paper two

3.5.1 Compare the structure of DNA and RNA
3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand
complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
Transcription is the process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a
DNA template:
RNA polymerase separates the DNA strands and synthesises a
complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands
It does this by covalently bonding ribonucleoside triphosphates that align
opposite their exposed complementary partner (using the energy from the
cleavage of the additional phosphate groups to join them together)
Once the RNA sequence has been synthesised, RNA polymerase will detach
from the DNA molecule and the double helix will reform
The sequence of DNA that is transcribed into RNA is called a gene
Transcription occurs in the nucleus (where the DNA is) and, once made, the
mRNA moves to the cytoplasm (where translation can occur)
Three main types of RNA are predominantly made:
Messenger RNA (mRNA): A transcript copy of a gene used to encode a
polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA): A clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino
acid
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): A primary component of ribosomes
3.5.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons comprised of triplets of
bases
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in mRNA
sequences is converted into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells
Codons are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid
As there are four bases, there are 64 different codon combinations (4 x 4 x 4
= 64)
The order of the codons determines the amino acid sequence for a protein
The coding region always starts with a START codon (AUG) and terminates
with a STOP codon

The Genetic Code
The genetic code has the following features:
It is universal - every living thing uses the same code (there are only a few
rare and minor exceptions)
It is degenerate - there are only 20 amino acids but 64 codons, so more than
one codon may code for the same amino acid (this allows for silent mutations
whereby a change in the DNA sequence does not affect the polypeptide
sequence)
3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation
Translation is the process of protein synthesis in which the genetic
information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in
a polypeptide chain
Ribosomes bind to mRNA in the cell's cytoplasm and move along the mRNA
molecule in a 5' - 3' direction until it reaches a start codon (AUG)
Anticodons on tRNA molecules align opposite appropriate codons according
to complementary base pairing (e.g. UAC will align with AUG)
Each tRNA molecule carries a specific amino acid (according to the genetic
code)
Ribosomes catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between adjacent amino
acids (via a condensation reaction)
The ribosome moves along the mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide
chain until it reaches a stop codon, at this point translation stops and the
polypeptide chain is released
The Process of Translation
3.5.5 Explain the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide
A gene is a sequence of DNA which encodes a polypeptide sequence
A gene sequence is converted into a polypeptide sequence via the processes
of transcription (making an mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide
synthesis)
Translation uses tRNA molecules and ribosomes to join amino acids into a
polypeptide chain according to the mRNA sequence (as read in codons)

haemoglobin consists of four polypeptide subunits encoded by two different genes) When a gene is mutated it may lead to the synthesis of a defective polypeptide. DNA and RNA both consist of nucleotides which contain a sugar. hence affecting protein function The 'One Gene .one polypeptide' rule: Genes encoding for tRNA and rRNA do not code for polypeptide sequences (only mRNA sequences code for polypeptides) A single gene may code for multiple polypeptides if alternative splicing occurs (the removal of exons as well as introns) Transcription & translation 3. Finally.5.One Polypeptide' Rule There are two exceptions to the 'one gene . a base and a phosphate group.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. Firstly.5. both DNA and RNA have the bases adenine. DNA is composed of a double strand forming a helix whereas RNA is only composed of one strand. Finally. However there are a few differences. both DNA and RNA have the bases adenine. Also the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose whereas in RNA it is ribose.The universality of the genetic code means all organisms show the same relationship between genes and polypeptides (indicating a common ancestry and allowing for transgenic techniques to be employed) Some proteins may consist of a number of polypeptide chains and thus need multiple genes (e. However DNA also contains thymine which is replaced by uracil in RNA. However DNA also contains thymine which is replaced by uracil in . Also the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose whereas in RNA it is ribose. Firstly. guanine and cytosine. guanine and cytosine.g.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. a base and a phosphate group. DNA is composed of a double strand forming a helix whereas RNA is only composed of one strand.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to tTranscription & translation 3. DNA and RNA both consist of nucleotides which contain a sugar. However there are a few differences. 3.

however in the RNA chain. These two form a hydrogen bond together. 3. The first stage of translation is the binding of messenger RNA to the small subunit of the ribosome. The transfer RNA’s have a specific amino acid attached to them which corresponds to their anticodons. RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in the formation of the RNA strand and the uncoiling of the double helix. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. The RNA strand then elongates and then separates from the DNA template. A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon. 3.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase. The first transfer RNA then detaches from the ribosome and the second one takes it’s place.5. Then the two amino acids on the two transfer RNA molecules form a peptide bond. Then. 3. The DNA strands then reform a double helix. DNA transcription is the formation of an RNA strand which is complementary to the DNA strand. messenger RNA which is composed of codons and transfer RNA which has a triplet of bases called the anticodon.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. the base thymine is replaced by uracil. The first stage of transcription is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix. Translation is the process through which proteins are synthesized. The strand of RNA formed is called messenger RNA. 3. This is done through complementary base pairing.RNA. Another transfer RNA molecule then bonds.5. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. It uses ribosomes.5.5. This is done through complementary base pairing. Two transfer RNA molecules can bind at once. . the free RNA nucleotides start to form an RNA strand by using one of the DNA strands as a template. Again. Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. leading to polypeptide formation. A transfer RNA molecule will bind to the ribosome however it’s anticodon must match the codon on the messenger RNA.The ribosome moves along the messenger RNA to the next codon so that another transfer RNA can bind.4 Explain the process of translation. This forms a polypeptide chain and is the basis of protein synthesis. composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA. a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and this process continues.

messenger RNA which is composed of codons and transfer RNA which has a triplet of bases called the anticodon. 3. 3. Two transfer RNA molecules can bind at once.5. the free RNA nucleotides start to form an RNA strand by using one of the DNA strands as a template.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. Then the two amino acids on the two transfer RNA molecules form a peptide bond. The transfer RNA’s have a specific amino acid attached to them which corresponds to their anticodons. The strand of RNA formed is called messenger RNA. RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in the formation of the RNA strand and the uncoiling of the double helix. composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis. This is done through complementary base pairing. The first transfer RNA then detaches from the ribosome and the second one takes it’s place.5. The sequence of bases in a gene codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. The information in the genes is decoded during transcription and translation leading to protein synthesis.e DNA strand by RNA polymerase. Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. Genes store the information required for making polypeptides. It uses ribosomes. DNA transcription is the formation of an RNA strand which is complementary to the DNA strand. The RNA strand then elongates and then separates from the DNA template. The information is stored in a coded form by the use of triplets of bases which form codons.4 Explain the process of translation. The DNA strands then reform a double helix. The first stage of transcription is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix. The first stage of translation is the binding of messenger RNA to the small subunit of the ribosome. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. This is done through complementary base pairing. These two form a hydrogen bond together. A transfer RNA molecule will bind to the ribosome however it’s anticodon must match the codon on the messenger RNA. Another transfer RNA molecule then bonds.The ribosome moves along the messenger RNA to the next codon so that another transfer RNA can bind. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA. A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon.A polypeptide is formed by amino acids liking together through peptide bonds. Then. There are 20 different amino acids so a wide range of polypeptides are possible. This forms a polypeptide chain and is the . Translation is the process through which proteins are synthesized. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins. a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and this process continues. however in the RNA chain. leading to polypeptide formation. Again. the base thymine is replaced by uracil.

It goes back into our blood stream and eventually is exhaled from our lungs. For instance. On TV medical dramas. Genes store the information required for making polypeptides. you'll often see technicians administering a saline drip to a patient who has lost blood or is dehydrated. So cells must interact with their environment yet maintain fairly constant internal conditions. Water can freely move in and out of cells to maintain the same water pressure on both sides of the plasma membrane. The sequence of bases in a gene codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. others are controlled. When dehydrated. There are three ways that substances move across the plasma membrane: (1) diffusion.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. and (3) active transport. . A polypeptide is formed by amino acids liking together through peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids so a wide range of polypeptides are possible. The information is stored in a coded form by the use of triplets of bases which form codons. The information in the genes is decoded during transcription and translation leading to protein synthesis. Waste products must also leave a cell. upsetting the balance in our cells. during cellular respiration. oxygen.5.) The cells in your liver are amazing: they make many. For aerobic cellular respiration to occur inside this cell. ATP contains small amounts of energy appropriate to powering cellular processes. many proteins that leave the liver cells to be transported to cells in other parts of your body. our concentration of dissolved substances increases.basis of protein synthesis. carbon dioxide is released as a waste product. (We'll discuss how cells make proteins in Lesson 7. This process of energy conversion requires oxygen (we will discuss this in more detail in Lesson 4). Movement Through the Plasma Membrane Substances that must be able to enter a cell are water. This saline solution maintains a specific concentration of dissolved substances in the blood and body fluids. Oxygen is important because cells are undergoing cellular respiration. 3. (2) facilitated diffusion. and nutrients. A cell takes chemical bond energy and converts it to a form of energy that it can use--a molecule of ATP. Some nutrients enter freely. Cells must also export the products that they make. oxygen must move through the plasma membrane.

size or charge of molecule). and is based on the concentration of dissolved substances (solutes). like ethanol. which is why alcohol hits your system fairly quickly: it diffuses from your digestive system into your bloodstream and then is carried to all of your cells. Other small molecules. Step 2. the sugar molecules beging to spread throughout the water. a beaker is shown to demonstrate .4) and will occur across the plasma membrane as long as there is no restriction (e. diffusing into them until the cellular concentration is approximately equal to that in your bloodstream. Permission granted for reproduction Osmosis Osmosis is the term for a special type of diffusion.5). Diffusion follows a concentration gradient (Figure 3. Inc. Figure 3. Steps 3 and 4.4. the random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Non-polar lipids and small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are able to pass freely through the membrane. oxygen molecules are always diffusing into the cell.. there is always a higher oxygen concentration outside the cell and a lower concentration inside. the sugar is dropped into a beaker of water. Diffusion does not require the input of energy on the part of the cell. Graphic showing the diffusion of a lump of sugar in four steps: Step 1. As oxygen follows this gradient from higher to lower concentration. the sugar molecules continue to spread out in the water. either in the fluid within the cell or in your blood stream. also can diffuse freely through the plasma membrane. It affects these fairly rapidly and evenly. In the figure below (Figure 3. Carbon dioxide also undergoes diffusion but in the opposite direction because there is always a higher concentration of carbon dioxide inside than outside the cell.Diffusion The simplest method of moving substances across the membrane is diffusion.g. Diffusion of Sugar in Water ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. the diffusion of water. because oxygen is used for cellular respiration. which cannot cross the membrane. For example.

In step 3. in your body tissues and in your blood stream. diffusion causes the free water molecules on the non-solute side to move to the solute side. Water will move into your cells or out of your cells depending upon the concentration of solutes. One of the molecules whose chemical bonds are broken down is glucose. In step 1 a permeable membrane in a beaker of water causes water to distribute equally on either side of the membrane. Graphic depicting osmosis. which can cross the membrane. In the center frame. Figure 3. For example. Movment of Water by Osmosis ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Water molecules.the movement of water within a cell by osmosis. fluid replacement for an injured person must match the bloodstream's dissolved solute concentration. there is less water pressure. solute molecules that cannot cross the membrane at added to one side of the beaker. With the addition of these molecules. we take chemical bond energy and turn it into a form of energy that the cells can use. as it goes through your digestion system. Although the movement of water is given a special name. osmosis follows a concentration gradient (its own) and does not require the input of energy. The water molecules on the solute side bind to the solute which decreases the number of water molecules on that side. so water will flow from the left side of the beaker to the right. Inc. Therefore. In step 2. like salt. These substances need some kind of carrier molecule to help them. the polymers of starch are broken down into . until the water pressure is equal on both sides. meaning the water molecules are evenly distributed between the two sides of the beaker. The first frame is isotonic. In the process of cellular respiration. when you eat a potato. Permission granted for reproduction Facilitated Diffusion Many substances will follow a concentration gradient. illustrated by the third frame.5. which contains lots of starch. but are too large to get through the membrane on their own. will diffuse to the side with the lower water concentration (higher solute concentration). which will not cause water to leave or enter cells too rapidly. They must move through a protein that is imbedded in the plasma membrane. as is true of isotonic saline. you add a nondiffusible solute to the right side.

it is the gradient created by this pump that causes the message to be propagated down a nerve. See Figure 3. So this is an extremely important pump. and this type of movement across the plasma membrane does not require energy.6 for an illustration of facilitated diffusion. The concentration of glucose is usually higher outside a cell than it is inside. In step 2. allows the transmission of nerve impulses. In step 1. In our nervous system. the protein helps or facilitates the movement of the molecule through the plasma membrane. because you have to have different carrier molecules for different substances that are going to be brought into or excreted from the cell. one that has been well-studied is the sodium-potassium pump. substances are not going to go with the concentration gradient. We call these proteins where this energy is used pumps because they are pumping substances against the concentration gradient. When substances are going against their gradient. The Movement of a Substance Through the Plasma Membrane Using a Carrier Molecule ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Sodium and potassium are extremely important molecules. In this case. a molecule binds a particular protein that is embedded in the plasma membrane. In step 3. they're actually going against the concentration gradient. the molecule is released on the other side of the membrane. There are other carrier proteins for molecules such as amino acids. That glucose is used by all of the cells in your body to provide energy. energy must be used. The same protein will move the molecule in either direction. allowing my hand to move. if I think that I am going to move my hand. Permission granted for reproduction Active Transport The last type of general mechanism that cells use to transport materials is more complicated because it requires the cells to expend energy. the balance between these two ions. For instance. There are carrier molecules in the cell membrane that are specific to glucose. That is why it is called active transport. sodium and potassium. So. Inc. It has been estimated . Proteins in the plasma membrane act as gates to allow movement of large molecules into and out of a cell. There are many different pumps for different molecules.glucose monomers in your small intestine. They do not allow other molecules through. because once it enters the cell it is broken down. but glucose is too big to move freely through the membrane.6. you have a concentration gradient. particularly in animals. Figure 3. then glucose is absorbed across the small intestine and goes into your blood stream. This is part of the complexity of cell membranes.

There are specific coupled channels for many needed molecules such as sugars and amino acids. When the protein changes shape. This creates a concentration gradient with the higher concentration of sodium outside the cell. When the ATP molecule splits. Permission granted for reproduction On the outside of the membrane. allow . In step 1. Normally. there is more sodium inside of a cell than outside. Inc. a molecule binds a particular protein that is embedded in the plasma membrane. In step 2. it traps the sodium ions and they are pushed to the other side of the membrane (see Figure 3. It is important for the function of the protein channel to have this high sodium concentration outside of the cell.7. Proteins in the plasma membrane act as gates to allow movement of large molecules into and out of a cell. it provides energy to change the shape of the protein channel. This concentration gradient is also used to help bring other substances into the cell against their concentration gradients. allowing a number of different processes. A transport protein in the membrane has specific receptors for sodium ions. In this process a facilitated diffusion channel allows the diffusion of sodium ions back into the cell but only if it is accompanied by another particular molecule.that about 30 percent of the energy in our cells is used to maintain the concentration of sodium against its gradient.8). These three methods. two potassium ions bind and are then transported to the inside of the cell. and potassium inside the cell. but there are many other ions that are pumped in and out of cells to establish concentration gradients for different reasons. diffusion (including osmosis). The same protein will move the molecule in either direction. there is a coupled channel protein that allows diffusion of sodium ions into the cell if it is coupled to glucose. and active transport. the protein helps or facilitates the movement of the molecule through the plasma membrane. In step 3. including transmission of nerve impulses and transport of nutrients into the cells. These pumps are important to maintaining cellular conditions. the molecule is released on the other side of the membrane. through coupled channels (Figure 3. facilitated diffusion. it "pulls" glucose along into the cell even though it is against the concentration gradient of the glucose. as do ATP molecules which are the energy currency of the cells. For instance. Figure 3. Sodium ions inside the cell attach to these proteins. and this type of movement across the plasma membrane does not require energy.7). The Sodium-Potassium Pump ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. The sodium potassium pump is the most active. So when the sodium ions diffused back into the cell.

or cannot. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. cross the plasma membrane. However. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth. These membranes are continuous. The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that are the sites of protein synthesis. Endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells. joining with the outer membrane of the nuclear membrane. such as sugar. Graphic depicts how the sodium-potassium channel is linked to another protein in the plasma membrane called a coupled channel.cells to regulate what can. membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. including the most primitive Giardia. It is an interconnected network of flattened sacs or tubes encased in membranes. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened. The sodiumpotassium pump creates a concentration gradient where there are more sodium ions outside of the cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is . these sodium ions can get back into the cell via the coupled channel as long as the pass through that channel with another molecule.[1] but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa.

especially prominent in cells such as hepatocytes. The lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 using electron microscopy. These sac-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and functions in lipid manufacture and metabolism. 1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi apparatus 10 Trans face of the Golgi apparatus 11 Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus 3D rendering of endoplasmic reticulum The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae. the production of steroid hormones. and detoxification. The phospholipid membrane encloses the cisternal space (or .[2] The smooth ER is especially abundant in mammalian liver and gonad cells.

The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other. depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids. The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (often abbreviated RER or Rough ER) (also called ergastoplasm) is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a . but varies between ER and cell type and cell function.lumen). which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol. Changes in protein content may occur without noticeable structural changes. The total animation time is about 2 minutes.[citation needed] Rough endoplasmic reticulum[edit] An animation showing how a protein destined for the secretory pathway is synthesized into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (which appears at upper right in animation when approximately half of animation is done). Transformation can include embedding of new proteins in membrane as well as structural changes.

a molecular message that is recognized and bound by a signal recognition particle (SRP). This special complex forms when a free ribosome begins translating the mRNA of a protein destined for the secretory pathway. non-translating ribosomes are also known to stay associated with translocons. which removes the signal peptide. Translation pauses and the ribosome complex binds to the RER translocon where translation continues with the nascent protein forming into the RER lumen and/or membrane.[3] However.[4] The first 5-30 amino acids polymerized encode a signal peptide. A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific proteinnucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol.[5] The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double membrane sheets . The binding site of the ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the translocon."rough" appearance (hence its name). the ribosomes bound to it at any one time are not a stable part of this organelle's structure as they are constantly being bound and released from the membrane. however. Ribosomes at this point may be released back into the cytosol. The protein is processed in the ER lumen by an enzyme (a signal peptidase).

that are located near. where the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles are held closely together.[8][9] The rough endoplasmic reticulum is key in multiple functions: Manufacture of lysosomal enzymes with a mannose-6-phosphate marker added in the cisGolgi network[citation needed] Manufacture of secreted proteins. allowing the transfer of lipids and other small molecules.[7] Vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. membrane-bound vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments. The rough endoplasmic reticulum works in concert with the Golgi complex to target new proteins to their proper destinations.[6] Although there is no continuous membrane between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. A second method of transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum involves areas called membrane contact sites. and continuous with. COPII targets vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and COPI marks them to be brought back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. either . the outer layer of the nuclear envelope.

secreted constitutively with no tag or secreted in a regulatory manner involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids in the signal peptide. Initial glycosylation as assembly continues. ovaries. N-linked glycosylation: If the protein is properly folded. It synthesizes lipids. and steroids. Cells which secrete these products. and 3-glucose at the end) to the side-chain nitrogen of Asn. [10] It also carries out the metabolism of carbohydrates. and sebaceous glands have an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. SNAP and SNARE proteins are key in the fusion event. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum[edit] The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (abbreviated SER) has functions in several metabolic processes. Rab proteins are key in targeting the membrane. Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. 9branching mannose. . Oligosaccharyltransferase recognizes the AA sequence NXS or NXT (with the S/T residue phosphorylated) and adds a 14sugar backbone (2-N-acetylglucosamine. This is N-linked (O-linking occurs in the Golgi). such as those in the testes. detoxification of natural metabolism products and of alcohol and drugs. phospholipids.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant). It is connected to the nuclear envelope and consists of tubules that are located near the cell periphery. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The only structural difference .[6] In some cells.attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. it regulates calcium ion concentration. and it serves different functions in each. from the Greek σάρξ sarx ("flesh"). The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows for an increased surface area to be devoted to the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes. Sarcoplasmic reticulum[edit] Skeletal muscle fiber. which converts glucose-6-phosphate to glucose. These tubes sometimes branch forming a network that is reticular in appearance. is smooth ER found in myocytes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum also contains the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase.[11] In muscle cells. a step in gluconeogenesis. there are dilated areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum. and steroid metabolism. with sarcoplasmic reticulum colored in blue.

Correct folding of newly made proteins is made possible by several endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins. The sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a major role in excitation-contraction coupling. ERp29. including protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). the Hsp70 family member BiP/Grp78. both bound to their membranes and drifting within the confines of their lumens. including the folding of protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. This fundamental difference is indicative of their functions: The endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes molecules.[12][13] After their release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. and the peptidylpropyl isomerase family. Only properly folded proteins are transported from the rough . calcium ions interact with contractile proteins that utilize ATP to shorten the muscle fiber. while the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions and pumps them out into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated. calreticulin.between this organelle and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the medley of proteins they have. calnexin.[14] Functions[edit] The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions.

a state in which the folding of proteins slows.ER to the Golgi apparatus – unfolded proteins cause an unfolded protein response as a stress response in the ER.[17] The fluid mosaic model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes. glucose deprivation. insulin resistance. This stress is emerging as a potential cause of damage in hypoxia/ischemia. calcium regulation. and other disorders. and viral infection[15] or the overexpression of proteins[16] can lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ER stress). which was devised by SJ Singer and GL Nicolson in 1972. Such domains are defined by the existence of regions within the membrane with special lipid and protein composition that promote the formation of lipid rafts or protein and glycoprotein complexes. The model. leading to an increase in unfolded proteins. describes the cell membrane as a two-dimensional liquid in which that restrict the lateral diffusion of membrane components. Disturbances in redox regulation. Another way to define membrane domains is the association of the lipid membrane with the cytoskeleton .

macropinocytosis. A microbody is a type of organelle that is found in the cells of plants. Schematic drawing illustrating clathrin-mediated (left) and clathrin-independent endocytosis (right) of synaptic vesicle membranes. and cell fusion.filaments and the extracellular matrix through membrane proteins. apoptosis. glycosomes and hydrogenosomes. Organelles in the microbody family include peroxisomes. and phagocytosis.[1] The current model describes important features relevant to many cellular processes. Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely. protozoa. microbodies are especially prevalent in the liver and kidney organs. caveolae. receptor-mediated endocytosis. membrane budding. and animals.[1] . including: cell-cell signaling. In vertebrates. cell division. glyoxysomes.

antibodies and many others. growth factors.g.[2] . e. 100 nm in diameter) vesicles that have a morphologically characteristic coat made up of a complex of proteins that are mainly associated with the cytosolic protein clathrin. Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. low density lipoprotein.Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is mediated by small (approx. transferrin. Coated pits can concentrate large extracellular molecules that have different receptors responsible for the receptormediated endocytosis of ligands.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful