle
protein synthesis do not necessarily
correlate with lean muscular increased
achieved from consistent lifting.10 To get
a true grasp on the upper limit to
protein intake in a single sitting, we need
to look at long-term training studies
that measure actual changes in lean
muscle.
Several studies have endeavored to
investigate the effects of per-meal
protein dosage on body composition
over time. Arnal et al.2 found that
feeding elderly women the bulk of their
daily protein (79%) in a single meal
(skewed condition) promoted greater
retention of lean body mass, versus
spreading out consumption evenly over
four daily meals (spread condition). A
follow-up study by the same lab found
no differences between skewed and
spread protein feedings in a cohort of
young women.3 The combined findings
suggest that at the very least,
consuming the majority of daily protein
as a large bolus is not detrimental to
lean mass accretion. Unfortunately,
total protein intake in these studies was
on the low side (~1 g/kg/day), and none
employed a resistance-training program.
Thus, it is difficult to generalize findings
to resistance-trained individuals seeking
to maximize lean muscle mass.

Studies on intermittent fasting shed


additional light on the topic. These
protocols generally involve consumption
of nutrients in a very limited time
frame usually less than eight hours
followed by a prolonged fast. A recent
systematic review found that the
majority of intermittent fasting
protocols had similar effects on lean
body mass, compared to traditional
eating patterns.12 But again, the studies
involve suboptimal protein intakes
without a resistance-training
component and here, the subjects were
all in a caloric deficit. Not very
applicable to the hard-training lifter.
Considering the limitations of the
body of literature, heres the take-home
message based on current evidence:
While certainly a threshold exists
beyond which protein will be oxidized for
energy rather than used for tissuebuilding purposes, the amount appears
to be well above the often-cited limit of
20-30 grams, provided that nutrients
are obtained from whole-food based,
mixed meals. Given that the anabolic
effect of a protein-rich meal lasts
approximately five to six hours8, a good
rule-of-thumb for maximizing muscle
building is to consume a minimum of
three to four evenly distributed daily
meals containing at least 30 grams of a
high-quality protein. Within these
boundaries, it probably doesnt matter
how you allocate the rest of your protein
consumption on a per-meal basis just
make sure you take in close to a gram
per pound of bodyweight per day.

THE SLEEP-LOW DIET FOR


BETTER RESULTS
By Lisa Steuer
WHEN PAIRED WITH THE RIGHT TYPES
OF WORKOUTS, SKIPPING THE
CARBOHYDRATES AT DINNER MAY
IMPROVE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE,

THE NEW
YORK TIMES ABOUT A NEW SPORTS
NUTRITION STUDY. THIS SLEEP-LOW
ACCORDING TO A REPORT IN

DIET IS MEANT TO LEAVE THE BODY WITH


LOW RESERVES OF CARBS IN THE
MORNING, WITH THE INTENTION OF
FORCING THE BODY TO BURN FAT IN THE
NEXT WORKOUT.

ACCORDING TO THE
NEW YORK TIMES, WHEN THE METHOD
WAS STUDIED IN THE PAST, IT WAS MET
WITH MIXED RESULTS.
THE NEW STUDY, WHICH WAS
PUBLISHED IN MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN
SPORTS & EXERCISE, FOUND THAT A
GROUP OF TRIATHLETES WHO DID THE
SLEEP-LOW DIET LOST MORE WEIGHT AND
SHOWED MORE IMPROVEMENTS IN THEIR
TIMES ON THE

10-KILOMETER RUNNING

LEG AT THE END OF SIMULATED TRIATHLON


THAN THE CONTROL GROUP (ALSO
TRIATHLETES).

DURING THE STUDY, ALL

OF THE ATHLETES DID INTENSE INTERVAL


TRAINING SESSIONS IN THE AFTERNOON,
AND PEDALED FOR A MODERATE PACE ON
STATIONARY BICYCLES IN THE MORNING.

THE BOTTOM LINE? THE STUDY SHOWS


THAT STRENUOUS EXERCISE IN THE

Brad Schoenfeld, Ph.D., CSCS, FNSCA is


widely regarded as one of the leading
authorities on training for muscle
development and fat loss. He has published
over 80 peer-reviewed studies on various
exercise- and nutrition-related topics. He is
also the author of the best-selling book The
M.A.X. Muscle Plan and the seminal textbook,
Science and Development of Muscle
Hypertrophy. Check out is website and blog
at www.lookgreatnaked.com.

AFTERNOON, DEPRIVING YOURSELF OF


CARBOHYDRATES AFTER, AND THEN
TRAINING GENTLY THE NEXT MORNING
AND HAVING CARBS MIGHT IMPROVE
ENDURANCE AND PERFORMANCE,

THE NEW YORK TIMES.


(FOR SERIOUS TRAINING, HOLD THE
CARBS AT DINNERTIME. THE NEW YORK
TIMES, MARCH 9, 2016)
ACCORDING TO

REFERENCES
1. Areta JL, Burke LM, et al. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. J Physiol 2013;591: 2319-2331.
2. Arnal MA, Mosoni L, et al. Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69: 1202-1208.
3. Arnal MA, Mosoni L, et al. Protein feeding pattern does not affect protein retention in young women. J Nutr 2000;130: 1700-1704.
4. Bilsborough S and Mann N. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16: 129-152.
5. Dangin M, Boirie Y, et al. Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjects. J Nutr 2002;132: 3228S-33S.
6. Gropper SS, Smith JL and Groff, JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Belmont, CA; Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009.
7. Kim IY, Schutzler S, et al. The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2016;310: E73-80.
8. Layman DK. Protein quantity and quality at levels above the RDA improves adult weight loss. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23: 631S-636S.
9. Lemon PW, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. J Appl Physiol 1992;73: 767-775.
10. Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, et al. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men. PLoS One 2014;9: e89431.
11. Morton RW, McGlory C and Phillips, SM. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Front Physiol 2015;6: 245.
12. Seimon RV, Roekenes JA, et al. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015;418 Pt 2: 153-172.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

AUGUST 2016

FITNESS RX 93

FitRxCoolDOWN

SUPPLEMENT REVIEW
BY

TEAM FITRX

Stimerex -ES

FROM HI-TECH PHARMACEUTICALS

When it comes to getting


a boost for your intense
training sessions, you want
to achieve maximum
energy levels without a
crash later on. You want to be
able to keep your energy up, set
after set, and you want to be able to
make the most out of your time in
the gym. You also want to increase
your fat burn as much as possible so
that all your hard work, time and
dedication is all worth it in the end.
Well good news Stimerex-ES
(Extra Strength) from Hi-Tech
Pharmaceuticals will do the job!
As a popular seller, Stimerex-ES
is highly recognized for its unrivaled
energy boost, but its so much more
than that:
Potent No-Crash Energy-Boost
Contains 25 mg Thermo-Z brand
Ephedra Extract
Sustained energy
Increased fat loss
Suppress appetite

A WINNING FORMULA
The ingredients included in Stimerex-ES have been
carefully selected to help boost both energy and fat loss.
Stimerex-ES contains 25 milligrams of Thermo-Z brand
ephedra extract. This has an energy core that revolves
around a fine-tuned configuration of Hi-Techs Thermo-Rx
stimulant-based phenylethylamine alkaloids from acacia
rigidula, which has been shown to increase resting energy
expenditure, even three hours post-ingestion.

94 FITNE S S R X

AU G U S T 20 1 6

Whats interesting is a more


recent study found that the increase
in resting metabolic rate exhibited
with acacia rigidula (12+%) is actually
superior to the findings of previous
studies, which reported that 10 to 30
mg ephedrine increased energy
expenditure by 6.6 to 10 percent.
Not only is Stimerex-ES meant
to help increase your energy and
fat-burning, but it is also mean to
help curb your cravings, another
important factor for reaching your
fitness goals and losing weight.

POWERFUL FAT LOSS


With carefully selected
ingredients and a winning formula,
Stimerex-ES is a powerful fat-loss
aid. There are several metabolic
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The active ingredients mentioned
here help to cause an increase in
lipolysis, thermogenesis, fat
mobilization, fat cell DNA and
mitochondrial signaling, and a
decrease in lipogenesis. So in
Stimerex-ES, youve got a powerful
blend that is meant to help keep you energized without the
crash, diminish food cravings and increase weight loss.

GET STARTED TODAY


If you are looking for a supplement to give you energy
while the pounds melt away, then Stimerex-ES is just what
you are looking for.
For more information, visit hitechpharma.com.

www.fitnessrxwomen.com

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Available at: