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Welcome

Ba
sic
Int
er
net
pr
og
ra
m
mi
ng

Fo
rm
alit

ies

i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
p
r
o
g

r
a
m
m
i
n
g
S
K
R
3
3
0
2
A
h
m
a
d
Al

a
u
d
di
n
A
rif
fi
n

Welcome

W
hat
is
thi
s
co
urs
e
ab
out
?

Pr
ov
idi
n
g
to
ol
s
fo
r
h
a
n
ds
o
n
int
er
n
et
pr
o
gr

a
m
mi
n
g
I

T
h
er
e
ar
e
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nl
y
9
le
ct
ur
e
s

d
o
s
h
o
w

u
p,
pl
e
a
s
e!

Welcome

Le
ctu
res
ar
e
ab
out
I

B
as
ic
s
on
th
e
int
er
ne

t
I

P
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Cl
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de
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Ot
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h
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g
l
a
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s

Welcome

La
bs
an
d
Pr
oje
ct
I

La
bs
I

P
r
i
n
c
i
p
l
e
s

:
w
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A
l
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l
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m
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(
L
a
b
1
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N
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t
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n
n
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c
t
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s
(
L
a
b
2
)
I

S
e
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s
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e
(
L
a
b
3
,
L
a
b
4

)
,
C
l
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n
t
s
i
d
e
(
L
a
b
5
)
I

Pr
oj
ec
ts
I

Y
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d
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f
i

n
e
y
o
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r
p
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c
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Y
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g
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S
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q
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e
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a
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)

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e
q
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d
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e
.
g
.

c
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I

M
a
k
e
g
o
u
p
s
o
f
3

t
o
6
p
e
o
p
l
e

Welcome

Pr
es
ent
ati
on

Di
vi
d
e
tw
o
p
er
s
o
n

s
p
er
gr
o
u
E
a
c
h
gr
o
u
p
wi
ll
pr
e
s
e
nt
tw
o
ti

m
e
s
T
o
pi
cs
pr
e
s
e
nt
e
d
wi
ll
b
e
b
a
s
e
d
o

n
c
o
ur
s
e
c
h
a
pt
er
s

Network basics

Intro
ducti
on to
the
inter
net
Conte
nt
A little
on:
I
ne
tw
or
k
co
nc
ep
ts
I

we

b
con
cep
ts
I

inte
rnet
add
res
ses

soc
ket
s

Refer
ences
:
I

H
ar
ol
d:
Ja
va
N
et
w
or
k
Pr
og

ra
m
mi
ng
I

Ha
ll:
Co
re
We
b
Pr
ogr
am
mi
ng
De
itel
, et
al:
Int
ern
et
an
d
the
Wo
rld
Wi
de
We
b
Ho
w
to
Pr
ogr
am
Inc
e:
De
vel
opi

ng
Dis
trib
ute
d
an
d
ECo
m
me
rce
Ap
pli
cat
ion
s

Network basics

Prog
ram
ming
netw
ork
appli
catio
ns
I

Why
netw
ork
appli
catio
ns?
I

l
o
n
g
s
i
d
e
t
h
e
t
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

e
v
o
l
u
t

i
o
n

,
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
p

p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
a
l
s
o
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
p
a

r
t
s
o
f
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
r
e
s
i
d
i
n
g
o

n
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
b
e
c
o
m
e
m
o
r

e
a
n
d
m
o
r
e
c
o
m
m
o
n
I

E
x
a
m
p
l
e
s
o

f
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
l
y
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a

t
i
n
g
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
:
w
e
b
b
r
o

w
s
e
r
s
,
e
m
a
i
l
,
n
e
w
s
.
I

S
o
m
e

o
t
h
e
r
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
s
:
D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
e

d
d
a
t
a
b
a
s
e
s
,
s
o
u
n
d
,
r
a
d
i
o
,

v
i
d
e
o
a
n
d
i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
t
e
l
e
p
h

o
n
y
.
I

Nee
d for
appli
catio
ns
wher
e the
parti
cipa
nts
are
awar
e of
each
other
s:
I

S
h

a
r
e
d
b
u
l
l
e
t
i
n
b
o
a
r
d
s
,
w
h
i
t
e
b
o
a

r
d
s
,
s
h
a
r
e
d
w
o
r
d
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
r
s
,
c
o

n
t
r
o
l
s
y
s
t
e
m
s
(
e
g
.
r
o
b
o
t
s
)
a
n
d

(
n
o
t
t
h
e
l
e
a
s
t
)
g
a
m
e
s
(
l
i
k
e
r
u

n
e
s
c
a
p
e
a
n
d
w
o
r
l
d
o
f
w
a
r
c
r
a
f
t
)

.
I

T
h
e
r
e
i
s
s
u
p
p
o
r
t
i
n
t
h
e
n
e
t
w
o

r
k
s
,
w
h
e
r
e
w
e
w
i
l
l
l
o
o
k
c
l
o
s
e
r

o
n
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
.

Network basics

Prog
ram
ming
netw
ork
appli
catio
ns

Larg
e
amo
unts
of
inter

net
sites
I

A
u
c
t
i
o
n
s
,
a
d
v
e
r
t
i
s
i
n
g
,
c
o
m
m

e
r
s
e
,
p
o
r
t
a
l
s
w
i
t
h
c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
s

o
f
s
i
t
e
s
c
o
n
c
e
r
n
i
n
g
b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
,

m
u
s
i
c
,
f
i
l
m
,
s
o
f
t
w
a
r
e
,
i
n
f
o
,
r
e
p
o

r
t
s
o
f
v
a
r
i
o
u
s
k
i
n
d
s
b
o
o
k
s
,
s
e
a

r
c
h
e
n
g
i
n
e
s
,
e
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
,
.
.
.
I

Kind

s of
appli
catio
n
progr
ams
I

E
m
a
i
l
I

N
e
w
s
I

W
e
b
b
a
s

e
d
d
a
t
a
b
a
s
e
s
I

C
l
i
e
n
t
s
e
r
v
e

r
,
p
e
r
t
o
p
e
e
r
I

T
e
l
e
p
h
o
n
e

V
i
d
e
o
I

.
.
.

Network basics

Netw
orks

A
networ
k is in
this
respec
ta
collecti
on of
interco
nnecte
d
compu
ters
and/or
other

kinds
of
equip
ment
Termin
ology:
I

n
o
d
e
,
a
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
t
h
a
t
i
s
c
o
n
n

e
c
t
e
d
t
o
t
h
e
n
e
t
w
o
r
k
(
c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
,
p
r
i
n
t
e

r
,
b
r
i
d
g
e
,
v
e
n
d
i
n
g
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
,
.
.
.
)
I

ho
st,

a
full
y
au
to
no
m
ou
s
co
m
pu
ter
co
nn
ect
ed
to
th
e
ne
tw
or
k
I

add
res
s,
eac
h
nod
e
has
a
uni
que
add
res
s (a
nu
mb
er

byt
es)
I

p
a
c
k
et
,
m
o
d
e
r
n
n
et
w
o
rk
s
a
r
e
p
a
c
k
et
b
a
s
e
d,
m
e
a
ni

n
g
th
at
th
e
in
fo
r
m
at
io
n
is
b
r
o
k
e
n
d
o
w
n
to
a
n
d
s
e
nt
a
s
s
m
al
l

c
h
u
n
k
s,
e
a
c
h
c
h
u
n
k
of
in
fo
r
m
at
io
n
h
a
n
dl
e
d
s
e
p
a
r
at
el
y.

pr
ot
oc
ol,
rul
es,
sp
eci
fyi
ng
ho
w
to
pe
rfo
rm
co
m
m
uni
cat
ion

Network basics

Inter
net

Interne
t is the
most
know
and
most
wide
spread
networ
k.
I
D
es
ig
ne
d
to

be
ro
bu
st
(er
ror
s
ar
e
un
us
ua
l)
I

Fir
st
ver
sio
n
19
69,
AR
PA
NE
T,
de
sig
ne
d
by
AR
PA
, a
Do
D
uni
t.

19
83
the
re
we
re
56
2
co
mp
ute
rs
on
the
AR
PA
NE
T
19
86
the
re
we
re
50
00
co
mp
ute
rs
19
87

28
00
0,
19
89

10
00
00,
19
90

30
00
00,
20
09

1.6
7
billi
on
(a
rou
gh
est
im
ate
on
Ju
ne
30)

Network basics

Laye
rs
A
networ
k is
built as
a set
of
layers
Application
(HTTP, FTP, Telnet)
Transport
(TCP, UDP, ...)
(IP, ...)

Network

Physical layer
(Ethernet, FDDI,
LocalTalk,

Logical connec

drivers, ...)

Ap
pli
cat
ion
pr
og
ra
m
m
er
s
wo
rk
m
ain
ly
in
th
e
up
pe
r
lay

er
I

Eve
ntu
ally
in
the
tran
spo
rt
lay
er
(in
dist
ribu
ted
app
licat
ion
s)

Oth
er
lay
ers
are
nor
mal
ly
of
no
con
cer
n

Network basics

IP,
TCP,
UDP

IP,
Inter
net
Prot
ocol
th
e
n
et
w
or
k
la
y
er
pr

ot
o
c
ol
(t
h
e
re
a
s
o
n
fo
r
th
e
n
a
m
e
I
nt
er
n
et
)
I

TCP,
Tran
sport
Cont

rol
Prot
ocol
a
c
o
n
n
e
ct
io
n
b
a
s
e
d
pr
ot
o
c
ol
w
hi
c
h
in
s

ur
e
s
a
c
or
re
ct
d
at
a
e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
b
et
w
e
e
n
t
w
o
n

o
d
e
s
I

UDP,
User
Data
gram
Prot
ocol
a
pr
ot
o
c
ol
w
hi
c
h
al
lo
w
s

th
e
tr
a
n
s
m
is
si
o
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of
in
d
e
p
e
n
d
a
nt
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a
c
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et
s

fr
o
m
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e
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o
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e
to
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nt
o
h
er
w
it
h
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g
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ar
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nt
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e
c
o
n
c
er
ni
n
g
d
el
iv
er
y
or
or
d
er
of
d
el
iv
er
y

Network basics

IP
addr
ess,
DNS

IP
addr
ess.
Each
mac
hine
is
ident
ified
by a
uniq
ue 4-

byte
num
ber
I

M
a
n
y
c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
s
h
a
v
e
a
f
i
x
e
d

n
u
m
b
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r
,
o
t
h
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r
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t
a
d
y
n
a
m
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c
a
l
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y

a
s
s
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g
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e
d
n
u
m
b
e
r
a
t
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o
n
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e
c
t
i
o
n
t

i
m
e
I

1
9
9
5
t
h
e
u
s
e
o
f
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t

x
p
l
o
d
e
d

a
n
d
a
s
t
h
e
r
e
a
r
e
n
o
t
e
n
o
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g

h
4
b
y
t
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
s
(
y
o
u
g
e
t
a

l
o
u
s
y


2
3
2

=
4
2
9
4
9
6
7
2
9
6
a
d
d
r
e
s
s
e
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)
,
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P
v
6

w
a
s
c
r
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a
t
e
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g
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v
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g
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=
3
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8

2
3
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6
3
4
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3
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6
a
d
r
e
s
s
e
s
.
O
u
g
h
t
t
o
b
e
e
n
o
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g
h
f
o
r
s

o
m
e
t
i
m
e
.
.
.
I

DNS
,
Dom
ain
Nam
e
Serv
er
I

I
P
a
d
d
r

e
s
s
e
s
a
r
e
h
a
r
d
t
o
r
e
m
e
m
b
e
r
a
n
d

t
h
u
s
D
N
S
w
a
s
c
r
e
a
t
e
d
t
o
a
l
l
o
w
s

y
m
b
o
l
i
c
(
t
e
x
t
u
e
l
)
n
a
m
e
s
t
h
a
t
a
r

e
l
o
o
k
e
d
u
p
a
n
d
t
r
a
n
s
l
a
t
e
d
t
o
I

P
a
d
d
r
e
s
s
e
s
I

E
g
.
:
w
w
w
.
n
a
d
a
.
k
t
h
.
s

e
i
s
t
r
a
n
s
l
a
t
e
d
t
o
1
3
0
.
2
3
7
.
2
2

5
.
4
0

Network basics

Ports

E
v
e
r
y
c
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
w
i
t
h
a
n

I
P
a
d
d
r
e
s
s
h
a
s
6
5
5
3
6
l
o
g
i
c
a
l
p

o
r
t
s
f
o
r
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
o
v
e
r
t
h
e

i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
.
I

So
m
e
ar
e
re
se
rv
ed
I

p
o
r
t
s
n
u
m
b
e

r
0
1
0
2
3
a
r
e
r
e
s
e
r
v
e
d
(
f
o
r
w
h
a
t
a
n
d

b
y
w
h
o
m
e
m
a
y
b
e
s
e
e
n
i
n
t
h
e
f
i
l

e
/
e
t
c
/
s
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
(
o
n

U
N
I
X
/
L
i
n
u
x
)
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g
.
t
h
e
f
o
l
l
o
w
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n
g
:
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p
or
t
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r
e
c
h
o

p
or
t
2
02
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r
ft
p
p
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2
3
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r
te
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et
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t
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5
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r
s
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e
n
d
em
ail
)
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t
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r
ht
tp
(
w
e
b
s
er
v
er
)
p
or
t
11
0
fo
r
P
O
P
3
(r
e

a
d
em
ail
)

DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
14 / 23

Network basics

Intra
net
There
are
other
networ
ks with
the
same
structu
re.
Local
networ
ks are
usually
called
intrane
t. They

may
link to
the
interne
t with
special
bridge
s.
Someti
mes
the
bridge
uses
filtering
device
s to
restrict
the
data
traffic
betwee
n the

networ
ks.

212.2

bridge

192.168.0.2

wireless connection point

Network basics

The
client
serv
er
mod
el

T
o
d
a
y
,
t
h

e
c
l
i
e
n
t
s
e
r
v
e
r
m
o
d
e
l
i
s
t
h
e
p
r
e
v

a
i
l
i
n
g
w
h
e
n
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
n
g
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u

t
e
d
,
c
o
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
g

r
a
m
s
.
I

a
c
l
i
e
n
t
a
s
k
s
a
s
e
r
v
e
r

f
o
r
a
s
e
r
v
i
c
e
(
a
s
e
g
.
i
n
f
o
r
m

a
t
i
o
n
a
b
o
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t
t
h
e

t
i
m
e
)
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s
e
r
v
e

r
a
c
c
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m
p
l
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s
h
e
s
t
h
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c
o
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r
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s
p
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n
d
i
n

g
t
a
s
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a
n
d
d
e
l
i
v
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r
s
t
h
e
s
e
r
v
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c
e

(
l
i
k
e
s
e
n
d
i
n
g
t
i
m
e
i
n
f
o
,
s
e
n
d
i

n
g
a
f
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l
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f
r
o
m
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t
s
l
o
c
a
l
f
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l
e
s

y
s
t
e
m
,
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g
.
a
w
e
b
p
a
g
e
)
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b
o
t
h
f
o

l
l
o
w
i
n
g
a
p
r
o
t
o
c
o
l
t
h
a
t
e
n
a
b

l
e
s
a
s
k
i
n
g
f
o
r
a
n
d
p
r
o
v
i
d
i
n

g
s
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
o
v
e
r
t
h
e
n
e
t
w
o
r
k

DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
16 / 23

Network basics

The
clientserver
model .
..

N
ot
all
ki
nd
s
of
ap
pli
ca
tio
n
pr
og

ra
m
s
fit
int
o
th
e
cli
en
tse
rv
er
m
od
el.
So
m
e
ac
t
si
m
ult
an
eo
us

ly
as
bo
th
cli
en
t
an
d
se
rv
er
an
d,
if
bo
th
e
nd
s
of
a
co
m
m
un
ic
ati

on
do
,
th
at
co
m
m
un
ic
ati
on
is
ca
lle
d
pe
ertope
er
.
Eg
:
I

a
s

h
a
r
e
d

e
d
i
t
o
r
a
g
a
m
e
(
r
u
n
e
s
c
a
p
e
,
w
o
r
l
d

o
f
w
a
r
c
r
a
f
t
,
.
.
.
)
a
t
e
l
e
p
h
o
n
e
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n

DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
17 / 23

Network basics

RFC
(Req
uest
for
com
ment
s)

So
m
e
int
er
ne
t
st
an
da
rd
s

ha
ve
be
en
de
ve
lo
pe
d
pu
bli
cly
alr
ea
dy
fro
m
th
e
pr
ot
ot
yp
e
st
ag
e
Th
eir
pr

ot
co
ls
ar
e
pu
bli
cly
ac
ce
ssi
bl
e
on
th
e
int
er
ne
t
I

Th
es
e
pro
toc
ols
fit
int
o
the
foll
ow
ing

cat
eg
ori
es:
I

M
a
n
d
a
t
o
r
y

e
a
c
h
h
o
s
t
m
u

s
t
i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
t
h
e
m
,
e
g
.
I
P
I

R
e
c
o

m
m
e
n
d
e
d

t
h
a
t
o
u
g
h
t
t
o
b
e
i
m
p
l
e

m
e
n
t
e
d
,
e
g
.
T
C
P
,
S
M
T
P
,
U
D
P
,
T
e
l
N

e
t
,
.
.
.
I

O
p
t
i
o
n
a
l
,
l
i
k
e
M
I
M
E

R
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
e
d
,
t
h
a
t
a
r
e
n
e
c
c
e
s
s
a
r
y
o
n
l
y
i
n
s
p
e
c
i
a

l
c
a
s
e
s
I

N
o
t
r
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
d
e
d
,
t
h
a
t
s
h
o
u
l
d
n
o
t
b
e
i
m
p
l

e
m
e
n
t
e
d
I

H
i
s
t
o
r
i
c
a
l
(
o
b
s
o
l
e
t
e
,
d
e
p
r
e
c
a
t
e
d
)
I
n

f
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e
,
t
h
a
t
m
a
y
h
a
v
e
b
e
e
n
c
o

n
s
t
r
u
c
t
e
d
o
u
t
s
i
d
e
t
h
e
R
F
C
b
u
t
s
t

i
l
l
a
r
e
u
s
e
f
u
l
w
i
t
h
o
u
t
d
e
l
i
v
e
r
i
n

g
a
n
e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
p
r
o
t
o
c
o
l

DD1335

(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
18 / 23

Network basics

HTT
P,
HTM
L,
XHT
ML,
MIM
E

HTT
P,
Hype
rText
Tran
sfer

Prot
ocol,
I

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
p
r
o
t
o
c
o
l
f
o
r
t
h
e
c
o
m

m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
w
e
b
s
e
r
v
e
r

a
n
d
a
w
e
b
c
l
i
e
n
t
(
w
e
b
b
r
o
w
s
e
r
)
I

HTM
L,
Hype
rText
Mark
up
Lang
uage
I

t
h
e
f
i
r
s
t
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o

n
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
l
a
n
g
u
a
g
e
f
o
r
t
h
e
c
o
n

t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
o
f
w
e
b
p
a
g
e
s
,
a
s
u
b
s
e
t

t
o
S
G
M
L
w
i
t
h
e
x
t
r
a
e
r
r
o
r
t
o
l
e
r

a
n
c
e
I

X
H
T
M
L
,
e
X
t
e
n
s
i
b
l
e
H
T
M
L

,
s
e
c
o
n
d
g
e
n
er
at
io
n
la
n
g
u
a
g
e
fo
r
th
e
c
o
nt

ru
ct
io
n
of
w
e
b
p
a
g
e
s,
H
T
M
L
a
s
a
st
ri
ct
s
u
b
s
et
to

X
M
L
I

MIM
E,
Multi
purp
ose
Inter
net
Mail
Exte
nsio
n
I

a
n
o
p
e
n
s
t
a

n
d
a
r
d
t
h
a
t
d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e
s
h
o
w
m
u
l
t
i
m

e
d
i
a
o
b
j
e
c
t
s
a
r
e
t
o
b
e
t
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
t

e
d
b
y
e
m
a
i
l

DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
19 / 23

Network basics

URL,
URI,
URN

URI,
Unifo
rm
Reso
urce
Ident
ifier
I

d
e
f
i
n
e
h
o
w

t
o
u
n
i
q
u
e
l
y
i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y
a
r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
o
n
t
h
e
i
n

t
e
r
n
e
t
i
s
d
i
v
i
d
e
d
i
n
t
o
t
h
e
s
u
b
g
r
o
u
p
s
U
R
L
a
n
d

U
R
N
I

URL,
Unifo
rm
Reso
urce
Loca
tor
I

a
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
f
o
r
a
n
a
d
d
r

s
s
o
n
t
h
e
i
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
I

l
o
o
k
s
l
i
k
e
:
p
r
o
t
o
c
o
l
:
/
/
h
o
s
t
[
:
p
o
r
t
]
/

p
a
t
h
/
f
il
e
[
#
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
]
I

e
g
:

ht
tp
://
w
w
w.
cs
c.
kt
h.
s
e:
8
0
8
0/
d
d

1
3
3
5/
gr
ui
nt
0
9/
la
b
s/
#l
a
b
2

URN
,
Univ
ersal
Reso
urce
Nam
e
I


p
o
i
n
t
e
r

t
o
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s
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w
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t
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k
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h
e
s
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t
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f
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R
L
s
(
t
h
e
p
o
s
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o
n
s
o

f
a
l
l
t
h
e
d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
s
)

DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
20 / 23

Network basics

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DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
21 / 23

Network basics

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DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
22 / 23

Network basics

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DD1335
(Lecture 1)
Basic Internet
Programming
Spring 2010
23 / 23