paper two

3.5.1 Compare the structure of DNA and RNA
3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand
complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
Transcription is the process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a
DNA template:
RNA polymerase separates the DNA strands and synthesises a
complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands
It does this by covalently bonding ribonucleoside triphosphates that align
opposite their exposed complementary partner (using the energy from the
cleavage of the additional phosphate groups to join them together)
Once the RNA sequence has been synthesised, RNA polymerase will detach
from the DNA molecule and the double helix will reform
The sequence of DNA that is transcribed into RNA is called a gene
Transcription occurs in the nucleus (where the DNA is) and, once made, the
mRNA moves to the cytoplasm (where translation can occur)
Three main types of RNA are predominantly made:
Messenger RNA (mRNA): A transcript copy of a gene used to encode a
polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA): A clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino
acid
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): A primary component of ribosomes
3.5.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons comprised of triplets of
bases
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in mRNA
sequences is converted into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells
Codons are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid
As there are four bases, there are 64 different codon combinations (4 x 4 x 4
= 64)
The order of the codons determines the amino acid sequence for a protein
The coding region always starts with a START codon (AUG) and terminates
with a STOP codon

The Genetic Code
The genetic code has the following features:
It is universal - every living thing uses the same code (there are only a few
rare and minor exceptions)
It is degenerate - there are only 20 amino acids but 64 codons, so more than
one codon may code for the same amino acid (this allows for silent mutations
whereby a change in the DNA sequence does not affect the polypeptide
sequence)
3.5.4 Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation
Translation is the process of protein synthesis in which the genetic
information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in
a polypeptide chain
Ribosomes bind to mRNA in the cell's cytoplasm and move along the mRNA
molecule in a 5' - 3' direction until it reaches a start codon (AUG)
Anticodons on tRNA molecules align opposite appropriate codons according
to complementary base pairing (e.g. UAC will align with AUG)
Each tRNA molecule carries a specific amino acid (according to the genetic
code)
Ribosomes catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between adjacent amino
acids (via a condensation reaction)
The ribosome moves along the mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide
chain until it reaches a stop codon, at this point translation stops and the
polypeptide chain is released
The Process of Translation
3.5.5 Explain the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide
A gene is a sequence of DNA which encodes a polypeptide sequence
A gene sequence is converted into a polypeptide sequence via the processes
of transcription (making an mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide
synthesis)
Translation uses tRNA molecules and ribosomes to join amino acids into a
polypeptide chain according to the mRNA sequence (as read in codons)

Firstly.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA.One Polypeptide' Rule There are two exceptions to the 'one gene . DNA and RNA both consist of nucleotides which contain a sugar.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA.5. Also the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose whereas in RNA it is ribose.one polypeptide' rule: Genes encoding for tRNA and rRNA do not code for polypeptide sequences (only mRNA sequences code for polypeptides) A single gene may code for multiple polypeptides if alternative splicing occurs (the removal of exons as well as introns) Transcription & translation 3. both DNA and RNA have the bases adenine. Finally.g. hence affecting protein function The 'One Gene .2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to tTranscription & translation 3.The universality of the genetic code means all organisms show the same relationship between genes and polypeptides (indicating a common ancestry and allowing for transgenic techniques to be employed) Some proteins may consist of a number of polypeptide chains and thus need multiple genes (e. a base and a phosphate group. DNA is composed of a double strand forming a helix whereas RNA is only composed of one strand. Also the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose whereas in RNA it is ribose. However there are a few differences. DNA is composed of a double strand forming a helix whereas RNA is only composed of one strand. a base and a phosphate group. However there are a few differences. both DNA and RNA have the bases adenine. Finally. 3. guanine and cytosine. Firstly. guanine and cytosine.5. However DNA also contains thymine which is replaced by uracil in RNA. DNA and RNA both consist of nucleotides which contain a sugar.5. haemoglobin consists of four polypeptide subunits encoded by two different genes) When a gene is mutated it may lead to the synthesis of a defective polypeptide. However DNA also contains thymine which is replaced by uracil in .

The first stage of transcription is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix.4 Explain the process of translation. the base thymine is replaced by uracil. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA. This is done through complementary base pairing.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. Then the two amino acids on the two transfer RNA molecules form a peptide bond. DNA transcription is the formation of an RNA strand which is complementary to the DNA strand.The ribosome moves along the messenger RNA to the next codon so that another transfer RNA can bind. The strand of RNA formed is called messenger RNA.RNA. The RNA strand then elongates and then separates from the DNA template. composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis. Another transfer RNA molecule then bonds. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid.5. 3. leading to polypeptide formation. RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in the formation of the RNA strand and the uncoiling of the double helix. messenger RNA which is composed of codons and transfer RNA which has a triplet of bases called the anticodon.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. This forms a polypeptide chain and is the basis of protein synthesis.5. the free RNA nucleotides start to form an RNA strand by using one of the DNA strands as a template. These two form a hydrogen bond together. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins. A transfer RNA molecule will bind to the ribosome however it’s anticodon must match the codon on the messenger RNA.5. It uses ribosomes.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase. Then. a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and this process continues. 3. A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon. The transfer RNA’s have a specific amino acid attached to them which corresponds to their anticodons. 3. 3. The first transfer RNA then detaches from the ribosome and the second one takes it’s place. The DNA strands then reform a double helix. Translation is the process through which proteins are synthesized. Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. Two transfer RNA molecules can bind at once. The first stage of translation is the binding of messenger RNA to the small subunit of the ribosome. . however in the RNA chain. This is done through complementary base pairing. Again.5.

The sequence of bases in a gene codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. This is done through complementary base pairing. however in the RNA chain. the base thymine is replaced by uracil. This forms a polypeptide chain and is the . Therefore DNA and RNA regulate protein synthesis. The first stage of translation is the binding of messenger RNA to the small subunit of the ribosome.5. The genetic code is the codons within DNA and RNA. Genes store the information required for making polypeptides.3 Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases.4 Explain the process of translation. the free RNA nucleotides start to form an RNA strand by using one of the DNA strands as a template. Translation is the process through which proteins are synthesized. Again. DNA transcription is the formation of an RNA strand which is complementary to the DNA strand. Then. This is done through complementary base pairing. The strand of RNA formed is called messenger RNA. The information is stored in a coded form by the use of triplets of bases which form codons. RNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in the formation of the RNA strand and the uncoiling of the double helix. A triplet of bases (3 bases) forms a codon.e DNA strand by RNA polymerase. It uses ribosomes.The ribosome moves along the messenger RNA to the next codon so that another transfer RNA can bind. Amino acids in turn link to form proteins. A transfer RNA molecule will bind to the ribosome however it’s anticodon must match the codon on the messenger RNA. These two form a hydrogen bond together. Another transfer RNA molecule then bonds. The DNA strands then reform a double helix. There are 20 different amino acids so a wide range of polypeptides are possible. The RNA strand then elongates and then separates from the DNA template. Then the two amino acids on the two transfer RNA molecules form a peptide bond. leading to polypeptide formation. messenger RNA which is composed of codons and transfer RNA which has a triplet of bases called the anticodon. a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids and this process continues. The first stage of transcription is the uncoiling of the DNA double helix. Two transfer RNA molecules can bind at once. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. The first transfer RNA then detaches from the ribosome and the second one takes it’s place.5. composed of triplets of bases which eventually lead to protein synthesis. The transfer RNA’s have a specific amino acid attached to them which corresponds to their anticodons. 3.A polypeptide is formed by amino acids liking together through peptide bonds. 3. The information in the genes is decoded during transcription and translation leading to protein synthesis.

For aerobic cellular respiration to occur inside this cell. Water can freely move in and out of cells to maintain the same water pressure on both sides of the plasma membrane. A polypeptide is formed by amino acids liking together through peptide bonds. Genes store the information required for making polypeptides. When dehydrated. Waste products must also leave a cell.5 Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. The information in the genes is decoded during transcription and translation leading to protein synthesis. Oxygen is important because cells are undergoing cellular respiration. 3. Some nutrients enter freely. carbon dioxide is released as a waste product. The sequence of bases in a gene codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. many proteins that leave the liver cells to be transported to cells in other parts of your body. . oxygen must move through the plasma membrane. ATP contains small amounts of energy appropriate to powering cellular processes.) The cells in your liver are amazing: they make many. during cellular respiration. On TV medical dramas. (2) facilitated diffusion. and nutrients.5. This process of energy conversion requires oxygen (we will discuss this in more detail in Lesson 4). oxygen. So cells must interact with their environment yet maintain fairly constant internal conditions. The information is stored in a coded form by the use of triplets of bases which form codons. our concentration of dissolved substances increases. upsetting the balance in our cells. and (3) active transport. Movement Through the Plasma Membrane Substances that must be able to enter a cell are water. It goes back into our blood stream and eventually is exhaled from our lungs. There are three ways that substances move across the plasma membrane: (1) diffusion. (We'll discuss how cells make proteins in Lesson 7. For instance.basis of protein synthesis. others are controlled. There are 20 different amino acids so a wide range of polypeptides are possible. A cell takes chemical bond energy and converts it to a form of energy that it can use--a molecule of ATP. you'll often see technicians administering a saline drip to a patient who has lost blood or is dehydrated. Cells must also export the products that they make. This saline solution maintains a specific concentration of dissolved substances in the blood and body fluids.

and is based on the concentration of dissolved substances (solutes). Permission granted for reproduction Osmosis Osmosis is the term for a special type of diffusion.Diffusion The simplest method of moving substances across the membrane is diffusion. Steps 3 and 4. the sugar is dropped into a beaker of water. Carbon dioxide also undergoes diffusion but in the opposite direction because there is always a higher concentration of carbon dioxide inside than outside the cell. Step 2. As oxygen follows this gradient from higher to lower concentration. Diffusion follows a concentration gradient (Figure 3.4. which cannot cross the membrane.4) and will occur across the plasma membrane as long as there is no restriction (e. Figure 3. which is why alcohol hits your system fairly quickly: it diffuses from your digestive system into your bloodstream and then is carried to all of your cells.5). either in the fluid within the cell or in your blood stream. Other small molecules. For example. a beaker is shown to demonstrate . Diffusion does not require the input of energy on the part of the cell. there is always a higher oxygen concentration outside the cell and a lower concentration inside. In the figure below (Figure 3. Graphic showing the diffusion of a lump of sugar in four steps: Step 1. Inc. size or charge of molecule). Diffusion of Sugar in Water ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. the sugar molecules beging to spread throughout the water. like ethanol.g. the diffusion of water. oxygen molecules are always diffusing into the cell. Non-polar lipids and small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide are able to pass freely through the membrane. diffusing into them until the cellular concentration is approximately equal to that in your bloodstream.. the random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. It affects these fairly rapidly and evenly. because oxygen is used for cellular respiration. also can diffuse freely through the plasma membrane. the sugar molecules continue to spread out in the water.

In step 3. like salt. osmosis follows a concentration gradient (its own) and does not require the input of energy. but are too large to get through the membrane on their own. The first frame is isotonic.5. The water molecules on the solute side bind to the solute which decreases the number of water molecules on that side. there is less water pressure. which contains lots of starch. will diffuse to the side with the lower water concentration (higher solute concentration). Water molecules. until the water pressure is equal on both sides. Although the movement of water is given a special name. which can cross the membrane. in your body tissues and in your blood stream. as it goes through your digestion system. Inc. These substances need some kind of carrier molecule to help them. solute molecules that cannot cross the membrane at added to one side of the beaker. so water will flow from the left side of the beaker to the right. the polymers of starch are broken down into . One of the molecules whose chemical bonds are broken down is glucose. In step 2. Movment of Water by Osmosis ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission granted for reproduction Facilitated Diffusion Many substances will follow a concentration gradient. diffusion causes the free water molecules on the non-solute side to move to the solute side. With the addition of these molecules. Therefore. In the process of cellular respiration. In step 1 a permeable membrane in a beaker of water causes water to distribute equally on either side of the membrane. illustrated by the third frame.the movement of water within a cell by osmosis. you add a nondiffusible solute to the right side. we take chemical bond energy and turn it into a form of energy that the cells can use. They must move through a protein that is imbedded in the plasma membrane. when you eat a potato. Figure 3. Water will move into your cells or out of your cells depending upon the concentration of solutes. For example. meaning the water molecules are evenly distributed between the two sides of the beaker. fluid replacement for an injured person must match the bloodstream's dissolved solute concentration. In the center frame. as is true of isotonic saline. Graphic depicting osmosis. which will not cause water to leave or enter cells too rapidly.

because once it enters the cell it is broken down. the molecule is released on the other side of the membrane. you have a concentration gradient. In this case. For instance. The Movement of a Substance Through the Plasma Membrane Using a Carrier Molecule ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. They do not allow other molecules through. particularly in animals. allows the transmission of nerve impulses. it is the gradient created by this pump that causes the message to be propagated down a nerve. In our nervous system. We call these proteins where this energy is used pumps because they are pumping substances against the concentration gradient. Proteins in the plasma membrane act as gates to allow movement of large molecules into and out of a cell. sodium and potassium.6.glucose monomers in your small intestine. if I think that I am going to move my hand. Figure 3. There are many different pumps for different molecules. That is why it is called active transport. one that has been well-studied is the sodium-potassium pump. In step 1. the protein helps or facilitates the movement of the molecule through the plasma membrane. substances are not going to go with the concentration gradient. Inc. So this is an extremely important pump. allowing my hand to move. The same protein will move the molecule in either direction. the balance between these two ions. then glucose is absorbed across the small intestine and goes into your blood stream. Sodium and potassium are extremely important molecules. In step 3. but glucose is too big to move freely through the membrane. The concentration of glucose is usually higher outside a cell than it is inside. because you have to have different carrier molecules for different substances that are going to be brought into or excreted from the cell. There are other carrier proteins for molecules such as amino acids. Permission granted for reproduction Active Transport The last type of general mechanism that cells use to transport materials is more complicated because it requires the cells to expend energy. a molecule binds a particular protein that is embedded in the plasma membrane. In step 2.6 for an illustration of facilitated diffusion. So. When substances are going against their gradient. and this type of movement across the plasma membrane does not require energy. This is part of the complexity of cell membranes. That glucose is used by all of the cells in your body to provide energy. There are carrier molecules in the cell membrane that are specific to glucose. It has been estimated . they're actually going against the concentration gradient. energy must be used. See Figure 3.

These three methods. It is important for the function of the protein channel to have this high sodium concentration outside of the cell. there is more sodium inside of a cell than outside. There are specific coupled channels for many needed molecules such as sugars and amino acids. The sodium potassium pump is the most active. as do ATP molecules which are the energy currency of the cells.7). In step 3. Sodium ions inside the cell attach to these proteins. A transport protein in the membrane has specific receptors for sodium ions. The Sodium-Potassium Pump ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. In step 1. through coupled channels (Figure 3. In this process a facilitated diffusion channel allows the diffusion of sodium ions back into the cell but only if it is accompanied by another particular molecule. the protein helps or facilitates the movement of the molecule through the plasma membrane. allow . Figure 3. it traps the sodium ions and they are pushed to the other side of the membrane (see Figure 3.that about 30 percent of the energy in our cells is used to maintain the concentration of sodium against its gradient. These pumps are important to maintaining cellular conditions. Permission granted for reproduction On the outside of the membrane. Normally. The same protein will move the molecule in either direction. and active transport.7. Inc. This creates a concentration gradient with the higher concentration of sodium outside the cell. For instance. In step 2. the molecule is released on the other side of the membrane. diffusion (including osmosis). This concentration gradient is also used to help bring other substances into the cell against their concentration gradients. but there are many other ions that are pumped in and out of cells to establish concentration gradients for different reasons. there is a coupled channel protein that allows diffusion of sodium ions into the cell if it is coupled to glucose. When the ATP molecule splits. it provides energy to change the shape of the protein channel. two potassium ions bind and are then transported to the inside of the cell. it "pulls" glucose along into the cell even though it is against the concentration gradient of the glucose. Proteins in the plasma membrane act as gates to allow movement of large molecules into and out of a cell. When the protein changes shape. including transmission of nerve impulses and transport of nutrients into the cells.8). So when the sodium ions diffused back into the cell. and potassium inside the cell. a molecule binds a particular protein that is embedded in the plasma membrane. allowing a number of different processes. and this type of movement across the plasma membrane does not require energy. facilitated diffusion.

Graphic depicts how the sodium-potassium channel is linked to another protein in the plasma membrane called a coupled channel. including the most primitive Giardia. such as sugar. The membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened. However. cross the plasma membrane. These membranes are continuous. joining with the outer membrane of the nuclear membrane.[1] but is absent from red blood cells and spermatozoa. these sodium ions can get back into the cell via the coupled channel as long as the pass through that channel with another molecule. The outer (cytosolic) face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that are the sites of protein synthesis. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is . Endoplasmic reticulum occurs in most types of eukaryotic cells. The sodiumpotassium pump creates a concentration gradient where there are more sodium ions outside of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. It is an interconnected network of flattened sacs or tubes encased in membranes. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth.cells to regulate what can. or cannot.

The phospholipid membrane encloses the cisternal space (or . The lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1945 using electron microscopy. the production of steroid hormones.especially prominent in cells such as hepatocytes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and functions in lipid manufacture and metabolism. 1 Nucleus 2 Nuclear pore 3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi apparatus 10 Trans face of the Golgi apparatus 11 Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus 3D rendering of endoplasmic reticulum The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae. and detoxification.[2] The smooth ER is especially abundant in mammalian liver and gonad cells. These sac-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton.

which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol. The total animation time is about 2 minutes. The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can slowly interchange from one type to the other. The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (often abbreviated RER or Rough ER) (also called ergastoplasm) is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a .[citation needed] Rough endoplasmic reticulum[edit] An animation showing how a protein destined for the secretory pathway is synthesized into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (which appears at upper right in animation when approximately half of animation is done). Transformation can include embedding of new proteins in membrane as well as structural changes.lumen). Changes in protein content may occur without noticeable structural changes. but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids.

a molecular message that is recognized and bound by a signal recognition particle (SRP)."rough" appearance (hence its name).[3] However. the ribosomes bound to it at any one time are not a stable part of this organelle's structure as they are constantly being bound and released from the membrane. however. A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific proteinnucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special complex forms when a free ribosome begins translating the mRNA of a protein destined for the secretory pathway. which removes the signal peptide. non-translating ribosomes are also known to stay associated with translocons.[5] The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double membrane sheets . Ribosomes at this point may be released back into the cytosol.[4] The first 5-30 amino acids polymerized encode a signal peptide. The protein is processed in the ER lumen by an enzyme (a signal peptidase). Translation pauses and the ribosome complex binds to the RER translocon where translation continues with the nascent protein forming into the RER lumen and/or membrane. The binding site of the ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the translocon.

where the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles are held closely together. membrane-bound vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments. the outer layer of the nuclear envelope. COPII targets vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and COPI marks them to be brought back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A second method of transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum involves areas called membrane contact sites.that are located near. The rough endoplasmic reticulum works in concert with the Golgi complex to target new proteins to their proper destinations. allowing the transfer of lipids and other small molecules.[8][9] The rough endoplasmic reticulum is key in multiple functions: Manufacture of lysosomal enzymes with a mannose-6-phosphate marker added in the cisGolgi network[citation needed] Manufacture of secreted proteins.[7] Vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. either .[6] Although there is no continuous membrane between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. and continuous with.

secreted constitutively with no tag or secreted in a regulatory manner involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids in the signal peptide. N-linked glycosylation: If the protein is properly folded. such as those in the testes. and steroids. SNAP and SNARE proteins are key in the fusion event. ovaries. and sebaceous glands have an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This is N-linked (O-linking occurs in the Golgi). and 3-glucose at the end) to the side-chain nitrogen of Asn. Rab proteins are key in targeting the membrane. Oligosaccharyltransferase recognizes the AA sequence NXS or NXT (with the S/T residue phosphorylated) and adds a 14sugar backbone (2-N-acetylglucosamine. [10] It also carries out the metabolism of carbohydrates. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum[edit] The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (abbreviated SER) has functions in several metabolic processes. 9branching mannose. Cells which secrete these products. . It synthesizes lipids. Initial glycosylation as assembly continues. phospholipids. detoxification of natural metabolism products and of alcohol and drugs. Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum[edit] Skeletal muscle fiber. it regulates calcium ion concentration. and steroid metabolism. a step in gluconeogenesis. These tubes sometimes branch forming a network that is reticular in appearance. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant).[11] In muscle cells. from the Greek σάρξ sarx ("flesh"). with sarcoplasmic reticulum colored in blue. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). is smooth ER found in myocytes.[6] In some cells.attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. which converts glucose-6-phosphate to glucose. and it serves different functions in each. The only structural difference . there are dilated areas like the sacs of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum also contains the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. The network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum allows for an increased surface area to be devoted to the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes. It is connected to the nuclear envelope and consists of tubules that are located near the cell periphery.

while the sarcoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions and pumps them out into the sarcoplasm when the muscle fiber is stimulated.between this organelle and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the medley of proteins they have. including protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Only properly folded proteins are transported from the rough . including the folding of protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. and the peptidylpropyl isomerase family.[12][13] After their release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Correct folding of newly made proteins is made possible by several endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins. This fundamental difference is indicative of their functions: The endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes molecules. ERp29. both bound to their membranes and drifting within the confines of their lumens. The sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a major role in excitation-contraction coupling. calreticulin. the Hsp70 family member BiP/Grp78. calnexin.[14] Functions[edit] The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions. calcium ions interact with contractile proteins that utilize ATP to shorten the muscle fiber.

a state in which the folding of proteins slows. describes the cell membrane as a two-dimensional liquid in which that restrict the lateral diffusion of membrane components. Another way to define membrane domains is the association of the lipid membrane with the cytoskeleton . calcium regulation. insulin resistance. Such domains are defined by the existence of regions within the membrane with special lipid and protein composition that promote the formation of lipid rafts or protein and glycoprotein complexes. leading to an increase in unfolded proteins. This stress is emerging as a potential cause of damage in hypoxia/ischemia. glucose deprivation.ER to the Golgi apparatus – unfolded proteins cause an unfolded protein response as a stress response in the ER. which was devised by SJ Singer and GL Nicolson in 1972. The model. and other disorders. and viral infection[15] or the overexpression of proteins[16] can lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ER stress).[17] The fluid mosaic model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes. Disturbances in redox regulation.

cell division. and phagocytosis.[1] The current model describes important features relevant to many cellular processes. microbodies are especially prevalent in the liver and kidney organs. receptor-mediated endocytosis. glycosomes and hydrogenosomes. glyoxysomes. In vertebrates. macropinocytosis. and cell fusion. apoptosis. including: cell-cell signaling. A microbody is a type of organelle that is found in the cells of plants. Organelles in the microbody family include peroxisomes. membrane budding.[1] .filaments and the extracellular matrix through membrane proteins. Schematic drawing illustrating clathrin-mediated (left) and clathrin-independent endocytosis (right) of synaptic vesicle membranes. and animals. caveolae. protozoa. Endocytosis pathways can be subdivided into four categories: namely.

Coated pits can concentrate large extracellular molecules that have different receptors responsible for the receptormediated endocytosis of ligands.[2] . transferrin. e.g. growth factors.Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is mediated by small (approx. 100 nm in diameter) vesicles that have a morphologically characteristic coat made up of a complex of proteins that are mainly associated with the cytosolic protein clathrin. antibodies and many others. Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. low density lipoprotein.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.