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OPTICS KIT

USER MANUAL

Version 1.0

A COLLABORATIVE PROJECT FOR SCHOOLS


BY
ROTARY BANGALORE BRIGADES
&
SEED Foundation

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Dear Teacher,
Welcome to the world of Optics! As you read on, in the next few
minutes, we will introduce you to a variety of experiments you
can show to the students of class VIII-X that will further the
understanding of the properties of light. You will notice that as
you go along, the kit will help you reach out to the students more
effectively and they will enthusiastically participate in class room
discussions.
To get the best out of the kit, form groups of five students and let
them do the experiments collaborating among themselves; they
will understand the subject better. Interesting quizzes can be
conducted for the groups to test their understanding.
The kit is ruggedized, assuming that the students will be working
on the kit, hands on.
A. INTRODUCTION

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The kit has two compartments the top compartment is the


ray
box
generating
single or triple rays as
required and the bottom
compartment houses the
various
components
required to conduct the
experiments. The light
rays generated in the
ray box streak through
an aperture and across the swinging display panel mounted on
a crown hinge near the aperture. Lenses, mirrors and a number
of acrylic slabs are used to conduct a range of experiments,
numbering over 25. Experiments relate to the properties of
lenses, mirrors and slabs. The principle of periscope, eye
correction, real images and dispersion can also be
demonstrated.
The display panel has embedded magnets and the components
have a metal plate stuck to a side so that the components can
be positioned as required on the display panel. For mounting
lenses on the display panel, for lens-related experiments, slots
are provided on the display panel.
B. EXPERIMENTS Getting started
1. Single ray generation:
Insert the single slit in the ray box. Adjust the movable
Plano-convex platform to obtain a single ray through the
aperture and parallel to the display panel as you swing the
panel away from the aperture. Each time the single slit is
used
to
conduct
experiments,
ensure
proper propagation of
the ray as detailed as
above.
2. Triple ray generation:
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Insert the triple slit in the ray box. Adjust the movable Planoconvex platform to obtain triple rays through the aperture
and parallel to the display panel as you swing the panel
away from the aperture. Observe the triple rays, parallel to
each other, beaming on the display panel. The central beam
of light is the principle axis. Each time the triple slit is used
to conduct experiments, ensure proper propagation of the
rays as detailed as above.

C.

ABOUT LENSES
A lens is
merely
a
carefully
ground
or
moulded
piece
of
transparent material that
refracts light rays in such
as way as to form an
image. Lenses can be thought of as a series of tiny refracting
prisms, each of which refracts light to produce their own
image. When these prisms act together, they produce a bright
image focused at a point.
Types of Lenses
There are a variety of types of lenses. Our focus will be upon
lenses that are symmetrical across their horizontal axis known as the principal axis. Lenses can be categorised as
converging lenses and diverging lenses. A converging lens is
a lens that converges rays of light that are travelling parallel to
its principal axis. A diverging lens is a lens that diverges rays
of light that are travelling parallel to its principal axis.
A double convex lens is symmetrical across both its
horizontal and vertical axis. Each of the lens' two faces can be
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thought of as originally being part of a sphere. The fact that a


double convex lens is thicker across its middle is an indicator
that it will converge rays of light that travel parallel to its
principal axis. A double convex lens is a converging lens.
A double concave lens is also symmetrical across both its
horizontal and vertical axis. The two faces of a double concave
lens can be thought of as originally being part of a sphere. The
fact that a double concave lens is thinner across its middle is
an indicator that it will diverge rays of light that travel parallel
to its principal axis. A double concave lens is a diverging lens.
These two types of lenses - a double convex and a double
concave lens will be the only types of lenses that will be
discussed in our experiments.

Language of Lenses
As we begin to discuss the refraction of light rays and the
formation of images by these two types of lenses, we will need
to use a variety of terms. If a symmetrical lens were thought of
as being a slice of a sphere, then there would be a line passing
through the center of the sphere and attaching to the exact
center of the lens. This imaginary line is known as
the principal axis. A lens also has an imaginary vertical
axis that
bisects
the
symmetrical
lens
into
halves. If the light rays
converge
(as
in
a
converging lens), then they
will converge to a point on the principal axis. This point is
known as the focal point of the converging lens. If the light
rays diverge (as in a diverging lens), then the diverging rays
can be traced backwards until they intersect at a point on the
principal axis. This intersection point is known as the focal
point of a diverging lens. The focal point is denoted by the
letter f on the diagrams below. Note that each lens has two
focal points - one on each side of the lens. Unlike mirrors,
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lenses can allow light to pass through either face, depending


on where the incident rays are coming from. Subsequently,
every lens has two possible focal points. The distance from the
lens to the focal point is known as the focal
length (abbreviated by f). Technically, a lens does not have a
center of curvature (at least not one that has any importance
to our discussion). However a lens does have an imaginary
point that we refer to as the 2f point. This is the point on the
principal axis that is twice as far from the vertical axis as the
focal point is.
D.EXPERIMENTS
3. Convergent beam of light:
Insert the triple slit in the ray box. Insert a double convex
lens into one of the slots on the display panel. Observe the
top and bottom rays converging on to the principle axis, as
you slowly swing the display panel away from the aperture.

4. Divergent beam of light:


Insert the triple slit in the ray box. Insert a double concave
lens into one of the slots on the display panel. Observe the
top and bottom rays diverging from the principle axis, as you
slowly swing the display panel away from the aperture.

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5. Convergence by Concave Mirror:


Position the concave mirror on the display panel so that the
center of the mirror is in line with the principle axis. The top
and bottom rays reflect from the concave mirror and
converge to a point on the principle axis.

6. Divergence by Convex Mirror:


Position the convex mirror on the display panel so that the
center of the mirror is in line with the principle axis. The top
and bottom rays reflect from the convex mirror and diverge
away from the principle axis.

7. Reflection by plane mirror:


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Insert the double convex lens of focal length 10 cms. Fix a


strip of paper on the display panel. Slowly swing the display
panel outwards until the parallel rays converge to the focal
point. Mark the focal point f2 and two points on the principle
axis, p1 and p2. Also mark points d1, d2 and d3, d4 on the
converging rays. Place a plane mirror bar somewhere
between f2 and the lens; mark two points at the mirror
location, m1 and m2. Let the point of intersection of m1, m2
and p1, p2 be m. Note that the rays reflect from the plane
mirror and converge to a focal point f1. Remove the paper
and join m1 & m2, p1 & p2, d1 & d2 and d3 & d4. Extend the
lines behind the mirror until d1, d2 and d3, d4 meet at f2 on
the principle axis. Measure f1-m and m-f2 and note that
f1m=mf2. This holds true wherever the mirror bar is placed,
before f2. If f1 is
the object, rays
travelling
from
f1, reflect and
diverge from the
mirror and when
extended
backwards, meet at f2.

8. Laws of reflection:
The
reflection of
light from a
plane mirror
can
be
summarized
by
the
following
laws:

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1. The angle of incidence (B) is equal to the angle of


Reflection (C)
2.The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal to the
surface at the point
of incidence all lie in the same plane.
Note the normal line and the use of shading to represent the
back of the mirror.

Remember that with a glass mirror the reflecting surface


(usually a thin layer of aluminium or silver) is placed on the
back of the mirror and then covered with a protective layer.
This means that although the main reflected image comes
from this surface light will also reflect from the front surface
of the glass. This will give a secondary image which is much

weaker that the main image. This is usually invisible in


everyday life but would create severe problems in
astronomy. For this reason all astronomical mirrors have their
reflecting surface formed on the front of the glass.

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Fix a strip of paper on the display panel. Insert the single slit
in the ray box and adjust the Plano convex lens so that a
single ray appears on the display panel. Position the
protractor on the display panel so that the mirror strip is
facing the ray and the center of the protractor and the zero
reading on the protractor is aligned and in line with the ray.
Slowly rotate the protractor anticlockwise on its axis and
observe the reflected ray. Note that the reading of the
incident ray is always equal to the reading of the reflected
ray.
At some point, mark a b and c d on the incident and the
reflected rays. Mark e f along the mirror strip on the
protractor. Mark the point h, coinciding with the zero
reading on the protractor. Remove the paper strip from the
display panel and join a b, c d and e f. Let a b and c d meet e
f at g. Bisect the angle formed by a b and c d and observe
that it passes through the point h. Note that:
Angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
Try with various angles of incidence and note that the law
holds true for all angles.
9. Multiple reflections - mirrors at an angle:
Ensure single ray on the display panel. Place the two plane
mirror bars facing each other as shown in the ray diagram.
The mirrors are at an angle. This phenomenon is called
multiple reflections. Observe the nature of reflected rays.

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10.

Multiple reflections mirrors in parallel:

Move the mirror bars so that they are parallel to each other.
Observe that the rays moving back and forth are alternately
parallel to each other.

11.

Principle of periscope:

Place the mirror sub-assembly that contains two plane


mirrors that are parallel to each other and set at an angle
of 45 0 to the path of the incident ray. The ray incident on the
first mirror gets reflected towards the second mirror. After
reflection from the second mirror it travels parallel to the
incident ray.

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12.

Interaction of light with matter:


Place the rectangular slab obliquely in the path of the single
ray. Note that when light incidents on a denser matter:
Part
is

of it

reflected, Part of it is transmitted, & Part of it is absorbed


To confirm absorption, notice the intensity of light as it
passes through the slab is less than the intensity of light of
the incident ray.

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13.

Interaction of light through rectangular slab:

Place the rectangular slab obliquely to the path of the


incident ray. Swing the display panel such that the ray
incidents on the slab and passes through it. Observe that the
incident ray changes its path as it enters the slab (refracted
ray) as also as it exits the slab (emergent ray).
The deviation in the path of the ray when it travels from one
medium to another is called refraction.

14.

Convergence through semi circular slab:

Use the triple slit. Position the semi-circular slab such that
the curved surface is facing the incident rays. Observe that
the rays converge to a point on the normal ray.

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15.

Critical angle:

Use the single slit. Position the semi-circular slab such that
the curved surface faces the incident ray. Being normal to
the curved surface, the incident ray does not bend as it
passes through the slab. It refracts away from the normal
when it comes out of the slab since it is travelling from a
denser medium to a rarer medium.
Slowly increase the angle of incidence by rotating the slab
on its axis, anti-clockwise. Note that the angle of refraction
also increases. At a particular angle of incidence, the
refracted ray emerging out of the slab grazes the plane
surface of the slab. Notice that the angle of refraction is 90 0.
The angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction
becomes 900 is called critical angle.

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16.

Total internal reflection:

Continue with the previous experiment. Turn the semicircular slab such that the angle of incidence increases. The
incidence ray is totally reflected inside the slab. This
phenomenon is called total internal reflection.

17.

Focal length of convex lens:

The single point to which the light rays are converging is


called the focal point. The distance, f, from the lens to the
focal point is the focal length. Each lens and mirror has its
own focal length, which is its defining characteristic.
Note, however, that in showing the focal length of the lens
above, we used light rays that were all parallel as they came
to the lens. This isn't always the case: we can have light rays
incident at different angles.
Use the triple slit in the ray box and adjust the Plano-convex
lens so that parallel rays emerge through the aperture. Place
a paper strip on the display panel and insert one of the three
convex lenses provided, in the first slot of the display panel.
As you slowly swing the display panel away from the
aperture, you will notice that the top and bottom rays
converge towards the normal ray and meet at a point on the
normal ray. Mark the point on the paper strip, the normal ray
and the position of the lens. The distance between the lens
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and the point of convergence is the focal length of the


convex lens.
Try with the remaining lenses and measure their focal
lengths.

18.

Focal length of concave lens:

Concave lens, as we have seen, diverges light and can't


bring light beams to a focus. The image, if there was one,
would have been on the same side of the lens as the source
(the light). This kind of image on the same side as the source
is called a virtual image. It's an image that isn't really there;
the focal point in the drawing above is just the point where
the rays would converge if they could. We can't focus the
beams onto a piece of paper, for instance like you tried
earlier. The strange thing about a virtual image, however, is
that we can see it!
Ensure triple slit slab in
the aperture. Place a
paper strip on the display
panel. Insert one of the
two
concave
lenses
provided, in the first slot of the display panel. As you slowly
swing the display panel away from the aperture, you will
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notice that the top and bottom rays diverge away from the
normal ray. Mark the position of the lens and two points on
each of the divergent rays. Take out the paper strip and
extend the diverging rays backwards until they meet at a
point on the normal ray. This is the focal point of the lens and
the distance between the focal point and the lens is the focal
length of the lens. Try with the other concave lens and
determine its focal length.

19.

Focal length of concave mirror:

The diagram shows a ray tracing image of a concave


mirror, showing how a sample ray of light bounces off it.
Though we will take this image as an example, the same
principles and vocabulary apply to convex mirrors and to
lenses as well.
The principal axis of a mirror or lens is a normal that
typically runs through the center of the mirror or lens.
The vertex, represented by V in the diagram, is the point
where the principal axis
intersects the mirror or
lens.
The only kind of curved
mirrors that we have used
in our experiments are
spherical mirrors, meaning
they look like someone
sliced off a piece of a
sphere. Spherical mirrors have a center of curvature,
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represented by C in the diagram, which is the center of the


sphere of which they are a slice. The radius of that sphere is
called the radius of curvature, R.
All rays of light that run parallel to the principal axis will be
reflectedor refracted in the case of lensesthrough the
same point, called the focal point, and denoted by F on the
diagram. Conversely, a ray of light that passes through the
focal point will be reflected parallel to the principal axis.
The focal length, f, is defined as the distance between the
vertex and the focal point. For spherical mirrors, the focal
length is half the radius of curvature, f = R/2.
Place a paper strip on the display panel. Position the concave
mirror such that the reflected normal ray and the incident
normal ray are on the same path. Mark the position of the
mirror. Observe that the reflected parallel rays converge on
to the normal ray and meet at the focal point of the mirror.
Mark the focal point and the points of reflection of the

parallel rays on the mirror. Remove the strip of paper and


draw the ray diagram. Note that the distance between the
focal point and the mirror is its focal length.
20.

Focal length of convex mirror:


The focal point of a
convex mirror is behind
the mirror, so light
parallel to the principal
axis is reflected away
from the focal point.
Similarly, light moving
toward the focal point is
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reflected parallel to the principal axis. The result is a virtual,


upright image, between the mirror and the focal point.
Place a paper strip on the display panel. Position the convex
mirror such that the reflected normal ray and the incident
normal ray are on the same path. Mark the position of the
mirror. Observe that the reflected parallel rays diverge away
from the normal ray. Mark the position of the mirror and two
points on each of the diverging rays and normal ray. Remove
the strip of paper and draw the ray diagram. Note that the
distance between the focal point and the mirror is its focal
length. Produce the divergent rays and normal ray
backwards beyond the position of the mirror. Observe that
the divergent rays and the normal ray meet at a point and
this is the focal point and the distance between the mirror
and the focal point is the focal length of the convex mirror.

21.

Dispersion of light:

Use the single slit and position the prism such that the
incident ray meets the prism as shown in the ray diagram.
Observe that the white incident ray as it emerges from the
prism splits into its constituent colours (VIBGYOR).This
phenomenon is called dispersion of light. Hold a sheet of
paper below the display window and observe the vibrant
colors are displayed on the paper.

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22.
Total internal reflection using the right-angled
prism:
Use the single slit slab. Position the right angled prism as
shown in the ray diagram. Observe that the incident ray
totally reflects perpendicular to the incident ray.

CONVERGING AND DIVERGING PRISMS AS LENSES:


If a piece of glass or other transparent material takes on the
appropriate shape, it is possible that parallel incident rays
would either converge to a point or appear to be diverging
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from a point. A piece of glass that has such a shape is


referred to as a lens.
Lenses
can
be
thought of as a
series
of
tiny
refracting prisms,
each
of
which
refracts light to
produce their own
image. When these
prisms
act
together,
they
produce a bright image focused at a point.

23.

Convex lens as a composition of prisms:


Use the triple slit slab. An assembly of two prisms and a slab
is provided in the kit, with the apex of two prisms on either
side of the slab facing outwards. Position the assembly such
that the incident ray passes through the slab. Observe that
the parallel rays on either side of the normal ray converge to
a point on the normal ray - its focal length. The assembly of
prisms hence acts as a convex lens.
24.

Concave lens as a composition of prisms :

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Use the triple slit slab. An assembly of two prisms and a slab is
provided in the kit, with the apex of two prisms on either side
of the slab facing inwards. Position the assembly such that the
incident ray passes through the slab. Observe that the parallel
rays on either side of the normal ray diverge away
from the normal ray. You may position a strip of paper on the
display panel and mark points on the diverging rays, normal
ray and the position of the
assembly. Extend the diverging rays backwards so that they
converge on the normal ray. The point where the diverging rays
meet the normal ray is the focal point of the concave assembly
and the distance between the focal point and the assembly, its
focal length. The assembly of prisms hence acts as a concave
lens.
25.

Correcting eye defect Myopia:

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Nearsightedness or myopia is the inability of the eye to


focus on distant objects. The nearsighted eye has no
difficulty viewing nearby objects. But the ability to view
distant objects requires that the light be refracted less.
Nearsightedness will result in the images of distant objects
form in front of the retina. On the retinal surface, where the
light-detecting nerve cells are located, the image is not
focused. These nerve cells thus detect a blurry image of
distant objects.
The cure for the nearsighted eye is to equip it with a
diverging lens. Since the nature of the problem of
nearsightedness is that the light is focused in front of the
retina, a diverging lens will serve to diverge light before it
reaches the eye. This light will then be converged by the
cornea and lens to produce an image on the retina.

Insert
the
double
convex mirror
(focal length
10cms) in the
second
slot
on the display panel. Use the triple slit and observe that the
rays converge on to the principle axis at the focal point.
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Assume the convex lens to be the eye lens. If the retina is at


the focal point, normal vision occurs. If the retina is further
away from the focal point, distant objects appear blurred.
Now insert a concave lens in the first slot and note that the

focal length increases and by using the concave lens of the


right focal length, the image of the distance object can be
made to occur on the retina, there by correcting the eye
defect.
Notice the double convex lens in the second slot. This is
deemed as the eye lens. The focal point is in front of the
retina, indicating that a correction is needed to push the
focal point to the surface of the retina.

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A diverging (concave) lens is inserted in the first slot and of


the appropriate focal length, to shift the focal point on to the
retina.
26.
Correcting
metropia):

eye defect Hyperopia (or Hyper

Farsightedness
or hyperopia is
the inability of the
eye to focus on
nearby
objects.
The
farsighted
eye has no difficulty viewing distant objects. But the ability
to view nearby objects requires a different lens shape - a
shape that the farsighted eye is unable to assume.
Subsequently, the farsighted eye is unable to focus on
nearby objects that result in the lens of the eye no longer
able to assume the high curvature that is required to view
nearby objects. The lens' power to refract light has
diminished and the images of nearby objects are focused at
a location behind the retina. On the retinal surface, where
the light-detecting nerve cells are located, the image is not
focused. These nerve cells thus detect a blurry image of
nearby objects.

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The cure for the farsighted eye centers on assisting the lens
in refracting the light. Since the lens can no longer assume
the convex and highly curved shape that is required to view
nearby objects, it needs some help. Thus, the farsighted eye
is assisted by the use of a converging lens. This converging
lens will refract light before it enters the eye and
subsequently decreases the image distance. By beginning
the refraction process prior to light reaching the eye, the
image of nearby objects is once again focused upon the
retinal surface.
Insert the double convex lens (focal length 10cms) in the second
slot on the display panel. Use the triple slit and observe that the
rays converge on to the principle axis at the focal point. Assume
the convex lens to be the eye lens. If the retina is at the focal
point, normal vision occurs. If the retina is closer to the lens
compared to the focal point, closer object appears blurred. Now
insert a converging lens in the first slot and note that the focal
length decreases. Hence,

by
lens

using a converging
of the right focal
length, the image of
the
distant object can
be
made to occur on
the Retina, there by correcting the eye defect.

Notice the double convex lens in the second slot. This is deemed
as the eye lens. The focal point is behind the retina, indicating
that a correction is needed to push the focal point to the surface
of the retina.

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A converging (convex) lens is inserted in the first slot and of the


appropriate focal length, to shift the focal point on to the retina.

27.

Concave mirror; Object-image relations:

There is a definite relationship between the image


characteristics and the location where an object is placed in
front of a concave mirror. The purpose of this experiment is
to practice the LOST art of image description.
The L of LOSTrepresents
the
relative
location.
The O of LOST represents the orientation (either upright
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or inverted). The S of LOST represents the relative size


(either magnified, reduced or the same size as the object).
And the T of LOST represents the type of image (either
real or virtual). The best means of summarizing this
relationship
between
object
location
and
image
characteristics is to divide the possible object locations into
five general areas or points:
- Case 1: The object is located beyond c
- Case 2: The object is located at C
- Case 3: The object is located between C and F
- Case 4: The object is located at F
- Case 5: The object is located in front of F
Where C = Center of curvature and F = Focal point
Case 1: The object is located beyond C
Image Location: Between C & F.
Orientation: Inverted
Size: Smaller than the object
Type: Real
Case 2: The object is located at C
Image Location: At C
Orientation: Inverted
Size: Same as the Object
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Type: Real
Case 3: The object is located between C
and F
Image Location: Beyond C
Orientation: Inverted
Size: Larger than the object
Type: Real

Case 4: The object is located at F


Image Location: At F
Orientation: No Image
Size: No image
Type: No image
Case 5: The object is located in front
of F
Image Location: Beyond focal point
Orientation: Upright
Size: Larger than the object
Type: Virtual
It might be noted from the above descriptions that there is a
relationship between the object distance and object size and
the image distance and image size. Starting from a large
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value, as the object distance decreases (i.e., the object is


moved closer to the mirror), the image distance increases;
meanwhile, the image height increases. At the center of
curvature, the object distance equals the image distance
and the object height equals the image height. As the
object distance approaches one focal length, the image
distance and image height approaches infinity. Finally,
when the object distance is equal to exactly one focal length,
there is no image. Then, altering the object distance to
values less than one focal length produces images that are
upright, virtual and located on the opposite side of the
mirror. Finally, if the object distance approaches 0, the image
distance approaches 0 and the image height ultimately
becomes equal to the object height.
When an Object AB is placed at the Center of Curvature, a
ray at A travels parallel to the principle axis and passes
through the focal point F. Another ray starting from A passes
through the focal point F and reflects parallel to the principle
axis. After reflection, the two rays meet at the center of
curvature to form an inverted image which is real and same
size as the object as shown
in the ray diagram.
You will need:
a. A two-cell LED torch.
b. An object, as shown, cut
from paper and pasted on
the torch.
c. A 75mm dia, 10cm focal length concave mirror
d. A mirror/lens holding stand
Place the mirror in front of the object. Hold a paper above
the mirror and adjust its distance from the object until a
sharp image is formed on the paper. Vary the distance
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between the mirror and the object and obtain the image on
the paper. Observe the LOST properties of the image.
28.

Converging Lenses; Object-Image relations:

There is a definite relationship between the image


characteristics and the location where an object placed in
front of a double convex lens. The best means of
summarizing this relationship is to divide the possible object
locations into five general areas or
points:
Case 1: the object is
located beyond the 2F point
Case 2: the object is located
point
Case 3: the object is located
focal point (F)
Case 4: the object is located
Case 5: the object is located

at the 2F
between the 2F point and the
at the focal point (F)
in front of the focal point (F)

Case 1: The object is located beyond 2F


Image Location: Between F and 2F
Orientation: Inverted
Size: Smaller than the Object
Type: Real
Case 2: The object is located at 2F
Image Location: At 2F

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Orientation: Inverted
Size: Same as Object
Type: Real
Case 3: The object is located between 2F and F
Image location: Beyond 2F
Orientation: Inverted
Size: Larger than the Object
Type: Real

Case 4: The object is located at F


When the object is located at the focal point,
no image is formed.
Case 5: The object is located in front of F
When the object is located at a location in front of the focal
point, the image will always be located somewhere on the
same side of the lens as the object. Regardless of exactly
where in front of F the object is located, the image will always
be located on the object's side of the lens and somewhere
further from the lens. The image is located behind the object.
Image Location: Between 2F & F
Orientation: Upright
Size: Larger than the Object
Type: Virtual
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Light rays diverge upon refraction; for this reason, the image
location can only be found by extending the refracted rays
backwards on the object's side the lens. The
point of their intersection is the virtual image
location. It would appear to any observer as
though light from the object were diverging from
this location. Any attempt to project such an
image upon a sheet of paper would fail since light does not
actually pass through the image location.
You will need:
a. A two-cell LED torch.
b. An object, as shown, cut from paper and pasted on the
torch.
c. A 10cm focal length double convex lens (supplied)
d. A mirror/lens holding stand
Place the torch in front of the Lens. Place a sheet of paper
behind the lens; capture the image on the paper by moving
the paper towards or away from the lens. Observe the image
characteristics as the object is moved to different locations.

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We need your help!


The Optics kit is scalable, meaning, additional experiments can be
thought of using the components supplied or by adding
components. If you have any suggestions, improvements or
additional experiments thought of, do share your views with us so
that we can consider further enhancing the utility of the kit.
Do kindly give us your feedback on the comprehensiveness, ease
of understanding and utility of this manual so that we can
improve the effectiveness of the manual.
SEED Foundation
# 26, Eshwar Prasad, Model House Street,
Adjacent to Cauvery Handlooms,
Basavanagudi, Bengaluru 560 004, Karnataka
Contact:
Shivakumar 09845076483 Shivtcg@yahoo.com
Suresh
09880578241
Or seedfoundation2015@gmail.com

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