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7 Elements of Print Advertising

by Catherine Hudgins, Demand Media

Print advertising includes sales brochures, coupons, fliers, business cards,
billboards and ads in magazines and newspapers. Use this medium successfully
by first defining the advertising goal, identifying your target audience and
focusing your message. The cost of printed advertising can easily outweigh its
benefit, so never waste it. Each of the seven elements of print advertising must
enhance your ad's effectiveness.

Copy Elements
The copy or text must communicate in clear, concise and focused language.
Start with a headline that grabs the reader's attention, sparks interest in your
product and conveys your message succinctly. Potential customers have only
seconds to read your billboard. Even in brochures or catalogs, keep body copy
brief and on point. Include the company signature --- your identifying slogan
and/or logo. Use fonts (typefaces) that complement your message and are easy
to read.

Graphic Elements
Photography, illustration and logo symbols like Nike's swoosh raise interest in
any ad. Integrate these graphic elements with your headline and copy for
maximum effect. A study by Texas State University showed that more attention
goes to pictures than words and human models get the most attention in
magazine ads. This indicates the value of using models that match or appeal to
your target audience to forge an immediate connection between your
product/service and your potential customer. Inconsistency between your
headline and your illustration will confuse the viewer and reduce the ad's impact.

Color vs. B&W

Color printing costs more than black and white. Full-color printing uses four inks
and four runs through the press for each page. Two-color printing is a cheaper
color option, appropriate for some applications.

The layout is the way you put all the elements together to create the final ad.
Your layout needs a focal point --- usually the picture or headline --- for readers'
eyes to land on, then the white space, graphic and text elements should lead
them through the copy to the company signature. Make the final layout match
the ad's ultimate printed appearance in every detail.

Size and Shape

Newspaper and magazine placement fees are based on ad size. The exact
dimensions may vary by publication, but are priced as fractions of a page.
Special locations, like the back cover, cost more. Use appropriate size and shape,
linked to purpose and corporate image, for non-publication print advertising

Paper and Ink

For print ads other than in magazines or newspapers, choose paper with a
composition, weight and finish that contributes positively to your advertising
image. Traditional inks contain volatile organic compounds; consider using soybased inks if they will give the result you want.

Where you place your print advertising affects its success. An auto parts dealer
will get more response running his ad in an automotive magazine or classified
section than in a fashion magazine. Direct mail solicitations generate leads more
effectively than magazine ads do.


Definition: Advertising Appeal

Advertising is a form of non-personal communication about a product, service,

organization, or idea by an identified sponsor. At the core lies advertising appeal
which is used to attract the attention of the consumers, effectively influence
their feelings and change their attitude in favor of the advertised
product/service. It is the connect that consumers feel with the ad. Creating such
an appeal encompasses understanding what the consumers want or need and
what excites them. As a basis for advertising messages, several different appeals
can be used.

Types of informational advertising appeals- Some of the most common appeals

1. Favorable Price Appeal: The offer price dominates the message. This is
used extensively during sales promotions e.g. end of season sales, special offers,
everyday low process. McDonalds Happy Price Menu campaign is designed
around this appeal.
2. Feature Appeal: The major traits or attributes of the product/service
dominates the message. Such ads tend to be highly informative and try to build
a favorable attitude for the attributes to trigger a rational purchase. Loreals
Total Repair ad campaign featuring Aishwarya Rai talks about the products
effectiveness against 5 hair problems.
3. Competitive advantage appeal: Ads featuring this appeal directly or
indirectly include competitors product/service and compare specific attributes.
Dettol Kitchen Cleaning Gel ad comparing it with Vim saw a lot of controversy.
4. News appeal: Announcement or news about the product/service dominates
the ads message
5. Product/service popularity appeal: This emphasizes the popularity of a
product/service by pointing out the buyer base. Times of India is often found
reiterating its Indias Number 1 English daily status.
Types of emotional appeals- Although this category includes many different
feelings and needs on a personal level (safety, security, love, affection, joy,
nostalgia, pride, achievement, pleasure, sorrow, self-esteem, actualization etc.)

and social level (recognition, status, respect, rejection, approval etc.), the two
common ones include:
1. Fear Appeal: The best example is the anti-smoking ad that plays in
movie theatres featuring a smoker Mukesh who died of mouth cancer.
2. 2. Humor Appeal: Humorous ads are often the best remembered as they
can hold consumers attention and put them in a positive disposition
towards the product. Chlormints Dobara mat poochhna campaign works
on humor appeal.

Top Five Appeals That Advertisers Use to Sell a

Commercial and print ads use some form of appeal to reach potential customers.
Advertisers use appeal to influence a customer to purchase a product or support
a cause. Appeals speak to an individuals need, wants or interest. The most
common advertising appeals include use of fear, humor, rational, sex or
bandwagon propaganda.

Fear appeals focus on the negative outcomes that can happen because of an
action or inaction. Advertisers use fear appeals to promote an immediate
behavior change such as eating healthier or not smoking. Another fear tactic
involves isolation. People will purchase a product to avoid isolation from others
because of bad hygiene. Deodorant and toothpaste ads often employ this tactic.
Government agencies appeal to an individuals fear of death or incarceration to
prevent drinking and driving. Fear appeals work when the recommended action
is specific, effective and plausible. For example, ads geared toward smokers can
be ineffective if the person does not believe quitting is within reach.

Humor appeals make consumers laugh and create an emotional link with the
product. A well-executed humor appeal enhances recollection, evaluation and
the intent to purchase the product. Advertisers link the product with the humor.
For example, a humorous insurance ad hits the mark when the humor shows the
consumer why having insurance is beneficial. Using humor at the expense of one
group may lead to resentment. Senior citizens may resent a product that
portrays them as grumpy, while women may refuse to purchase a product that
portrays them as overbearing. Humorous ads work best with established and
commonly purchased products such as cellphones, fast food and alcoholic

Rational or logical appeals focus on the consumers need for practicality and
functionality in a product. Advertisers relay this message by focusing on product

features and cost. These ads tell consumers the benefits associated with the
purchase of a product. The advertiser then provides proof to back up the claims.
An automobile advertisement focuses on gas efficiency, mileage and prices to
reach consumers who want a cost-efficient, reliable vehicle. Household appliance
manufacturers may place emphasis on features that lower home utility costs and
protect the environment. Printed and business-to-business advertisements are
better suited for rational appeals.

Sex appeals capture attention, but seldom promote product consumption.
Effective sex appeal ads convey a specific message to the target demographic
group. Beer advertisers often use sex appeal to promote their product to men.
The typical scene involves several young, average-looking men in a bar. The men
purchase the beer and gain the attention of an attractive young woman.
Fragrance products use sex appeal to convey romance to women by indicating
the use of the product will help her find the man of her dreams. Generally done
by showing the woman spraying the fragrance and then capturing the attention
of an attractive male who passes her on the street. Overly overt images subtract
from the overall message the advertiser wants to convey.

A bandwagon appeal makes consumers believe they are missing out by
addressing the consumers need to belong. Food and drink ads show hip young
adults enjoying a product and ignoring the individual who chooses the less
popular product. Medical products show consensus by indicating the number of
medical professionals who support the product. For example, a cold medicine ad
may say, "Eight out of 10 doctors recommend this product" to show product
effectiveness. Automobile dealers and cellphone providers give sales and user
statistics to indicate why their product is the more preferred. This type of
message says buy this product because everyone does. If done correctly, the
consumer will purchase the product. Bandwagon appeals can backfire in that the
consumers desire to fit in can conflict with the ability to make a rational

Q3. What is an ad campaign ? Analyze The Various Steps

Involved in An
Advertising Campaign.

A coordinated series of linked advertisements with a single idea or theme.

An advertising campaign is typically broadcast through several media channels.

It may focus on a common theme and one or few brands or products, or
be directed at a particular segment of the population. Successful advertising
campaigns achieve far more than the sporadic advertising, and may last from a
few weeks and months to years.

According to Wright et al. [18], there are seven basic and essential steps in
1 . Approaching the Advertising Opportunity
This appraisal involves the determination of the right timing; for a particular
advertising campaign. Neil Borden [19] and Charles H. Patti [20] have identified
five situations which could lend themselves to advertising opportunities:
a) Presence of a favourable primary demand trend: If a product category is
becoming favourite with

consumers, then it is beneficial to advertise a

particular brand of product in that category. For example, if coffee drinking

is on the increase then a particular brand of coffee can take advantage of
it Similarly, if the trend is towards small compact cars, then it is difficult to
sell big gas- guzzling cars.

b) Good chance for product differentiation: If the product that is the

focus of the advertising campaign, can be differentiated by unique or
exclusive qualities, then it .provides an advertising opportunity. For
example, it is difficult to differentiate simply salt or sugar, because sugar
will remain sugar no matter which company produces it, but a toothpaste
can be differentiated by its quality to clean and brighten teeth as well as
serve as a mouthwash.

c) Presence of hidden qualities: Less obvious qualities are more favourable to

promotion. For example, the quality of a television set cannot be determined by

simply looking at it. The reliability of the parts within the set are very important
for the consumers to associate their buying with that particular brand. Hence the
theme of Zenith TV company is The quality goes in before the names goes on,
Sony Corporation products are well known for their reliability.

d) Presence of powerful emotional buying motives. If a promotional appeal can

touch the emotions as against potentiality or economic Utility, it will be
successful. Cosmetics are generally promoted on the basis of sex appeal. Some
types of bread and cereals are promoted as necessary for healthier children.

e) Availability of advertising funds: An advertising opportunity cannot be

advertised unless there are adequate funds available for such an advertising
campaign. Some minimal amount of advertising must be done if sufficient impact
on the target market is to be achieved. Little advertising may be more dangerous
than no advertising at all.

2- Market Analysis
Before an advertising campaign can be initiated, it is necessary to know the
target market in depth and in detail. Such factors as the entire industry, volume
of a given product, its on- market share, competitive strategies, any legal
constraints etc. must be studied and analysed. Similarly, the demographic
structure of the market and. the market trends must be studied. This would
assist in pin-pointing the segmented target market so that advertising efforts can
be focussed on this market.

3-Advertising Objectives
The advertising objectives should be as specific as possible. For example, one
single point increase in market share is not as specific as the desired percentage

of increase in market share. These advertising objectives- must be differentiated

from the overall marketing objectives.

4-Establishing Advertising Budgets

As discussed earlier, an advertising budget is determined either by the build-up
method or by the break-down method and, appropriate allocation for different
media from the budget is established. This break up of allocation would also
include consideration of different products, different geographic markets,
different time periods etc. Proper monitoring of this budge.t is equally important.
Some contingency fund should be apportioned in case any situational changes
take place.

5-Developing a Promotional Strategy

Strategies are developed in order to achieve the advertising and marketing
objectives. Strategy involves selecting the most suitable media as the vehicle of
promotion as well creating an advertising message that would be attention
getting. Advertising strategy has been defined as follows:
Advertising strategy is creativity applied in knowledge for the purpose of finding
the most effective way of achieving an end. We believe that advertising strategy
must encompass the totality of what a product or service is and how it is sold to
the consumer. It embodies the products or services reason for being so. It is the
products most important property and it is the differentiating principle that the
product embraces. Strategy welds all of the marketing factors into a cohesive
unity that will achieve the end [21].

6-Coordinating Advertising and Other Marketing Techniques

Advertising campaigns need the active support of other marketing functions such
as distribution channels, sales promotion and public relations. Other functions
like production, inventory and delivery should also be integrated with advertising

plans. In addition, maximum support should be solicited from dealers, suppliers

and sales people.

7-Results of Advertising Campaigns

The degree of correlation between any increase in sales and :he advertising
campaign should be established so as to determine he proportion of increase in
sales that are directly attributable to he advertising campaign. Similarly, if the
objectives are other than an increase in sales, then the degree of achievement of
such objectives should be measured relative to. the advertising efforts. There are
a number of ways by which such results can be measured. One of these methods
would be to test the market, which is carefully chosen, at the time of introduction
of the advertising campaign (known as pre-testing) and then testing the market
again after the full commitment of the campaign (known as post-testing). In the
pre-testing stage, the response in the test market is analysed to determine if any
changes in the advertising campaign are necessary. The pre-testing and posttesting would give us a clear indication as to the efficiency of the advertising


What Is Rational Appeal in Advertising?

There are two broad types of strategies that businesses can use in their
advertising and marketing plans. The "emotional appeal" pulls on the customers'
heartstrings to get them to purchase a product or service because of its high
quality, its use as a status symbol or its connection to the individual's deepseated interests. The "rational appeal," on the other hand, is concerned with an
appealing price point and with highlighting the benefits of owning the product.
The rational appeal is widely used by small businesses to fend off competition.

Advantages of Rational Appeal

Adopting the rational appeal method of advertising your products or services can
be highly effective for small businesses. First off, it allows you to market the
product to more than one demographic target group at a time. By focusing
exclusively on the product's price and the benefits it offers, you are creating a
generalized marketing campaign with wide appeal. This in turn appeals to
customers of all backgrounds who are either looking for a bargain or who need
(as opposed to want) a product or service. Common household items such as
vacuum cleaners, kitchen appliances and even lower-range automobiles are
marketed in this way. Consumers need these products and may not necessarily
be concerned with having the fanciest or most expensive ones. Appealing to the
budget-conscious and consumer-friendly customer is therefore key to the rational
appeal. Furthermore, in times of economic crisis or recession, products marketed
by rational appeal tend to do well. Consumers are apt to adopt a mindset of
austerity during these times and will appreciate businesses that cater to their

Disadvantages of Rational Appeal

Despite the many advantages to using the rational appeal in advertising, there
can be some downsides to adopting this approach in your business. Consumers,
even budget-conscious ones, are typically looking for quality. Trying to pass off
poorly made or ill-designed products by focusing on the low price point may

actually backfire on a company. If you sell orange juice, for example, you may
find that customers respond well to a lower price point. However, if this lower
price-point comes at the sacrifice of having orange juice made from 100 percent
juice or not-from-concentrate, you may lose out on customers who are concerned
about quality. The key to utilizing the rational appeal then is to be honest and
consistent with your brand messaging and to know your target audience.

Emotional Appeal

By nature, human beings are emotional creatures. Businesses use a variety of

techniques to appeal to consumer emotions. Advertisers take the time to
carefully choose every detail, including the tone, lighting, color scheme and
mood the advertisement sets. People are more inclined to pay attention to a
catchy radio advertisement than one that is bland, or a caring and
compassionate-sounding announcer than one who sounds matter-of-fact, Orwig
asserts. Advertisers also appeal to fear, empathy, sympathy, happiness and
other human emotions.
Emotional appeals are especially prevalent in advertising. When fashion
magazines play on our insecurities about body image, they're using emotional
appeals. When political ads play on our fears, telling us that voting for someone
will lead to financial ruin and wars, they're using emotional appeals. Students
frequently use emotional appeals on their professors, hoping for pity as they ask
for more time to finish a paper. Emotional appeals are used in court rooms during
trials and in persuasive essays to increase the effectiveness of arguments