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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research in simple terms, refers to a search for knowledge. It is also known as


the art of scientific investigation. Thus, research is an original addition to the available
knowledge, which contributes to its further advancement. It is an attempt to pursue truth
through the methods of study, observation, comparison and experiment.

Research design:A research design helps to decide upon issues like what, when, where,
How much, by what means, etc., with regard to an enquiry or a research study. The
research design is the conceptual structures within which research is conducted.

Exploratory
Research

Research
Design
Descriptive
Research

1. Exploratory Research Design:-

Casual
Research

Exploratory research focuses on the discovery of new ideas and is


generally based on secondary data.
2. Descriptive Research:Descriptive research is undertaken when the researcher want to
know the characteristics of certain groups.
3. Casual or Experimental Researches:An experimental research is undertaken to identify causes and effect
relationship between two variables.
In this project Descriptive Research design method is used.

Data collectionData collected from two methods they are explain belowA) Primary Data:Information which is gathered directly from the original source. Primary
data collection is necessary when a researcher cannot find the data needed in
secondary sources Following are some type of colleting primary data Survey,
Observation,
Interview,
Questioner.
In this project I have taken primary data from survey, observation, and questionnaires for better
results and outcome should exact and problem of R&R can be identified.

Secondary Data:Data which is are taken published and unpublished copies it is known as
secondary data. Following are some types of secondary data-

Books,
Magazine,
Printed articles,
E-mails.

In this project I have gathered information from internet, magazines, and printed
articles.

Sample Design:Measuring a small portion of something and then making a general


statement about the whole thing. This is a process of selecting a number of units
for a study in such a way that the units represent the larger group from which they
are selected. Research without sampling may be too costly and time consuming.
Sampling reduces the study population to a reasonable size that expenses are
greatly reduced.

Sample Size:Data is going to collect from HODs of different departments of


haldirams. For HR department my sample size would be 6. These samples will
help me to draw conclusion and will help to bring the new policy for the
employees who are working for the organization.

Sampling Method

A sample is the group of people who take part in the investigation. The people who take
part are referred to as participants.

Sampling is the process of selecting participants from the population.

The target population is the total group of individuals from which the sample might be
drawn.

Generalisability refers to the extent to which we can apply the findings of our research to
the target population we are interested in.

If the sample we select is going to represent the target population then we need to
make sure that the people in it are similar to the other members of the target population.
There are two types of sampling method one is probability method and another is
non probability method.
They are explaining as follow.
1. Probability Sampling

The sample is a proportion (a certain percent) of the population and such sample is selected from
the population by means of some systematic way in which every element of the population has a
chance of being included in the sample.

Probability Sampling

Pure Random
Sampling
Systematic
Sampling
Stratified
Sampling-

a) Pure Random SamplingThis type of sampling is one in which everyone in the population has an equal
chance of being selected in the sample.
b) Systematic samplingThis is used when the subjects or respondents in the study are arranged in some
systematic or logical manner such as alphabetical arrangement and geographical
placement.
c) Stratified SamplingThe process of selecting randomly, samples from the different strata of the
population used in the study it contributes much to the representative of the
sample.

2. Non-Probability Sampling-

Quota
sampling

NonProbability
Sampling

Purposive
sampling

Snowball
sampling

Accidental
Sampling

a) Accidental SamplingThis is picking out people in the most convenient and fastest way to
immediately get their reactions to a certain hot and controversial issue.
b) Purposive SamplingThe respondents are chosen on the basis of their knowledge of the information
desired.
c) Quota SamplingAs discussed earlier, sampling everybody and everything is quota sampling.

d) Snowball SamplingAlso called network, chain, or reputational, this method begins with a few
people or cases and then gradually increases the sample size as new contacts are
mentioned by the people you started out with. Selection of best and reasonable

Rewards and recognition schemes for employees is based on the studies of


different department employees expectation to study them better I will be using
stratified sampling method.
And from the non-probability sampling I have used accidental sampling. So
that data will be collected by picking out people in the most convenient and
fastest way to immediately get their reactions.

6.1 Method of data collection:


Data collection means gathering information for related survey. There are many
methods available to gather information. The most important issue related to data
collection is selecting the most appropriate information. The most important issue
related to data collection is selecting the most appropriate information.
Survey,
Panel (in-depth technique)
Questioner.

Questionary
Survey

Observation

RESEARCH
DATA