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GEOMETRIC

MODELING

(Second

Edition)

E. Mortenson

Michael

Wiley Computer Publishing

John

New

Wiley

York

and
Chichester

\342\226\240

Sons,

Inc.
.

Weinheim

. Brisbane

. Singapore

- Toronto

PREFACE

Geometric

is

now

come

to affect the lives

image

construction

Geometric

heroes and heroines
worlds to conquer.The
years

Many

have

and

contenders

Cup

designs,

pleasing

beyond

phenomena

even speeds

the

design

our movie

challenges

virtual

fantastic

more

ever

with

more

of

displays

graphic

America's

of

construction

consumer

choices through customizedproduction.

just a few years ago. It

to visualize

power

anyone's

scientists

gives

modeling

and

efficient,

costs, and providing more

lowering

and

automobiles,

aircraft,

more

safer,

possible

products\342\200\224making

and

of

manufacture

and

of computer-

It is the basis

devices.

accurate

and

fast

the

diagnostic

It has

world-wide.

practiced

of us all. It makes possible

of medical

aided design

and

studied,

taught,

modeling

and

to slay

dragons

end is not in sight.
since

passed

of Geometric

of the first edition

publication

for
those
of us
years
Modeling. They have been productive
in the field. During this time two compelling circumstances
working
and
of this second edition. The first is the
affected
the
creation
and

exciting

have

motivated

progress occurring

second

applications.The
of

readers

the

first

substantial

revision

is

teachers,

a descendant
both

reflecting

from

comments

the

edition\342\200\224students,

clearly

Although

itself,

modeling

geometric

new

and

supercomputers

modeling
to

workstations

and

PCs.

demands

and

spread

The

from

usefulness

client

alike.

a maturing

affordability

of

of

a generation

professionals

developments

have

applications

almost

of vigorous

of the first, this second edition is

With the increased capability, availabiliiy,and
geometric

a result

as

and of increasingly more sophisticated

research

ongoing

within

of

mainframes

of geometric

a

discipline.

computers,

and

modeling

has

ix

from its initial applications

broadened

now

and

industries

the

and

Commercials

television

and

cinematography

fonts. Considering all
entirely
vision, and scientific visualization
computer
is

need

millennium\342\200\224the

for

growing

and

describing

the

at

look

comprehensive

of Geometric

edition

second

The

the

all

comparing

more

elements

into

and showing

students,

teachers,

those

will serve

edition
and

resource,

visualization,

or

primary

reasons,

three

are

There

assemble

of geometric

functions

important

functions. Chapter
Chapters

2

I

are

5

through

their mathematical
the

and
to

attempts

its

discusses

briefly

including

content

The

fillets).

history

bicubic

quadric,

parametric

and

operations,

solids,

nonlinear

controlled

10 addresses

and B-Spline;

Bezier,

still

Surfaces,

are the subjects

B-Spline,

the

as well as simple
of

and

Bezier,

Hermite,

instanciation

and

transformations

Hemiite,

these

mathematics.

underlying

mostly

reflect

is geometric

What

question,

the

text

this

representation, modification, and analysis.

of Chapters 6 through 9. Chapter
trivariate

the

curves:

about

all

and

shape

of intersections,

of

organization
and

to

solids),

computation

answer

to represent

objects, and to process the

example,

(for

geometry

and

It

For

disciplines.

modeling:

and

surfaces,

into more complex

forms

those

concomitant

modeling?

on the

and programming

algorithms

elementary forms (for example, curves,

offsets,

focus

special

application-oriented

is as free

Its language

textbook.

supplementary

omitted.

are

techniques

the

as

primarily

of

same

others.

many

among

a textbook,
intended to be used
well as a professional tutorial and reference,

of

necessary

and its

modeling

as practical from the jargon
so that
it may
applications
geometry and be universally accessible across a wide range
these

for

it is intended

of geometric

the first edition was

second
teaching

for modeling

assemble

and

first edition,

scientific

and

robotics,

manufacturing,

While

modeling,

structures
shape

field

the

in

professionals

to

how

a

applications, including computer graphics, computer-aided design

primary
and

and

of geometric

the

Like

modeling.

geometric

mathematical

models.

complex

fields and client

offers the reader

concepts

important

curves, surfaces, and solids,

in

current

third

the

in all the related

Modeling

core

indispensable

bringing us into

practitioners

applications to be knowledgeableand

as virtual

such

fields

of type
reality,

control

and

design

new

with

this\342\200\224and

automotive

and

aerospace

areas as special effects in

diverse

such

includes

the

in

esoteric

world

of

shape generation through
primitive
Much

parameterized
deformations.

shapes,
sweep
of the power

of

geometric modeling resides in its capacity to synthesize,
of much simpler ones;
as arrangements
describe
complex
shapes

contemporary
allowing

us

to

thus, the subject
the topology
graph-based,

of

Chapter

11

is complex

model

construction,

of models and proceeding
theory
and space-partitioning
Boolean,
boundary,
with

the

and

beginning

with

application

of

models. Chapter 12

Preface

synthesis. Appendices
Appendix

the

on

discussion

a

presents

not

the scope
and

offsets

For

text.

this

of

are no! discussed

nontensor

textbook,

mentioned,

matrix

geometric

has

modeling

a one-

for
in

level

graduate

any

methods.

in

recent

as computer

long

recognized in its
of computer
ingredient

I must

model

of

an

virtual

or

object

the

simulation

questions,

results

pertain

process.

of

must

Progress
we

Can

is-sued in the first edition: The geometric
of a process
via geometric metaphor is

a warning

repeat

the

we

such

special effects,

not the object or
When
we
the
model
ask
analyze it to better understand or predict the behavior
represented,

of

as

well

models.

geometric

Finally,

skills,

been

art, cinematographic
and

effective

and

elementary

robotics, computer vision, scientificvisualization,
reality.
in any
of these areas now depends in large measure on how well
create

the

of

text.

this

application.

applications

or two-

Programming

U is, of
a primary
course,
many fields
graphics and computer-aided design and manufacturing,as

more

models

science,

computer

necessary for understanding

of

importance
of

Euler

and

used

be

can

physics,

and

vector

and

while useful, are not
The

general

patches,

Some prior course work is required

geometry,

analytic

calculus,

are

they

schemes,

engineering,

including

mathematics.

applied

extensive

here.
or

disciplines

product

parameterization

As
Geometric
Modeling
semester course at the upper division
a

An

models.

well-understood,

Although

example,

nonstandard

blends,

respectively

too specialized, or mathematically beyond

accepted,

yet widely

geometric

in the text,completes this work-

included.

not

matrices,
of

transformations

referenced

Several subjects are

and

vectors

review

\320\222

of relational

methods

emerging

various

frequently

bibliography,
either

and

A

summarizes

\320\241

newly

\342\226\240
xi

that

remember

the

answers

and

what

when
is

we

being

first to the

model itself and only conditionally to its object.
if
the
model
only
to the object or process can we safely infer the object's
closely
corresponds
If

or process'
methods

behavior

is an art and

from

the

model's

science in itself.

behavior.

The

and

accuracy

of modeling

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The

of

history

of unique

is one

modeling

geometric

between

cooperation

from
both.
industry and academia, and material presented
Many
and refine the theories and techniques of
worked
individuals
to develop
draws

here

geometric

and

modeling,
in

referenced

and

the

in

listed

are

works

and

researchers

whose

applications

have

bibliography

Their work has made possible a
commercial

in the first edition

my acknowledgment

anonymous

are

contributions

important

of

who

developers

to geometric modeling over the past 40 years.The authors

have contributed
whose

most

the

repeat

well-known

both

those

all

I must

So

text.

this

of

many

growing
very

created
of

family

existence

a new discipline.
and

industrial,

scientific,

is not possible without a

strong underlying geometric modeling

capability.

I

the

thank

and

comments

valuable

of the

readers

many

first edition

the Port Townsend and Jefferson
Cahill,
Jefferson

endowed

professional

with

the

skills

of

a large
university
are
the equal
of

staffs

Bob Aronds, Diane Cerra
Spencer,
done
professionally

to

make

with

(now

at Wiley, for all

my editors
the

two

Carol

particularly

library, and Shery Hart, at
small rural libraries are not

library,

the diligence

that found

anywhere.

of

resources
their

these

Although

library-

County

and staff of

directors

libraries,

public

County

to offer

at the Port Townsend

Librarian

Reference

the

thank

I especially

suggestions.

who took the time

production

they have so

of this

edition

and

I also thank
and

Kaufmann),

Morgan

Marjorie

and

thoughtfully

an enjoyable

experience.

Harry

Meriwether and Art Eshleman I
for
thank
their
example
and for an understanding
how to think geometrically
modeling
process
of which
I had the pleasure to learn from them many years ago.
both
itself,
must

the

especially

of

of

the

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240

XIII

xiv

\342\226\240

Acknowledgments

Dr.

thank

I

John

S. Letcher,

Southwest Harbor, Maine,

for

the keel and bulb
the
relational

Porter,
on

George

relational

preparing

thanks
the

as Chapter

synthesis
to

the

field

to my wife Janet,

manuscript

the

for

long-expired word processor

that

so, she contributed

Inc.,
of

drawing

panelization

cover

and

S. Letcher,Jr., D

for permission

A. Dickson
geometric

12)

Chapter

(see

an important contribution
Finally,

the

use
the

I also thank Dr. John

and

to

permission

of AeroHydro

structure of Black Magic as
About
artwork
(see
model was Created using the methods of
geometric
synthesis

geometric

program.
article

This

Cover).

and founder

Jr..president

of

MultiSurf

AeroHydro's
Michael

H.

Seth

Shook,

to include their original
12 of this text. Their work is
modeling.

geometric

who will never forget the struggles
first edition,
using an Apple II and a now
had

we

had

as much time and

no

capability.

equation-editing

effort to

this

Even

edition.

E.

Michael

Port

Mortenson

Townsend

October

1996

CONTENTS

About the Cover

vii

ix

Preface

xiii

Acknowledgments

1

1

Introduction

1.1 What Is Geometric

1.2 History

1

Modeling?

6

II

Mathematics

1.3

Tlie

1.4

Conventions

16

and Notation

19

2 Curves

2.1 Intrinsic Equations
2.2

and

Explicit

Implicit

of

19

Curves

of Curves

Equations

23

23 Parametric Equations of Curves

2.4 Conic
2.5

Hermite,

22
31

Curves

Bezier.

and

2.6 Points on a Curve

B-Spline

Curves:

An Overview

32

34
XV

xvj

Contents

\342\226\240

3

39

Curves

Hermite

3/1

39

Forms

and Geometric

Algebraic

3.2 Hermite Basis Functions
3.4

47

Form

Matrix

3.3

42

50

Vectors

Tangent

and Subdividing

54

3.6 Three-Point Interpolation

60

3.5 Truncating

3.7

Four-Point

Hermite

Conic

3.8

61

Interpolation

Hermite

3.9 Composite

64

Curves

74

Curves

81

4 Bezier Curves

4.1 Bezier

83

Functions

Basis

89

Points

4.2

Control

4.3

Truncating

97

and Subdividing

105

4.4 Composite Bezier Curves

4.5

5

108

Curves

Bezier

Rational

113

Curves

B-Spline

B-Spline Basis Functions

5.1 Nonuniform

5.2 Uniform B-SplineBasis

126

Functions

5.3

Cubic

and

Quadratic

Basis

B-Splinc

Functions

134

5.5 Continuity

Basis

Between

5.7

Rational

Nonuniform

5.8 Representing

5.9
6

Cubic

Beta

137

Functions

B-Spline

Curves

Conies with NURBS Curves

Parametric

6.4 Hermite,

140

143

and Implicit Equations

6.2 Quadric
6.3

139
142

Splines

Surfaces

6.1 Explicit

128

130

5.4 Closed B-Spline Curves

5.6 Conversion

113

of Surfaces

144
145

Surfaces

Equations

of Surfaces

Bezier, and B-Spline Surfaces: An Overview

149

156

Contents

158

a Surface

on

Points

6.5

159

Nets

6.6 Curve

161

6.7 Embedded Curves

7

7/1

169

Surface

Hermite

Bicubic

The

169

Forms

and Geometric

Algebraic

7.2 Hcrmitc Patch Basis Functions

179

7.3

Tangent

180

7.4

Normals

Vectors

Twist

and

182

184

Form

7.5 Sixteen-Point

of

7.6 Reparameterization
7.7

and

Truncating

a

186

Patch

Subdividing

191

a Patch

192

Hcrmitc Surfaces

7.8 Composite

7.9 SpecialHermite Patches

213

217

Surfaces

Bezier

8.3

A 3 x 5

8.4

Converting

Bicuhic

Bezier

and

in a Bezier Surface

Elevation

8.6 CompositeBezier

9.1 The Tensor Product B-Spline Surface

9.2
9.3

Matrix

Open

Closed

B-Spline

Surfaces

9.4 Nonuniform Rational B-Spline Surfaces

10.1

Solids

Parametric

The

227
228

235

237

10 Solids
10.2

223

228

Form

and

222

227

Surfaces

9 B-Spline

Forms

225

Patch

Bezier

Rational

Hermite

224

Surfaces

8.7

220

Array of Control Points

Rectangular
Between

8.5 Degree

218

Patch

Bezier

Bicubic

The

217

Bezier Patch

8.1 The Tensor Product

8.2

203

Surfaces

Blend

7/10

8

xvii

\342\226\240

Tricubic

Solid

237

240

xviii

Contents

\342\226\240

in a Solid

Embedded

Surfaces

and

Curves

103

253

10.4 Generalized Notation Scheme and Higher-Dimension

Elements

Parameterized

and

Instances

10.5

257

260

Shapes

264

Solids

10.6 Sweep

275

10.7 Controlled Deformation Solids

281

11 ComplexModel Construction

11.1

282

Models

of

Topology

11.2

310

Models

Graph-Based

318

Models

11.3 Boolean

356

1L4 Boundary Models

11.5 Space-PartitioningModels

12

Geometric

Relational

367

373

Synthesis

373

Introduction

12.1

378

Model Structure

12.2 Relational

383

12.3 Model Evaluation

12.4Serialization

387

12.5

388

Entities

Relational

12.6

Detailed

12.7

Applications

401

Example

404

12.8 Open Issues

in

Relational

411

Geometry

415

Conclusions

12.9

APPENDIX

A

Vectors

417

APPENDIX

\320\222

Matrices

431

APPENDIX

\320\241

Transformations

439

CI

Translation

G2

Rotation

C.3 Rotation
C.4

Rotation

441

444

in the Plane
in

Space

about

the

in Space about an

Principal

Axes

Arbitrary Axis

447

453

Contents C.7 Multiple and Shear Sequential Transformations xix \342\226\240 457 462 467 Bibliography 473 Index 509 .5 Reflection C.6 Dilation C.

The analytical and often subtle foundation.INTRODUCTION Tills introduces chapter motivating is What in and theory of because importance ways suggesting history what and academia application.1 Geometric the evokes a curious mix of the visual in analytic minds of those of us who study and apply it. mathematics matrices. The modeling? of it industry. is itself tells us about the interplay of as well as ideas and of geometric modeling more forces these managing of the forces context and shaping its development. modeling geometric a the and the real world. perhaps personalities. MODELING? IS GEOMETRIC WHAT arises from its the with response arises The early that term 1970s. chapter of modeling geometric and this algebra. of rapidly first came into use developing computer during the late 1960s and graphics and computer- 1 . and tries to geometric growing the in modeling geometric effectively This reviews the highlights of this history. The visualresponse association with the simulation of shapes that define objects in modeling and eyes scheme. the answer question. chapter discusses their use.Themathematics the of differential linear and Boolean spans disciplines geometry. The chapter concludes with a summary of the briefly and text's conventions notation and 1. from its association potential and from its symbiosis with computer work. an from its is time awareness of the elegant of reality the designer's graphics. vectors. numerical methods. topology.

us to combine simple mathematical solid constructive as encountered usually modeling. Algebraic geometry is the analytic geometry. computational geometric appropriate computer-aided and geometry. then. correspond Geometric to priori the is modeling a of properties of process and it responds. something. by a set of a shape geometric axioms the of course. of some a model construct we When object. shapes to create complexsolid models. or it may be the basis has complexity algebraic physically. geometry. and statements relationships. differential roots of contemporary geometric modeling. algebraic topology. although somewhat looselyintegrated. include methods modeling. and we create a it for interpretation some of than usually easier to test within limits. For large objects. in the same the actual is to give shape or form to it. made or engineering drawings. its has and contemporary extension with design and analysis concerned allows (CSG). computational object may strong substitute\342\200\224a it may some as yet nonexistent object. To model contemporary define the to visualize. manufacturing of geometric decipline is an interrelated. has a geometric to model committing modeling geometric of the shape of a real or phenomenon process analytical easier the as sketches or rendered or mathematical to simulate a analog. and the consequent general properties and intended never statements and logical relationships we interpret as true statements about mathematical These axioms. in contrast to create was usually a physical much to the construction of the a precise or hypotheticalobject. Computer-aided whereas of geometry tend other fields as well- modeling. be some virtual to be physically realized.Solid that we find the It is here of equations parametric using Computer-aided of curves and surfaces to the mathematics applies (CAGD) design geometric geometric design. differential including geometry. description to evaluate we Now use and before that abstraet. exist already may object and theory. were models Traditionally. and smaller real thing. we model analyze objeet itself.2 Introduction \342\226\240 aided and design The technologies. we modeling. we use mathematical methods that to describe the shape of an object modeling of collection or to express some These metaphor. This description is which is literal and conmodel. of of the modeled as representative evaluate An effective model is geometric the model. In and analyze actual the as way object. algebraic modeling. geometry CSG algebra. solid geometry. . we wish that process physical analysis. is geometry design and constructive solid branches geometric Computational of geometric algorithms. primarily the in foundations numerical to ties methods. and computation geometric Boolean classical of geometry. an of terms in process physical the that object creating these of clay or wood is modeled. The representation. of set a satisfying are geometry be the design for object. The axioms.

still successfully are or mock-ups 3 \342\226\240 design criteria. indeed. In fact. model of a mechanical part is data between production engineering now or object model of an object's geometry information.What k Geometric Modeling? crete. L%geometry we is a It computer. convey a analyze or too small). topology. find that a complete must satisfy the requirements of both rendering and analysis. models Physical in itself. long of association that visualization demonstrates graphics us to deter- allow models These models. background satisfied once two-dimensional with and mine any geometric property or attribute. now three identify 1. 2. or sophisticated engine. Representation model only important or the can modeling: a geometric create must we where we once.\" were complete with process. three-dimensional and appearance are important concerns. requires the power the model stored in and analyzed central transmit to an is geometric manufacturing and geometric using methods and graphics matrix methods. in fact. becomes qualities the abstract used commonly computer or Beyond uncontrollable). because it is a of worthy object or process. functional application model we and of representations valid geometric the though if only in the it is ever present. set computation the the basis for exploring and evaluating aesthetic some It is becoming more difficult. slow. example. we now demandand achieve topologically analytically numerical of arsenal complex description of an computer. aesthetic where we must create goals. be may We study. shape and performing fulfills of geometric categories of an existing object. and their story. geometric-modeling unable be would we operations. model than phenomenon. construct studies. the or For Through the medium model geometric and functional of of to overstate the importance Geometric modeling. of and a of power. practical any as our implied Where a capabilities. is abstract. a computer Using process. the mathematical advantages to way important characteristics of interest). with modeling computer the Obviously. to object is too big to relative simpler real the with experiment of size because model (the complexity or measure. separate used. differential object. Ab initio design. defining and a new to object revising appropriate analysis until some satisfy a hypothetical we create a object's shape that . This \320\256 is real (the time (real phenomena are too of analysis. either physical or model. Without computational and models analyze even So. importance. too fast. computer-aided physical objects. an and theory. tensors. geometry. object. rendering analytic the potentially to capture to the entire its and design modeling. complex enough to be of is computer not in explicit to our a by vector and is. more practical real the for substitute economical and convenient a a create and because it is easier and test.

drafting. computer-aided have manufacturing systems At computer Computer new the model for rendering visual images information After analysis is complete. provides engineering including object. work continues manufacturing of appearance light sources. and techniques. graphics and been much of development display this in point any a specific selecting finally represents graphics. and check because clearances analysis designers between of complex mechanisms also becomes can move parts of a solid model independently those either or analytically. the artist but also those forming processes available extending at creating aimed activities may soon be tools. when model of a new. Art. of this possible. Now modeling. are. scientific visualization. Engineering analysis is of solid modelers. vision. own impetus to the state of the art. geometric routinely translucence. sculpting modeling. much made on these rely advertising in solid on more sophisticated computer-aided with the engineer's The drafting. categories create first geometric must be suitable and evaluation. the of manufacture we displays. physically nonexistent product. and computer-aided the driving forces behind the to be continue three-dimensional of renderings than the of it design. the process. design. we can use its geometric model to guide the for existing object. with the increasing Solid modelers permit rapid construction automatic permit are then static to a variety subjected quickly of and evaluate highly change undergoing parts loads of simple combinations will In process. manufacturing shapes and sophisticated shape transformations. and Advances systems. closely related. reality. For example. sophistication models. geometric-modeling special Development conditions. computer and systems and the effects of multiple and and techniques have new much seamless engineering of effort this and using more like sculpting a to rapidly ability engineer's design complex models. animation. It is parts. using computer graphics. films feature in modeling a virtually paperless and design their contributing effects the including objects. and drawings of on demands now can the physical shape of an model geometric and virtual are reality Many visual robotics. Computer-aided kinematic possible.4 Introduction \342\226\240 3. of and dynamic of loading and accurately displayed. of course. structural When object. and artificial intelligenceare virtual polygonal. three These the it. visually . fi. production order to of the model in an image generate evaluate and interpret visually must we where Rendering.iitc-element of analysis The area an effects They mechanical these of also not mimic create in solid those only manufacturing. sculptured-surface design Computer graphics two-dimensional color-shaded realistic produce each making capabilities. texture.

and and production assurance and robotics to automated the finished of their offer now intelligent dimensions and recognize objects a and adaptive powers of will of theory is systems of more natural vision(Where reasoning in may lie am I? is it?) What Virtual spaces. computer-aided are it a joint? to reach welder reach to wrench a such as: Is there and turn a fastener questions. art applied models modeling and reality and computer of the model.The various conceptual fragments offer sensory and powerful shaping procedures. its client applications. to dynamic influences. in these of theory general to create. an and of and done need in geometric the natural limits to visualization and yield modeling understanding and it might However. the geometric We an for need As models become manufacturing models applications. immediate their of model geometric to artificial robots will be programmed robots Ultimately. a new geometric integrative solutions partial and the kinds effectiveness of of and artificial senses an and science. computer-aided design graphics that move in three environment with strong stimulus from overarching encourage inference. often-neglected \342\226\240 5 mathematical). fields important computer to produce fields these now also e processes. modeling geometric require as cast appropriately more complex. Geometric modeling However. to be of parts models for instructions Automated inspection quality improving synthesis via a furnish. geometric some future more comprehensive on both fronts\342\200\224 of why we model. and of of the We need to explore modeling can work .Advanced geometric-modeling information. be measured. on their qualitative require ior. possible process planning and machine computer robotic a for possible applications For manufacturing. application makes modeling Manufacturing programs then interpret these models manufactured. completely database. possible. applied. visual. Robotics and models susceptible in other the (both equivalence configuration geometric and self-validation automatic geometric understanding tactile. is tool path-verification Engineering complete generate spot- modeling geometric geometric example. may geometric unambiguous Developers of geometric-modeling systems a that systems designers assembly shop and assembly line. own. from for products vision. For all these both shape and behavmetaphor encompassing results. Much work remains to be theoretical using is growing. may a better (physical how visualization require answer best how modeling geometric contemporary modeling possible computer to spatial amenable scientific and quantitative).What Is Geometric Modeling? now also to possible other ask or screwdriver sufficient clearance for whose location allows only limited access? or Is one of the most fertile Perhaps of automatic. systems of and machine parts intelligence systems.

the advent of the electronic computer changed a Then the forever in These. In the 1950s and early 1960s. drafting of much of the mathematics modeling. of application modelinggoes to naval sections conic one over back when architecture. how to better them. of hulls engineers and ship builders designed and lofted ships' based on by then well-known methods for constructing conic curves. effort to do just that. the the subtractive simple were introduced into the extracting drawings. for a modeling and machine control language. and other early and the extending improving stimulated the However. This required of machine motions modeling of history this classical using work. of today's roots The do we way the of descendants are turn. from a geometric at of way successful The APT languageemerged constructs a new the control and of an object's information shape control processes.6 Introduction \342\226\240 and limits these within understanding the of the between relationship 1. engineering used structural in the notable with and analysis of they of basis the that early during rendition the on design of the finite-element models exception in aerothermody- used models analogous is that modeling and and process. T. computer-aided earliest the in design and Air Force's U. was computer system of the 1950s. modeling are found geometric for developed systems graphic computer modeling. a model. guided analytic an early geometry and as highly the a basis model cutter and understanding design from its engineering special the Illinois were languages drawing into a computerof Institute Technology. More lines the recently. period tended to emphasize appearance side.S. D.This Sutherland (1963).Ivan working the earliest among pioneers in this field with his Sketchpad system. Ross (1959). SAGE at MIT. Using of an object to be APT.2 a in model. the of shapes were aircraft and ships in and stored lofted manually vast libraries of scribed sheet-metal sections. revolution occurred. Such a task developed to translate the not was shape until possible from information compatible format. manufacturing. Wc need a to overcome help perhaps HISTORY The history of mathematical geometric thousand the to years. a parts machined from programmer raw stock . On the manufacturing side. Computers calculate to manufacturing with begins modeling geometric of numerical tools. choose we how and the its model. and object minimizeambiguities strength of their correspondence. for possibilities and design engineering development geometric today's wonderful suggested systems graphics namic analysis.

machine computer-controlled the reference which instructions. styling\342\200\224body were departments engineering the solid and surfaces sculptured in stimulated further the Meanwhile. D Meriwether (1966. such as straight Rational and analysis. The developments. of incorporating both standard and Early of the evolution the popular and widely used nonuniform form. in industry.1965). structural was and aesthetics. better ground Coons1 notation patches and Bezier's (1974) special surfaces.1967. the into lines. Coons1 scheme. and on the universality an emphasis representation work on the mathematics modeling. Coons (1963. The sucecss of the NURBS form arose out of and still rely on standard manufacturing processes design and curve put on and form.1968). notably Douglas. began important work in nonrational free-form curves and and Hermite cubic the using surfaces. there the emerged the idea . The early efforts of Castelfollowed by the independent and insightful 1963) were quickly a widely used method Bezier who for produced (1966. Forrest (1971). Several its DAC-1 developed and for looking tools.conies. Ross (1967). compiler This tools. NC the the approach philosophical free-form interested languages of in shape-modeling of mathematics parametric and automotive of geometry in Seattle. introduced by A. circles. at Boeing (1964) of the beginning MIT. Louis. representational NURBS that fact this course. Ferguson S. A. other companies. cutting incorporates de P. new including geometry. R. extended who and cubic the of usefulness and understanding and and the recording important. jau for and advanced an languages. interpolation work was also important because the development curve and surface representations. forms. At this time. highlights. and applications and aerodynamic in a and programming was reinforced Detroit industries. process manufacturing all phases of design versatility of the modcVs still as witness fruit. From a productive decade of research and development with ending in the mid 1970s.\342\226\240 7 History and controlled numerically oriented sculptured pioneering of other work problem- generating I C. also at MIT. then at for language the marked revolution machinery (NC) In the mid-1960s. significant H. bearing rational or B-Spline the simple surface of limitations This aircraft Southern broken bicubic scheme aircraft California.E. St. stimulated it \316\225 (1959. analytic shapes. shapes. To Eshleman and Meriwether.the idea describing made also McDonnell. but the real model through Of itself. was led by A. of a design was and use process\342\200\224the model mathematical a of of the end product the was forms of curves and Hermitian bicubic geometry prize the considerably surfaces. this about At Motors General time. developed programming graphics for model.Eshlemanand effort Douglas system. Lockheed. by a growing need was surfaces. of curve and surface design. are capable shapes.1967). quadric like NURBS.

This engineering data. are there faces three realizable of nonsense dimensional information for this. more form to of many individual together joining shapes. It is also easy to create nonsenseobjects.2b object. frequently because have of However. the defining constructed interactively. Implied makes the of a physically interpretation solid impossible. because it cannot be constructed or interpreted Another is the lack of contour or profile space. ambiguous. deficiency in Figure in surfaces 13 illustrates are models wireframe of to prohibit tests interactive Figure 1. These and polygonal wireframe of areas two in work began as an separately a list and of lines curves. Current dimensional and representations For deficiencies. all pure wireframe systems exhibit procedures. modeling systems are capable wireframe inferred between the wireframe this limitation. The model is stored element in the same the and it is usually way is constructed as computer is model A wireframe much or tools drafting of an object. equally likely passages through the object. severe.1 Wireframe ambiguity. lines and curves. edges done schemes.sincethese logical three- constructing enhanced considerably three-dimensional example. curve segments or surface patches in computer workers some Meanwhile. digitized interpreting is line as intended were in or curve and independently. The wireframe is a different 1.1 is a good example ambiguity. this way that usually systems have internal no 1.2a shows a classical example. complex and certain areas of graphics computer-aided design (includingarchitecture) called now modeling geometric were initially two-dimensionaland for methods and reducing and lines of composed curves each where drawing.8 Introduction \342\226\240 of and curves piecewise the surfaces. Figure a in interpenetrate often well-known. kind three- Figure . Figure 1.

extensively with edge. consisting of topologicallycrosslists have objects. edges. or modeling schemes were initially developed pietures but there is a considerable gray area between polygon and and the distinction is not always clear.- History Figure Polygon systems. however. technology. wireframe 1. The polygonal data referenced are often nonsense Wireframe to renderings. faces.2 9 in and hidden-surface part or ray-tracing techniques at . the leading and associated algorithms picture-manipulating been create is. straightforward. animation The with and picture-generating polygonal modeling systems This is true because schemes polygonal used as research tools for computer graphics display highly sophisticated. structure of vertices.

versatile. Requicha of geometric and and modeling \316\227. Solid a relative modeling. There different approaches. Taken surfaces geometric More work. for much and development of this 12). W. A. limitations of the other schemes dimensional and objects. analysis cubic parametric formulations of Bezier. form the core of computer-aided design.3 Missing contour information. foundation J. the beta-Spline. Cox (1972). de Boor (1972) successful computer-aided rational (nonuniform surfaces and Bezier the of in the very powerful and after. including boundary representations constructive Voelker solid (1977). G. geometric complete The when and representing of objects. soon followed surfaces and curves M. something after forms that were and of the techniques lofting the replace sculptured methods.as Not successes. Gordon in the later. and . geometry Perhaps (CSG). at the pioneered farthest by frontier three- analyzing is to create unambiguous goal of solid modeling representations some of the to overcome is intended been several have (B-reps) A.10 Introduction \342\226\240 in farm Contour hi ion noi included in wireframe model 1. ([981) introduced an important formulations Rational mentioned curves B-Spline applied of patches 1970s. Figure Coons. early well-known were They with Coons and Ferguson and the previously. more faster. easy to modify and that were compatible processes. and accurate. and others developed to surfaces traditional industries with The were much F Riesenfeld (1974b)introduced to computer-aided and design. Letcher (1995) recently B-Spline popular NURBS mathematical the laid and I. Schoenberg B-SpHnes). and C. newcomer. Ferguson. G. shipbuilding. S. called relational geometry (see Chapter geometric these together a (1946). Barsky geometric variation. J. \316\222. culminating and R. of application new led the for framework object-oriented design. manufacturing and aircraft automotive. in the grounded curves parametric and of differential geometry.

the various hybridize interactive of possibilities of all current modeling reconsideration three the marrying of parametric and implicit including geometries. and there continue to the Furthermore. matrix polynomial operations). more representations the from more forms. of its potential recognition 11 \342\226\240 THE MATHEMATICS first At to appears glance. greater followed as its surface represented fully work twenty much in as are object where E. interpolation. Even areas. over an oT is true solid modeling. and for inclusive and general curves and of unrelated menagerie curves and surfaces focusesparticularly on parametricrepresentations. some geometric most methods. There have heen technology made efforts be techniques. of review brief vector The used in is perhaps modeling.there be a large surfaces. The future of geometric to bring many surprises. solid in culminating of geometric the evolution that from descent of line the assume to is tempting surfaces. All an have equivalent form. because notion of objectivity is easily obscured it Boolean (including theory numerical and and curves of these techniques important set mathe- of them.Stanton and L. Here is a the single most important mathematical device We itself as a geometric can think of a vector to our fit geometric object. modeling APT the case. of several parametric equations of The geometry.3 and alteration more increasingly gained attention. later development the seemingly tenuous few a has but modeling to sculptured wireframe models. M. implicit parametric The representations polynomial and Bezier Hermite the are special cases of the B-Spline nonrational cases of the rational forms. but this is misleading. largely in the roots representations this is not However. in detail. in addiiion to the differential from surfaces arc linear algebra. vector offers distinct intuition seems only components a methods. limited separately. Later chapters properties. This text proceeds are special forms restricted and special to the representations and form. The record development independent. L. it is bound and bright. analytic geometry to working This with Vector geometry by minimizing . vectors.The Mathematics still a wider awaiting the internal properties It seems to show concurrent. This of study maiical techniques.Crain( 1974/1977)began area this discuss these areas of solid modeling years ago. use extensive makes modeling geometric advantage individually over classical if are we and of displacement. of optimization has shapes looks modeling 1. a stimulating methods. and combine to all in of constructive solid geometry of the 1960s.

in and and multiplication. very system to be postponed process. more inherent geometric meaning Simple the At once. very differing if order little interpolating from that function of the best is badly behaved. and matrices and operations of interpretation encounter also will we by operating of many geometric- foundation is the operator geometric of points a set on transformation geometric and Approximation surface to a set of data points pass reasonably to required pass through. several handle VectoTS. two describe interpolation of fitting a curve or approximation-fitting close to the data points not them. ways an Under curves. or interpolate. a function that av + used widely axx for \302\267 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 + + \317\215/ because interpolation they can be of a finite number evaluated. same the of points is very At appropriately chosen points. Matrix algebra is another powerful too! The array modeling. Under an interpolation-fitting but is Here we use each data scheme. of elements that makes up a matrix may represent simply an orderly or perhaps a set of polynomial to some numbers pertinent problem define allowable equation coefficients. it is a expressions their with reacquainted \320\222 become to both reviews determinants. However. however. Last. the powerful but simple theorem that says line exactly interpolates two given points.Introduction on a specific coordinate system.This suggests a a cubic points. at equations component A Appendix a presents review of vectors. the arrays. sensitive of polynomials Using to the choice of the interpolation they may produce a shape approximation method. direction. Here. methods algebraic support carry meaning. interpolates must pass a straight three interpolates polynomial of n: degree f(x) = These polynomials are of the form is. and so on. vector equations geometric retaining than vectors least. of geometric of way storing matrix of on operations matrix performs a on the position vectors a as matrix that define those points. as the number points. the curve through point. differentiated. . and integrated easily steps by using just the basic arithmetic operations of addition. just reveai geometric These operations of course. The rules algebra these Another use of a matrix is as an operator. and displacement such as relationships. or must a curve scheme. special a in determinants good idea in this book.The modeling computations. Because many Appendix properties. coordinate the choice of a particular dependence often allow until later the a computational of stages vector Operations and perpendicularity while parallelism. but not [east. a eonic curve (is defined by and passes through) four points. subtraction.

and reliably produces more acceptableshapes. convex interpolating curve. as Farin now of a string of curve (1993a) points out.The Mathematics an producing of interpolation in the sequence anywhere shape unacceptable 13 \342\226\240 of data distribution the points. approach to us allows usually because value.4 Newton's A better the likely name works in certain controlled < itr < uki where there is only l(u) Figure was he (since method . segments corresponding can we is. successive fitting by successive [ow-degree data of groups points.Using piecewisepolynomials That problem. high- theoretical of mostly to curves polynomial this sidestep consisting is faster. However. and methods Numerical modeling geometric unlimited This capacity executed or carried out exactly polynomial polynomial of \316\267 degree at of that means Horner's to rule difference forward the and intervals equal of the algorithms because necessary are not processed on ideal computing machines and precision are analysis the be a general evaluate variable cannot computations a to evaluate method parametric with are both discussed in Section 2. instead be a curve with many inflection may points.This roots ur such method that u} = 0. then it may be poor everywhere. points may lead us to expect a smooth. one that For example. that is. u 1. result the wiggles. degree polynomial interpolation the piecewise curve a composite construct is In fact. more accurate.6. An iterative technique called Newton's inventor of it) finds the roots of a given function f[u) method might be the sliding conditions- We tangent the isolate method.

very to a solution is large. If f(ut) ut- . Here is = ut 1/'(\320\270()1 increment an - ul when \320\270| + 0.Hie equally first fout spaced oTdinates. quadrature formulas assume including the bounding ones (see Figure 1. Figure Then where the then Oand > or shift doubtful.697539 0.698190 -> 0.698190 0.720948 0. formulas \320\260\321\202\320\265: .697539 formulas Quadrature evaluate The integrals.4).697539 0.6).850596 -> 0.720948 -> 0.850596 0. and convergence is very \320\276\321\202 example: = - = 90u2 f(u) + 30\321\2133-3\321\2132 \320\224\321\213) 9\321\213-15 9 + \320\261\321\213 + 30\320\270\321\215-\320\227\320\2702 9\302\253-15 - = \320\230\321\206-1 \320\230. say/ftO-Thus dA= f(u)du \\ CI is where \320\224\320\270) (\321\217\320\224) The (see an FiguTe Newton-Cotes explicit formula that can be evaluated at any \321\213 in the Tange 1-5).-0. is zero small.697539 -> \320\275. function the let We 1. that an integTal represents the area under a curve assumption underlying defined some by is function. - + 90\320\2702 \320\261\321\213 9 0.416667 -> 0.14 Introduction \342\226\240 in root one and interval this discontinuities or inflections(see with no (or curve) is well-behaved.

e. is the wheTe For example. quadrature continues for .Mathematics The IS \342\226\240 u 1.6 Quadrature divisions. w = \320\2732 [/\320\253 + rule) (TTapezoidal \320\224\321\213\321\214)] \321\203 w = \320\220\321\212 \342\200\224\320\251\321\206\320\260) + + Af{uh) \320\227\320\2751 - ^ \"g-t/\320\253 + 3/K) + 3/K) (Simpson \320\224\320\270\321\201)] rule) + /K)] 4\316\2671 = + \320\233 + 32/ti<u) \342\204\226\320\264) + 12\320\233\"\321\201) 32/i\302\243'j) + 7/i\"i)] \"90 A.5 Figure Quadrature. division. u w Figure 1. The sequence A5 is the lotal formulas. higheT-OTder lotal area and w is the width of a single area between a.

r.fe. allows the function to be sampled There are. PaTametric variables coordinates Cartesian \320\270 Union \316\267 InteTSection a matrix Quaternions \316\275. continuous values a .. be evaluated and selected for abandons quadrature....p.\316\234. .b] Closed interval. \316\266\320\276\320\263\321\205|. .. u. . MT. A7.b) Open interval.c.. \320\233.P'.A'.16 Introduction \342\226\240 AnotheT Gaussian appToach.\320\245\320\267 - or vectOT Determinants \\A\\ Q. 1..\320\273\320\263\320\263. or IAI s. r. letters uppercase Matrix inveTSe Matrix transpose Matrix elements or other array elements a'. B7. unless noted is assumed system text. of many course. Difference t= b a is an elemen t of b V For all [a. v. integral or values discTete values (a.. m.\316\234_1..p'. Scalars. on based problem particular locations. (evaluated) otheT any at equal optimal Each formulas..h \320\252\321\204 Q>n boldface. of \320\276\321\202 \320\277\320\276\321\202\321\202 vector Matrices: \316\221.continuous .s. Transformed wf.\316\222_1... .\316\222. \316\221^. \320\260... letters lower-case boldface. 5. Vectors: lal of length Magnitude. \321\202\320\276\321\202\320\265 quadrature and spacing should its applicability. In otherwise. \317\207..constantcoefficients:lowercase letters ajb...4 NOTATION ANO CONVENTIONS of the Hereisaiist common \321\202\320\276\321\202\320\265 most cases. fl. \\a b] Closed interval... first when in this used notations and symbols for conventions.. . they will the also be explained Cartesian righl-handed coordinate As used..

forms. i\\(n-i)\\ from uniform and standardized literature. to generally accepted..PK (5. n! n\\ . although not conforms presented tor here and comparison numbers Hennite cuTve: of these The foTms. in both reference including the Tational B-Splinc equation The the in and curves B-Spline they canonical in and matrix form. the \320\260\321\202\320\265 parentheses \320\260\321\202\320\265 fiTst found in text. used in this text are They numbers wheTe expressions notation is far surfaces universal.\320\222 \321\200(\320\275) Bezier (3 20) curve: = P(h) \302\243pA\302\273 (4.Conventions and Notation 17 \342\226\240 Differentiation: dy \321\203 dx d2y yxx~- dx2 dx X\320\271-- du d2x _ vflHJ w dud and so foTth.\320\237) \320\263 -\320\236 = \320\2501.7) curve: \320\273 = \321\200(\320\270) \316\243 \320\240'\320\233\320\270\320\241\") (5-1) \316\257-0 = p^) UM. the = \321\200(\320\270) \320\225\321\214\320\233\321\217(\320\270) (\320\227. Hermite.2) \320\263 -\320\236 = \320\270\320\234\320\271\320\240 \321\200(\320\270) B-Spline (4.16) \316\271*0 = p(\") i wo = () <M9> . means ij The notation for and Bezier.

\320\220.7\320\240. w)=\316\243 1= = 0 \320\237\321\203* UMFBM^W \321\200(\320\270.\320\226*\320\230 \342\226\240= 0 UMbPMjJ'W7' p(M.w) 2.w) B-Spline \316\243 \316\243 smface: -1 -\"\342\226\240 \\ = p(\302\253.\320\233\320\273(\302\273)\320\273'1.\316\234') d - * (I f \321\200.18 Introduction \342\226\240 Hetmite surface: ft m \317\201(\302\273.\320\270>) Bezier v^m^h \316\243 smface: -> \320\273> = \317\201(\316\257\316\257.\320\230 m /I . d * \317\201-\316\233\316\272\316\237\316\237^\317\207\316\227 \316\226 II O/* m p> \302\243\302\243\320\273.

which vertical.1 and Bezier. so this chapter concludes with and 2. inverse-point INTRINSIC include intrinsic equations. is extrinsic. explicitly one with having path and behavior. This chapter briefly curves. a point moving degree of a curve as the locus of a oneon the idea of a variations many rectangle. as the locus of defined often are Curves records History points. our modeling is that these definitions lead to to length improve analytical. explicit and implicitequations. representing the points on a curve. parametric require problems of its expressions-Ways modeling Hermite.CURVES parameter of family describes definition Another freedom. may to geometric importance reviews and compares these modeling Many in powerfully sense analytical for geometric definitions Such intuitive more equations. 19 . is required two is intrinsic to the vertical to determine sides and reference- of frame that the of discussion OF CURVES EQUATIONS fact a series of us to determine a B-Spline for methods An intrinsic property on only that the figure depends not its relation to a coordinate system or other externa! The The solution. is one but the fact a rectangle that a particular has four is angles equal has rectangle because an external frame of reference direction direct- in question. help us to visualize a curve a to but they are not curves describe mathematically Of useful and is category expressed forms. latter only. curve as of one dimension.

-=\342\204\226) Torsion A equation. The theory of curves proceeds much it tries to (how from curve s. and that do to experiment this is easy. say. still Solving equation g(l/p. and you external any turns. For example. potential. Again. you decide to walk geometry square path. and walk 10 more paces. any equation connecting its curvature 1/p. torsion \317\204.Intrinsic of descriptions Imagine that are you a figure in standing a are easy to construct and understand. a circle? are more This demonstrates that intrinsic definitions in local than traditional Cartesian coordinate definitions. and 1/p = 0 is also equation characterizing natural all straight lines. 10 paces. works for a and what exercised a procedural intrinsic definition square.1) g(s) curve twist out of the osculatingplane). turn to your right 90 degrees.2) /(-. in intrinsic First.ivv) = 0 of the curve determines This equation that it = \317\204 a the the two natural = equations/(1/\317\201. can easily since various \"local\" methods to determine these imagine you want you a in initial any and position more paces. to make so-called a distinction natural intrinsic equations.\316\275) 0 and g(llpxs) natural curve = 0 simultaneously for . and walk 10 turn 90 degrees right again. free of any obstructions a simple or convenient reference points. orientation. with works equally well with other Figures. and the two requires a = \317\204as intrinsic functions a plane from deviates curve space (2. is. Repeat this one more time.. is interesting defined. arc and length s: (2. From walk ahead. These exercises may strengthen our intuitive appreciation of are not rich but in analytical For this we must they description.so 0 is but many curves may have these properties. square How many different start intrinsic procedures can you find anywhere. its curvature one expressing equations. An additional independent equation characterizing more. as just of a curve is natural equation between A equations. should at your starting be back position. and counting to is 10 a obviously local purely You have just operation. properties. a of this Try for walking definitions Intrinsic intrinsic an look at an example arc its an length intrinsic the length intrinsic these [t 1/p and one its torsion z and of how much is a measure course. reference The 90-degree turns certainly do not require system. large open space. because the intrinsic definition of a square is simple.\317\204.v)=0 has certain special imposes a condition on the curve. a little deal with geometry piece at a time. of of and arc equations. of length measured along the curve. a natural all plane curves. a circle.

Intrinsic 1/p and as \317\204 a determine equations curve intrinsic s produces of functions equations. curves: Given the initial point of a curve.4) ds with equations \316\270 its functionsx(s) y(s). Here is a slightly different approach. the 21 \342\226\240 Two natural in space. \316\270 the is dxlds description = *(s) and these for arc with by s and between intrinsic the from of a curve the \316\270 is length.1 Figure using of Curves Equations for dylds sin to s and substituting respect the \316\270 yields simultaneous \320\272 for differential equations tfx ds2 + K(s)dy tfy ch] Figure 2. \316\270 subtended angle relationship emerges 1/p.1 Intrinsic = ds K(s)dx 0 = 0 (2. curve.Tht y equation of terms in ds dQIds. dx Differentiating variation of to plane limited curve. and 2.\316\275 to tangent an intrinsic = cos = cosO and and arc length andy(s) with begins are related by dy = sinO (2. its position for except uniquely. the will define completely with the the curve of equation \317\207 = \320\272 A parametric the equationsx the equations The axis. . the Curvature.5) ds definition of a curve.

intersections determine a if is point given Both these procedures more are Seder berg and Goldman of methods equations curve a with difficult implicit forms that to amenable of computation allows us to it or the other. about information analysis special a very simple geometric analysis the plane curve1. mathematicians scheme.y) explicit value. form f(x.discuss between conversion The implicit the on are later characteristic or on one side of The points.among others.2 numerical appropriate Using a of the takes curve form general (2-6) y=\342\204\226 this In or closed cannot represent one is only there form. of the equation to + of these equations yields of a line or curve. form.4 characteristics reveals characteristics important example. forms affects system it Consequently. parametric (1986) and Hoffmann (1993). modeling that every parametric not are the expedites of classification the and formulation implicit prove to parameter-based larger. This curves. multiple-valued using an implicit equation of the general Both \317\207 and parametric of the straight line and conic + Ax By forms. implicit corresponding a and equations implicit have demonstrated In fact. usually as of this an a has form there but have no known parametric representation or The parameterization. the explicit equation function curvature given two second-order these solve we procedures. to adjunct by (2. OF CURVES EQUATIONS In the plane. following for the Ey conditions the F=Q conic. + of the coefficients discusses more about this analysis Even Dx geometric determine of an implicitly defined modeling process.Therefore. \321\203 each for value = and implicit of the coordinate their calculating In properties. the choice curves the modeling limitation. implicit curve are + C=0 and Ax2 + IBxy + Cy2 + An respectively. curve For the possible symmetries of a . 0 be useful. representation. Section 2.7) of ease the spite is avoided limitation are axis dependent.22 * Curves IMPLICIT ANO EXPLICIT k(j). for x(s) and y(s) for any equations 2.

coordinate the [t system. curves have For a space curve. = y) point.8) for a surface.Parametric If L f{x. for \321\203. such as most modeling. \302\261f(-x. example.\320\267\320\277\320\260 \316\266 some in and surfaces of not are and easily shapes like of and programming in geometric modeling = \321\203 /(\321\205). f(x. or results For these reasons and computability. = for transformation). There are many reasons for this. \321\203 the line* = about the line about symmetric = xy hyperbola example. the =\302\261f(x. system. A three-dimensional parameter = \321\205 this function. the example.9) . independent intrinsically between the relationship shape resulting are objects \321\203 These z(u). that that the choice of any solid. represented of any coordinate arbitrary require the shape. xy hyperbola 5_ If f(x4 y) 2. CURVES OF EQUATIONS is curve the -x). axis. closed object will have axes or planes of any principal geometric modeling are often nonplanar and bounded. nonparametric preferred =x(u)fy defined by representation. of Equations Ordinary. = k2. a by an ordinary the of points. is with parametric equations. not functions. \302\261f(-y. For shapes defined infinity for some slopes on the model. an given 2. w) = [x(u4 w) x{u4 w) z(uw)] (2. If f(x4y) the parabolas If 3- the curve is symmetric about the* the curve is symmetric about the = = the PARAMETRIC for axis. =\302\261f(~xfy). hy simple extension. is curve two-dimensional a but by a set of two curve is a natural vector u.-y). parabola^ 4_ Uf(x4y) 23 \342\226\240 y2.' symmetric \317\207 = for -\321\203. = r> x2+y- =*?. p(u.y) a circle example. = \321\200(\320\275) and. \320\234\320\275) y(u) \317\206)] (2. mathematical ill-defined other applications modeling should system andsome points represent points themselves fit through a set or surface a curve cannot =f{x). appropriate Curves about the origin (or other is symmetric the curve -y).x).3 as curve the \302\261f(y. for example. For example. to parallel planes the by not functions by \317\207 many others related to ease to represent way a single = = function ordinary y(u) a of \321\205(\320\270). single-valued explicit used in geometric shapes First.\321\203 - \321\203(\320\270). functions. defined system. the determines most of shapes the is of the relationship between these In most fact. \342\200\224k2. affect not some tangent lines coordinate chosen of in values results or Second. coordinate explicit the curves Finally properties.

is plotted for an interval on it of \320\270 the \320\265[-1.2 A parametric curve. surfaces.A vector be defined in much the same way. so that the terms point and may frequently vectorare interchangeable. The point is the basic element of parametricgeometry and geometric It an is ordered set of real coordinate whose numbers. The curves.2). defines most of the equations generate the sets of points defining in this text. for equations Figure 2. modeling. implied nature defines a position in three-dimensionalEuclideanspace. Of course.1]. They also Parametric parametric many of the problems associatedwith best describe the way curves are drawn non- by a two time functions screens. For the radius vector (or position example. causing pen move on the appropriate curve. it is not possible (see Parametric values significance The of \320\270 from to the curve in -\302\253to modeling the figure -\320\270\302\273. Here plotter or some computergraphics display the of a or electron beam servo the x(l) and y(t) control system plotter deflection of a vector or to the electron beam system display.24 \342\226\240 Curves avoid equations functions. We must select an in terval that has some situation and that has computational convenience. vector) a point. . and other geometric elementsdiscussed of a following equations are an example of the parametricrepresentation curve to plot the curve for all Figure 2.

and produces three of these each into w independen t equations a point \320\270 generates arc the These well.11) is example x = The c + nu h \\a cosines p(0) point direction with \320\273)].1]. establishing curve hounding points and creatinga curve of Some segment.c.and functions expressing The x.u).12) of a form one also Ue[0.z) = \302\256 G(x. the helix moves parallel at a rate proportional to the angle of revolution\320\275.\316\267) It is x=a + where a.y. convenient to normalize the domainof the parametric usually means its value to the closed interval betweenOand which variable. z = u* =i. restricting this condition inclusive. and \317\200\316\271) (c + Another y = b = z = nnt This curve is a particular = and at + /) c] ending p(l) [(\320\271 to \316\231. proportional \320\265 \320\270 [0.say.y.y. one curve-defining variables relationship. 1.\316\267 straight line starlingat (b + kt Cartesian machine is apparent in these examples.l]. as curves other 3 and also the variable is the \320\270 \320\235\320\265\320\263\320\265. examples parametric of curves this convention follow. a constant a independent simultaneous equations i. F(x. also shown in the figure.zfollowing For example.The first equations using example is a set of linear parametric equations in parameter (\320\263.z) = 0 (2.\316\267. parametric value of z. If b < 0.1]. (y. At the same time. This curves (x. Each value of y.\316\267\316\271.10) variable. (2-13) It is the locus of distance a from it (in a helix of radius = a). + and arc constants \316\231. The l [1 p(l)= z y-\316\261\317\215\316\267\316\271\316\271 is a left-handedcircularhelix.z.it ishoundedbyp(0)=[0 0 0] final (2.u).Parametric Equations of Curves \342\226\240 25 = 3tr \317\207 + l y=us-u z = 2u + a specific Substituting values of x.y.b.14) .i \321\203 u This curve isa cubicalparabolaand and a point other acosu words.\316\267\316\271. ways-obvious a surface.Two screw.Because is example x = This curve (2. We express \320\265 the symbolically as \320\270 [0. produces specific on the curve. that twisted cubic. = bu it versatility is interesting of the or at axis \316\266 to see reveals equation in in xytz this represents form parametric how it \316\267 \316\277 t-al to adapts direct relationshipbetweenthe discussion 1]. then the around revolves to the \316\266 axis the helix is right-handed. (2. and space (see below).

of a variable coordinates of the two of the third as functions curve curve. form. From one point of view. \321\203 y(u). u(x). = earlier. projecting = = and \321\203\321\203(\320\270). by equations identity parametric = \317\207 \317\207 Now the is the parametric y = = \317\207 Z(x) y(X) (2.1].14) for which the two are surfaces cylinders.They is locally which surfaces. to definea curve segment. this approach because the or a similar finite function of a parametric Introducing the problem: = \302\253 \342\200\224 (2. say for implicit and \321\203 in \316\266 equations terms of x.16) yields = \317\207 x(u). one- segment by (2.17) X-l \342\200\224Xo allows an explicit range of \320\273. and = - + (\321\205\320\263 \317\2070 \321\2050)\321\206 this Substituting and z[x(u)]. are the defined this way is a bounded of il may he of interest. third. produces (2. that is. they. ^.15) separatelyrepresentsa cylinder one of the principal planes. the \320\273.represent the intersectionof two implicit equationsof a inherently unbounded. these explicit equations. = These are the \316\266 \316\266(\316\271\316\271). single-valued polynomials of the form = \321\205 \321\204) y = y{u) z= z(u) is a bounded continuous.. this following form easily resolves of x. point on the the of equations projecting form of A curve dimensions.16) with difficulty parameter is also the coordinate\320\264\320\263. = \317\207 = \317\207 (\320\270). produces y = y(X) = Z (2. of this leads to the following definition:A curve All collection of points whose coordinatesarc given parameter. large class into parametric into relationship Equations simplify to forms introduced parametric of explicit functions easily converts = \316\266 \321\203\321\203[\320\273-(\320\275)]..15) z(x) represent the same curve as do Equations These equations or the equations similarly expressingany Each of the curve onto and (2.are the explicit Equations (2.l].14). the Solving a curve.19) . = of a curve for \320\270 as a function of x. from the functions where through parametric x(u). This = \320\273: x(u) It x0 to expression satisfies compromising the normalization the range of (2. three in curve coordinate.\320\242\320\252\320\265 obviously unacceptablelimitationon domain. of course.18) condition on the parametricvariable without \320\273.provided which.so they are a special Equations (2. only part for two of the variables in terms of the however. and substituting the \316\266z{u) result into the two remaining the explicit Equations expressions. that is.15). which means that ue[0. range to the interval be normalized must variable the \317\207 e [0. a (2. Solving the first of the three parametric equations \317\207 x(u). when supplemented = \320\273. are also of the curve.

3 Elements of a parametric curve. (2.4. . = dy(u) derivatives. = 0 \320\275 oneat curve The increases.and p\"(u) is the the curve at that obtained by differentiating point.21) du as a superscript. Figure 2.Parametric of Equations where e \320\270 the parametric variable \320\270 is ordinarily and the on the sense positive [0. the tangent vectors arc not drawn is the to the vector p(w) point x(u)._. We can treat the coordinates of any point on a parametric curve as the a of vector 2. \321\200(\320\275): curve. respectively.The and z(u) functions may be of x(u).3 ill ustrales this and other components \321\200(\320\275). and the a fixedpolynomial constrained to the Curves 27 \342\226\240 closed interval curve is the directionin which \320\270 is point-bounded because il has two definite endpoints. it the differentiation with respect to w. tangent a Here vector to Unless noted otherwise. other at \320\270 =1. 5.20) du The vector components r. characteristic set of properties.. parametric du When z\" = \320\270 appears dz{u) (2.y(u). These are the of p\"(w) are Mu) du y< . Specialbasisfunctions generate and in discussed and Bezier.1]. B-Spline curves.z(u). Chapters3.y(u). The relationship between and the of is derivatives derivatives Cartesian parametric ordinary space indicates and similarly dy dyidu dx dxidu for dyidz and dzidx. basis defining functions that generate curves with a the Hermite. form. Figure important vector elementsof to scale.

and developed three-dimensional expressed.2 -1 \342\226\240 \316\273\316\271 = -\316\231 \320\273\302\267'/ 1 1 *0 = 1 \316\271 \"\302\267 0 .Model spaceis the Cartesian coordinates two-dimensional curve Plots plots.4 of a specificcurvewhose is representation = -6. the decomposition demonstrates 2.5 \302\273*S ] 1 1 0.\320\270). called in model are sometimes useful understanding its behaviorin space.\320\275). defined spaces defined by the familiar which a geometric model is fully space of a curve is the set of three space is the space in The parameter and (\320\273-.5 1 *-\302\273 *~y'i = \320\236 = 0.5u .5u3 x(u) + 9u2 + l 181^-2 y(u) =-12a3+ z(u) = + 0. Figure algebraic It x. by (\316\266. (\321\203.\320\270)\302\267 Any parametric can be decomposed into its three components in parameter of a curve in terms of its parameter spacecomponents. cross space.22) + 1.0.25\316\2673 + 14.75\320\2742 (2.y.25 \321\212\302\253 Figure 1A Parameter space of a curve.z.5u -10. .

5 + 29.5n components plotted in the interval it e [0. Each and a different curve results even controlled. whose values are determinedhy the independent variable of We can infer many characteristics of a curve hy inspecting the graphs the component curves.from p\342\200\236 continuously over its domain.y. is changed.The Cartesiancoordinatesx. Here we see a verified by sketching the resulting to a point (a degenerate curve of zero length). Figure2.Eachvalue of unique point on the curve in model variable if by successive generated v. it (for example.dxiduat \320\270 \320\270). \320\263-.5shows several cases that are easily special curves in model space. Here and \320\273. superimpose the model-space variablesalonga commonvertical have many advantages over other formsof Parametric equations representation. and coefficients. depending assigned to its in the figure. only one \320\275-axis \316\266 is independently coefficient this horizontal of the tangent are scales coefficients control the positionof a curve as its size values and \316\275-.5u + 36\320\275 (2. to pi) as the parametric variable it varies over its range (that is. Here are the most important ones: .23) + 1. \316\275. Thus.z arc stacked we plot another informative graphictechniqueis to superimpose them. the value of the parametric variablealong the horizontal axis and plot and axis.. in Figure sets of \317\207. plane curve. algebraic or geometric interval using a procedure called reparameterization. Plotting w values the creates entire curve. Different and the vertical scales on these plots affect apparent slope vectors.4) defines a it.75u2 l8u + .1].\316\275. we wi II discuss Later. and .\317\204.The graphsalsoshow the hehavior as the at on these derivatives curves parametric representedby slopes points = Each Cartesian coordinate varies continuously (for example. convenient delimiting valuesof the parametric line can be used without affecting the variable. We them replot The algebraic so that the and shape.5ttl + = \320\243' -36\320\2752 z\" = -30. as well space 2. to change in equal. a straight curve contracted a a on the values or line.Parametric Curves of Equations \342\226\240 29 where x\" = -\\9.\316\266 the successive space.although any interval on the \320\270 of the curve if or arc made to the position adjustments shape appropriate This the parametric shows figure are These mathematically how coefficients. arc \316\266 the dependent variables u. spacecurve. The graphs in parameterspaceshow the of each Cartesian behavior one end of the the as the coordinate from curve to other parametricvariable\320\270 of the varies over its domain from 0 to l. \320\273'-.

30 \342\226\240 Curves J'rj \342\200\224O-Vi JO? fa) Pmm (b) Straight line 6. .\316\231\316\212 soC- \320\231 Straight line (d) Plane curue (f) Space curve =0^\" '' \320\236 (e) Figure Plane curue 2.5 Special curves shown in parameter 1 space.

degrees \342\226\240 Transformations \342\226\240 The equations as vectors. they See Ball(1984). \342\226\240 It is \342\226\240 There more are \342\226\240 easy or without curves constrained \342\226\240 The all slopes accommodate They same izations. and Filip effects into higher or lower dimensionsis directand the initial representation. without computational breakdown. beeause contraction affecting define are inherently bounded to a specified finite interval. the directly on them. The standardformis defines + Cy2 + 2Bxy + 2Dx + 2Ey + F= 0 (2.26) F and \316\241-[\320\273-\321\2031] \320\240 is given \320\235\320\265\320\263\320\265 by homogeneous coordinates.4 the when different Conversely. a conic. a parameterization schemeis of its effect on curve shape. curve often can be represented by many 2. variable easy \342\226\240 Each and others on shape.Conversely. this second-degree implicitequation.25) PQPr=0 where \320\220 \320\222 D = Q \320\222\320\241\320\225 D \316\225 (2. Ball (1989).24) equation becomes (2.27) . (2. be performed may \342\226\240 Extension of freedom to control curve shape.Conic \342\226\240 allow They of variables separation Curves 31 \342\226\240 and direct computation of point coordinates. of parameterization is parameter parameter- sometimes chosen for in-depth discussionof CONIC CURVES A any conic curve by a is defined second-degree equation Ax2 In matrix form. to express parametric is treated alike.

32 \342\226\240 Curves Conic curve 2. The next parametric curves.29) \316\271\316\271\316\265[-\317\200. y = 2au (2. HERMITE.30) Ellipse: = sin h >\342\226\240 2. AND B-5PLINE \316\267 CURVES:AN OVERVIEW chapters discuss the Hcrmite. \320\272=\320\220\320\241- the type Q indicate and lines are invariant conic equation These include of the IQI.\317\200] (2.D:~/l/7== 0 Two parallel C = B = (\\D'-AF< 0 0 0 <0 *0 -CIQI > 0 <0 *0 -CIQI <0 <0 *0 .F-CFkO \342\226\2400 Two C = B = 0.5 BEZIER.0 Two parallel Point 2.Fr-CF Two real parallel 0 0 \317\213 0 0 0 Two parallel CiO. curves using under If \320\233 + \320\241.Table these characteristics. Common parametric forms of coniccurves arc Parabola: = air \320\273.F'-CF^O <() translationand Type and the of conic curve. Bczicr.D2-AF> parallel C = B = 0.and both and rational the nonrational including three B-Spline forms of the latter .1 conic classifies lints coincident lines innginary ellipse ellipse Imaginary Two intersecting transformations.The values of ft: determinant lines Hyperbola characteristics rotation imaginary real lines lines Real ellipse < (1 \317\213 Certain lines Two parallel coincident C^O.1 Table IQI \320\272 0 0 conditions Olher *0 0 0 0 characteristics Parabola >0 C*0.\317\200] (2.28) Hyperbola: = a \317\207 sec y~b taii\320\270 = a \317\207 cos it \320\270 \320\270 \320\265 f-\317\200.

Hermite B-Spline a form is itself c aseof the The and the Bezier forms. to subdivide. simplicity and investigated them makes natural versatility good starling points for studying curvesand The curves are a special case of the Bezier and surfaces. cubic B-Spline Barsky (1981) introduced a generalization of the uniform while called the beia-spline. becausethis is primarily of the lowest describing nonplanarcurves. curve is defined by its two points It interpolates all its control to subdivide. property of B-Splines Filip some of curves cannot he and Ball (1989) and others point out that types this is true for a For example. end and the tangent vectors at those points. In its standard fonn for Hermite interpolationis not restricted to points. a cubic Hermite curves it uses both points and derivative data. curves form the basic elementsof splines: and curves Hermile.This is tangent to the first and last sides of the open polygon definedby these It exhibits the convex hull properly and is the easiestof the curve control points. The B-Spline curve is a piecewise polynomial curve definedby a set of of The control points which the curve ordinarilydoesnot interpolate. degree of its polynomial basis function is defined independently of the number of curve shape is possiblebecausechanges in control control points. Local not do and control control location point propagate shape change globally. it does not offer local control. This curve's name is identified with Charles Hennitc a French mathematician of considerable accomplishmentsin (1822-1901). the curve and bicubicHermitepatch earliest forms were among in and used Their relative geometric modeling. because the the of any control point produces shapechange throughout position changing two. practically representedas B-Splines. points and is fairly easy if not its lack of invariance underaffine transformations can be troublesome accounted for. Bezier. and B-Spline Curves: An Overview \342\226\240 33 The cubic nonrational form is a special case ol a rational form.For example. This form permits parametricdiscontinuities . Each Hermite curve.the numberof which of the Bernstein polynomial basis functions that determines the degree curve interpolates its first and last control points and describe its shape. forms However. influence points only a few of the nearby curve segments. the of cubic and quintic polynomials. However. Wc are whose is controlled c urve continuity composite the cubic interested in polynomial representations. B-Spliue that consist of individual parametric curve segments joined to forma single at the segment joints.Hermite. which is likely to require procedurallydefined its for polynomial representation. special B-Spline. areas The Beziercurve is defined by a set of control points. A valuable is that they are invariant under affine transformations.A brief degree capable comparison of their most important characteristics follows. Bezier. a very high degree intersection curve.

in common. exhibit the convex hull property. polynomial multiplications and value the and surfaces. However. method for straightforward calculating polynomialsis rule._2u\"~1+ \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 + \320\260.liiJ'-i [(mi + b)u degree + c]u + d (2.axis-independent. coordinates \316\266 including Hermite.For the cubic equally = uu4 + bu2 + cu + d.31) \316\267 + al.34 \342\226\240 Curves of the continuity preserving unit and tangent curvature vectors at joints. inverse-point solution.\320\270 + \320\260\320\277 (2. curve are variation diminishing.it is the local control of curve that shape possiblewith B-Splines gives this form an advantage over the Beziertechnique. x. and and both multivalued. we calculate the coordinates for different of the parametric variable. natural way. curves and Bezier curves have many B-Spline advantages Control points influence curve shape in a predictable. we rewrite it so that oniy three p(u) as of on a a additions three functions.express elements Homer's polynomials. This \321\203. Direct-Point Solution Most methodsfor modeling and B-Splinemethods. Bezier.This as polynomial predetermined process known the Other tasks that solution. we determine direct-point modeling require lo a point p(w) which is given the value of the parameter \320\270 in corresponding To a curve plot terms of its coordinates is the \320\273. on these of points The problem of calculating the becomes one of calculatinga curve specific point and a simple. which requires that we values evaluatea of is at increments w. y. of the which the a curve or control vertices and of surface independent by shape can be manipulated. as docs the ability lo add control pointswithout increasing the degree of the curve.6 POINTSON CURVE A of a series of points on it p(w). the development that follows is in terms of scalar Although it applies well to vector polynomials.This that are provides two additional parameters. polynomial parametric coordinatesof polynomial..calledbiasand tension. \316\266. making them good candidatesfor use in an interactive Both types of environment. A rational formulationof the bela-spline is reported in Bat-sky (1993) and earJier by Joe (1987). 2.32) . curves are required lo compute the solutionfor a given \320\263\320\263 p(u) Toevaluatethe polynomial p{ii)-u\342\200\236u\" = of +ari.

For any n. parametric . recursively computes we Alternatively of points on a polynomial curve formal may for of the Farin (1993a) describesde Caslcljau's algorithm points on a Bezier curve. The functions lends itself to thesemethods. Clearly.we rule as Horner's generalize p(w)= = p(u) \302\253() a<> a2)u + \302\253i]w-+\342\226\240 [(a3if + +(h}ii and so on.wc are additions /ilh-dcgrcc polynomial. \316\267 Combining yields: program \321\214/ + \316\241 a l and \316\267 multiplications coordinatesof rule Horner's for program of 2n a straight-line develop a general evaluate + a(l + \320\260\320\267)\320\270 + \\\\(\320\2604\320\270 (12]11 p{u)= \342\226\240 35 follows: + + <i[)w (fl2W Curve on a Points \342\226\240=1 for \321\2170 / \316\220\320\2602\320\270 t<-tu for /i-2 for = 3 \320\273 + a0 p<-t I <- ayit I + t <- t <- \302\2532 \320\250 tw ff- \317\201*-\316\257+\316\257\316\220\316\277 points on To evaluate nested P(w) = 0IO-h)Po Bczier cubic a we scheme. for each of the three necessary n = for \316\267 -2 for n = for = 4 \316\267 a straight-line with 3 steps to point. use incremental methods to compute coordinates successive values of the parametric variable. multiplication + (j find curve using a variation on Horner's that (l-\302\243i) \342\204\226 + (2J\302\2732P2 (l-u)+l3|u-p3 where \320\226 are that binomial coefficients.

constant and find cln lo successive the previous incremental plotting and curves. the forward investigate at polynomial equal intervals of the We with the simple case of a linear begin will We evaluate for/j p(u) Pi = p(i/n).to parametricvariable. a cubic polynomial.d. the forward difference ptli+ bu1 -+\342\226\240 not a constant.33) ba A. If we can evaluate du duts p-.To find + 1 equally the adding in the effectively a evaluate a set of values p.~ the same process (that is. pt> = d. this method to polynomials of any degree. d2.This equationhas a constant forward difference and is easily evaluated.+ 3\316\257 + + 1)4 rr differences: \321\201 \342\226\240 (2\316\257+\316\231\316\232 rr -\316\263\316\267 l)^rr + ^rr . Here.i<=[0: 1]._. carrying out the Hereis an algorithm for evaluating To apply algebrato combine three the <*!.then wc can alsoevaluate p.. To calculate at \317\201 the next and each require threeadditions: d2 + i\342\200\224dz di d] <\342\200\224 d. we first cunsider the cubic polynomialp(u) = \320\260\320\270\321\212 cu + d. If We thi ese initialize and variables at \317\201 0. wc . easily. where difference between two we f/n. = b a \321\201 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 ir + rr + - it ba 2b IV \320\237 IT (2-34) ba \342\200\224 \316\254\316\233= \316\267' Thus. easily Applying to forward evaluate + difference) du. = cu + d equation one method.'. of displaying [0.wc findc/b 1. = Qi of forward levels .a linear equation in . where u~ i = \342\226\240 0 and p=d d.+ (2.Thus.and values successive values of the value.= 6(.p. is pl+i . but a quadratic polynomial in /.. + is constant: oi'p(if) used that the observe we \320\265 \320\270 polynomial p(it) by method This p(u) spaced values of u..differencemethod. + (U_ p> <-p +dt successive increment. = d2. .1]..

intervals rcsuits. themselves the that curve a f/. \316\266 \320\273\\\321\203. method is of degree must we that increments to ensure evaluate or to curve smooth for display enough provide points sufficient data for analysis. Another midpointas we demonstrate as more points on the curve are is that errors accumulate round-off difficulty this Sec sufficient often Using precision problem. algorithm\302\273 and d~.1980). the inverse-point. . dt. wc + + c. In most cases. Compulation source and the add to it. + find the for example. point on \317\201 disparity. wc must find the corresponding value of w. Equal the of see Epstein(I 976). n.Th. though. = + [}JI2 \316\233' CXU \316\257\316\257. and Farin (I 993a).Points on must Wc to plt.-\316\234'1 V = \302\253. Instead. each for multiplications point. computed. \321\201-\320\270 + d7 arises. of course. on a parameter values discussion this of Judd for a succession of equalintervals curve produces unsatisfactory equal produce rarely solution direct-point problem (1978. For a theoretical in model and possible solutions.. closest to the given point q. because it is unlikely of these three cuhicequationswill be contribute to the potential methods + that exactly and the \320\270 values (roots) equal. this three-step methods cubic for evaluating evaluation. given coordinates of a point on (or very near) a cubiccurve in model space. variables four the repeal Other a Curve degree.5).it is good point given q is not on a curve.solution. Chang (1988) of equal we to produce a enough Effectsof numher tl\\e select carefully that Parameterization the Frequently. equations calculating the roots of three cubicequations. we require only p.tt + rfh. parameter space.d?.tt2 = + bzuz \316\266\320\260\320\274} A difficulty from each significance practice of the coordinates point to assume.is problem implies These are. It is a good idea to subdivide the parameterrange halves and develop by simple expressions for the location of the curveat its for Hermitc curves (Section 3.Hartley and Inverse-Point Solution Many require algorithms modeling that we the find value of the parametric the variable corresponding to a given point.\302\273* + b. mitigates Shanlzand for further discussion of this subject. However. Wc can One \316\267 additions the with difficulty \342\226\240 37 values generating forpi polynomials require seveval after the compulations lo initialize for polynomials forward difference for each resulting in additions three apply this techniqueto polynomialsof any uses a loop that limes.Forexample.

q) to be perpendicular to the scalar product tangent p\" at p.\342\226\240 \320\227\320\222 Curves Figure 2. problem \317\201 such thai is satisfied.onlvrootsin the of interest. which ql is results = 0 to compute interval the a determines value minimum . Each rootvalue in this Ip ql.6). in from is the point q space by finding the vector (p q) q to the curve that to the tangent ol the curve at point The is to find perpendicular p.Thepoint \317\201 yielding the distance between them.35) polynomial in u. for a single point q and a parametriccubic problem determine the point \317\201 on a curve We closest to a point (see Figure 2.This thai means (p-q)-P\" For cubic curves. their solve will We (his curve must be zero.6 Vector interpretation of the inverse-pointsolution.1] are iie interval to solve in a quintic such an (2. Various numerical equation. this condition For (p . 01 course.this methods available are point for \317\201 for - (p [0.

represented curve. Additional of the Hermite form allow refinements boundary to interpolate curve three or four given conic curves are Some points. exactly by a Hermite in this chapter we see that Hermite curve segments Finally. and if certain continuity conditionsaremet.The Hermite directly as the mathematical basis functions link between the algebraicand emerge forms. Varying The of a description algebraic and their vectors offers a way to modify the interior the the or of changing position endpoints the at is Cartesian slopes these points.1 ALGEBRAIC The of the magnitude curve AND algebraic tangent without GEOMETRIC form of three polynomials: a FORMS parametric cubic curve is given by the following 39 .CURVE HERMITE curve as a set of parametriccubicpolynomial vector equation begins this chapter. find are expressedconcisely as We then that both forms geometric and matrix which prove useful when convertingbetweenHermite equations. Bezicr basis functions as well as in othertransformationoperations. joinedend-toform a composite end curve. Truncating and subdividing n curve the basis functions and adjustingcertaincurve accomplished by re parameterizing a conditions.We equations corresponding that sec the coefficients in lerins of boundary algebraic expressing conditions leads to the more convenient geometric form. while others are closelyapproximated.it have the properties of a spline. will the shape of a 3.

simplified and shortened form.1) where two curves of the if they occupy space. algebraic and different + bounds includingits size. called coefficients. these conditions are usually the endpoint coordinates and the tangent the directions at these points. allowing us to definea of conditions at its endpoints. in of also become (3. The algebraiccoefficients are not the most = a^u' is thejth component. Using the endpointsp(0)and p(l) and four vectors corresponding tangent p\"(0) and p\"(l).\320\270 more (3. these three Writing \320\270 to coefficients. we obtain the following the controlling equations: of a curve in typical . + \320\252\320\2702 + \321\201\320\270 + d position vectorof any equivalents to the suggests even p(\") = using the point scalar algebraic Cartesian coordinates of the an Equation (3.b.For a cubic Hermite curve.1) + brii2 + d\316\257\316\257-\316\257\316\2575 c-. of a curve.\316\271\316\271 parameter restriction This \320\270 \320\265 + dx \321\201.1]. a<\"' \316\243 i-O Einstein convention and adjustingthe indicesas necessary produces = \320\260. same shape size have (3. in the values the curve. nor do they shape form contribute much to an intuitive sense of a curve. and in positions not is equation interval 0 to 1.\321\213'or \321\200(\321\213) where the the power are a\342\200\236 basis the algebraic representation Xj coefficients andx.The componentsof of the point.The determine a unique curve. inclusive. coefficients algebraic equations in the more compactform but to read and write less cumbersome only denote an arbitrary number of dimensions.or boundaries.shape.the Hermite a curve offers in terms segment practical alternative..uz + d.2) yet the notation: summation using Finally. c\\.Thisis convenient way of modeling situations. However. space. Thus. creating a curve segment.u \316\257\317\204\316\275\316\220\316\2573 + + z(u) = restrict the We usually or 12 [0. in position different Therefore. Equations p(fi) the p(u) is the vector correspond p(ii) = au3 vector a vector allows us to notation. d arc coefficients.40 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite x(u) y(u) = + bxul \320\271\320\263\320\2753 = + b.c.2) on the curve and a.

3) .3u2 + (2u\321\200(\320\275) l)p(O) + (-2m3 + 3u2)p( I) + We this simplify using the equation .In1 (\302\2733 /?. p\"(l). l-\\(u)V(0) + F2(u)p( I) + + \320\236\320\224\321\200\"(0) \320\222\320\224\321\200\"(1) this equation by using subscriptsto represent Equation (3. + (iil . \320\227\320\260\320\263\320\223 d + differentiating Finally. . p]. (3-4> + u can rewrite Equation (3.and the vcctoTS p\302\273.6) the geometric (see Section 3. and = \320\270 substituting of lour p(w) 0 and simultaneous coefficients in terms of set this algebraic conditions: a = 2p(0)-2p(l)+p\"(0) + b = -3p(0) \320\270 substituting with - \320\270 to respect 1 into this equations in the boundary p\"(l) + 3p(l)-2p\302\273(0)-p\"(l) = \302\273r p\"(0) d = p(0) Substituting these expressionsfor the algebraic (3.2) obtains p(0).(\320\274) = 2\321\213-.5) ihen becomes: the simplify P('0= ''i(\302\253)pu+ + /'\320\263(\\321\2001")F. and Equation + 2b\302\273+ c.-\320\227\321\2132+1 F2(u) = ~2u'+3u2 .Forms and Geometric Algebraic \302\267 41 p(0)=d p(l) = a p\"(0) = c +b+t + 2b+c p\"(l)-3a where = 1 into \320\270 0 into substituting the equation \320\270 = p\"(u) yields obtains p\"(0) and unknowns four obtains p(l).3)as Now we = p(\302\253) point + ii)p\"(0) following substitutions: \316\241\316\257 \316\273 = \320\270 ~2u\320\263\320\273(\320\270) We into Equation coefficients further \320\272 values. the Hermite basis functions coefficients. . The F terms \320\260\321\202\320\265 p\" arc (3-5) end- (3.(u)pt + F4(u)p\"i This is the geometric form.2) and rearrangingtermsproduces: . Solving the yields (3.2).u2)p'O) (3. po.

of the endpoints and tangent vectorsto coordinate values over the domain of w. we must control what is goingon at thoseends.)\". For producethe intermediate point can a curve into its parametriccomponents we example.2 constraints. are directional in the sense that = 1. The vector directions generates endpointsand tangent choiceof which end of a curve to define as p0 and which as p! is arbitrary a preferred unless there is someadditional constraint direction.4).42 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite There cubic these to As curve. Separation of boundary This means condition to alter boundary condition condition can selectively modify shape of a curve without a single affecting each only dependent effects\342\200\224they the allow coefficients to be decoupledfrom that we the for identical are each of the three on u. decompose each curve into four orthogonal then \342\226\240*(\302\253). Figure in the unit interval \320\270 \320\265 parameter [0. they 3.1 shows each function as a curve over the domain of the (3. string mathematical 3.it I. Dimensionalindependence\342\200\224they are because model-spacecoordinates. FUNCTIONS BASIS HERMITE The Hermite basis functions first in the derivation of the geometric are the functions defined form. (An explacorresponding F4(u)pf\". We will discuss this more characteristic in point point along detail later.but it is important to understand that reversing the sequenceof an identical curve. \320\270 = \320\270 First.it useful to specify = 0 and at the endpoints of a cuTve. F2(u)pu Fy(u)p. These functions blend the effects . constituent other. decompose component and curves to Fi(u)pa.\321\203(\320\274). specific boundary the other boundary conditions. appear the from form hold Universality\342\200\224they for Hermite curves.\320\263(\320\274). values at' the parameter \320\270 when increase from monotonically progressing to the curve. like all parametric curves. where \320\270 variables of freedom \320\260\321\202\320\265 12 degrees must specify that we shape-controlling define = 0 and is computationally easy to evaluatethe polynomialsat \320\270 when joining many curves together end-to-end to form more curves. dictating such as positionin a composite There are no intrinsic of curves.1]. Three characteristics of these basis functions are: important 1. all cubic 2. Second. They algebraic by Equations 3. complex Thesecurves. Hermite 3 components (4 vectors \317\207 per vector) the and fully unambiguously equations of the later more is see in we will detail.

2 shows 0] \321\200\320\270=[5 pi basis functions. to that described also A for the position vector \321\200(\320\263() situation analogous and and holds the vector second vector for derivative tangent p\"(\302\253) \321\200\"\"(\320\274).2 3.Hermite Basis Functions 1 \342\226\240 43 0 ! - _| \316\271 -L^i^ |' I 1 1 | U ' -.o il 1 ' 1 . respectively. Notice how each hasis function contributes to the total shape of the curve.5.1 Figure nation of orthogonalcurves an examplewhere ) \316\223 \342\226\240 1 | \316\271 Hermite Cubic and \316\271 1 follows functions 5 pi'. -6 0] 0] The dashedcurve shows the effect of multiplying y0\" hv 0. = [25 5 0] = 44 [66 pi'=[8 shortly. \342\200\224- \342\226\240f\\ \342\226\240 \320\263 \342\200\224\316\271 1 \342\226\240 i 0. 1 1\342\200\224 \342\200\224\316\271 \342\200\224\316\271\342\200\224'\342\200\224'\342\200\224~ l.) Figure 3. where P\"(\") = ffo(\ du and = <l2p(u) \321\200\"\"(\320\274) du~ .

(3.bu .2 A curve Equations four orthogonal into decomposed curves shaped by basis the functions.4\320\274 = \320\227\320\2752 + \320\2403'(\320\275) and F'4'(u) = 12u.6 Ff(u) = ~\\2u F\302\245(u) /T(u) = 6u-4 = 6u-2 + b 1 .4) yields F1(u)= \320\261\320\263\320\263 F'Mu) = -bu2 + bu .44 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite Figure Differentiating 3.

\316\267 of the cubic Hermite basis functions becomes F0i3(\302\253). Furthermore. \317\201. Shifting p. condition.) Fiiu) = /r4(ii)= uat F. and that = 0 and Huf(u) Hf(u) H*?(u) H4?(u) = = = \317\213 1 \320\270 at and 1.Instead at that means = 0 \320\270 only p0 contributes and we would have to derive otherbasisfunctions. they have the and when because orthogonal when Fj(u) = 1 then (The term orthogonal is boTTOwed the tangent vectoT coefficients = 1. notation example. because Even-degTee polynomial quintic..6) of the polynomial and the b. Using boundary we the cuTve generalize segment endpoints.45 HermiteBasisFunctions \342\226\240 We the vectors p\"(u) compute and the appropriate set of basisfunctions so coefficients. b3 p\". and p\".4..b. between related \320\276\321\202 F3(\302\253) and pairs of blend that us to reverse H\\\"iu) = = \320\257 \320\242(\302\253) \320\257?\"(\320\274) basis function curves.This 3. F2(u) to have this describe the property to the u= at as cuTve 1.11) pH=jj>A\302\273 where (3. pi.1t) = 1. Equation as follows: (3. for otheT odd-degree functions HeTmite polynomials.for /^(\320\270).(u) are so that ii = uandii=1. odd number of have an degTees of freedom. \320\235\"\"{\320\270) pT.9) FX(u)p4 and = (3-10) FT(\302\253)pt F'fiu) are graphed in F\"iu) and functions basis The + Ff(u)pl+ + F'l%u)Pi FT(u)p0 p\"(\302\253) respectively. say that \320\235\"%\320\270). such as the similar basis basis functions are seldom used. The of the F\"\"(u) cannot be demonstrated. = = = 1 at u = 0. allows \317\2010. expected.3 Figures = 0. + and 3. \320\260\321\202\320\265 the geometric = = = For we have bu = po. FS(\302\253)p5 (3. and coefficient vectors.b2 pii. example the direction of that the endpoints provided parameterization and preservea curve'sshape. . po. are There are interchanged and the tangentvectordirections TeveTsed. at p\"\"(u) on a point any the on operating curve by using geometric that = + F4(u)Va p\"(\302\253) + + \320\257(\320\270)\321\200.This is the second derivative foTm. This prohibitsestablishing they conditions at symmetrical the summation notation. because these orthogonality condi coefficients blend the standardboundary tions p0.Here and The F]{u) symmetry and F2(u). the orthogonality of the //?'(\302\253) requires pS'. one common conform to the Tange of the indexi down makes it the step o f BezieT and For schemes basis functions. F^u) B-Spline \316\267 is the degTee = 3. only p] contributes position of the /*\"?(\302\253)coefficients The that F'-ftu) = F4(u) = orthogonality requires = 1 at \320\270 = = 0 and F'Hu) = 1 and that F'{(u) F$(u) = Fi(u) = 0and F\"4(u) Fu4(u) = 1. The point coefficientfunctions property F^u) F2(it) F^u) = 0 then F2i.

3 Fot the First quintic HeTmitecuTve. \320\270 % ^ ^ n'~ \317\205 0 -0.5(u) + + b5FSi5(\302\253) make the following assignments: b0 = b.A 1.12) . (3.\342\200\224. and + bjFJ5(u) b2F2s(u) + b4F4j(u) wheTe. = basis derivative = 5 \316\267 (\320\270) b0F0. = p0 pi b2 = pi.s(\302\253) \317\201 for example. \342\200\224 . -1. function + b2F2.0 / \321\203 \342\200\242 \316\244 > \320\276 / r~ 'A' ^' -0.46 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite 1 *\342\226\240 J V \320\273 t V \321\207.4 Figure 3. we might curves.6 or '\317\204 \317\204\342\200\224\316\271 -*' \320\247^ N S S \\ .

we can them. that 3. and (3. offer a compact and powerful Otherwise complex geometricoper- . /*\". We will see similar basis functionswhen Hermitc we any study and Bezier we can B-Spline curves.3 MATRIX FORM Matrixalgebra and mathematical form for its notation representing scheme a curve.care in required Tight side constructing of Equation the b. under certainconditions one convert from basis to another.\342\200\236(\302\253) their tenns are appropriately linked by a common index. in fact. These basis functions are a powerful modelingdevice. Using calculate the coordinates and the first and second of any point on derivatives cubic cuTve..Matrix Figure 3. p'i b^pS\" bs=pi\" CleaTlythe order of the sixteniison the is important.12) is not so sets.4 derivative basis function Second b3 = Form \342\226\240 47 curves.HoweveT. and.

so that (3.1! 10 0 0.15) p'. we 3u2 + we see 1) obtain (~2u3 + 3u2) . A is (3. Equation - [(2\320\2303 (3. \317\201\317\212]\316\223 (3. This matrix controls the the Hermite basis polynomials Fj(u)and monomial The 4x4 denote F = UMf -1 -2 (3. matrix.17) u2)] as equation 2-211 F=\\u I] -3 0 3 0 .f now let If we FA(u)] F3(u) \302\245=[\320\252(\320\270) Fz(u) and B=[po we then can rewrite Equation pS p. p\"0 F2(u) (3.14) = UA geometric form p(u)=[F.(u) \320\222\320\224 \320\236\320\224][\321\200\320\276 p.10 matrix is the Hermitebasistransformation basis by MF. two b \321\201d]r (3. using and we can develop a relationship betweenthe algebraic geometric From forms.13) Letting U= \320\223\342\200\236\320\267 \320\270 if A = [a rewrite then can we Equation 1] b for the similarly \321\201 (3.2) as We matrix \320\2701 \320\270 1][\320\260 p(ii)=[ii3 operations.48 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite often becomesimple matrices: the productof and analysis ations.16) inspection. transformation basis which we will the between u! orU.15) as P=FB that Given geometry algebTa F= By (he matrix of algebraic coefficientsand \320\222 is the Hermite matrix then matrix containing the geometric coefficients.13) as p(\302\253) and z(u)f y(u) \321\200(\320\270) =[*(\") (3.19) . can rewrite Equation (3.4).lu2 (u2 that we can expressthe of this side right (ir1- + u) (3. transformations.

different species For we let interchangeable through a matrix transformation. Br example.Then.22)allow ready conversionbetween and also that matrices U.3 2 I 0.16) produces p(u) = UMfB This Form (3.20) that means A = and. we will see that under certain conditions we can convert between Hermiie and Bezier curves using this approach. Rewriting Equations (3. that reproduces the same curve.\316\257\316\277\317\204 another of basis functions we let system G= UMcandfind a set of control points B(. = a matrix of control a curve points defining UMfBf using represent p(u) basis functions F = UMf. = This means it must be true that \320\270\320\234\321\201\320\222<.10) in the more compact matrix form yields p\"(u)= F'B or p\"(u) = UMj!B and = p\"\"(w) or F\"\"B = p\"\"(u) UM\302\243\"B where \320\240'=[(6\320\2702-6\320\270) (-6\320\2702 + l) + 6\320\270) (3ii2-4ii (3\316\271\316\2712-2\316\271\316\271)] and F\"\" = [(12\320\270 6) (-12\320\274 + 6) (6\302\253 4) (6\320\270 2)] . For a of basis are functions given polynomial degree. that conversely.21) \316\222 \316\234.21) and (3.19) for Equation Substituting (3. depending on shapeand position. \342\226\240 49 (3. This means that it is convenient and efficientto denotea specific curve by simply giving its matrix of see We a that Equations forms. so that BG = M^jMpBF. UMfBfl Later.22) B=M>A where \"\320\276\320\276\320\276\320\223 * f D 0 1 0 .23) (3.and MF are IgebTaie geometric all identical for cubic Hermite curves.Matrix (3. Only the A and \320\222 matrices from curve vary to curve.9)and (3. (3. and algebraic or geometric coefficients. (3. F.

= \321\200\"(\320\274) kt(u).We \320\270 value. supplied by the coordinatesx0. = TANGENT 3 and 6 -6 -4 0 0 3.z0 \321\205\321\212\321\203\321\212\320\263\321\212 directly the components of po and p.The third direction cosine is a function of the other two. These are for \321\203 and from yx = f/xu and resolves vector tangent = and^y dx(l)ldu. Rememberthat there are only two independent direction cosines at any point on a three-dimensional curve. elementary 1\320\263(\320\270).1).' are thosein Six are parameter space.but each vector also has a magnitude associated with it. ty(u). parameterization shape of the curve. by two from each end.5.50 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite basis matrices The and M\302\243 are M'/!' \317\213 \317\213 \317\213 \317\213 -6 6 m. add subscripts to indicatea the tangent vectors for the . The direction cosinesof the tangent to a point \320\270 a curve on the comprise in freedom the = the where components of a unit vector t(u). where\320\246\320\275) \317\201\"(\316\272)/\316\231\317\201\"(\316\272)\316\231.. This means that there are two more the shape of a curve. direction are cosines \320\246\320\270).corresponding + T\\(u) if = \320\272 of p\"(it). tz(u) where \320\272 represents the i\302\273 \316\265 Furthermore.y0. = 1 then 1\321\200\"(\320\274)1. slopes al each end.Not only do these vectors define the curve. The of freedom and magnitudes degrees supply the eleventh and twelfth contribute to the controlof the shape of a curve's interior. Here is a curve on point slopes the 12 degrees of freedomimplied by Equations and from (3.The Z* = dzldx The are x'q \342\200\224 dx(0)/du components z. From = + \316\231\316\25200\316\231 V?J(m) where tx(u). magnitude toits specificpoini. to control degreesof freedomavailable The slopesrepresented vectors tangent by p|j and p.4 3 Mf -2 1 = 0 \317\213 0 \317\213 0 \317\213 0 \317\213 12 -6 \317\213 6 -12 6 6 -4 -2 VECTORS The tangentvectorat any the parametricequations the defining tangent vector dependson the the Specifying how and for accounts only 10 of is given by the first The magnitude or and derivative of length of the the interior affects to define the shape of a curve. Four moreare supplied the direction cosines. [\320\236\320\224]. the problem of the extra two degrees of following way: A tangent vector operatesat eachendof the cubic Hermite as shown in Figure 3.and similarly = directly related to the Euclidean slopes\321\203* dyldx z' = and z\"/x\". becausethe sum of the of the squares three direction cosinesequals one. at endpoints of a cubic Hermite curve work vectors tangent coordinates curve.giving we know that geometry. ty(u).

Because the very interesting cubic of property two of geometric matrix B = [p0 This andp'/ = l. an slopes yet geometric the different and \320\272$ effect of family entirely each end. Tangent the we can control By varying kQ and \320\272\321\212 the location of some intermediate kv of varying kti and coefficients coefficients.5547 0 f\342\200\236 = 24. independent as (3-24) \316\234\316\271\316\223 state of affairs.5547 f0.6 fix can 0 = 0 = the other .0 z. while have y0 20=0 = 4.Figure3. or we shows three So variables. = kfa. endpointsand interior shapes.only by lt(u)l can expressthe now we po vectors.51 Tangent Vectors\342\226\240 3.5 Figure two endpoints of a curve direction are cosines as = k0% related is a fact.8320 /\"o. becausewe see that it is a that we can obtain many different curves (in all have the same of which them). = = 0.8320 flv holding constant all the following values: = 4.The = 4. = -0.0 jc\342\200\236 k.0 \320\273 far = 0. depending on the tangent vector curves Hermile infinite magnitudes are coefficients h3t0 p.0 X] tu = curvature at point. 0.

\316\257\316\2234 . 10 3 3 ^4.. 10 1 *-I 20 la) 10 = .\316\220^\316\223-\342\200\224\"7\316\223\316\223\"-\316\2574^-\317\216\342\200\224\342\200\224\" = 10 3 3 *X7 I 10 1 20 1 .6 Effect Symmetrical (b) Symmetrical of tangent slopes and slopes vector magnitude on curve shape. lb) Figure (a) 3.52 \342\226\240 Hermite Curve . equal tangent vector magnitudes. and unequal tangent vector magnitudes. .1*. - 1 1 .

Hereis a casual as independent we write the variables.5.5) and 0.7 differ only in the valuesof kQand A:.125(\317\201\"\316\261-\317\201\317\212) we obtain p(0.5. while for kx.g and h.6. At first it appears that by manipulating magnitudes of p(j and p\" we can on force points the curve to any location. ting k{.) + - \316\261\316\22025(\316\233\342\200\236\317\2120 \316\233. But let us see what happens lo the = to \320\2720. equal. preserving or true for any plane curve whetheror notit liesin a plane coincident with.F2(0. so lha I are /^(0.125. is constant.5) pg Substituting = koto and = 0. restriction on curve readily only in nonplanar curves.5) = 0. and \320\272\320\263 proof.5) = 0.5(p0 + pi) and Of a restriction similar tj. varied while \320\272\320\263 in of which results the asymmetrical family curves.1251.0.)+ 0.and a loop is produced in the curve when = ka kx = 80 (that is. When chord the length magnitudes between of the of the tangent vectorsexceedsomemultiple the curve begins the endpoints of the curve segment.(0. when we model a curve we must meet somespecificdesign Usually. action. The chord length is Ipi flat very low magnitudesproduce relatively = 20 for each curve in pol Figure3. the of the for p(0.5(po+ p. behaviorand do not represent particular examples of applications to real design in Figure respective curves The and their problems. course..TangentVectors \342\226\240 53 3. There is.6b. applieslo any other given t0 and on the \317\201(\316\257\316\257.6a are symmetricalaround a commonvertical are values of k0 and /\321\201.e.Trea equation shown curves The in Figure curves.5) signs) a will lie in that is always plane parallel lo bothp(J and pi1 and that passes the of the line through midpoint joining p0 and pi (i. four times the chord length). then p(0. By manipulating is their lines This of we are able to force p(0. In (wo of pyis reversed by using negative values the magnitudes and signs of pfj and p.\316\220.125^\316\2740 - (0.) 3..5)to any location.5) = = -0. If the shape apparent of the magnitudes(including tangent vectors are varied. E. however. /c0 is axis.5(po + pi)). The values of the basis functionsal this point point corresponding = 0.5) direction as follows: po. Conversely. such as loops and cusps.5(po p\" = kjtu + \317\201.125. F2(0. a curve.) curve. lo exhibit undesirablecharacteristics. the illustrations here are meant to explaincurve However.s(*o.5.5) p(0. a principal plane of the coordinate system. criteria.5(p0+ pi) + This is the containing point (0. a parallel to. In Figure 3. .)^ vector equationofa planethrough the point 0.*i) = 0.

way this interval direction the that is changed. or the direction of parameterization of a curve ordinarily subdivide. For example. change We it. This the precise of parameleriza lion is = -\320\270. reparamelerization. showing the vectors for two of directions tangent possible parameterization.or subdivide points for displaying it. To truncate. and The . its endpoinls Figure 3. For the simplestformof repa\316\275 is shape new the or parametric of the position curve. subdividing a curve break can There are many requires a mathematicaloperationcalled a change in the parametric operation produces nor the shape position of the curveis invariance as shape and parameterization Ideally.8 illustratesa Hermitecurve segment. AND SUBDIVIDING TRUNCATING down into smaller segmentsby truncating or we truncate reasons for doing this. nor doesit changeany of the curve's analytic properties.where this we use \316\275 To do transformation does not changethe neither is often effect referred this the to The reparamelerization. variable.7 Effect Figure 3. so interval changed. reversing rameterization.This under function = \316\275 describes \320\224\320\274) example. may to isolate and extract that of a curve a modification model surviving part il lo compute process.5).5 of tangent vectormagnitudeon the location of p(0.54 \342\226\240 Hermite Curve 3.

^> x{-i| X(. where the curve is initially from the variable u.linear relationship |b| la) *7 % q. = from to we the the first case coefficientsin v. p'i p\"]r.after reversingit becomesB'. q.9shows a more generalform of reparameterization. py. . Because they requirement..B Two possible directionsof parameterizationof a curve. that is. [q.and Truncating transformation the condition from \342\226\240 55 Subdividing illustrated in Figure 3. -p? pn [p\342\200\236 -pg]r. q)]T. Here we see Figure 3. q'. ranges geometric v. the position of po and the and \320\222 where B'=[p. to uyTo change this so that parameterized parametric let be B. The vectors are defined tangent by the first derivative of the parametricfunctions.1> q'i Figure 3. in a straightforward way They are related be coordinates must point = = and invariant to of so that otherwise. q. are sensitive to the they = A function relating \320\270 and is required to prev. any change parameterization q. the curve does not satisfy the constant position reparameterized are another matter. two possible parameterizationsfor a single curve.8ainto that in 3. So.8b of geometric matrix requires interchanging p] in coefficients and similarly interchanging the tangent vectors reversing = their signs. p. = in and the second The endcase B2 [p< P. \316\275 \320\224\320\274). given the geometry matrix p! pjj p\"]T before reversing the direction of parameterization.

the + b = au. then \321\211 \321\211 is very useful when dealingwith - successive u.so the parametric insist must we again adu.. = (3. We that these see are simply scaled by the ratio of the ranges of the parametric magnitudes the directions variables. must to tells us that the tangent vectormagnitudes change in the range of the parametricvariable.This preserves of the tangent vectors and the shape result This a change accommodate of the If curve. pairs of integers. Because we know that and b and. = curve segment = 1. are and the same segments of individual segments originally parameterizedto 1 may be cardinally identifying reparameterized to allow schemes. u. Figure serve the cubic of form tangent vector. subsequently. + b. vi Tela and the equations that v = au + b. This and = v} between tionship au.the nth curve .- holds true composite the interval relatively simple for v-. (3\302\26726> \321\207/=-^\321\200/ Vj-V. For example. because = 0 and u. direction of the dv = that means we can easily find a vectors. This curves.25) ^p\302\273 Now we can state the the two between sets of as coefficients geometric relationship complete * = 4/ = 4 = P< P/ vj-v.9 Reparameterization. which the tangent is simply 4. and \320\270. and v.56 Curve Hermite \342\226\240 3.

- U. the truncated and That from to and from is. - (\320\270. - by Equation v.'and p'/ using p\"(tt) = UMfB. using p(tt) interval ratio of parametrie reduces to u. by proceeding parameterized = UMPB.)V or = \320\270 + \316\221\316\271\316\271. then 4d = ft 4i=P/ q. . capabilities as modeling elementsare intersected.26) q(v) representsthe truncatedcurve. For any polynomial this. =0 \321\205\320\270.\342\200\224^\342\200\236 \342\200\236.\" = (uj - u.+ (ii. Ifv.-. applies polynomialparametric we again require a linear relationshipbetweeninitialandtransformed = au + b. because - lengths v. 1. together complex Figure at \320\272. be parameterized This means that the from can 1. The p. \342\226\240 57 Subdividing that the demonstrate a new \320\222 matrix discuss composite need for these and joined trimmed. a .there are tions that describe the same curve.\320\270. We can represent a cubic Hermite segment as = 0 to \316\275 = \316\275 from as follows: We curve.In fact. ii = ii. and compute p. tt0 segments ur ut to u.)p'j There is a generalizationof the precedingparametric transformation. the segment form of re parameterization. by solving (irrespectively. to form a more 3. = 1. If (t.10 of Reparameterization truncated curve.and Truncating segment = \316\267. It or to rational curve. v. = \321\211 to n-\\ for \320\222 matrix These curves or curve. Later extended and solid-modeling techniques will the that \321\211 parameteriza- compute sections result is unchanged by this different many us to allow formulas reparameterization a truncated \316\257\316\277\317\204 = with \321\211 \316\267.0 ? \316\271 ^ /' Figure3.10 curve illustrates objects.\302\267) given (3. so that \316\275 parametric to preserve = = and I then for a and b we have attt.and p'. variables the degree of the polynomial.)/(v. are \321\211 the remaining eliminated.\316\275 \320\270. 0andv.

k\\{n-k)V from \316\244 that U = For a cubicHermitecurve.28) \316\243((^)\302\273*(\316\224^)\" where \316\267! \\k} the binomial Equation (3.58 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite - = If \316\275.\317\210\316\247.-v.\316\224\316\257\316\257^ \316\221\316\271\316\256 \316\271\316\256 To 0 ith segmen p. to the unit interval.VTMfB \321\200(\320\270) TMf = \320\222 MFB' = \320\222' \320\234^\320\242\320\234^\320\222 where U=[ \316\2673\320\2702 \320\270 1] V = [v3 \316\2752\316\275 1] \316\224\316\2673 1 = 3u2AUj 2iijAuj are boundaries ma trix n new given elements This \320\270.v. is clearly \320\270] 0 \316\224\316\267.']T an application of Equation (3. and p\" at the segment or readily computed. \317\210 \316\237 and/or \320\224\320\274. we assume that (t.-faU (3-29) (H. transformation parametric and scheme UMfB. 1 into n successive segmentsof arbitrary and length curves.-\302\253. \\ Applying I v. the binomial theorem to \\Vj-vJ = \320\270 + \321\211 Au. where then \316\275-. vy_i .-i)p. so that renormalized transformed the produces curve VT = have we \316\244 corresponding to the parameterization matrix a transformation extract We segment subsequently . \321\200(\320\270) Applying the coefficients B'.. \321\211 \321\206.27).where vy- = 1. geometric between in the initial u. t are (\321\211-\321\211. Then.28) so coefficient.p(-. and \320\270. the geometric coefficientsof \320\222 of the B(=[p(_. a curve subdivide generate 0 0 0 0 3\316\257\316\257. transformation the are equations -\320\272 = \302\273\" (3.

'\" = UMFB \342\200\224 (3. \316\267 of the intervals 59 Subdividing \342\226\240 and = pM(it) \342\200\224p%\342\200\236 UM\302\243'B. intervals.Given \317\2010.31) . we proceed = 1 \316\267 = p(|) for + + p(i)] {fp(\302\260) = 2 \316\267 P(0) + p(i Pl}) for {fp. Ph^r We = |ctm \"2\"'U 16 = l.and so on.\317\201\316\257\316\ A quick and for pf.. subdivision as follows. is possible of curve at by taking advantage properties We subdivide in order to set of on the a recursively p(0. . generate points curve at 2\" equal each of length 1/2\". respectively.'(0)-p\"(i)] + P(l) + J_ + J_ p\"(0)-p\" 16 16 P\"(^)-P\"(T) = 3 \316\267 + \317\201 \317\201(\317\213) + 16 p\"(0)-p1t J_ + p\"Ui-p\\2 \320\242\320\261 l)+p(i + J_ pi'Tp(i 1 7 p\"(7)-p\"(1) p|^)+p(i) . segment (that segments equal is ttli segment Of course.2\"-1 i+1 + P + (incrementing 16 by 2).nandi 'i-\\ = 1.Truncating and curve If a occur at into is divided equal parametric we must ~ Pil\" Pii-\\V\" of the ! Pd'-l).30) PiVn evaluate each and p((i) boundaries matrix variable). parametric \317\201\316\271. and \"\316\241\" \316\241\316\212-^\316\223 compute (3.-= using is. then (he \320\222 1 B.5).

+ \342\200\224 i-1 + p' 4 We the renormalize + of length intervals i/2w i. 3.)Tyl kf F4{4.)(p. F2(Ui)pi F2(ui)(zi + + koFi(u. we obtain P(\"i) Expanding this \" Po equation = X. and its corresponding and the unit tangent vectors i0 and \\. The unspecified variable \320\272.32) the replacement: to back Reparameterization applied to the tangent Ihe unit so that vectors. \320\243.)ftJ x0) + \320\272^3(\320\270. introduces interval the factor of 1/2 1 It is this subdivision that quick and easy renormalizingof the new intervals after each this work. which thai so ill requires (3.33) ..\320\243\320\276 F2(u. intermediate but unspecified parametric variable point p.)(Xi = Zo = - F2(u.F2.)\320\270 - y0) + - Zo) + k0F3(Uiya+ + \320\2720\320\2403(\321\202)\320\223^ k. parametric the problem from being over-constrained.)(yi z.)% po) + koF^u^ia + \320\272^\321\200^% \320\272^\320\273(\320\270. Farin (1993a).-Xo ~ = - in terms F2(u.then tangent vectors compute 1 /-1 i+1 at u = i/2m.) = Z7] (\302\253. makes Ball (1984).% of each of the coordinates yields - + k^FA(u.60 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite If m must we *\302\253.and many others offer additional discussion the effects of parameterizationand reparameterization on curve shape.-. To determine the \321\211 prevents = vectors /cot0 and p\" = /c^i and attempt to find kn and tangent pjj and p\".FA(u.)h\\ (3. work.6 THREE-POINT on INTERPOLATION There is a three-point interpolation methodfor defining a cubic Hermite curve given the following conditions:the two endpoints an and po pi.)pu + = 1 . Because F\\ p((f. we let pjj that such the curve We our from earlier /c. passes throughp. have.

Then. the (z. \317\201\317\214' that an must satisfy these constraints: equation 0< < I \320\270. = [Z\\ - *1^(\320\270.-Za\\ = [zl-Za]F1(ui)+[i:f) t^koF^Uj) Substituting \342\226\240 61 -JTo) \320\233\320\270 \316\212\316\271 (\317\207.>0 We can relax the conditions on /c0and tangent vectorspoint along their FOUR-POINT if we /\321\201.-\320\243\320\276)_ 0'\316\271 \320\243\320\276) '\".-.)]7 produces appropriately Zo] .Then we acceptable solution F2(u. and under certain conditions it is comparable 3.-) Xo \" unknown.\316\277\316\212\316\271 leaving and /:(\302\253.4)] Equation arrays. \317\207\302\273)(JT. Figure Jl illustratesthis situation.- k0>0 k.) we finally obtain algebra.)>(' '\".) terms using matrixnotation produces ktF4(u.Four-Point first two the Solving of these equationsin - third the [z. value. p2 pi pj]. assigning A cubic Hermite curve .Xo \316\212\316\271 -ti \316\212\316\277 Zo]F3(u.) of fo/i(\". though -2\320\274?+ compute This is a of \321\211 by value the values the cubic of \316\212\316\277 \316\212\316\271 \316\212 and the \316\212\316\277 initial constraints are key equation in the development. we can tedious.t] [K(l X\\ - as \320\274. through some rather working matrix where an \342\200\224 \320\243\320\276 \320\243 \316\271 \320\243.v0) = '\316\271\316\237 /\320\2232(\302\253() \320\227\320\274? [from determinant determine of (zi-zo) \316\212\316\270 Equations (3. say. cubic the indicated solving and k\342\200\236 \320\272\320\273 using determine readily (\321\203.) + i. respective don't lines care which direction the of action. u. F2(ii. From and k\\Fj(u.(\320\243. We by specifying four distinct points in space [p. usefulness. - we have equation. begin < < a \320\270 that < to successive we find each so u2 \321\211 u4. INTERPOLATION that four given points is a derivative through passes to it in of the geometricform.) Interpolation two from. equations Note and \317\201\".-Zo) (-r.- only After (xi-x0) CVi-\320\243\320\270) \316\212\316\270 = expressed in we When equation.33).^\320\243\320\276) \316\212\316\277 (3.) '\">\342\226\240!. 0 [z. straightforward.

x4matTix four points. = [u\\ u\\ u.11 Figure curve. to the assigned as having = KP follows then we M.U^.so that u] u.)It Pi u. 1] and u\342\200\236 similarly fot u{ u2 will that \320\240\320\267 Pj depending (For the moment. U2. when it premultiplies the of geometric matrix points.B (3.Uj. that.62 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite a 4 \317\207 4 matrix coordinates of the Four-point form of a 3. 1 ul u2 1 u\\ \"3 1 ui UA 1 .34) u3 where U. P2 u2 of constants. produces the \320\222 of constants four B = p3 p2 K[Pl matrixof coefficients: p\342\200\236]T \320\276\321\202 B where P= [pi solely on treat all four p2 \320\232 is \321\200\320\264 p^]Tand \320\270 values the a 4 arbitrary values.

the the \320\222 matrix.11 9 -4 -1 -r 9 -9 2 ~2 20 UMjrB compose and = \320\222 a slightly KP. \321\211 2/3.36) 27 27 27 27 0 1 0 0 different by substitution expression as follows:Given we obtain p(ii) = UMf-KP (3. 11 0 0 \" _4_ J_ 27 27 27 \"27 1_ 20 2 _4_ K~l = can 7 (3.\316\234.37) 2 0 \"1 We (3. \302\2534 1. . parametric \320\232\"1 we of the approach and choosingequally distributedvalues = = = \320\232 that is. 0.38) = \317\201(\316\272) .FouT-Point We -1 Pi u. u2= 1/3. four-point equivalent form is = \320\232 \316\241 *\320\222 a standard Taking variable. \320\232 -I U2 Mf\"' (3. \320\240\321\215 u4 p4 \320\232 matrix U. for \320\275. then f\320\276\321\202 and find K = 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 .35) u3 u4 given Conversely.' \320\222 extract then and the \342\226\240 63 directly to obtain this equation solve Interpolation u2 P2 u.

so that new basis created have we G2(\302\253)p2 + the equal possess + u)p4 Gj(ii)p3 + \320\2414(\320\270)\321\2004 partition of characteristic unity l- HERMITE CURVES CONIC Constructing a coniccurve understand to how the and an intermediatepoint intermediate at \320\233 is represented of intersectionof the construct a set 1.5\321\2133 \321\200(\320\270) - + 9h2 5.12). The AD at \320\222 where D line and the is BD.5\320\270\321\215-22.(k). both lines past \320\241 intersects both lines AC and a and \320\222\320\241. Draw any are such C. lie within the triangle ABC.5\316\257\316\2573 . set of a segment of a conic curve (seeFigure3.then P(\302\273) = UNfP 2 27 2 (3. We on the conic curve as follows: SC.4.64 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite IfMFK = N. corresponding common plane.5u2 +(4. find a tangent better state lines.5\320\270+ +(13.((i)pi \321\200(\320\270) because 3. b . to plot sufficient points tangent tangent of points AC and curves two endpoints A as: Given problem traditional the Hermite use all in a way is worth reviewing to to represent them. extending line through D that intersection points. Draw lines 2.-(it) functions. say G. To beginwe and S.5u3 Notice that - + G. by by point \320\241 must lines.5\320\2702 l)pu + 9\320\270)\321\2002 + 18\316\257\316\2572-4.8 functions basis These = \302\243G.39) where ~_9 2 _ 1 9 _9 0 0 2 1 2 0 produces (3.5(\316\257)\317\2013 +(-\316\2203.39) Equation Expanding 18 2 _11 2 2 _45 9 = NF 9 _27 - (-4.

We can definea Hermitecurve whose and slopes correspond endpoints to A and B. If we constructa line through D starting intersecting that the tangent to the can we determinethe type of Furthermore.ifthe to point \320\241 segment yield of a 3.ConicHermite \342\226\240 65 Curves Figure 3.12 technique conic curve. slopes corresponding . generate steps previously points that if the perpendicular distance from point D to line AB is denoted Notice as H. we to AB. Draw a line through a and B. We call this ratio rho (p). is a point We with these repeat four many times as necessary. D. and AD and BD. F is is a segment Alternatively. that is. 4.eachtime steps as line through a different line Ab.5.5. a line Draw 3. then the curve is a segmentof an ellipse. points through Construction A and for a b. If \317\201 than 0. If \317\201 0. the curve is a parabolic segment. then the perpendicular distancefrom point \320\241 to this line is pH. respectively. we can constructline DE (see Figure intersects at its AB of conic midpoint.If line AB at conicat its midpoint E.5. the midpoint make with the Next.we proceed in order to on the outlined additional curve. and locate required.5< p< l.13) \317\201 appropriate parabola so that it to the type has endpoints at to lines AD and BD. extending it until it intersects points The point of intersection\316\241 on the conic curve. then we locate at of DE. For example.the curve can demonstrate of a hyperbola. point parallel of of conic by computing the ratio the length line segmentEF to the length is less of line segment DE. and that the through passes A and \320\241 to \320\222 and end \317\2010. then 0.

) pDE from point E. earlier.14b. We derive curve. GC are that 0. (Mathematicians can \316\267-dimensional point C. we find and EG= pEF/2. = \320\241 to EG is similar because CE= therefore CG DEF. we = 0. show that a polynomial of degree \316\267 is always in an contained In see we a derived 3.14 through D and the midpoint\316\225 in mind that all elements these are Keep coplanar.13 More on the construction technique intermediate line passing illustrates this. respectively parallel Triangle = = = similar to BAD. therefore EF AD/2 and BF BDI2. space. Triangle pDE.5p/1D obtain AD = lp2 - pol .66 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite Figure 3.because pDF= f>(BD ~BF) Poinl lines \320\241 is EG and located a distance on DE. pDFf2 = pBD/2. to AD and BEF is SD. because BE AB/2. Figure 3.14c. poj - 0.125(\317\201\317\212 \317\201\302\273) \317\201. In Figure3. Furthermore. a conic for the only case where point \320\241 lies on the of line AB.125Ipj}l From Figure 3.14a.) Figure relationship namely.5(p0 + - + 0.

of the construction \342\226\240 67 .14 Hermite Curves -\321\2000\320\223 o^i Hermite approximation of a conic curve.Conic p5 Figure = <p(p. 3.

p2l.18 are of the . - p2.po) and p'{= 4\321\200(\321\200\320\263 p2) the Hermite equation for a conicis Po Therefore. modeling consideration. general 3.40) 4p(p.1 is in the directionof p.17 and 3. But po is in Ihe directionof \321\200\320\267 p0.5) is parallel top.15 illustratesthis The 0. p?l and lp'.125lp'.5pSD = 4plp. it conditions = p. = 4p(p2 pO) = accuracy an important (3.1S Moreon the construction 2(Pl~p2)]T 2(p2-p0) is a conditions boundary parabola. When \317\201 parabola also and shows of and this equationbecomes p A Hermite moreover. that p\"(0. so that . UMF[pu curve definedby these a segment of a necessary to generate is exactly Figure3. the illustrates this type Hermite of of curve. lpSI=4plp2-pol Similarly. -p0.-p2)]r 4p(p2-p0) Pl UMF[p0 Figure 3.40) as applies to varioustypes = 0.5 a is generated. and.68 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite Therefore. il of conies is Equation (3. Figures approximation a conic curve.'l = 0. Figure3.16 conic. where BDand pi' Ip.

5(p0 + p1)= [0 10 of intersection of the slopes or point Because we know these points. \321\203 approximates 0] to pj = [10 10.0. In another sense.05 is segment . as the difference between the smaller.19.16 Figure Curves \342\226\240 69 parabola.5 curve corresponding to \320\270 = [0 the findp2bydetermining of the segment 10.The approximation improves as the that hyperbolic segment becomes is.22 0 36.20 demonstrate 3. the better the the error or deviation of the curvefrom the true smaller and 3. 10. these .40) generates a Hermite curve approximating hyperbola.Thepoint0.4 _ 36.05 0]. 0 10. in particular the parabola \321\205\320\263 been in the can create or we have we x. the more Hermite curves < If 0. \321\203 working readily plane.Conic Hermite curve exactly matchinga segmentof a A Hermite 3.91.19 this for different segmentsof the given by the equation x1 y1 + 1 . \317\201 a segment match\342\200\224the Figures hyperbola from symmetrical isp(0. then p0= around [-10 the Hermite curve axis. of Hermite examples a parabolic and formulation Although transform the curve into any plane.05 0 -36.we next values into Equation (3.4 0].a hyperbola Equation of a to approximate end-to-end hyperbola.5 < 1.We tangents = \317\2010. calculate \"-10. curves that demonstrate the exact matchbetweenthis \321\203 0.22 0 at p0 Substituting and pj. segment.5) slopes strung a given hyperbolic segment. at each end decreases. B 36.40)produces 10.05 The point on this the This 1 0]. (3. In Figure 3.0.

4 0.computing of this curve from the true as before.p0) 2(p. This is it. a similar Here we represent the right side of 3. corresponding compare hyperbola.76 -0.00 0. computing a deviation or approximation error and these to the y(u) values and find tabulate error is simply the differencebetween values.Then.M 5. the the hyperbola values and geometric \317\201 by two Hermite curves.0 -2. approximation Finally. of pointson the curve for a set of \320\270 and plot the coordinates for the the values cf x(u) into the classical and values substitute equation true values of we the j\302\273.5 0.76 5. The tabulated \321\203 which is a greater than the perpendicular distance betweenthe two curves. is much Figure hyperbola of a circular arc.but the smaller angle subtended by the circular We compute .5 \302\261\317\207 \320\243 0 0 1 1 2 4 9 16 \316\257 4 = \316\241\320\237\321\200\320\276 Pi 2(p.M 0 O.76 5. x(u) >'<u) True \321\203 0 -4.70 a Hermite Curve \342\200\224 = \317\207\316\212 \321\203\320\236 Parabola: = \317\2010. more appropriate measure of the error.0 16.8 1.00 - Pl)]< Error 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 \" \320\276 .00 16.19.8 0.0 0 O.76 16.00 16. The error or deviation coefficients than of the model less that in 3. we investigatea Hermitecurve the The match is not exact.4 5.64 0 as 2.64 0.4 4.6 0.16 0 Figure 3.2 0. u dy/dx 0 2 4 6 8 .17 An example of segment a Hermite of curve representing a a parabola.20 shows Figure approach.

41) \316\270 write directly the Hermiteequation a approximating circular arc: P(H) = 4 cos UMfp\302\253 p.5 0. expressed relationship situation is 5 2. x1 \342\200\224 = \321\2030 /5 45\302\260.cos \316\230) ~ P This 2 :v<\302\273) the substitutions trigonometric 0 1 on the true circle.5 -1.9 1. 1 0. 1+ \320\240\320\263)\320\242 Error 0.25 0 arc.25 25 for angles less than for mosl applications.5 F[Po u = dy X P == 71 \342\226\240 \316\270 (p2~Po) 4 cos 1 + cos \316\270 (Pi\" \316\270 P2) .the betterthe approximation.4 0. Figure 3. 3.21 than \316\270 this to \316\270 cos (3.25 0.81 2.25 \316\270 sin = Po) 0.25 0. -2 0 2 4 5 -1.6 0.01 - )' True 2.ConicHermiteCurves Parabola.49 0.The p(0.cos 1 .01 0. P 0 -0.5 6.89 6.1 0.81 representing shows 3.2 0.25 2(P2 - R(l R tan 2(p.5 to this approaches -} 1 0.22shows the first tan 1 + geometry of this of p: value \316\270 sin \316\270 quickly reduce cos 2.bRIR There are on the is two different very A few ~ allows us to 1 4 2.40).49 easily compute .1B Another Figure >' P.7 0.25 0.5) exactly and we can simple.5 0. 6. Figure less than dx -1 x(u) example of a Hermite curve a parabola.89 that adequate \316\270 0. both of which are based (3. problem.7 in Equation il puts approach.8 more \317\207 10\"6.25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a segment of 2.

05 10 1 0.97 0.05 1 2 4 6 8 P 6. 10.95 .57 0 0.21 0.99 0 segment of a hyperboJa.00 1.28 1.43 0.57 0 1 1.19 P.5 0. 0.28 4.86 4. in shown Figure 3.99 1.72 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite Hyperbola: x2 - / + I=0 = \317\2010.26 4.12 \316\241\316\271)\316\223 4.V An Error 0.91 \302\261x \320\255.8 - 4P(P.26 -1.05 1005 4.125pS = PS The same p2-p R(l~cos6)( 2 sin \316\270 = 4^(1-cose)/p2-p0 sin \316\270 \\lp2-po1 reasoning yields p! - 4R(l-ca&Q)( siuG We then assemble all the po \317\201 V 'pi \317\201 \342\200\224 \321\200\320\263\" elements into the completeHermiteequation: 4ft(l-cos8)/ p(w)=UMr \\Jp2~Po' sin \316\270 4^(1 \321\200\320\264-\321\200\320\270 \\ - Pol \342\226\240p2 -cose)/ sin \316\270 ' p.5(p0 pi) + elementsis and we find simple.05 -4.4 0.08 0 0.54 1. The alternativeapproachis also relationship p(0. - Again. FU>o 0.125(\321\200\320\271 pi)- + It uses the familiar the geometry of the very 0.43 0 0.21 1.99 4.2 0.06 10.21 0.21 0 curve approximating a a Hermite of example j True 10.22.5)= 0.54 10.89 0.-p2 \" >pi p2 .24 10 == 8.36 1.6 Po) \320\257\302\273) -10 0 - 4p(Pi x(u) \320\270 Figure 3.

6062 0.Conic Hermite 0 Curves \342\226\240 73 0000) 0 0199) Hyperbola: x1 \302\261x )' 0 1 2 4 6 1.5 0.0001 3.4400 1.99 0.0400 1.05 10 .8 2.3710 7.2361 0.0499 example of a Hermitecurve approximatinga segment of a hyperbola.0002 0 0 7.5 3.6637 5.08 \316\270 '2.97 0.0499 *.2J6lJ 0 0.5601 (\302\267 1.4022 1.0000' Pi = 3.2719 1.0000\\ \320\270 \316\225 I VI \320\257 \316\225 \316\231 in \320\273 = 10. True \321\203 Error 0 1 1 0 0.0000 2.4560' 10.9831 1.4 0.20 Another 4.9924 3.0001 0.2361 2.4534 0 0.2 0.y1 + 0 .2361 /2.7530 1.4 0. Po' I = 0.4534 4.0000 0.7532 1 20000 2.\302\253) \316\234 3.0001 0.6 0.4023 1.0499 0.6 0.6180 Pi 10.5679 \317\201 Segmenl 2.12 6.06 10.3609 \316\257.2 0.0002 0 0.9926 7.9540 0.2719 0.2361 2.0401 1.99 0.5552 4.0001 0.4385 10.0001 0.89 0.99 .1694 1.7861 1.0002 0 0 0.0000' Po' 2.24 4.9541 2.1692 1.5384.43\316\2326 10.8 0.7796 2.2861 0.\316\2226\316\2522 3.2361 2.6637 4. = dx = 0.0009 0 1 Figure Pi U. Segmenl 8.

23.5 and in the interval \320\270 in the interval \320\270 a makes three of 5RIR that the maximum 0. HERMITE CURVES Joining curve. Figure The maximum two places vectors that so somewhat.21). causes a decreasein = 0 to \320\270 = 0.5 to is value the angle The smaller This value is different for every value of \316\230. at Hermite curvefromthe true circleoccurs (see Figure 3-22).Therefore. \320\270 arc. If 5R/R ~ 0. Adjusting the magnitudesofthe tangent the deviation falls slightly inside the circulararc reduces p(0.5) 3.cos - \316\270 \316\270 5RIR)cos (3. (3.74 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite 180 -hR/R L \316\235 \316\233 \\\\ \316\263 150 *tf / N \\\\ \\\\ \321\203 V 120 SR -6R/R \317\20690 V / \316\275 \316\227 ^t 60 4 4- 30 ^^~ =L~~~ 0 10\"1 \320\256\"1 10\"' 10\"3 10\"6 1(TS 10\"1 10-9 10\"a \316\231\316\237\"10 5\320\231/\320\232 curve approximation Hermite Another 3. we P The of the deviation of the magnitude For any = (1 .21. the smallerthe deviation the deviation maximum = 1.9 is also relationship COMPOSITE Equation or more We start the two in Figure 3.42) This There to reduces 3.42) sin2 \316\270 deviation depends on \316\270 (see specific angle an \316\230.5) from is equivalent to reducing the \317\201 value.This obtain 3. of the curve from the true circular an arc subtends.then Equation (3. increase of 5RIR Figure at p(0.41).21 Figure of a circulararc. plotted curve segments together of composite discussion forms a continuous composite curves and their continuity by . deviations equal.

(l) the same p5(0) subscript must we to circular arc.p3(0). this means that \321\200\320\263(0) so that each endpoints appropriate and p2(l) .) I + cos \316\270 Figure Deviation of a 3.Later. curves.although the line at each tangent pi(l) the new curve the tangent the must match line of the adjoiningcurve.22 investigating how to blenda new curve composite geometric geometric coefficients B2 notation we the modify Pol - p2| a true from two existing and B3. identify a the a specific the curve identified.Furthermore. tangent adjoining First.24). '\" p.p:) segments (see Figure3. infinite vectors fact.[pi(0) modifying \321\200\321\215\320\270(1)]'. of be In an magnitudes can different. sin \316\270 |p.4 cos \316\270 (Pi Po = 1 + cos \316\270 4 cos \316\270 . -costfjip.\"' p\302\267. We segments let B] . (p. between curve B3 = and to permit segment. so that to the p. or the joints are tangent \316\241\317\212(\302\260) p\"(l)]r scheme 4R(I disjoint curves B. \342\226\240 75 . [p3(0) further - Given the use of a this | P. point is uniquely = must coincide. of a curve joining them meeting at each of PiC1) Sin 0 Hermite curve of three consisting of two coefficients 4R(l-coSfl)(p2-p0) or Po) Curves Hermite Composite end of num- . forming two find the curve line.

(0) \321\202\320\273 \320\273 a.-+. in terms a and internal positive scale factors.SR '- = \342\200\224\317\201 s [(I - R Lan \320\261 sin \320\261 A Hermite 3. This means that be equal. must vectors cos \320\262 ' \342\226\240\342\200\224 \342\226\240 \321\201\320\276\320\265 \316\262 4\342\200\224 sin2 \316\270 m P. b are *s to vary free are The following expressiondescribesany blended with preceding cubic and Hermite succeeding ' = \320\222 them to change of the shape and continuously tangent is *\302\267>*->\302\260m where unit \320\246(1)-\320\254*\320\251 B2 = the the However.--.(l) p--l(1) nP. curve approximation of a circular arc. conditions.23 Figure ber of segments the satisfies = B2 matrix..-^-^ h p:'-l(0) b(^-^ curve curves: smoothly .76 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite R(t . tangency \320\264\320\260*^\320\246 The (SR/R\\] and of the adjacentcurves.cos\320\262) . We new curve.

With small this complete. a curve is either continuousat all points. or firstjoints order parametric Clearly.24 Blending a curve between two existing curves. properties vector tangent These properties are independentof the parameterization. A less restrictive form of nth-ordercontinuity is nth-order continuity. only one Hermite curve joiningcurves continuity. continuity conditions are relaxed while producing parametric continuity maintaining then additional degrees of freedom becomeavailable geometric continuity. corresponding tangent must be in the same direction but not of the samemagnitude. Figure 3. such as the unit and curvature. For example.The simplestkind that there its beginwhich ensures are no breaks or between continuity. parametric absorbs freedom more of lhan If the degrees geometric continuity.Composite Hermite Curves 77 \342\226\240 \316\275. we can at a joint betweentwo exercise of continuity conditions now elaborate on the cubic Hermite curves general and the conditions arising when two or morecurves are end-to-end forming a joined of a two curve segments at a curves. Similar taking by advantage shape controlparameters methods apply as well to surfaces.or it has one or more of continuity a curve can have is C\302\260 points of discontinuity.If p?>(0) = p\"(l) and pi'il) = p\"(0). because first-order vectors geometric continuity. to controlthe curve's shape. In general. infinitely Geometric continuity is defined in terms of the intrinsic differential of a curve or surface.\317\200\316\271 1 \316\271\316\277\316\257 \317\201. 3 satisfies \320\241continuity. Barsky's Beta-Splines offer extra of this distinction. then the continuity at both would be C1.The curve definedpreviously has \320\241 or geometric continuity. called compositecurve. gaps . denoted as G'. 1 and whereas many satisfy G1. string Joining common point so that their first \316\267 are at that derivatives parametric equal of continuity called nth-order parametric point creates a condition denoted as C\".

againwith C\302\260 compound 0) Figure 3.25a Figure 3.78 Curve \342\226\240 Hermfte points.25 Composite geometric continuity. The of examples Figure 3. and form a compound curve with C\" continuity at the joint.25c is composite of two are joined a joined at a joint. the consists alleged common endpoint have at least C'1 the simplest kind of compositecurve. If and ending ning continuity. number to be a single curve doesnot have two or morecurves. Figure curves.25 should meaning Two cubic Hermite curves at is distinct curves and and separate C\302\260 continuity.25b. on the be depending really what it must then C\302\260 continuity We note composite shows obviously they that that curve. of gaps. Figure 3. curves and . of three curve consisting segments. They comprise term curve alone will often mean a curve segment or be clear from the context. whereasin 3.

Figure 3. We observe that the C\302\260 thus obtained continuity the not affect of either curve does shape segment.27 pj(1)]r Conditions P.25d is an arbitrary defined with an shape set to form the of closed curve in 3.25e.\320\237) \320\240\320\263<0| \317\201. segments Figure arbitrary composite When two curves join end-lo-endat a common point. \320\241 two curve segments requires a common tangent between continuity continuity line at their joiningpoint.26 Figure required for G\302\260.(l) tangent indicates = p2(0)donot have to be equal.\\\\)\316\231\316\244 \316\231\317\201.{II Conditions 3.l1l = = ^\320\222\320\263 [Pj{0) P2IOl Curves 79 \342\226\240 \320\240\320\263\320\237| pJfO) \317\201'|\316\231)\316\231\316\223 T0 P.26.Hermite Composite P.27 Figure the their componentsmust be is of an example \320\241continuity conditions that must be met.I1) Figure 3. required = kp5(0) for G' continuity.(0| p*(0) \320\240\320\240. \316\222\". but the and of ratios of equal. the coordinates of that point are a commonsubsetof the geometric coefficients of both curve segments.\316\231\316\277\316\271 \317\201.|0) \317\201\302\273(\316\237\316\271 \316\222.\316\271\316\220) Bi -\316\231\316\241\317\212(0)\317\201\317\212{1)\317\201*{0)\316\2743\316\2311)\316\231\316\223 P.(\320\250 P. 3.Themagnitudes the mathematical vectors at p. at the joints. .as in Figure 3. = \320\240.

the the two curves conditions following two are tangent the curves \320\241 implies continuity junction of then rotate them about other while preservingthe and to each two curves. The binorof the two curves must coincide. possess equal curvature at must exist: sharing a common G2 continuity also their joint. However.most mechanical parts do not requireit. usefulness of G2 continuity is limited.p?+1(0) *2P?U0) ensures that between the parametricsecondderivatives yf more must be met for G2 One condition y1\\ point. The relationship ~ at their \316\271 common . fillets or rounded For example.80 Curve \342\226\240 Hermite It is that we apparent their common point internal of shape can join any until each. they Whereas point and tangent line at requires that this.To ensure P.since edges usually blend directly into plane faces.(0) p?(l) = pr(D = /r.or their osculating continuity: planes the mals must be collinear.{1) = P~.

were the curves of the UNISURFsystem must Bezier started with the principle that any point on a curve segment be given by a parametric function of the followingform: functions. set out in the early 1960sto find what he hoped would be a mathematical formal and the design process. as those using the Hermite basis the curve sel of points. changing if not more of the interpolating points may produce unexpected. passes exactly through the near or given points.Interpolationtechniques approximates only passes the Hermite like basis have certain disadvantages when incorporatedinto an user an the interactive geometric-modeling system. For intuitive sense of how to changeor controlthe shape one or the of a spline-interpolated curve by moving shape example. The satisfies this desirable. At the heart the design sculptured surfaces of \321\202\320\260\320\273\321\203 and surfaces that bear his name. Bezier partially P.Tocontrolcurve undesirable. and and both inflections. interpolate a given p(\") = 2>A\") 1= ^iwl (4\320\233> 0 B1 . used by the Renault companyin the 1970s to of its automobile bodies. locally globally. Bezier.penurbalions is more a a few in simple parameters way by changing only predictable shape curve need. This means that produced curve that a those define Other techniques points. who was familiarwith the work of Ferguson and Coons and their parametriccubiccurve and bicubic surface interpolating techniques.BEZIER Some curve-defining CURVES such techniques.The resultof his work to the designer moreamenable was the UNISURF system. They usually do not give of a curve.

This allowsus virtually unlimited control by its r neighboring of the continuity at the joints between curve of a segments composite Bezier curve. . the to eontrol the curve. po must course. The curve these meet \316\267 + 1 vertices of a the functions must interpolate the segment of a points ending of on p0 start must startingand 2.These properties the f:{u) the vertices that to functions and the 1. Thus.1 Cubic Figure where the vectorsp.82 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier 4. be gives first and last Bezier points. He then set forth the must have and lookedfor specific basis functions Here is a review of these properties requirements. It is up to us is. and the i'th derivative at an In must be determined general. The tangent at each are for them. (see Figure4. and the tangent at p\342\200\236 by p\342\200\236 us direct control of the tangent to the curve at given by pi end. . endpoinl vertices. 3. Requirement 2 is generalizedfor higher derivatives at the curve's end- at \317\201\317\205 must be determined points. the secondderivative by pn. p\342\200\236_i.p0. reasons This. represent characteristic polygon control points. p{. p2. that vertex and end on p\342\200\236.1). Beziercurves.

1] 2\321\200\320\225-\320\224. to respect \320\270 and (1 .BezierBasisFunctions \342\226\240 83 means that can we be symmetricwith reverse the sequence changing the shape of of parameterization. It is a more compactscheme. with intuitive greater appeal. and For three points. without curve direction 4. This of the vertexpoints defining the curve.1)becomes of functions a family chose Bezier these = (4..\342\200\236 (u) then \302\253'=l.(u) must functions The 4. or binomialdistribution coefficient n\\ \342\200\236if i\\{n-i)\\ The following If there are (n conventions + 1) vertices. B.To indicatethis. However. which uses the vectors defining vertices.and 0! = yields an nth-degree three.In effect. we will use the notation introduced the polygon by Forrest (1971).2) for points produces the following = \316\267 2. It turns out that the functions Bezierselecteddependon the number of vertices used to specify a particular curve.1 f. apply: If/ and \320\270 equal then the function zero.this the the reverses BEZIERBASISFUNCTIONS called Bernstein polynomialsto satisfy He originally chose a form of vector representation that properties.Equation(4.3) BiB(u)=Qu1(l-u)-i and denotes from where the familiar and probability binomial statistics: function.2) \321\200(\320\270) \320\270\320\265[0. Expanding Equation (4. four. curves polynomial defined forms: BQ2 = {\\-uf S.\342\200\236(\320\270) where the basis functions are (4.u). used the sides of the characteristic polygon. . and polynomial..2 = 2\302\253(l-\302\253) by five 1.

\316\267 3.6) Form For the = cubic Bezier curve.84 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier so that = (1 p(\302\253) For four points.if the end tangents at so that intersect pi p. + - w)2 p2 6\302\2532(1 + - + \302\2534p4 4\302\253\321\217 \320\270)\321\200\321\212 (1 (4.3 B2i3 = 3\302\253(l-\302\253)2 = 3u2(l-u) so that = p(\302\253) (1 - \302\253)3 po + - u)2 p. exactly Equation (4. = = = + and p2 w)2 (po 2pp)/3 (1 (p3 + 2p.Theseconditionsproduce p(\302\253) + + of the form which is po 2(\302\253 \302\2532)pi \302\2532p3. p2 po 0 \321\200\320\267]7\" \320\240\320\267 . - \302\253)4 po + 4u(l and - \302\253)3 p.)/3.. 3\302\253(1 + - 3\302\2532 (1 + \302\253)p2 (4-5) w3p3 at p(. 0 P2 0 Letting U=[\"3 P=[po \320\2702\320\270 1] p. endpoints and p3 can be modeled exactly. - uf - + p\342\200\236 2u(l + \302\2532p2 (4.5) in matrix form as po = p(\302\253) [(l-3\302\253 + 3\302\2532-\302\2533) (3\302\253-6\302\2532+ u3] (3u2-3u3) 3\302\2533) Pi P2 \316\241' or as p(\302\253)= [w3 w2 w 3 -3 -1 3 1] -6 -3 3 1 0 3 0 0 1 P. and \320\224\320\274=(1-\320\270)3 S.4). \316\267 points. For five p(u) = Matrix (1 = 4. \316\267 3. a segment of a parabola with Using this cubic Bezier curve.4) \302\253)p. we write follows: Equation (4.

So. are and enddenoted as where and are the curve pi. p0 p3 .20)for Hermite point it may occur to you that we can also represent a cubic Hermitecurve a sequence These with of four control points.7) on the cubic Bezier basis transformationmatrixMB the Hermite basis transformation matrix MF. the compositionof thesematrices = 4 we have + 1. Figure4. The inverse MB for the cubic Beziercurve of is 0 0 0 0 0 1 \342\226\240> 1 0 1 3 = Mi' 1 1 \320\267\"\320\267\" .Bezier = M\342\200\236 can -3300 subscript distinguishes it from 0 0 even more compactly as write this equation p(ii)= The \342\226\240 85 3-630 10 we Functions 1 3-3 -1 Basis UMBP (4.1 1 1 1 Obviously. \316\267 U=[\302\2534 \320\270\320\263 \320\270 = \320\234\321\217 6 -4 1 6 -4 -12 4 0 1 0 0 0 6 with the number of 1] 1 0 0 0 0 0 -12 -12 -4 varies 4 4 0 po P Pi = P2 \320\240\320\267 LP4J Bezier-Hermite Conversion and at this curves.7) is similar to Equation (3.2presents the details. p2. Equation (4. for \316\267 vertices. p3. for example. points p0.

2 The Hermite equivalentof a cubic Bezier curve. p2i k. scale in the figure. following points contribute to interior where and Pi=Mp3-p2) and scale factors introduced to controlthe scaleof ki are arbitrary are the not and. Similarly. the curve is identicalto the that see We \321\200\320\267\302\267 for polynomial expression \320\263 ^\321\200(\321\200\320\267-\321\200\320\263)] Mpi-P\") this is the tangent cubic B6zier curve defined true from the following: The general vector at any point on the cubic Bezier by p0. the two The points.p2). and . curve is p\" (u) = (-3\302\2532 - + 6u 3)p0 + (9u2 12u + 3)p. if a cubic Hermite coefficients[p0 p. then the p. = and 3.The matrixof is coefficients \320\272\320\276 which polygon to drawn geometric p3 B=[p0 For in vectors way: Po=*o(pi-po) the the required tangent kO = pi.) Figure 4. points are p\"(\302\253) = 3(p. thus. has coefficients geometric equivalent Hermite basis curve [p0 p3 3(p| curve is given by the geometric po) 3(p3 p2)].86 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier P0u=3(Pl-^. = if a cubic at \320\270 1. p\"(l) = 3(pj Bezier curve is given by the four control points [p0 pj p3]. pg p'/].Thus. - pu). + (-9\321\2132 + + \320\262\320\270)^ 3\302\2532p3 . then the equivalent Bezier curve control At = \320\270 0. magnitude of the tangent vectors.

must methods point: the point = \316\241(\". ^(1 apply an affine transformation A such an affine transformation A lo the control the then evaluate curve represented by then that p'(t*.Po can We rather matrix Pi ypo 3 P\" \342\226\240 87 Pi between the Hermite and Bezierformsusing this conversion express simple + iPo Functions Basis Bezjer algebra: B = M?'M\342\200\236P (4. these transformedcontrol points at\302\253. or produce the same 1.) 1=0 \316\221\317\201(\316\257\316\257.\342\200\236(\320\275.) \316\243 Therefore It = \320\230\321\200(\320\275.) \302\243\320\270\321\200\320\224.) and 2. 0 0 shear).\320\263'\320\234\320\273 -3 0 Affine under Invariance A Bezier rotation.) . points such that .4\".). where p'(\302\253i) = v'. Apply and \316\247\317\201151. Compute 1 1 3 \317\213 0 and = \320\234\320\2711\320\234/\320\263 \317\213 0-33 \317\213 1 \320\236 \320\236 1 \317\213 \320\236 Transformations curve is invariant scaling.BU\".9) where 1 = 1 \317\213 0 \317\213 \317\213 \320\234.8) or P = M^MfB (4.) = p'= Ap(. an affine under transformation that the following two This means (translation..

C. Bezier A e a Bezier property curve as the locus of points producedby a simple construction derived from work by de Casteljau. (\316\275 a)l(b express parameter the and is also curve transformation. is (see Figure 4. construct points D and this process for consistent points A.rotate.G construct points \320\224/so so ih&i that A EH/EF= = BF/BC \320\222 El \320\220 FUFG-u.\320\275)\321\200] to see evidence of the Bernstein polynomials.b] is an affine transformation.4a). Repeating of \320\270 a sequence other values of points that defines generates 4.4illustrates process to the of a it applies construction cubicBeziercurve.1] we D\302\243we 4.3). F so that DFIDE = u. Construction by Geometric Curve while as algebraically Bezier curve the corresponding invariant under an affine or reparameterization. we construct point /so = CGI .uf = (1 \321\200(\320\275) construct points E. Here wc are given any four points A.D and draw the three sidesof the open polygon values of the For successive we AB.B. and the A similar construction applies the as control points are not constrained to a plane.u.2). parameter. on Finally. The transformation from the unit interval [0.1] = the transformation is \320\270 We this a). we Finally. (see .CD Figure 4.1]lo \320\265 and \316\275 interval [a. F is a point on the curve.b].u. \316\225 so that ADIAB Notice that we must be directionally the polygon edges.F. we draw Figure (see [0. way we subdivide description = p(\302\253) Rearranging the \320\270 closed in the interval = BEIBC .and scale the preserving relationshipbetweenevaluated points value of the parameter.3b): of this process \302\253(pi Pu) + \"[pi + \320\270(\321\200\320\267 Pi) po \"(pi . This arbitrary then [a. If \320\270 [0.B. Next. We begin with the constructionof a seconddegreeBezier a Bezier create can We recursive curve and any three \320\222\320\241 For successive construct the curve(in the in The vector this sides of the values of open polygon AB case. Here we begin to Bezier curves of any degree. CD . Figure (see Given pc + terms yields + \302\2532p2 po + 2h(1. Figure4.88 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier allows us to translate.3a).po)] a parabola).BC.C. Bezier geometric method and the this generalized developed explicitnonrecursive expression of Equation (4.

emerge.3 Geometric Figure construction of a Bezier curve: = 2.can bedescribedwith polynomials we find thus.2]).When we connect The control functions (1 Bernstein these polynomial points in the basis order of .Continuing the of points whose locusdefines curve. Point/ is on the curve. = p(u) po + - po +\"(p2-pi)-po-\"(Pi~Po)] + \302\253(pi-po)+\"[pi - 4. HJIHI= that sequence this. - \"[P2 pi) ~ \320\247\321\200\320\267 + \302\253[\317\201.2 CONTROL - w)3 po + 3\302\253(1 - w)2 pi + 3\302\2532 (1 - u)p2 + w3 p3 POINTS points are the coefficientsof the (see Equation [4. u(p2 - pi) Pi - po . this - po) \302\253(\317\201.\"(pi\"(pi - Po)] Po)]l which reducesto = p(\302\253) 4.\342\226\240 89 Points Control <a) 4. too.4b shows Figure a produces process how the Bernstein the folio-wing unwieldy expression + \302\253{pi \320\270(\321\200\320\263 Pi) + + which from vectors. \316\267 u.

of the Bernstein basis functions. In both cases.5 shows two examples of cubic Beziercurves. that is I to the convex hull property In moreformal mathematical hull is the smallest convexset that contains a given set.90 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier Figure their points 4. within the convexhull of the control polygon. 4.5b.5a.4 Geometric with numbering straight on a Bezier curve lie The partition of unity property construction of a Beziercurve: = 3. the disposition of points generatesa smooth. A that connectingany two points in a convex set lies entirely within gives convex rise a terms. \320\273 we form the Bezier control polygon.uninflected curve. \321\200\321\215 \321\200\320\263. the disposition of pointsgenerates an inflected curve.All lines. while in Figure 4. the curves are tangent lines defined to the and \317\201\317\203 by p. . It polygon formed by the control points servestwo functions: establishes the a framework initial the curve and then of furnishes for shape curve. altering the Figure The In Figure 4. straight line set.

5 Cubic Bezier curves. Points \342\226\240 91 .Control Figure 4.

eachcontrolpointp.the basis functions are the key to the = basis-function curves behavior of Beziercurves. and \317\201.(a) (b) Four points. (d) Six points.0. For any Bezier curve.is weighted by its associated = basis function. since and are symmetrical most occurs for p. when\302\273 = 1. of p\342\200\236 becomes i/n. respectively. Then all other weights decay gradually to 0 as the weight = 1 when \320\2701..6shows Bln for \316\267 and 5. \317\200 As is the case for Hermite curves.4. = 5. points.6 (a) (0 (b) id) Bezierbasis functions. = 3.is the most = = 0.p0 is given a weight of 1. point p0. A iheir associated basis functions are eachequal 0. whose contribution to the curve'sshape is propagatedby B05 (\302\253). \320\277 Five (\321\201) Three points. The influential when \320\270 other control points do not contributeto p(\302\253)for \320\270 to zero. weight for each p.92 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves Figure 4.5. Control situation p2 points pi influential when = 1/3 \320\270 and 2/3. As we have seen. a Less is of zero.Figure4. For the examples in Figure4. when \320\270 succeeding reaching p. We reaches observe a shift in the influence of each point (each as the parametric variable moves through its rangefrom 0to polygon vertex) .the first control 2.3. weight given to p0 and more to each through p\342\200\236 weight a maximum as \320\270 increases. = \316\267 2. n= 4. when\302\273 0.

It is a simple matter to find the min-max box enclosing eachcontrolpolygon and then to check for an intersection betweenthe two boxes.This collinear. only direction \317\201\316\261..Control 1... identity^. 4. in this of the characteristic of the characteristic polygon curve.tansystem equations.then neitherdothe curves.8c.\342\200\236 (1 -\302\253). a specify a positive number of coincident existing vertex points. The closed curvein Figure continuity where the endsof the continuity points at a at p0 and coincide. points.-S. If first last and the of number points a closed produces arrangement in curve join points \317\201. of test increases the and preliminary significantly speed efficiency computing The proof of this follows and intersections. at the points.. to p5 pulls effect canbe weaker on the distance (or direction) or stronger depending the point is moved.. The convexhull property determination of the intersection of expedites two Beziercurves.. 4.. We express this property of a J]= 1 (u) p. p. This influence means that changing the posi lion of controlpointp.. The Figure 4.8a has the C1 p5.. the by making is produced exists condition sjdes Figure and shape ps together and p4 curve. vertex. p..7a. has on the curve's shape at and near the parameter value Points the \342\226\240 93 greatest i/n. adding points we increasethe degreeof polynomial representing program vertex. The degree of freedom. to that us to curve-generating might require simply The the indicates integer integer for each coincident with points at a vertex.In ability to modify a Bezier curve is demonstratedin Figure the curve toward that vertex. A similar curve in Figure4...8bexhibits only C\302\260 continuity. moving point p. as is reversed. or curvature conditions gency. However.. 4.\342\200\236(1 0 = from the basis function (\302\253) #\342\200\236-. we pull the By specifying curve in -and closer control coincident multiply closer vertex.In Figure of an interesting we see evidence 4.. describe method that Fowler Barlels a curve-shaping (1993) permits of points direct of certain geometric properties at any selection manipulation affects the shape of a on a curve of arbitrary degree and The method basis. The or shape the traverse control _ i. To do this.7b.7.\342\200\236 p\342\200\236 parameterization in which we Bezier curve is unaffectedby the direction free We are to them in two order ways: p0. This If the boxes do not intersect.p0. .\342\200\236 0 = - X 1= p\342\200\236 of u) \321\200\342\200\236_|\320\224. the The curve looks the same either way. curve at one or more points by establishing and solving an underdetermined The of constraint constraints correspond to position. By the the case without changingthe polygon.

94 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves Figure 4.7 Cubic Bezier curvesand their modification. .

true and need curve original that = + 1(\320\270) \320\245'\321\200^\321\217 \320\245\321\200.0 \342\226\240 95 \342\226\240 \342\200\224 e.B Figure Degree Closed Bezier curves. Elevation Adding another controlpointto the degree by We one.9). must the same the curve as initially generate original set.it must be points'p. Figure 4.\321\217(\320\270) or \" +1 / \316\271 ^-\"r'-^Ip^V'a-\\" Multiplying the right side of this equation by \320\270 + (1-\320\271) produces . we may (see any the the new to the set of control alter Because new addition.\320\224/.Points Control 0.q- <a) <c) 4. including shape. After adding the point. are motivated of definition to do this if wc a Bezier are not curve raises satisfied with its the more freedom to achievean acceptable It is shape. best to add this point in a way that leaves the shape of the curve unchanged move of the points.

using the compute and at the linear original interpolation points piecewise parameter Che of raising the degree of a cubic values results il(n + 1). to repeat this process several times to establish It may be necessary The general formula for producing a new set of sufficient modeling flexibility lis that we can control controlpoints for discussion: r degree elevations follows directly from the previous . Clearly. Figure 4. this.\".9 shows the original Bezjercurve while maintaining shape. we Doing (1-u)\"f.+\302\253.~' find and Expanding the binomialcoefficients the simplifying .(1-\")\"'\316\271\".(\[\302\253.=o ><=\320\250\321\200-|+(1^)\321\200' This tells results n+i on terms side both yields (4jo) a new set of controlpoints'p.the curve is defined by more information than necessary. \316\267 = \316\247^\316\267)1)\302\2534\316\220-\302\253)\"+. -\302\253)-'] \316\243\317\201.\"+\316\271(\316\220") summation on the right side of this equation produces2(n + on the left \316\267 + 2 terms.9 Degree elevation: = 3 \317\200 to = 4. after raising the degreeand before moving any control points to adjust its shape.96 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier Figure 4. We rearrange and group terms on the can so that we ofu' compare and equate the coefficients The 1) and right sides.

with subdivision reduction.1\317\213). under and Watkjns circumstances. degree intersectioncomputations and 4. of such isin SUBDIVIDING the curve is necessary when itself modeling process no to the active model. 0 (see Figure the 4. In .3 AND TRUNCATING have developed a (1988) Worsey in An use important graphics computer approximations special method that combines a procedure for use in rendering.]. Truncating a Bezier eliminates Truncating a 5econd-Degree Curve The truncation and subsequent for a transformation reparameterizatjon the three control Given second-degree Bezier curve proceedsas follows: points defining the curve. of a curve that parts longer belong are used to expedite the computation of points on a curve Subdividing techniques the number of control points by creating curve segments or to increase small without initially changing the shape.we can find three new control points defining a segmentof interval is this normalized matrix form curve in interval the parametric to a new we write parameter \316\275 so that \316\275 e [0.1] p(H)=UM*P where U= \320\2701] [w2 1 MB= -2 1 -2 1 2 0 0 where \320\270 \320\265 [u\342\200\236u.We will look at a recursive subdivision method and a subdivision by geometric construction. products Degree reduction usually is Jiot a good idea. a s Bezier triangular patches. based upon a reversal of the processabovearepossible Kocic (1991) that presents form of and is a generalized applied to tensor well However.and Truncating \342\226\240 97 Subdividing r n + r i a degree elevation technique Thetechni can this method. be que is iterative and as to curves.

20 T = \320\236 2\316\274.28].et seq.whereV = [\316\2752 \316\2751]. \316\271lJ where .)and of Equation M^ \320\270. so that = VTMflP p(v) = VM\342\200\236P' This means that and TMSP=MBP' \320\240'-\320\234\321\200'\320\242\320\234\320\262 where 0 \316\224\316\267. \320\275? (see the development 0 0 1 = Li so that 1 (3. Bezier second-degree P = Pi P2 Let U = VT.10 Truncating curve.\316\224\316\274 \316\224\316\274.98 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves Figure a 4.

0 0.Truncating and - uf 99 Subdividing \342\226\240 2iij + 1 = \320\234\321\217'\320\242\320\234\320\264 \320\274. 2\316\224\302\253. 2\316\224\316\274.= + \"i\"/p2 0 (4. \320\270? for the points (4.-1) - .0 \317\201\317\214 p'2 \316\2615 = p'2. + + 2\320\274.u. 2\302\253/l case of dividing special we have for iy.25 0 0.5 + P2.25 0.?+ The control uf + + \316\224\302\253.0-SO5 and 0.-h.5->1 0-5(p0 + p. \320\270.25 Po 0.5(\317\201\317\205 0.0 -s 0.) 0. p2.25(\317\201\317\2052\317\201.)2 - \320\270 w.5.)2Po (1 .14) are Po 0.. .5 0.5 two \320\236 = Thus. 0. \317\201\317\214. \320\270) 1 + \316\224\302\2532 + 2\320\224\302\253.5 0.5->1 .5 0.u. + \302\273. \321\200\321\203\320\263 where p'o = pi = (1 .\320\2645 _. - -\320\275 + 2\321\213(-\320\224\321\213(+ \320\233\320\2702 _ 2\320\274.25 P^0.5->1 As expected.(\320\274(1) 2u. a. \321\2001.w. + 2p.25(pll Pl.\320\233\320\270.\320\267 _.5 \320\274-\320\231]\321\202\320\274\320\260 and foru. the at - (L + u.(-2\316\274.5 0.) = and that Pl.5 0.+\317\2012) 0.. into = \321\211 0.\342\200\2242wf + -2uf -2\302\253.5 0.5 0.25 0.O -! 0.f!5->1_ P2 = and _.12) truncated segment are \317\201'=[\317\201\316\214 p.)Pi \302\2532p2 this second-degreecurve 1 \320\236 0 1 Po-s 0.5 0.5 \316\241 Pa 0 Pi + \317\201.5 0. \320\276.5. + 1) 2\316\271\317\212. + \302\253.2 4\320\270.)p. = 0.)(l - p2 = (1 For segments + 2u.5 0 0 1 transformations 0 0.13) l the control-point = 0.2p2 + (-2u. + Uy)po + po \302\253. = 0.2-2\302\253(-+1 +\320\224\321\213((\320\274.5 0.+p2) Po.)p.25 (4.-\320\224\320\274.-u.0.0.25 p2 0.25 0.5 Pi 0 0 1 P2 \342\200\224 we see that = pji0 _.

we have the u1 \320\270 general UMsP. we find curve Bezier curve. = VMflP' a cubic Bezier the a interval Figure expression is 4. where V = [v3 \316\2752\316\275 1] then.again.11). p(w) = .11 Truncating curve. to the new parameter \316\275 such that \316\275 e[0. four new control points defining curve in the parametric interval \320\270 e where [u\342\200\236u.l] (see Again.].but now 1] 3 -3 -6 3 0 3 \317\213 \317\213 Po Pi P2 Lp3J If we let U in the same the four control proceeds Given = VT. p(if) = VTMsP Figure4.100 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier a Cubic Truncating Curve Truncating and reparameterizinga cubic way as outlinedabove for the second-degree points defining of this segment normalized the curve. working in matrix form.

Au.)Au.(l - 3u.)3 (4.Auf T= Au] 3uf\\Uj .(l-u. u) Equation 0 \316\223 \317\204.f 3i(.)Au2 3\316\224\302\253\316\257 (u.28] 0 \"\317\2130 0 0 0 0 All.-)\316\224 - 3u?(l 3u? + if.)2 + 3(1 \316\224\316\267.)1 3\302\253.)2 \320\270] \320\270. of (see the development 2utAu.f -3(1- if. + \316\224\316\271\316\271.)\316\224\302\253.-)3 (l-u.)\320\220\320\270.)\320\224\320\2752 \302\273.) + \302\253.3u) - \302\253. - (2 . \320\270.)\316\224\302\253. and where et seq.Truncating and that means This 101 Subdividing \342\226\240 TM = \316\234 \342\200\236P SF = F and \316\234 ~i TM \342\200\236P where 0 Auf 3u. - 3(2 \302\253\316\266)4\".)0 - \321\211)\320\220\320\270.- - - Au] \302\253.) [3. u? 0 0 1 II.(l - u. (2 points - (1 - 3u.)\316\224\302\2532 3u.)(l + 2(1 .^ \316\227.15) truncated segment are P'=[PO Pi Pi P'AT .f-(l-u. + 3(1 for the 3u. \316\224\302\253.fAUl - \316\234\316\262'\316\244\316\234\316\262- (1 (1 - - 2(1-\316\234/)2\316\224\302\253(-+(1-11.-\320\243 u.\316\231 = Mfl' \"Hi 3 3 so that (1-\320\271.)2 \320\227\320\270) (I -\320\270. 3\316\271/.(\\ 3u.f + 3(1\" u.) + \320\270. - + + (1 \320\227\320\270.(\302\253. 3u.) (1 3u? (1 The - - + 2f(.) control 3u.) 3\302\253. (2- - + \302\2532(\302\253.3U/)(I- (2 ^ 3u.

for segment \320\270 . + u.f (I - (1 - + 3u. dividing 4. The small enough to plot as straight pixel.-ti/-)p2 (I u.-)3 - 3uy (1 \320\270 If p. We have we First. Figure curve.j + u.)pi + \302\253\321\203(2\320\270.f + + Recursive + ul(2ul = - + h.-3u.p_i - - + + 3\316\271\316\256(1 u.)(l pi= p.-3u.5] = po/8 + 3pL/8+ 3p. (1 - p./8 + compute p(0.)!po + (I + \302\253fr3 \320\227\320\270^^\321\200! u^u. u. p(0.(l po \"y)(2u/+ \302\253. To control the segments display as a curve.-)(2u. Then to Pi = Ms]T\342\200\236MBP where.5) we use the general parametertransformation compute P^.)2 pL \302\253.we perform repeating the subdivisionas often the as ts parameter is an necessary Here necessary.u.)p2+ ujpi Subdivision the curve For a Bezier curve s times producesa set of points on length of each is approximately1/2S.u. + - 3u7(l u.12shows the resultsofthe first the until it subdivision single into two of a cubic find all the controlpoin two smaller curves. Step e [0. This gives us only of these each for by begin transformations.15). We smaller finding curves. algebraic description of this process: StepI.102 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier where pS = = pi 0 .0.5) continues subdivision applications computer-graphics are line or to segments on the initial end points. from Equation (4. 2. (1 \320\270\321\203)\321\200\320\277 + u. 0 10 M\302\253'TeMH = 2 0 2 \316\271 \316\271 \316\271 \320\276 4 2 4 A A A A L8 8 8 8 p3/8.)p2 u. parameter subdividing Recursively Is at intervals. \320\227\321\213^^\321\200\320\263 \320\270(-\302\2537\321\200\320\267 u.

this . We have = \321\200.1].0 Therefore...and Truncating Figure so subdivision of a Recursive 4. \320\274\320\271%\320\274\321\217\321\200 and 111! 8 8 1 \320\276 = \320\234^\320\242\320\254\320\234\320\222 4 ooii . + \320\240\320\267 the general parametertransformation to compute its Pi. p2) 8 8 I I 2 4 2 2 0 0 1.5. Finally.12 \342\226\240 103 Subdividing cubic Beziercurve. + 2p. that 0 \"l 0 I I ~2 ~2 1 1 1 4 2 4 1 3 3 8 8 8 0 Po Po \317\205\317\205 Pi \317\205\316\2412 1 Step time 3. 1 (Po + Pi) (p. again. for segment we use \320\270 e [0.

corresponding Figure 4.104 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier 3 3 1 -(p0 + Po I 1 A 4 2 4 \320\276 P> = \302\273 \316\277 \316\227 2 2 0 0 All that really interests intermediate control segment.16) + ^(P2 \320\240\320\267) pi LPa. Geometric Construction devised a subdivision technique by geometric construction to find a on a to a given value of the curve \320\270. that we find the point on each edge of the controlpolygon First. subsequent general cycles sequential and the number of line segmentsdecreasesby one each cycle. The in at \320\270 to curve iij. The subdivides this line is the point on the curve point that proportionally = 0.13).4are labeled 0 are the initial controlpoints. to u. Now repeating Subdivision by points. In there are of subdivision. .13 constructs the point Points labeled1. us computationallyin because can find 1 Pi 3Pl + 3p2 + p3) we already the know the endpoints of each Steps 2 and the midpoints of each of these two 3 are curve segments by this process. point parameter (see corresponding Figure 4. Figure 4. value of and subdivides it proportionally connect these \321\211 according the We subdivide each of these new line points to form a set of line segments.Those \316\267 subdivisions.2.3.25.14 Bezier Figure 4. we 0 + p3) ^(Pi+2p2 P2 (4.13 Subdivision by geometric construction. and repeat the subdivision and line segments proportionallyaccording we can construct construction until segment only one line segment.

4 cycle some of recursion a cubic Bezier curve.15.14 Figure Bezier Curves of the point \320\270 -0.1S A recursion algorithm.Composite \342\226\240 105 1 0 Construction 4. operates of = 0.1 \316\267 4. . COMPOSITE BEZIER Bezier curves may CURVES be end-to-end joined to form a composite curve.5 \320\270 for 4. + u*>l+1-Pj i Figure - 0.This us to create a more complex curvewithout having of an equivalent single curve.This construction and a simple recursion algorithm.The geometric relationship the continuity points adjacent to the jointsdetermines allows K-P. the degree control conditions at those to raise of the . the construction shows is described by first Figure 4.The vector algebra as shown in on the initial control points.5.

pm-i. Ibl 4.qn-i. and p.5)and rearrange .. and the segment by . this function P8 = 3(p1-po) evaluate Next. .qi. control . pi.we These at = 0and \302\253 = \320\270 I. simple Specify.\342\200\236_ upm. G1 continuity then \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 qo.17 shows two cubicBeziercurves do not address parametriccontinuity here). Figure 4.. adjacent segment by control at = 1 \320\270 .qn. % Gl continuity free to p0 Figure at q.Theyalso by that Bezier reveal certain conditions between adjacent segments continuity of a compositecurve are relatively if we define one to Thus. q0. collinear. we again focus on the cubic Bezier curve and extend the continuity criteria discussed earlier (see Figure 4.16).16 Composite (we move point D so the collinearity of C. we differentiateEquation(4.) as we also move \320\241 and P2 \302\243 in P3 a way with joined We that are preserves = p\342\200\236 q. points by making pb and the tangent that demonstrate expressions and line between \317\201. long is established Bezier curves.pm points po. terms to obtain First.106 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves To explore these ideas.producing p? = 3(p3-p2) and = 0 is determined at \320\270 by the the and line between p2 p3. 4.9u2)p2+ 3u2p3 = p\302\253(u) (-3 + \320\262\320\270 3u2)p0 + (3 joints.12u+ 9uz)pi + (6u .

generalize Bezier that of curvesis advantage higher-order they provide of continuity orders between segments of composite correspondingly higher a fifth-order. for G1 continuity the five A condition at a joint between curvesis that D. If we have higher-degree properties affect the quintic computation curves of and the .17 Figure Bezier curvesjoined with \342\226\240 107 G1 continuity. curves. without follow we may constraint. end of a cubic Bezier curve coplanar. -1. each derivation. We can easily The consider geometric how polynomial functions and relationships. p\342\200\236. However.and E. lengths of C. the event that other propagate beyond points curve segmentsare present or are added to this string. specify endpoints.Composite BezierCurves Two cubic 4. points at \320\272. and E. p. or quintic.Forexample. The effects this Within _ 2.\342\200\236 vertices change the G in \316\233 and = qoi a\302\260d must \320\247\321\214 \320\246\320\263 require increasingthe The equations the curvature number for of control and \320\2720 be To achieve this might in one or more segments. do not _ Zlfo-ptQxQpa-pi)! Kn = 3ipi- po _ 3(\317\201\316\257-\317\2011)\317\207(\317\2013-|>\316\257)| \342\200\236.we must tangents. p4.D. Bezier curve permits us to and curvature end at each end. 3lp3- \321\200\320\267\320\240 these equations for Bezier curveswith \316\267 > 3.

a Bezier curve in the homogeneous coordinate space of four We define onto the h ~ 1 hyperplane.17) \316\241(\302\253)=\316\243\316\241^\302\273 1= 0 where are the coordinates. we the underlying geometry power representational of coordinates and must reviewsome homogeneous properties projective geometry. onto The of this curve is three-dimensional equation ordinary space. and each because to x^hxlh. where the is ordinary three-dimensional hyperplane onto and the and dimensions. Riesenfeld(1981)discusses use of homogeneous was coordinates and projective pJanes in computergraphics. inordinary space.To understand of this formulation. point corresponding = hzlh on a line through the origin for all real h except h = 0. Cartesian space hasa corresponding Every point x. the intersectioncomputations and for cubic curves bicubic surfaces.h spacecoordinates. .y.18a the hyperplane h~l.hyhz.hy.h projective homogeneous of an infinite number There are points in this four-dimensional space space.hz. and the homogeneous p. y-hyih.z in three-dimensional in four-dimensional set coordinates of hx. illustrate coordinate homogeneous geometry in one and two (4. h(u) J on the curve. All the points \316\266 have identical ordinary 3D in this four-dimensional homogeneous space the is the Thus.108 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves related biquintic 4. x. for example. point originisthe centerofprojection 4. that dimensions find its projection and is.S more are these for surfaces. (1965) can best by curve and elementary the Roberts of the first one to observe that are a coordinates homogeneous represent geometrictransformations and useful way to projections. than complex BEZIER CURVES RATIONAL Equation (4. discuss curve Bezier using or nonrational an integral curve defined a Bezier by a rational We polynomial.2)definesa now We polynomial. p(u) is the control We know four-component vectorof a points. of it as a projection of a fourthinking study this curve onto three-dimensional dimensionalnonrational space. also given point in four-dimensional that x(u) h(u)x(u) \320\243(\320\270) h(u)y(u) \320\260\320\264 h(u)z(u) Jr(u)] .18b space. Figures 4.z projection of the point hx.y.

for the homogeneouscoordinatesof any on point curve.\342\200\236(\302\253) 2(\=\316\2432\316\221\302\253(\302\253) %)^\320\233\320\224\320\233(\") (4.h h Figure 4.hya.19) . x{u)~ V \320\263\320\224.Bezier Rational Curves \342\226\240 109 h-1-- hxa. can write.1B Homogeneous one so that now we the and two coordinate = 1 plane geometry in dimensions.

When we change a weight. For the case of figure. same the has four more degrees of freedomthan control with different Bezier have the with the same control same its projection matches the line in homogeneous space to a position new weightedvalue.22)reduces an integral h.110 Curves \342\226\240 Bezier For the projection of this point onto x. tangents-.y nonrational earlier control po>pi.Blin \320\243 land \302\243.for example.= 1. the represent \320\245/\320\263. In Figure4.\317\201. (423) YJ^--lP.. This means. are the control points in three-dimensional spaceand the t he also known the corresponding are projective space coordinates. or nonrational Bezier weights. the corresponding x.19. h. All the = coordinates h 1 plane.which If all from: follows ft.as do in the x. \316\233\316\274:\342\200\236 \316\243 hiX.B. rational Bezier curve in the hlth2.we the rationalBezier curve curve cubic a rational nonrational the all for h.y OB and \320\236\320\241.h3.then as the curve because (\302\253)= 1.Bitn{U) (421) W'ThAM Because analogous expressionsapply to y(u) rational Bezier curvein vector form as and we z(u). position .y.Au) We immediately see that for a rational Bezier curve points can produce many and with the same end the changes shape Bezier curve Let us see plane in plotted identicalto of the how this points on between whose slides along h coordinate shown in the point and weights cubic..\342\200\236(\302\253)= \316\243^. This is because of the relationship we established and h. are where to when all/z.\316\222. Equation (4.= l. It is points. \316\243 h. that the h = 1 plane the shapes.= see 1.\342\200\236(\320\270) the p.pz points points on the line OA the endpoints one or more of the weights interpolating Changing a second-degree for works control set of the same curve.. the control point moves along line OB to the hi..z write we space = x(u) CO h(u) (4-20) \320\201\320\234~\320\231 = But so that \320\226.\321\200\320\224.

Only one weight has been changed. we can Using the rational Bezier formulation.~ 1 curve same end slopes.Bezier Rational h0. then points are produced as usual from the transformedcontrol The resulting points. h. and the effect we of this is to pull the curve toward the control point p\342\200\236 whose weight rational Bezier All of this applies equally to three-dimensional changed. of curve and the of any curves A rational degree. The Hermite basis and nonrationalBezierforms conic represent cannot do this. . Bezier curveis invariant under a perspective transformation. It has. > 1. curve is the accurate perspectivetransformation of the original. the same controlpointsas the h-.\316\212\316\220 .19 Figure We can htX\\. This is the interest. new position together points as defininga new or projective space. two the with the h = 1 planethat this = 1 curve Bezier curve control end control unchanged the homogeneous of think plane 1\\ Rational point turn produces in the in its plane.C \342\200\224_ = = l.It is the in h = 1 plane a new projection curve Bezier of this curve in onto curve in that plane.h}yuh. If all other its control points are subjectedtothistransformation. This is not true for the perspectivetransformation ofa nonrational where curve. every on the curve order to must be subjected to the transformation in point produce an accurate perspective image. h2 = 1 curve 1n 111 \342\226\240 Curves space homogeneous \320\222 \316\212-|\316\247\316\220\302\267\316\267\316\220\316\245\316\220. accurately curves. h2 0 curve projected onto h = 1 \\ 0IC^__^ ' 4. of course. h\342\200\236 hy>l.

usually curve). and parabolas. the require parametric formulationallows a curve to represent multiple-valued shapes. However.\320\264(\321\206) ' and their = h0B.li2(u) + hlBi2(u) + h2B22(u) l ' ' of circles. hyperbolas.theserepresentationsare also discussed we the can generate = rational B-Splines(seeSection5. segments weight parabolas are produced.the curve within the convex hull lies segments entirely defined by the extremepointsof Che polygon and generally mimics the gross features of the polygon.Third.the curve with the has in common endpoints other are the vertices not on the Second.only associated weights are requiredto represent Because . 1 three them. points from + + h2p2B22(u) \317\207\320\2540\321\200\320\276\320\222\320\274(\320\270) /11\321\200|\320\224.If segments then of values h. if p0 closed. In fact. Space does not permit a full discussion this produce in the section on topic.Beziercurves are variation-diminishing. First. . Finally. if the first and last points coincide(that then the curve is seen. Fifth.112 \342\226\240 Bezier Curves conies are second-degree curves.This means that they never oscillate wildly from their control defining away are smoother than the data on which are points (they they based). control Thus. ellipses.Other the other of conies.Fourth. as we have = p\342\200\236). Bezier curves are specialcasesofthe more curves general B-Spline that we consider next. is. just daita points. to conventional or splines. polygon (the slope of the tangent vectors at the endpoints equals the slope of the first and last of the polygon.7). 1. Let us review the properties of a Bezier curve that make it an unusually effective modeling tool. Bezier curves do not compared polynomials us to input slopes.

only function by 5. number of control do not characteristics allow changes in shape that points. Connecting the controlpoints p. allow points.thosedefined functions. general. localchanges techniques a small change in the position of a point on aspline curve or of a (for example. Consequently. B-Splines necessarily interpolate nonuniform We the basisfunctions this.These a few Most one or local propagate beyond only segments. curve-defining do not provide for local control of shape. has and depends on only a special set of basis functions that only local influence few neighboring control points.1 a few B-SPLINE NONUNIFORM We by begin nonuniform with the BASIS FUNCTIONS most general nonrational B-Spline curves. That is.CURVES B-SPLINE A of from a Hermite or Beziercurve in that it usually one curve segment.The B-Spline is contained within the convex hull of its curve control do not endIn their polygon. However.1]) produces control polygon. Each segmentis definedand influenced differs curve B-Spline consists more than control points. This is sometimes describedas propagated throughout The B-Spline curve avoids this problem by using local a aglobalpropagationof change. which are the coefficients basis of the B-Spline The curve is independent of the of the total degree polynomials. B-Spline and rational forms of the B-Spline consider here both nonrational basis functions. (see Equation in the order of their numberingwith straight lines the B-Spline [5. vertex of a characteristic polygon of a Bezier curve)tend to bestrongly the entire curve. the basis function definingone basis seg- 113 .

They endpoints. of/: j the +l i( + 2 n-K function N.. + * -1 for values integer controls the degree the of continuity where points interpolates the = \320\272: \320\272 2. For tj=j-K Note the \320\232. The a knot comprises control of + U-i(K) ft.<\302\253<(. We do this in the following). + .1) to Equation (4. tt tj values once that all = \320\272 1. The open once = 0 = integer an calculated are of the \320\272 and order values.k functions for each k. The parameters degreeof polynomial from the are related n + the set of knot \320\270 to values the p.)N. \320\277. There number (n are of control always \316\267 + 1 blending points. 53 + i relate the parametricvariable . a parameter /i controlsthe degree (K1) of the basis and it is of of the number control usually points. calculated ranges B-Spline. the the degree of the basisfunction number of control determines points polynomial. .+ t-w)JVl + t. following. \316\232. (5.(u) ~~ i. on the modeling depending ment by specifyinga nondecreasingsetof knot A B-Spline curve is similarto a Bezier of effects the combines one to interpolate situation. For a B-Spline curve.t-./i + 2)..4) they are used to computeN.AU\302\253) Equation (5. tl + k~ti t.n + K.. are index . tj for where .. ranges Oto from 0 to n.. . . \316\232 .The indexion knot values / on determining the and a j<K for K.For a Bezier curve.2) otherwise and = (u-t. vector. and the by K+l = T (5. polynomials...-pt for 0 to (n + K). curve that nonuniform using K: if if K<j<n i> \316\267 (5.Thisallows or more of the controlpoints.114 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline may differ from those defining another..2).The from . .6). (explained a set of basis functions nonrational form is given by points p.5) . also if knot values ^themselvestakeon values blending in = Q. 1) of the resultingpolynomial (K curve. knot called are t) = \316\257 0. knots..The control \316\267 + 1 values us = p(u) in that curve (5-1) Xp. - the . The nonuniform are defined recursively by the basis functions B-Spline Compare following expressions: Nil(u)=\\ if = 0 (. independent exceptas it is limited by Equation (5..

For the 2. and K-3.3) ean be zero.115 Nonuniform B-SplineBasis Functions\342\226\240 where 7\" is number the vector knot the \316\244 is of knots. point the curve. a double knot defines a join points.5.we 0<\302\253<6 and the knot is [0. given six controlpoints 5). Usually to the at this is by no values variable the knots..1.\316\261. situations.\316\257\317\204\302\267-*-\316\271. we compute knot-vector a with \320\232 functions (n basis functions \316\235\316\257\316\233(\316\272) vector with = 5 \302\253 and/C= find that l. induce discontinuities. then \316\261 + 2. \342\226\240 \316\262) \316\244=[\316\261.However.we will define the range of the parametric variable\320\270 If the 0<\320\270<\320\273-\320\232+2 the Because 0/0 in Equation denominators .\316\261.K N^(u) NlA(u).2. From Equation = \320\273\342\204\226)1 if -0 = \316\271 \316\234.Nii2{u). \316\262\316\267\320\232 parameter the knots at equal intervalsof the parameter a uniform describes Spacing we assign nonrational B-Spline curve. or = 0 u--4 \316\212 1 = h= 5 = 2 h-= 6 fo f2 (5..6) (5.4. For nonuniform and open B-Spline curves.So. if However. curvature A triple knot produces a corner point in discontinuity.2). end where knots \316\261 and with \316\262 repeat K.\316\262.\316\257*.7) i3-3 spacing.6]. 2 <n <3 otherwise . corresponding = as follows. then. characterized by -. although integer parametric the means a requirement. for most = = we \316\261 0 and 1.3. . = = to The basis and \\..0. otherwise it is nonuniform. it greatly discussion of this simplifies to be subject. Multipleor repeated For cubic curve. multiplicity entire curveis parameterized over the unit interval. \316\262 assign nondecreasing integer = 0 and = values of the to the knots.\316\271(<\302\2670 if 0<\302\253<1 < 2 1 < \320\270 otherwise if =0 w otherwise -0 ^(10=1 (5. (5..we define must or multiply coincident control values.\316\262.

\316\271.116 \342\226\240 \316\222\302\267 Spline Curves = 1 Nu(u) if =0 = W4.I B-Spline basis functions for = \316\267 5.2). /\320\241 . these basis functions to any set of six controlpoints Applying we see that p(u) is given by a different for using Equation (5. so that These six basis identicalin p(u) =p0 for 0 <u <1 . .1. = 1. They are obviously form and limited to a different successive unit interval of the parametric variable.\316\275. equation each unit interval.i(\") 1 < 4 3 < \320\270 otherwise if = 0 < 5 4 < \320\270 otherwise if = 0 5 < < 6 \320\270 otherwise functions are plottedin Figure 5.\316\271 1 1 1 1 \\ i\ \342\226\240 vs>> Figure S.

8). this to interpret point.) 4=0 is \342\226\240 117 each segment length. theNi2(u) basis functions with n~Sand the knot vector is [0. a nonuniform corresponding word.3)produces .1.8) must \316\233\316\214.5.2{u). so before another set of NiA(u) first compute values in Equation (5.0.for < 5 Functions < 5 otherwise as appropriateinto Equation(5.3) indicates we can compute N.\316\271(\302\253 =1 =0 = 1 \316\2353\316\233(\317\205 1 < < 2 \320\270 otherwise 2 < u < 3 = 0 otherwise = 1 3<\321\213<4 =0 otherwise =1 4 <w \320\233\320\2234\320\273(\320\270 \316\2355\316\233(\317\205 =0 this set that (5.2.(\302\273 Substituting = 5 f6 that the to = 4 \\ find 3 i5 h = \320\232~2.we knot spacing. = for 4<u<5 \321\200(\320\274)=p5 for 5<\321\213<6 p('0 p(\") = p2 \321\200(\320\270) p3 The but the initial merely set of control points.B-Spline Basis Nonuniform = Pi for 1 <u<2 for 2<u<3 = for 3<u<4 \321\200(\320\270) \317\201-.(We represent six disjointcurve concentrated at a control not a curve in the ordinary sense of the is clearly curve resulting of segments zero and i4 = = 0 Equation (5. This computationproduces the = = N^u) 1 f \316\271 0 NXi(u depend u = 0 otherwise = 1 0<\321\213<1 =0 otherwise \316\233\316\212. we the l3 = 2 t7 = knot 0 <\320\270 5 on the N.4.A(u).or i0 This also could Next.5).3.

2. < 5. interval ofsupport for a curve's These expression. N. taking on a value define the over which the basis They region complete or the function is nonzero. basis functions are plottedin Figure 5.3.j(u) the value of u. strictly in that order. for < 4 \320\270 and the - - \302\253)p2+ (u - 2)p3 + (u \302\253)\321\200\320\267 u)p4 + (u - curve is a sequence of straight the resulting the control points.we connecting find that 0 = 4 4 \316\2577 = (5. they are identical in size and shape.4.(\302\253) (\320\270-4)\320\233\320\2235. we must = curve because of first compute segments. Here < - Ni3 the knot functions basis (\320\270) /\302\253-\320\236 /5 = = 0 f \316\271 fft i4 = is = the Again.i2{u).4.9) 4 2 nonuniform knot spacing.! (\321\213) = + (5 (\302\253 3)\320\233\320\2234\320\233 (\320\270) = - + (3 (\320\270) = \320\233^\302\273 Nu(u) . /i = 3.u)Nv{u) + (2 uNu(u) - (4 - - \320\270)\320\233\320\223\320\267\320\224(\320\270) \321\213)\320\233\320\2234.(\320\274) \302\253)\320\234.1. we find that p(u) is given by a different for each unit interval in u. equation except through the actionof the = (1 p(\302\253) - so that switches. the NiA{u) and then the N.0. switches.118 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline A\\. \316\25720 This line < 1 \320\270 the knot values correspond to the the recursive nature of the basisfunction equations.1(\320\270) of 1 or 0. end < 1 and 4 < \302\253 at the 0 < \320\270 these segments spanning Applying of Equation basis functions to any set ofsixcontrolpointsby means (5.4). The on depending act like functions N. .1)N2! (u .z(\302\253) = = NX2{u) ^(\320\270) - + (\320\270 2)\320\233\320\2233.and joints between and segments 3 = f\320\267 1 is a ~ 5 \316\267 with or vector is [0.2.2).A{u) + \302\253Pi for 0 < + (\321\213-l)p2 for l<u<2 - for < 3 2 < \320\270 3)p4 for < 4 3 < \302\253 4)p5 for < 5 4 < \320\270 \302\253)po = \321\200(\302\253) (2-\320\270)\321\200] = \321\200(\320\274) (3 = (4 p(\302\253) = (5 p(u) Finally.0..

2 B-Spline for basis functions = S. before computing the N0(u). For the Nltl(u) = l for /Vai(w) = 0 Nu(u)=l = 0 obtain = 0 \320\270 otherwise for = 0 =1 \320\233^\320\270) we = 0 \320\270 otherwise for 0 < < 1 \320\270 otherwise \342\226\240 119 .\320\260<\"> Figure S.Nonuniform Basis B-Spline Functions *\302\253. \316\267 K=2.

plotted of these Notice the symmetries and congruences of the shapes functions. the terms lhat they p(\302\253) action is given of the by a NiA(u) different switches.3)to obtain + (3 + Notice how the the appropriate the (4 - \302\253)*\302\267.|(\320\270) NU\") - = J\"(4 - \320\227^\320\233\320\252\320\224\320\270) \320\274^\320\224\321\213) +|<2 + = \320\233\320\254\320\224\320\270) ^(~2u2 ^^\320\224\") - = \320\220^\320\224\302\273) \\{\320\272 NA3{u) = 3)\320\234\320\273(\321\213) + + 10\320\270 \321\213^\320\224\321\213) + 11)\316\233^4. again.3) Equation AW(\=0 Nu{u) = {l-u)Nv{u) = N32(u) (\320\270 .(ti) 1 )N3A(u) new knot values affect into Equation (5.120 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline for Nu(u)=l 1<\321\213<2 = 0 otherwise 2<u<3 for N^{u)~l = \317\213 otherwise 3 < for \320\233\320\223\320\267\320\273(\320\270)=1 = 0 < 4 \320\270 otherwise Substituting these equationsas required into produces (5.. we these will this in more detail a little later.(w) we Now \316\235\316\2572{\316\271\316\271). These basis functions Figure 5. equation so that for each unit interval in \320\270 through the . Applying phenomenon explore to a set of six control pointsusing we find that basis functions (5-1). Equation Here.\302\273 w)ATs.2)Nu(u) = (u M. substitute as \320\233^\320\224\321\213): = \320\233\320\223\320\260\320\264(\320\270) (1-\320\270)2\320\233\320\2232.3.\316\271(\302\253) |(4 |(-2\321\2132 + - +1(3 1)2\316\2353\316\233(\317\205) -2fNiA(u) ]-{u +6u~ U-\320\252\320\2701 + 20\321\213- - u)2N5il(u) 32)\320\234\320\224\321\213) = \320\233\320\2233\320\224\320\230) (\320\270-3)3\320\233\320\2235\320\224\320\270) on and off the NlA{u) functions act like switches.turning are in control.

. We 0<\321\213<1 1 )2p.We points. .This tangencyoccursat the joinls between curve segments (that is.B-Spline Basis Functions Nonuniform = pi(\") .11 )p3 + - - - |(\321\213 32)p4 + l(u p4 at first and these same last for 2)^4 for 2<u<3 for 3<u curve also <u<2 I < 4 segments Figure 5. These joints are indicated by tick marks. to p'.3)^ is shown in example through only the p5 + -(\320\270 3)\321\200\320\263 composite sequenceof four an \320\241 passes p0 and - ^(-\320\227\321\213\320\263 curve is a resulting with 6w ^(-2\"2 \321\203(-2\321\2132 P4(\") = |(4 connected + + \302\253)2 pi ^\"(2 for + ~u2p2 3w)p! \342\226\240 121 notice that that notice p(. This local p] is moved point \320\233\320\270\"\" Figure S.. points. at integralvalues of u). and it is this curve = is langent to each successive sideof the eharacterislie (only for K polygon 3 curves). and ps.In the figure.3 Nonuniform B-Spline basis functions for . and the effect on the curve is plotted.uf& pj + 1 Ou + + 20w + continuity.4.\2po")+ x\"(4 - (1 = \321\200\320\263(\320\274) - - = \320\240\321\215(\320\270) \320\270)^ |(3 The the curve tangent to .

two segmentsof the of equations. shape of at most only three curve segments. A nonuniform cubic B-Spline \320\232 control segments. What we must happens review control points.In Figure5. occurs \317\201.3. we infer that only three controlpoints equations. \320\232 Each of a In fact.122 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline Figure affects only change set preceding S.4 Nonuniform curves: n= S. a control point can influence the segment. because /C = B-Spline 3. each and. we can generalizethis observation: segment From influence each these same curve B-Spline curve is influencedby only control point influencesonly \320\232 curve requires at least four knot values.1 5. conversely. Figures if we increase .1. no to w e see evidence whatso5. Conversely. in only equations. > \316\267 3. and at least eight nondecreasing the number of control points?Toanswer this. points. also evident in the the first and second it is curve.Similar to K= 1 and observations apply = 2 curves.

3. except for the basisfunctions influenced by the near them or those very (dependingon K). < i < n. we would find Ni3{u). + 4.\342\226\240 + 1 .+.B-Spline Basis Functions\302\253123 Nonuniform on the shape of the basis-functioncurves that number of controlpoints..The Na(u).(\320\230) \320\230)\320\233\320\223. First.. we also correctly infer that. In both Figures 5.U)(U .i + (\320\270 (\" - = (\" = finally.+ (/ + +2 + ((' 3.1 < i \320\270 otherwise for JV..2) and tl~j~K+ =/-2.('- \320\233\320\223( + 3\320\224\320\270) (\320\270 And. (\320\270) '\320\226. + ij{u) we compute + 2)1N.(\302\253) + (..i{tt) + 3. We same time Iry to develop will do reason this for K= 3. This We choose an interval in i so that \320\232 anticipates the uniform the calculation of the t.i(u) A^iX\302\273) Nl + 22(\") = - .u{u) + 1)\320\233\320\223. we then compute Nju) = 1 . f + (\320\270) 2)NU lW (U) + + (/ - \320\270)*.\316\27100=-\316\271 = 0 1 < + r u< f + 2 < i \320\270 + 3 otherwise \316\271 + 2 for W.]{u) + {u-i + 2){i-u)Ni. of n. for selecting these three will become clear asour investigation progresses.M=i 1< =0 / .1 ... + 3 - u)N. the interior basis endpoints to ever we can functions that are indicate an influence attribute lo the For example..for now.2 and 5.i(\-l = 0 < otherwise Next we compute N. Ni3{u) \320\233\320\223\342\200\236(\320\270) \320\233\320\223\321\215\320\267(\320\270) of \316\267 and al the Let us pursue this idea of basis-function independence a more convenient m atrix notation.i (\320\270) - 1 i. + (i + 1)\316\233\316\223.we compute Nl+ L3(\302\253). independent = = = = 7 \316\267 if ~ \320\232 and 3..i(\302\253)-l 1 ('<\302\253<('+ ^0 otherwise for \316\273\316\263(+3..i(\ . (5. simplifies the recursive of 1 formulas Using Equations (5.(\316\274)] \316\274)\316\266\316\233\316\223.u)Nl+ 2..and iV( + 2 3(w).2 < u < otherwise for (' for \316\271 -o w. Nii(u)-^[(u-i . knot values so that B-Splineand.\342\226\240 + ((+!+ \316\271.2..+!.tl.3).

\316\271... in that above u)N. switches.M\ \321\200(\321\213) i + = + (/ + \321\212\320\273{\302\253)} \320\270)\320\251 use the as NlA(u) those Collecting switches on. < 1. Matrix Form We denotes now (5.(\302\253)=^[(1-\302\253)2\321\200.we the function \321\200.i00 */ \320\2362 (\"-'\320\2471)(/\320\247\320\254#.(\321\213) the control with point p.\320\273(\320\274) - + (r +2 - + 2 (\320\270 <){< - |[(\302\253 + {i + of the curve. p.{\320\270) \\[\320\270\320\263 -2 1 The analogousform for cubic -2 \320\223 2 0 1 0 B-Splines.so + (-2\321\2132 + 2\321\213 + 1)\321\200. pi-i for \316\241.11) \321\200. for example.1) = \321\200(\320\270) -((' - 1)\320\233^3. by the as p.(\320\270) expression for i < interval the for the functions Only .(\316\274)] \316\274)2\316\233\316\223.10). We again ihis interval.So.11) using Equation the curve matrix notation.\320\250) +2 2-(\"-')\316\212\316\241' are There 0 < that < 1 \320\270 subscripting (5. To reparameterize Equation \321\200(\321\213) computational and identifying replace \320\270 by that \320\270 + l. an Ni + 2i{u) segment arbitrary 1.(u) u){u + + 2.12) .(\302\253) for r'th interval. is ie[l :n-l] (5. replacingi segment number). a B-Spline for with by \342\200\224 r = \320\232 1 (i 3.\321\2021 + \321\2132\321\200( + 2) (5. we so advantages to reparameterizing the interval the interval in some useful way.i)Nl+ 2. 0 < \302\253 where will not confuse now rewrite Note that as long as we maintain the function notation. we obtain 1 = \320\270 1) \320\240. say.i u){u to find an are ready we Now 3~ \320\270 < 1 \316\233^ + 2>\316\271(\302\253) + 1- + 3 over - + 4. terms from the set of equations from Equation (5. we obtain ufp.. + (i + ^[(u-i+l)(i+l-u) + + 2-u)(u-i)]pl + l (5. K= 4.124 * Curves B-Spline + ^*|\302\273^[(\"-| - + (\317\212 + 2 - = NtM\302\273) + 1)!^+\320\270(\320\270) .

(w) + 2-K) (5.15) P/-M For the where cubiccurve.The sizesof U and in Equations \320\263 is determined We investigate on the degree closed B-Spline of the curve. U = [\320\2702 \320\270 l).15) for curves later.14) and (5.13) re[l:n-2] + 1 \316\271 oJLPi+2J curve. Simplifying these equationsfor a second-degree = \320\232 where 3.125 Nonuniform B-SplineBasis Functions\342\226\240 p.14) and formulation (5.XJ \320\2702\320\270 [\321\213\321\212 1]. \321\200.and 1 -2 1 M< = -2 2 0 1 1 0 have we Pi = \320\270\320\274.\320\230 for open ie[l:\302\253-l] curves (5. = K=-4. P: \320\240. are for specific = UM5Px ie[l:n (5.17) 1) and PK = [p ] je[i-l:i + K-2) for open curves (5.H = \320\2702\320\270 JK 1 3-3 -1 pi-i 3-630 1] P' -3030 1 Pi 4 for (5. + i _p. -3 3 -3 0 3 1 4 1 -1 3 3 6 *-i we and 1 0 0 0 have \316\241-\316\271 = UM. the general is p. open Ms depend Equations(5. + 2_ The number of segments curves.15) \320\232 values.18) .16) where U =[\302\253*\"* uK~2 - \320\270 (5. However.14) curves (5.(\320\270) P<\" for open ie[\\:n-2] p.

('e po pi(\302\2530 = UM5 Pi = UM5 p2 Pi Pz(\302\253) \320\240\320\267 (5. In those cases. given a uniform knot vector. M\342\200\236. 5. Hermite. respectively.12) or Equation require the curve to pass a apply formulationsuch as that in not control points. P^ Pj P^ .4 and (5. (5.19) \"p2 := UMS \320\240\320\267(\302\253) \320\240\320\267 pj \320\240\320\267 Pj(\302\253) : = UMs p4 Ps and for = 5 \316\267 and = \320\232 4. ie [1 : 3) Pl(u) = UM. B-Spline curves.126 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline We have Bezier. we find for the = \316\267 [1:4] 5andX=3.13) to the set of set of controlpoints in Figure 5. p2(u) = UM.20) P2 p3(u) = UM. we (5.2 UNIFORM the basis-functiontransformationmatricesfor the and Ms. They are MF. now defined and B-SPLINE BASIS FUNCTIONS the through do situations geometric-modeling Many endpoints. For example.

B-Spline and the basis functions differ from one to the next. \316\267 . \316\267 = 3 \320\232 and B-Spline = S. produces periodic curve. segment both of course. Again. allows us to have multiple knot values knots byinserting a convenient way to reduce the continuity at a segment joint without creating line segments straight (as in the case of the Bezier or uniform B-Spline The B-Spline curves Notice in Figure that neither FigureS. It is periodic because the basis function repeats itself B-Spline over successive intervals of Ihe parametric variable.S Uniform curves: = S. the knot values correspondto the joints between the cases. curve segments.4 are nonperiodic or nonuniform hand. passes of the This method or a uniform control through any points.On the olher identically the curves in Figure 5. in curves.5 result when we completethe remaining = 3 curve = 4 curve the \320\232 nor the \320\232 computations.Uniform B-Spline Basis Functions \302\253127 5. \320\232 = 4. We make use of the nonuniform that characteristic B-Spline at selected locations.

128

Curves

\342\226\240
B-Spline

See Farin

curves).
the

of

shape

(1993a)

to interpolate

curve

for

(5-19) and (5.20)show

Equations

curve segment, and iheyshowthe

Figure 5.6 presents

basis

the

control

which

for

B-Spline curves. These basisfunctions
intervals
in

S.3

on

Figures

the

parametric
5.2 and 5.3,

span

line, respectively.

we see that they

basis

the uniform
compare
we now
functions,

and

2,

\320\222-Spline

control

=
\320\232

3, and

three\302\267, and

point.
- 4

\320\232

are invariant

from

span

to span.

FUNCTIONS

B-Spline basis functions to the Hermiteand Bezier
look at the second-degreeand cubic basis functions

a*\342\200\224J\\r

|-e-.Iw =!-*\342\226\240]

cl\342\200\224-\317\210

1i\342\200\224

\320\233\320\223=4

Figure

V
S.6

uniform

four-unit

ir-

o1

points.

a particular

influence

single control

~
\320\232

two-,

last

Comparing these functions to those

BASIS
QUADRATIC AND CUBICB-SPLINE

To

nonuniform

points

of a

influence

functions

insertion on

of knot

effects

of the

descriptions

curve. In fact, we can forcethe
a control point, includingthe first

a B-Spline

Uniform

B-Spline
and

basis functions:
Wi4(u).

Nu(u). Nii3(u).

in

more

detail.

N3= U3M3and N4

We define

basis-function matrices for \320\232= 3 and
= 3
matrix multiplications for \320\232
produces
N3

B-Spline BasisFunctions \302\253129

and Cubic

Quadratic

=[*!>)

where

= UjMj,

=
\320\232

N, and N4 are

the

Performing

the

4, respectively.

\320\233^(\320\270) \320\233^\320\230]

where

\320\234\320\224\320\270)=|(\320\2702-2\320\270+1)

+ 2^+1)

(5.21)

\320\233\320\223\320\260.\320\267(\321\213)

=-^(-2^

and for

=
\320\232

4,
\320\233\320\2234.4(\320\270)]
\316\2354=[\316\233\316\2634(\302\253)
\320\233\320\223\320\274(\320\270)
\320\233'\320\267\320\224\321\213)

where

=

+ \320\227\321\2132-\320\227\320\274+1)
\320\233\320\223]4(\320\270)
^(-\320\270\321\215
\320\276

=

+

^2.4(\320\274)

4)

-^<\320\227\320\2743-6\320\274\320\263

(5.22)
=

N\\*(u)

In

both

cases,

see

we

that

=

+

and for

=
\320\232

:

and(5.15)

\316\267

1]

1)

these basis functions.
for K~3 yields

1. Figure

+ Ww(w)pi
p,(w)= \316\233\316\212.3(\\317\201(-\316\271")

i e[l

3w +

3i/2 +

\320\245\320\220^\320\224\320\272)

(5.14)

Equations

Rewriting

\320\245(~3\"3

5.7 plots

+ N^{u)p,

for open

+ 1

(5.23)

curves

4 yields
=

p,-(\302\253)

Nl_A(u)pi.l

i e

+ N1A{u)p,+

[1 : r

- 2]

for

NJA(u)p,
open

+ l

curves

+ NiA(u)pl

+1

(5.24)

130

Curves

\342\226\240
B-Spline

l\302\267\342\200\224I\342\200\224

1

-\316\233
^^\342\200\224\342\200\224

-

-4

\320\272

;,'
'

3

4

1

^I..

'
\317\206
\316\263^

<.

^

F

,\342\200\224

Figure S.7 Uniform

functions on the unit
K=

3andK

f

4.4- ._***

>

B-Spljne basis
interval

for

= 4.

S.4 CLOSEDB-SPLINE

CURVES

The

uniform

curves.

B-Spline

of

For uniform

and

(5.14)

Equations

modifications

curves

the

number

segment

closed curves, we
P(i- l)mo(i(n +

=

are particularly well suited to produceclosed
(5.15) are easily adapted for this by simple

U3M\321\200,(\320\270)

(n

+ 1)

l)mod(.i

+

p/mod
.P(i

+

range and the subscriptson the
rewrite theseequationsas follows

control
for

points.
3:

=
\320\232

l)
i e
l)_

+ 1]
[1 : \316\267

for closed

curves

(5.25)

Closed B-SplineCurves \342\226\240
131

The

on the

subscripts

p/mod

= 4.
withn = S. \320\232

matrices are for convenience
of reference.
[\320\270
11)

P(i

+

l)mod(n

+ l)

.p{i

+

2)mod(n

+ l)_

where mod(n+ I) is the remaindering
= l,8mod3 = 2,4mod4= 0, and so
to

work

through.

Here,

for closed

i e[l:\302\253+l]

\320\2704\320\234^
\321\200,(\320\270)

example

For

=
\320\232

4,

+ l)

P{i-l)mod(.i
=

B-Spline curve

S.B Closed

Figure

operator

(that

on). The curve in

= 5
\316\267

and

=
\320\232

(5.26), we obtain

4; using

is, for

curves

(5-26)

example, 5mod4

Figure 5.8isa good
these

values in Equation

P(i\"-I)mwl6
Pjmud

6

P(i + l)mod6

.p(;
Expanding

this

equation

produces

+

2)mod6_

re[l:6]

(5.27)

132

\342\226\240
B-Spline

Curves

=

UjMj[P(J
\321\200,(\320\274)
=

UjMjfp,
\321\2002(\320\274)
=

ps(\302\253)

pft(w)

We evaluate

P2

P2

\320\240\320\267
\320\240\302\253\320\223

\320\240\320\267]'

UjMj[p2

\320\240\320\267
Pj

UJM4[p3

Pj

Pi

PoF

UiM^pj

Ps

Po

Pi]''

= UjMj[ps

po

Pi

ft]7

for

some

p3(\302\253)

pJ(\302\253)

Pi

=
=

each of thesecurve

segments

psf

of

sequence

\320\270
values

of the
of course, specific control-point coordinates to produce
and,
plol
5.9
is
resulting
B-Spline curve. Notice the subscript sequences.
another
of
curve
where
a
same
conditions
hold.
It
closed
is
example
clearly possible to generate a self-intersecting
In Figure
closed
5.10, moving p; to p'2 producesa moreelongated
of affects
four control points define this curve, the perturbation
Since
only
the entire
while
the
curve, although ihe most drasticchangeoccurs
p';,
the

Figure

the

curve.

curve.

p2

near

disturbed
original curve is only slightly
Defining
B-Spline curves with one
an effect similar to that
produces
points

the degree of ihe polynomials.
Each
the curve closerloitself.Theexample
two,

and

three

and p5; or p.,,p5,

control
and

points
p6, where

for

group
in

of
Figure

coincident

curves

have

coordinate

Closed,self-intersecting
curve

with

\320\273

5,

control

without increasing
control
multiple
points pulls
5.11 shows the effect of one,

Bezier

atp4. (that is, at locationp4,we
have
identical
p.,, p5, and \321\200\320\271

Figure S.9
B-5plfne

nearp0.

or more multiply

= 4.
\320\232

p4 alone,

pj
values).

Closed

Figure

S.10

Closed B-Spline

curve with

with

= 3.
\316\267

= \316\221.
\316\232

\321\200\321\201

\317\201,

Figure

B-Spline Curves

S.11
multiply

Closed

B-Spline curves

coincident

points.

= 4.
\320\232

control

\342\226\240
133

134

Curves

\342\226\240
B-Spline

This

makes

advantage

S.S

it possible to define B-Spline curves with
in many geometric-mode ling situations.

sharp

corners,

an

CONTINUITY

of a B-Splinecurve, we will
use the example in Figure 5.12.Because
the curve is a cubic B-Spline,
and
we can
second-order
expect
parametric continuity throughout the curve.
To examinethe first- and second-derivative
continuity of this
parametric
=
= 1 of
to
\320\272
0 of segment
curveat point \320\270
(7 +
segment i corresponding
point
NJ and N\"4U:
1), first we compute
To

demonstrate

the continuity

between segments
= 4,
\320\232

=

\316\235\316\252
[AT?\302\273

N$A(u)

NUu)

N'Uu)}

(5-29)

where
b

(5.30)
6

FigureS.12

Four

of

segments

curve,

/C

= 4.

a cubic

B-Spline

Continuity

\342\226\240
135

and
=

\342\204\2264\320\270
[\320\233\320\223\320\230(\320\270)
N%(u)

(5.31)

Nfi(u)]

N%(u)

where

Nft(u) = -u+l
V

= ~3u

Njft(u)

(5.32)

+ 1

Nft(u) = u
we

Now

can

write
+

PK\302\273)-Mu.4(\302\273)p(-i

^,J(w)p,

+ A'l4(w)p,,i+A\"1i,4(w)p;,2

(5.33)

and
=

+

\320\233\320\251
\317\201\316\223{\316\272)
\316\233^\316\227\317\201,-\316\271
(\\321\200.")+

we evaluate

Next,

+, + \320\233\320\223\320\231(\320\270)\321\200,+2
\320\233\320\223\302\243(\320\270)\321\200(
(5.34)

(5.24) for p,(l) and p, + 1(0)

Equation
p,(l)

=

-|(p,

to

obtain

+ 4p, + )+Pl+3)

(5.35)

and

pi

=

-^(p,

+ 4p, +, +

that p((l) = \317\201;,^0),
continuity
by evaluating

first-derivative
pf+)(0).This

i(0)

shows

(5.36)

Equation

+

p, +2)

as we

(5.36)

would expect.

We

examine

Equation (5.33) for p\"(l) and

yields

=

(5-37)

\316\241\317\212(1)
\320\240-\320\263)
\342\226\240\302\243<-*+

and

p?+,(0)
We

see

lhat p\"(0)

joint. Finally, we
Equation

(5.34)

for

=

-|-(-p,

+ pf+2)

(5.38)

= p','+)(l), demonstratingfirst-derivative

examine second-derivativecontinuity

py\"(l)

and

p\302\243,(0).

This

yields

continuity
by

evaluating

at

the

136

Curves

\342\226\240
B-Spline

pT(l)

= p(-2p,

+ i

+

pr?i(0)

= pi-2pi

+

, +

(5.39)

pit2

and

=
We see that p'\"'(l)
demonstrating
\317\201\316\220'\"\316\271(0),
the joint. Of course,we can easily extend

(5.40)

p,-i:

second-derivative

for higher-degree B-

this analysis

Spline

at

continuity

curves.

The

on

is a summary of the
Control

point

Control
Control

coincident control
at segment joints are worth

of multiply

effects

the continuity

point

points and multipleknot
some

values

Here

discussion.

further

conditions:

continuity

multiplicity =

1

C^andG2

multiplicity^

2

C1 and

G1, with knots restricted to

reduced

convex

point mulliplicily = 3

a

hull.

Gn. The curve interpolatesthe
and the segments
control
point,

C2 and
triple

at each side of

the

are

joint

straight

lines.

Control point multiplicity

= 4

G2 and
of

sides

C'.The curvesegmentson both
the joint are straight lines and

interpolate

control

the

both

on

points

sides.
Knot

multiplicity

= 1

C2andG2

C1 and G\\ with

Knot multiplicity^ 2

knots

reduced convex

Knot multiplicity=3

C\302\260
and

control point.
the

multiplicity

=4

The

the

interpolates

Curve segmentshapesat
and not constrained to

are free

joint

lines.

straight
Knot

a

hull.
curve

The
G\302\260.

to

restricted

is discontinuous,

curve

one controlpoint
next. The

and

ending on
at

resuming

the

shapes of the curve segments

adjacentto

the

discontinuity

are

unconstrained.

the various kinds of continuity
and surfaces, including parametric, geometric,Frenel
conditions
of curves
and
surface
frame,
tangent
continuity.
Pegna and Wolter (1992) present
resultsof work on the control of curvature continuity in the design of blend
Veltkamp

(1992)

surveys

and

discusses

and

surfaces,

parametric
subject

5.6

of

(1989) discuss
also reference

Barsky and DeRose
curves. These reports

Functions

Basis

Between

Conversion

the

literature

basis

functions

of

continuity
on the

geometric

other

\342\226\240
137

continuity.

CONVERSION

BETWEEN BASIS

FUNCTIONS

The conversionbetweenBezier
B-Spline
forms.
For
matrix
equating appropriate
and

uniform
we have UMaPs = UM^Pj, or MBPfl
cubic
B-Spline,
convert from B-Spline to Beziercontrolpoints,we have

ps =

by
proceeds
and the
so that to
MSPS,

curve

Bezier

cubic

the

=

m-jm5ps

(5.41)

which expands to
\317\213 \317\213

\317\213

1

-1

3

1

3

-6

1

-3

0

3 0

1

1

4

1 0

1
0
1
\302\261
=
P\302\273

0

6

1

2

3

3

1

1

\317\213

1

1

-3

0

3

or
\316\262-

\316\2314

1

\320\236

0

4

2

0

0

2 4 0

0 14
\320\242\320\276
convert

to B-Spline

Bezier

from

=

p^
which

expands

(5.42)

1

control points, we

\320\2741\320\274\320\264\321\200\321\217

to

\316\277

-\316\271

\316\271

-1

3-3

1

\317\204

0

s

\342\200\224

--

3

0

1

3-630

-3300
11

2 1

10

0

0

use

(5.43)

1.0.1 1 1 0 3 2 6 0 0 1 3-630 1 1 0 1 0 1 3-3 -1 1 -3030 14 Ps 10 or 10 14 14 0 -3030 It 1 (5.138 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline or 6 s~ A nonuniform \320\232 =4 Of and 2 -7 \317\213 -1 2 \317\213 2 -7 2 \317\213 -1 \317\213 0 (5. \302\260101 2 0 2-211 -3 11 3 -1 -2 \320\222 1 1 0 2 1 10 ? or (5.0. to go the other way. curves. we have P5 = M5MFB which expands to 0 .we have the knot expands (5-45) to 0 0 b.For the = \316\234 \320\222 >' M5P5 which by produced vector [0. 0-303 Similarly.1.46) p.0.47) 0 10 0 0 .! = - -! . we can also convert between the Hermite and B-Splinebasis and uniform cubic Hermite cubic B-Spline curves.44) \317\213 6 of a cubicBeziercurve B-Spline equivalent is course.1.1].

makinguse of homogeneous and coordinates characteristics of projective This means that the NURBS curves are geometry.Its basisis the ratio that of two nonrational B-Spline basis functions.0. where curve shape.=1 forall the and each nonrational B-Spline i.making it a vector-valued rational piecewise a it As rational the same as exhibits invariance form. nonrational on a NURBS curve are given by Points One of (\320\270) \316\243\316\233.k.49) \321\200(\320\270) wm \316\243 = 0 \316\271 where to the h.with of local control. doesnot contribute the all 0 and to . have multiplicity K.7 \320\222 (5. It has become so widely curve.\317\201. B-Spline. has the form T= (0. rotation.49) reduces if the weightsh. then the basisfunction if the knot vector of Equation (5.\316\272 = ^ (5.>_.1 of this = 1 for 1). If a weight /z. scaling. i 1 reduces to equation . popularly used it is almost an industry standard. rational to represent curve the added B-Spline exactly the conic curves. However.\316\233'.1. properties the rational Bezier basis. = 0.Nonuniform Rational B-SplineCurves 2 3 7 3 3 1 3 2 3 22 3 17 3 2 3 1 5. 0. are the weights. polynomial. and parallel and perspective the Like rational Bezier curve. then controlpointp. shear. Ifweights/z. invariant under translation.\\ for the Bezier \320\232 the nonrational Bernsteinpolynomialbasisof degree curve #.(\302\253). we can usea nonuniform projection. then the form basis function N. Nonrational B-Splinecurves and rational and advantages Bezier curves are Specialinstances ofthe rational B-Splines.48) CURVES B-SPLINE RATIONAL NONUNIFORM \342\226\240 139 the most versatiletoolsfor modeling is the nonuniform curves rational or NURBS is as it called.

1. then the curve is pulled toward or pushed from. away the control respectively.1). equation produces a When ^(1 - - ' + + 2\321\213(1-\320\270..On the other hand. the ratio s-mT (5'52) .50) V(\=4\342\200\224") \316\243*\316\233*(\ where rational K = Bezier 3 and the curve. change curve curve. a conic curve it to a method (1994) discuss Cheng composite a X *. quadratic. this is not the best way to change curve shape.\316\267\316\275\316\271 u^iipi uf h0 + 2u(l . control move to difficult relatively the points. so can and use Wang we begin with the curve: NURBS second-degree CURVES exactly.seeQin.u)hi + u2h2 (1 that this is indeed the equation - proof of a conic curve. the effect of changing a controlpoint is predictable and intuitive. (1990) present of arbitrary eurve NURBS Bezier NURBS ofrational reduced knot NURBSrepresentations curves with G1 continuity Piegl (1991) and Farin (1992)survey that led to the wide acceptanceof this form. is increased or decreasedin value. matrixof of NURBS a the 5. _ p(o)- We assert without knot vectoris (0. characteristics WITH NURBS CONIC5 REPRESENTING The NURBS is curve the first often (1992).0. represent A conic is a choice of designers becausethey Sun.140 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline ways to modify are three There knot vector. \"\"\320\223\320\276-\320\263^\320\2771 u2h2p2 .0. or second-degree. line straight will changes move any control its corresponding through on curve and surface for a discussion of shape Piegl (1989c) and Mekhilef (1993) for a study of the Tiller rational constructionsusing point p.\302\2731\321\200|-\320\263\302\273 \316\234\316\271\316\241\316\277 \320\246). and Joe. curve.This actually becomes the expanded. For example. Wang. Laurent-Gengoux more optimizationofa NURBSrepresentation. Change of a NURBS shape will to respond Because it in the changes the is knot vector. Weight for (1987) B-Splines.P.8 Lee and as surface for obtaining the coefficient the matrix representation and degree a tensor product of NURBScurves.AU\ (5. If a weight h. See Piegland and modification. point on the curve along a point.1. and how a determine the weights. Choi. Moreover. Yoo.

way to Figure S. must prevail: an isosceles triangle. The controlpoints\321\200\320\276.\321\200\321\214\321\2002 must define 2.Conies Representing is a constant. ratios depending determine a Speeific p for ealled \317\201 sometimes is arc the an for a = l for p>1 Fora circular the conic a (5.13).p0= ^pz h0 = h2 = l 'p^p\302\260' xh^ 2lp.90\302\260.I3 square-based A seven-point NURBS circle. NURBS exists (see Figure5. - pol a sel of four 90\302\260curve to define a full circle. segments vertex of and has 45\302\260. Also. NURBS Curves The on the specie of conicrepresented. where Z. one transformation obtain any ellipse is by applying to the circle's eontrol points. triangle angles 45\302\260.where point square-based We each Of following parabola conditions following \342\226\240 141 ellipse 1. an appropriate where a seven- affine . of conic: type p<l where with can join isosceles course.53) hyperbola shape factor.

curve. These shape.15). curve found in is (and surfaee) Barsky (1988).-1 = p.142 5-9 Curves \342\226\240 B-Spline BETA SPLINES CUBIC An a over which p2.) \316\2622 4fr 2 0 (5. the curve asymmetrically shifts to one we side of the control polygon. affects the tangent vector so-called of the 6\316\262\316\271 bias and and increasing \316\2622 parameter-increasing side of each control point. When the and more elosely approachesand curve flattens increase \316\2622 uniformly A the control thorough diseussion of this interesting approximates polygon. respectively. Both tension parameters.0) UME P< Pi + l ie[l (5. on variation interesting defined knot uniform provide two the B-Spline basis function it adds two more sequence. cubic beta- P. is the Beta-Spline. on the the . Manipulation of \316\262.we Following spline requirement have geometric for the continuity.$} and of eurve for global control over certain characteristics the extra degrees o-f freedom are createdwhen we relax of parametric continui ly while preserving the formulation of Equation (5.54) :n-2] Lpi+J where -2$ 6\316\262? = \302\267 M\342\200\236 + 2\316\262? + 2$) -3(\316\2622 -6\316\262\316\257 L and affect 2\316\262? = + 2\316\262\316\257 + 4\316\262? + \316\264 \316\2622 and \316\262. the are \316\2622 flatness the + 2 + 3(\316\2622 2\316\262?) 0 1) 2(\316\2622+\316\262?+\316\262\316\220+\316\2621) -2(\316\262\317\212+\316\262\317\212+\316\262\316\271 6(\316\262?-\316\262\317\201) + 4(\316\262?+\316\262. parameters. to the of the As we curve closer sides control increase $} pulls polygon.55) 0 + 2.

nothing quite so torsion Al of straightforward to surfaces. we can the locus of a point moving with two degrees of freedom. These notions them arc a surfaces. Where theory of curvescenters oncurvature and as functions of arc length. other it. or to demonstrate its objects. as the locusof points become useful to geometric The intrinsic equations and express analytically. rigorous and this chapter we review the explicitand implicit of surfaces equations introduce the bivariate parametric equations. applies though we will diseuss many properties the that surfaces that arise from their differential in follow. and B-Spline surfaces expressed parametrically. of a surface of characteristics differential subject geometryand are far more subtle and complex than those a the of curve.Thesetopicsarc the basis for and the Hermite. parametric display or we modelingwhen to reveal geometric evaluate.SURFACES surface is a continuous sel of points approximating of each of the points.Mathematically more plane of points. which may then become the basis a surface to relationship for to subsequent 143 . implieit surfaces are the most commonlyusedsurfaces in geometric parametric and of the tensor most our studies about here are modeling. geometry chapters In we will not pursue the fundamental forms or more derivations. In addition. later discussions of quadric surfacesexpressedimplicitly. product particularly line moving We construct. curve. Yet we also succinct. may think of a surface as a two-parameter family of a surface as is that another conception. notion of a the neighborhood intuitive Our in a describe surfaces of a with special properties. analogous to our notion ofa curve. and analyze points and curves on special properties. for example. and The Bezier.

z) is a polynomial in*. also possible to express every rational and nonrational parametric a from surface with an implicit equation. then the a is a surface of which the is quadric. The degree of the polynomial expression is linear of its individual terms. equations. either direetly adapt or closely approximatemost. degree equation. Finally. point computation. for as \320\263 a function for one of \317\207 and of the variables as a function y.where f(x.jkx'y'zk itselfis the maximum If it is a secondvariables. of these and On the if not all. we sum of the elementary is the degree of term a.the special case. the \320\263 + is j + k. and embeddedeurves processes a surface. this form is the surface. EQUATIONS OF SURFACES form of the (6. then the surfaceis an unbounded plane. must be a cylinder whose generators are parallelto the axis of the surface in all absent variable.However. So this chapter curve nets.j.and that such \316\266 i. sphere if one of the variables is absent from the equation. Although the implicitand are useful.1) Aw)-o is the implicit equationofa surface. equation also discusses evaluating on surfaces. say. If this equation degree algebra. we obtain (6-2) z=/(xoO This representsthe same explicit the equation of surface as Equation (6. In other words.1).144 \342\226\240 Surfaces modeling on points 6.1) the inverse procedure. in representing forms surfaces they suffer from an explicit their to an inherent weakness: easily transformedand bounded inability represent we can surface. When we solvethe of the other equation implieit two. point classification. y. However. implicit by parametric explieit forms other hand. on an explicit based .y.The processofconverting t o form is called parametric implicit implicitization. Here is a relatively simplesurface-fitting equation (see Figure6. they do have interesting associated with intersection strengths It is and compulations.k From equation simply know that the degree of any term in this exponents appearingin it.1 AND IMPLICIT EXPLICIT An or definitions.

\302\243=F= form + 2Jz 2Hy G- by f(x. m = \316\267 3). a specified from a. the transforms For certain array way. are mathematically expressed of the scalar A tensor is a multiply for generalization vectors).Bezier. surface is given by |he equation Ax1 + For example.y.4) then the . B-Spline. a as tensor product(a similar surfaces.z) of a quadric + K \320\257.J - =0 = 0. as well as the nonralionalHermite.y.Surfaces Quadric where we determinethe must specify \316\267 are large. (6. surfaces with 16 An explicit 6.1 Figure surface. If m and possible to inadvertently generate increasingly oscillations. conventions SURFACES QUADRIC A quadric surface is one whoseimplicit 0 where f(x. variety This indexing schemeused here and follow the strictly more in rigorous of the most modeling literature does not of mathematical physics. undesirable and surface.We = is.7coefficients points for a bicubic polynomial then it becomes \342\226\240 145 (that sel of dala points. By1 + Cz1+ 2Dxy if \320\233 =\320\224=\320\241=-\320\245=1 equation producesa unit sphere The + 2Fxz + 2Eyz at is given representation algebraic + 2Gx + and D = the origin.z) is a quadraticpolynomial. product subscripted that in a a of practical reasons.

this is often computationallyimpractical floating-point Using quadrie arithmetic. This allows computation of surface and axes cenjer. For example. every quadric characteristics surface intrinsic scalars.The jeststo determine dependent type on computing whether certaininvariants or zero. or unrealizable with Again. we easily determine the definitions A = Q\302\253 D F \316\214 \316\222 \316\225 F \316\225 \320\241 type of . may slowly may eause represent and sealar some a represent on point arbitrary \320\232 to repeated subjected the defining kind of type right circular its axis.7) ] Certain properiies of Ihe matrixof quadrie coefficients Q are equation the determinants invariant under rigid-body transformations. rigid-body motion a 4 \317\207 4 Iransformation is produced matrix simply by pre-andpostmuiiipiying Q by T: Q[T Q'=T '-\320\246\320\242 (6. surface by a data set consistingof vectors. are negative.two cylinder. This small changes in the coefficients change in computed surface lype.5) and D A G F \316\214 \316\222 \316\225 \316\227 Q- convert of problems computation. a and radius (seeFigure6. we matrix In may write Equation (6. positive. may arise when using either form. We form of representation js often more practical.146 \342\226\240 Surfaces form.4)as PQPr=0 where \321\203\316\266I] P-[x (6.2). are critically surface (see Table 6.1). type. However.The source problems the js very naiure of floating-point data representation aecuracy and lack of robustnessof including imperfect computational these and C> (6.including IQI and IQJ. the following surface: and tests. \316\227 of Q have no direel geometricor physical meaning. \316\225 \320\241 coefficients ten The F da|a. another vecior where one vector vectors a and defines an defines the direciionof the axis. vertex.These identifier. form only when computationallyneeessary. gives the scalar A degrade a radical can We J transformations.6) J a geometric to the algebraic Therefore.

D\\C+ K) -J\\A + E2(A 2(DEF+ FCJ + F2(B K)- + K)- DGH G\\B + C) - + EHJ) + H\\A C) + B) a:Ti>0.\316\231\316\237.Quadric Figure 6.rank r2 s = Q rank Q.\316\231\317\2041>0 A surface is produced by of revolution quadric aboul its axis. rx .IQ\342\200\236ki<0 or \317\2042<0 \316\262:\317\204\317\212>0. characteristic + \317\204^\316\221 signalure B+C AB + AC+BC~D2-E2-F2 z2 + = ABC z1K-G2-H2-J2 + ACK + ABK+BCK+ .( of Q\342\200\236.2 A right Surfaces \342\226\240 147 circular cylinder. This surfaceis in its canonical position Totaling if and a conic only if its curve center . the where signalure as Ihe difference beiween z1 = bl &2 = s of a quadratic form is the number of posiliveand defined negative rools.

>0 Line Other Condi lions Surface Parabolic planes planes ] 1 2 0 \317\2043<:0 Hyperbolic cylinder 2 2 > 0. in canonical revolution 2Hy Applying + K=0 these (6./! general of quadratic a quadric origin.\317\204.BH=CJthere f).>0. \320\263\320\224 < 0 \317\2042 Elliptic 2 3 3 2 \317\204. must be along the \316\266 axis..>U Elliptic \316\261 Hyperboloid \316\261 Hyperboloid of two paraboloid is at the origin and its axes of symmetry coincide In this position there are no crosstermsin the \302\243=F-0. Bf + 2Gx+ = Bx0andG-//=0. we obtainthe canonical equation . Ax2 cylinder Surface or vertex coordinate Type + 2C>x + 2Hy + 2Jz + of one with sheet sheets the D equation.62>0 Invalid 1 \316\261 Cone \316\262 Point 3 s IQ\342\200\236I \320\2561 Other Conditions 0 + 0 - \302\261 + 0 2 1 + - 1 + + 3 \316\262 Invalid \302\261 - 3 \316\262 Ellipsoid cylinder paraboloid Hyperbolic t.8) is only one term in each variableif the where AG. equation surfaee and dividing of revolution: position is a thus.Thus.sothat + By1 Type \316\244. since eenter or vertex is at the origin. This \321\203 plane (z = 0) and a quadric surface of circle whosecenteris at the Ax2 + Foracircle. The axis of rotation means that the intersection of the x.Table 6.An additionalconditionisnecessary. Invalid 2 1 1 u<0 Two parallel 2 2 \317\213 \317\204:<0 Two intersecting 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 \317\204.<0 axes.1 Classificationof quadnc surfaces \320\2231 \316\223\316\271 s 1 0 0 Invalid I 1 1 2 0 0 Coincident planes Single plane 2 1 1 >0 \316\264. K=0 - (6.9) conditions to the by A.

+ N=Q familiesin this are eight There + Mz +Lz2 x1 + y2 (6. in a results rectangular variables parametric variable.7.2-(V-0.w) a rec|angu|ar generates of = \320\270 and triangular Fixing the value of the patch in y x(u.The most obvious of theseare the four comer definingits edges.N x2 + v1 + \320\223 Cylinder x \342\226\240 + f .w consirained There are other patch. spline curve.Parametric Equations of Surfaces \342\226\240 149 LM where 6. the formulations = variables parametric course.L<\\ / + /.Othersof vectors..2 Quadric surfacesof revolution Surface Figure four curves vectors. For twist vectors importance the arc conditions points tangent are always we CanonicalEquation Sphere .3 = 0. which an ordinary rectangularpatch..3).w).w) patches. (see PARAMETRICEQUATIONSOF SURFACES The is a It is a patch. and later. This.10) class general Table 6. Associated with every patch is a set of boundary 6. wc form a paramelric net of two onearbitrary of curves on |he palch so that one families curve of each just parameter each on any the sense Again.V Cone x2 + Paraboloid x2 + Prolaieellipsoid xl + Oblaie j-!+ ellipsoid Hyperboloid of one she ei Hyperboloidof iwo sheels =0 = 0 f-Lz1 = to y2 + Mz = f) f + Li2-N = Q. which remains free.w) \316\267 on z(u.there (see and the 1 four . two-parameter (bivariate). norma! (for the cubic Hermite patch). into manageable In units.1]. w are or other one of the the z = y(u. of that produce terms other (6-11) to the intervals u.> -N = 0 x1+y--Lz1 x2+y2-Lz7 + N = 0 will discuss and only four Table 6. single-valued polynomialsof the form x where e [0.2). family passes through pointp(u. A coordinates are given mathematical element we use to modela down a complex surface |o break the a segment of a way patch is analogous \316\257\316\277 most common and simplest surface convenient way this palch is a curve-boundedeolleetionof pointswhose by continuous. By curve on continuing one variable and then the other for any number of in the allowed values interval. positive |his process first for curve is the sensein which the parameter increases.

P(u. equations represent a rectangular segmentof the x.p(0.0). We possible combinations find the corner poinls to obtain 1 into p(u. +b z^O y = (d-b)w x={c-a)u+a Here are e [0.w) by subs|i|uting these four combinationsof 0 and the the or On other and hand.l)p(0.y plane.l).0).0).w parametric coordinates of constant w are functions of u.Thecurves the x. simplest defining equations.12) both the 6. surface some examplesof generalparametric patches a The oneis The following plane.1]. A parametric This eurves. edge boundary p(l. curves running parallelto the \320\264\" which of exists for the lines situation constantu.p(0.3 X follows two parametrie from the variables. where u.p(l. edge of 6.H>). eurves are functions of one of the two parametrie to free while fixing the other to its by allowing one of the variables remain in four and only four possible results This limiiingvalues.l). An Figure and their parametric (6.w).4 illustrates this patch.150 \342\226\240 Surfaces \\ Figure eorner points and of |he two limits |he surface patch. showing coordinates of each comer point.y The are axis. We obtain Ihese variables. straight lines analogous and . p(i. procedure curves of the four parametric boundary combinations the functions yielding and p(u.

The parametrie equations \316\277\316\271 a of radius centered at are r.\316\226\316\277\316\247 x = Parallel ol latitude = curve o( consiani \320\270 -Meridian Figure 6. are straight lines parallelto the \321\203 axis.y The next simplest surface is the sphere(seeFigure the locus of poinls 6.0| (0.6) 0 (1.01 Figure 6.11 1 a-0 \316\2671 10 = IW- vi = la.. w .4 Parametric and x. sphere point (\317\2070>)>\316\277.and \321\203 c. b.Parametric Surfaces of Equations \342\226\240 151 \321\203 Ml Ml u. \320\256. = a. The boundaries of Ihis plane are \317\207 = = d.5).S A parametric = curve ofconsiani sphere.1) (1.W (e. at a eonstant distance from a given point. \321\203 coordinates of a plane.

generating are illuslraledin shows x.2\317\200] (6.\316\226\316\267) cos \321\201 sin w \320\270 are plane parallel lo the in a are and of constant curves w 2'2~ \320\270 lo latitude analogous Obviously. (u.2Tc] sin w z(u) of a patch differs from variables. we set of hybrid and (u.v + a -xtl - \321\203y0 + b . we[0. we have a (u.6 A parametric ellipsoid. longitude. revolved around |he \316\266 must account for (6.wr*c).14) Figure6. parametric three-dimensionalparamelerspaces defined that Thus.z(u) that is \320\270 cos w cos \320\270 sin w space two both angles in of latitude.13) with 2'2 Notice z= [0. only pari surface (hat it is the curve defined by the function The equations of are cos w -x(u) \321\203 parameter as plane axis.shown. by of because a eurve.6. \321\213 is w meridians An ellipsoid of longitude.w. at centered . b com sinui \320\260 \320\24105\320\246 COSIil Figure 6. For clarity.z) . ofrevolu Hon.y). generated W w sin + \320\263 cosu \320\243\320\243\320\276 x(u) (6.152 \342\226\240 Surfaces = \316\233\" + f COS \320\224\"\320\276 U COS - + r sin Z-Za where radians.Zo + \316\266 Equations (6.7 the surface is x(u). the equations: parametric following w 6 [0.y to (\317\207\316\277\316\233'\316\277. so lhal a circle is w varies.1J.w. Curves of constant semicircles as \320\270 varies.14) Figure 6.2\317\200] \320\270 \317\207 The parallels has a parametric .15) ue[0.

Every poinl parameter These space we see Ihis curve decomposedin|oits componenls. by |o the Again.Ihrough by passing the plane \320\270 patches. decomposing iIs parameter-spaee components oflen helps to model y. unit square u.w.y plane. the paleh's componenls parameier Shown space.w.w e[0.Parametric Equations of Surfaces \342\226\240 153 6. Holdingone of the parametric variables constanl the curve defines a specific paramelric curve on Ihe patch.z patches are given u. p(ii\342\200\236iv).l].Thefigure shows on curve has \320\270 this the and in same value.8 Figure pn He show has the following properties: poo and p01 lie in |he in |he x. curves. left in the u. parametric = are revealed curves the component u. eaeh boundary curveis planar.7 Figure eoordinales. The surfaee graphs a bieubiepateh elaboraleits on in and the left 6.As A parametric eubicHermite with surface of revolution.w).wrx coordinate .. p|0 at the in|o behavior in spaee. nolice jhat the parametric variablesareconstrained equalions. The in syslem is a componenl given by lop patch = the equation \317\207 the and similar u.z plane.y x(u.

space of a surface.in Figure a straight 6. We call Figures of inspeclion special a point 6.9 shows 6. and in Figure 6. 6.9b. By carefully by the choosing Figure specifying of a subsets define certain composed of parameterization to is the particular sections of a several choose patches. line.B The we can curves.1] domain surface.umux] This frequently is useful use this we can a surface freedom of whenever readily is as the domain of a surface-interpolating . [0.9c.wmflX]. [umo. In addition inherent another advantage of the of a surface is the representation parametric the of a we have of domain control surface-modeling operationsimply complete an appropriate parameterization scheme.9bdegenerate patches.1] \317\207 [H'min. many characlerislics of a patch by a componenl patches. We will x [0.10 shows all three results in modelspace.9a. Figure to their boundedness and ease of transformation.a plane.154 > Surfaces Figure with As careful Ihree 6.9a and 6. In result in model space. Figure 6. parameter observe the parameter-space cases.

a the contextof composite surfaces patch is a or limited patches the us distinguish these limited patch has more significanceand helps have classes of parametric surfaces been developed. Any other domain square in parameter space. in \342\226\240 155 component surfacesof three specialsurfaces. in three groups as normalized First.9 Figure The parametric Nine faces plane Two region observations surface are are shown of a larger can be necessary.Parametric of Equations 6. we will strictly of three. operation. many term . Second. regions. interchangeably. surface. to this necessary unit often use the termspatch speaking. and Surfaces Although.

4 HERMITE.ANO B-SPLINE next three chapterswe parametric surfaces.10 special surfaces.156 \342\226\240 Surfaces \316\234 Figure Three 6. The Bezier in parametric SURFACES: rational forms. primarily and of course. BEZIER. consider curves. each OVERVIEW Bezier.including Spline representations.As with In the specialcasesof the rational AN the Hermite. Most are interconvertable.their differences being class defines and modifiesits underlying piecewise 6. hierarchical the way surface. and B-Spline nonuniform rational B- the nonrational relationship forms are between the .

and An Overview Surfaces: B-Spline \320\266 157 the rational surface B-Spline applies equally to these surfaces. Letcher and Shook of the NURBS summarize deficiencies surface form as applied to advantages are and the volume for gridding are also relevant concern are the 1.The degrees of its basis control points. Kato and GreinerandSeidel Warren (1991). It has the convex curvesit is the easiest surface to subdivide. Although our three chapters on surfaces is on the effectof control on surface shape. of each of them. curve isoparametric and are the throughout The points. and Shook Piegl (1989b). Six categories following: zero (for the rationalforms) of parameterization arcs (particularly important in CAD/ CAM) cannot 3. of these surfaces. Local controlis not a of moving any control point is propagated the effect characteristic. Nonuniform computational to the entire fluid dynamic analysis. Bezier.because globally Its boundary net. 1995b).see Grecnberg Georgiades scope Fowler (1992). This surface complex representation curves and disadvantagessimilarto those The Bezier patch is definedby dimensionsdetermine the for the curves. of these patches may be assembledto represent Composite arrays scheme exhibits advantages surfaces. or othermultjsided varieties Farin (1993a). and like Bezicr polyhedron at corner point. for similar and of these forms. well-knowntriangular forms rectangular. including disadvantages Comparative For see and well-known. who discuss geometricmanipulationof the and and other tensor product surfaces. Surfaces surfaces helicoidal which are manufacturing surfaces having be accurately mentioned no exact represented as common NURBS efficiently (for and engineering representation) example.Also see Fowler and (1992) these (1993) control a following weights the local permits defined the in points of surface is also definedby fofm are functions focus patch. Letcher (1995a. . (1989b. See for example. there are other importantapproaches and of this text. (1994). Division by 2. There are. tangent at the vectors of the four boundary curves. with We the will consider the or most tensor being general. For example. array of control Hermite a rectangular of degrees points. The bicubic Hermite patch is defined by its four corner points. Farin others. only product.Hermite. but their comments of group of parametric forms. implicit example. (1992). 1993a). whose the comprising the curves curves interpolate the corner points of the array defined the the of the control to two plane by edges tangent each hull property. B-Spline shape Bartels work on curves.This and beyond independently of curve of the array rectangular of control shape. however.and the so-calledtwist vectors corner points.

sowe simply ignore one of the coordinates to obtaina determinatesystem.plus some additionalstep?. so that the inverse may not be unique. and projection. the parametricequationsyield the N of p. but course.5 POINTS descriptive ON A SURFACE discussed We different on to direct- approaches 2. than that used for constructed in it face) in these (for curvature where more explore a somewhat more general curves.1) parametric by uh point for each of the parametric variables.In fact. Lack of closure commongeometricoperalions(for composition. of these surfaces. hide the nature it may be useful to know that the surface of a hole is a circular cylinder.in many a value specifying of practical values for J of interest. Point and inverse-point evaluation curves in Section of evaluation on a surface is an extension those techniques. the When/ (N-J -1) dimensions. solution is one of the the inverse-point Because net parametric evaluation To define parametric most important strategy space. as well as their various derivatives to the coordinate with respect components all variables at some on the located surface (N. For example. is a stimulus to search for alternative their existence forms.If we talk about iV-dimensional will spaces have N components. Other 6. for analytic surfaces then vectors a surface (or hypersur- variables. direct-solution mode.158 \342\226\240 Surfaces 4. nonuniform surface meshes isoparametric Irregular (for weights the rational resulting from the use of forms) 5. sophisticated modeling systems work around these problems. the Changing often results in moreefficient point density of points to be evaluated point solutionfor surfacesis somewhat let us operations. problem is somewhatoverconstrained. when/<iV1.6. intersection) and deficiencies have been pointed out by Requicha offset Fixed NURBS cannot describe surfaces Rossignac (1992): degree and NURBS forms for quadrics or othercanonical representation exactly. on the of constantparametervalue and then evaluate points along surface eachof these curves. Ill-conditioned basisfor surface fitting under 6. requires (N \342\200\224 1) by reparameterization example. subtle. For most problems J \317\210 \316\235 1.Toevaluate a more or directly to a similarly less regular distribution of points on a surface corresponding of we a sequence of curves first isolate regular distribution parametervalues.However. increasing the The inverseis greater). the test to determineif a NURBS Of surface is indeed a cylinder is a numerically unstable computation. example. In the . the inverse degenerates to a surface of = N. a point is locatedby specifying problems the N coordinatesof p.

and conjugate all nets.19) \316\234 \320\255\320\270.16) dujds fti matrix form [*] = \320\223 dlt. Now. in the \316\224\316\257\316\257. we compute . related inversion problem develops if we are given (N only 1) components of p' and must find the Nth component...l/2. orthogonal. the of vectors at a ona surface we tangent finding point p' problem p. of the NETS of curves related subjects are of interest here: Ihe general formulation embedded curve in a surface. we cannot evaluate \320\255\321\200/\320\255\320\274.The resulting matrix algebra required to invert the system of equations defining these problems and solve defies To illustrate the and we are forced to use an iterative procedure.17) Irl or duf\" -1 \320\263 \320\223\320\255\321\200\" \342\226\240 = ds If As= then Irl. the consider to the the = \320\263 vector If p'-p. f = hypersurface. we definea unit vector that r/lrlso \320\255\321\200/\320\255\320\271.Curve Nets \342\226\240 159 We let p' denote a specificpoint on the surface on which (or hypersurface) the N or we must compute the first derivatives We know coordinates \320\255\321\200/\320\255\320\274..1/2)..} Again.] guess p(l/2. The nets of interest of which are the parametric. Olher types of curves on surfaces include lines of Two constant or equalcurvature and geodesies.directly.1/2.1/2.- at the initial [\320\255\321\200/\320\255\320\270.. a vector \320\263 approximates tangent start the is to iterationatp(l/2. .18) :r: dll.. \320\255\321\200] \320\263 = ds (6. parametric A variablesuf at the point. the incremental (6. a new p.1/2). and parametric the elements = \320\263 from r = p'-p. therefare. Next. _\316\233^ or in (6. Our goal is to become aware of . surface.A good guess of the center parametric is Irl then small. have special properties.1/2. . and netw orks of curveson surfaces. solution. changes parametric variables are -1 [Ali. we appropriatelyincrementeach to determine variables by \316\224\316\257\316\257. procedure CURVE until of \320\255\321\200 (6. but the of this we do not the of know values components point. and continue the we satisfy some convergence criterion Irl <\316\265.

\320\270>) from |o u. point \321\200(\320\275. point invariant. then we find of also properties properlies the of varies of |he We leave isoparametric defining the itself.21) to rj.|ha| is. A net be covariam in to its sustaining patch. An net is a ne| such that at every orthogonal point of |he surface. Furthermore. With a suitably chosen transformationof necessarily always net on the net can be made to coincide with parameters.exceptperhaps on a we consider the more Next. If the parameter w is parameters the curve on fixed while \320\270 the locus of is a w = constant varies. specializedorthogonalnet ofcurves surface. Finally.in structural engineering analysis. Of course. curves. We conclude immediaiely a necessary and sufficient conditionfor the parameiric net on a patch \321\200(\320\275. the that two curves of the net iniersecj at right angles.it can be defined may a way that is invariant under rigid motionin space.w be orthogonal is (6. A these two families of curvestogetherconstitute the curve net.r. this is not However. parametric net a of curves curve on patch p(\302\253.the parametric any specified the proofs here. the two tangents of the curves at the point must be distinct.independen| a that the net are is covariant net.If the parametric of the choice nel |herefore. one-parameter family of curves the roles of that completely covers the patch.certain of systems modeling curves on surfaces we can use when applying problems.w) is two one-parameter families constructed so that each point there passes just oneofeach through family. surface assert the that is. while the other without parametric proof that the only nel invarian-l are iransformations of parameterslhat r = r(u) s r = s = s(u) = (6.w |o s.we interchange = conslant u w and define a one-parameter family of \302\253 and curves. geometryof a surface of parameiric nels. the case. Next.22) p*pH=0 An orlhogonalnet is useful in many analytical for geometric modeling. the simplestand most curve obvious net on to surfaces a patch consistsof those curves on a patch where one is constant. and ther- .\320\275>) the patch. example.20) s(w) and r(w) (6. Thus. that the normal vectorat a we see on a for surfaceis its sense. Although we will not develop net-This allows us to concludethat |he covariani net to a parameiric is independent of the analytical representtion usedand is.By continuing can a we define this process. we can transform any surface. fluid applications of flow. or from u.

(6.Thus. Here we wc denolc the parameiric plane.12is definedin patch. bu| |he |wo familiesare A for the parametric net on a pa|ch|o condition interchangeable.Embedded Curves \342\226\240 161 of the parametricfield of an object's or characters tics can often be made compatible with geometric phenomenon's the orthogonality of the driving and response functions.and including and the interseciion and union boundaries variable curve is necessarilya planecurve. on the curve have vector componentsin the \320\270 w and parameiric poin|s on the represenia- Also in |he |ha| no|c direc|ions. surfaces primitive wilh shapes. necessary be a ne| conjugaie is p\"\".23) EMBEOOEO CURVES surface A vector a two-dimensional space suitable for supportingthe of curves.ft = 6. A net of curves on a surfaceis a conjugatenet when of the |he tangents of |he curves of one family of |he net at points along each fixedcurve olher the form a surface The of two families family developable (seeFigure 6.24) net.7 0 (6. |hc c(l) = u(l) Figure6. and thus facilitate Here modynamics. net do not play symmetrical roles in this definition. This inherent characleristicof |he paramclric lion is an invaluable assel to many aspecls of geometric modeling.w of parameter |o the curve as c(/).Notethai a new introduce formula|ion.11 + w(l) Conjugate u. The curve space of |he distinguish u. |he orihogonality analysis. .11).w irregular the curve surface in Figure 6. The two parametric variablesdefining representtion serve to supply |he coordinale grid on which define we may provides analytic surface the embedded curves.

t parameter Figure 6. We Hermite form as (6.25) c(/)=TM.with the parametriccubicform.t and w.w plane: explicitly. so on. and define c(/) in implicitly. spaces.Bc where T=[P and MFis the component curves are l2 t 1] Hermite basistransformationmatrix.162 \342\226\240 Surfaces we can define this curve in many ways in the u. with Bezier or B-Splineforms.12 Curves on surfaces. .Theparametric sketched in their respective u.

w) a in These coordinatesof obtain points object space. of Cartesian coordinates u.w coordinate denote them k\342\200\236 k\342\200\236. and and Next we compute to the u. system) at the and u.y.\320\270>(/)] points a model-space find We tangent curve..Thisprocess patch that satisfy the curve equation.w) surface y(u. object physical of these Each a collection into regions is reaching praclical limits at abrupt or We establish the boundaries of a region at changes shape. thesediscontinuities. have think analytical by specifying pair the familiar of parametric mapping of the surface onto a .Wc can stalethis as on the = \317\201[\302\253(/). of and then construct the curve coordinates control points model-space the as lie in surface. A different the control only requires approach poinls a of Bezier or B- Wc compute the corresponding be embedded a surface.26) / on it computing c. Every interpreted of two these parameters.w values into the surface equation.w. the magnitude has no particular meaning..w values for successive values of /. wc first compute pairs of u.\342\200\236.y. say. well-behaved in discontinuous in \316\267 rectangle space.However.w) variables triplet as We can \342\200\224 [x(u. with respect plane. itself usual. but this also as a a unique \320\272 and parametric point on a surface has not only coordinates x. Splinc curve to in the curve this via We can of smaller decompose the total surface of a surface regions(seeFigure 6.13).w point determined by c(/) at / and find that p. UMBsM'W. the tangentvectorto the curve at u(t). We substitute \342\200\224 to these u. We may segment is then where often the total surface is itself tractable. region mathematically not. p(u. points sequence oix.z.w(i) in the u.Wc z(u.\342\200\236 by first We I 'Pun1 It is the of p.w)].w) coordinates. |he will only approximately do not require transThe advantageof is thai poini evaluations approach formalionfrom parameterspacetomodelspace the surface equation. embedded in vector p/ to the patch the curve at any point (6.'. In general. parameter form defined a surfacein parametric the and between coordinates relationships model-Space Earlier wc w : p(u.z selectsonly those points on the arc necessarily on the patch.w the direction determine cosines of this vector (that is. p. direction that interests 'Piiii'1 us.Embedded > Curves 163 the coordinates of points on this curve To determine in model space. the curves where regions join do not the isoparametric the curves of the individual patchescomprising coincide with the total surface ofa modelin this way so that each surface. We map each region and its boundary curves onto a unit square or m x characterized by conlours.

l] w. Figure intersections established by themselves contain b2. surface parametric geomerry Disk coordinate u.164 \342\226\240 Surfaces T/ansii ion geomeuy Cylinder > J^) \320\241 6.we compute . of poinis Thus. curves of a surface are frequently boundary the objects. and and we express map surface R are may or may nol ihese regions. on |he in boundary patch. The resuliing irregular boundaries is called called inmmed-paich boundary a trimmed elements.28) /e[0. The curves For an elegant themselves are entry into |his sub- .y.14.(0] After we computethe interseclions as sets of u.where as parametric equations of the form model ihem two of |he boundariesof a we sec that with surfaces and 5\316\212 b. established of |he they may not correspond to the limits of the domain variables.w coordinale points plane from u. |he by parametric the underlying intcni.w points.(t) and We then the into the values substilute otu. boundary curvesas b] tbem onto the unit square of R in parameter space. patch.13 Figure uni| square the in equaiionsof mentioned As For irregular. In 6. we apply curve.w surface the of a Decomposition Tiansiiion are in a real object's surface always equalsor exceeds are we that a one-to-one subset modeling. where we derived the parametric boundary conditions or control points. = S2. The correspondence wilh points on the surface.(/). plane.z points on the curve . approprialesurface equasurface wilh these tion to obtain x. by Usually real parametric surface region |he objeci's curves may be necessaryto delimit cxteni points in this subset complex shape. certain from above. which We denole surface k(0 (6.w \342\204\226. To the boundary curve in to these curves obtain define filling techniques on the \320\270 model space.

references and include Miller (1986). We need to decide if a given poini on |he unii lies wilhin a may square bounded region. and Casale. the region in We then a point q thai we know to lie in other given any point p.Shantz Chang (1988). If it does not intersect in an active region. Then. This is called A somewhat bruie-force point classification. an lies in the u. Bobrow. Farin (1993a). we caneasily test whether is to specify as follows. ject way to do this region.and Underwood Other (1992).Embedded \342\226\240 165 Curves see Casale (1987). If the line intersectsany Figure 6.14 Surfacewith irregular \317\201 -q line bounded |his or not it with makes plane. and Farouki and Hinds (1985). each of any of these curves.w odd number is \317\201 of . We construct the straight line compute the numberof intersectionsthis the boundary curvesb(.then boundary boundary.

the an . of an intersection the half-spaces.15).16we see 6. and known interior point q. active \317\207 \316\267 rectangular the paramelric pJane u. inlo R = \320\244(5.1S jrreguJar intersection surface defined by of half-spaces..29) patches normalized of parametric array a the active candidate point against Figure 6. on. slated inlo earlier that a collection Figure to way appropriate test each we merely functions object a on a curves paramelric as functions of a parameier t. is region.166 \342\226\240 Surfaces then times. b.In Figure6. Figure 6.w. q is a point on the parametricplane u(t) An allernative. region is to specify and perhaps more elegant. More (see half-spaces are indicate set of two-dimensional found in the references listed we can decompose the total surfaceof any physical of smaller surface regions. the implicit the defining sophisticatedpoint-classification Using this approach. the regi ouiside lies \317\201 All even intersections bring Ihe back \317\201 of |his. the region.\320\254\342\200\236\320\247) S is Here.14 shows severalexamples a R as a function of Ihe One to is region way symbolically represeni parametric surface S onlo curves which il is mapped. of set methods previously. We (6. unit an m in square mapped that is. the boundary b. on|o the same planeand expressed = \320\270 the and w inside w(i).

Curves Embedded Figure 6. There are six parametric surfaces. extrusion easily parametric that decompose has been it into slotted and truncated of smaller a collection by in a variety of six regions. Sj wraps around and defines the extrusion'slongitudinal surface the (before entire cuts cross section and slots are .16 Surfaceof an objectdefined regions. yet we trimmed surface. modelingeachwith > 167 a ways.

S6 is also a plane.168 \342\226\240 Surfaces that one end defines S2 is a plane surface normal to 5\316\212 completely surface of the a extrusion. All bring the intersections pv. to form plane surface that takes a nick out of a slot in the extrusion.5. for poim we define a point the is obviously an odd surface bounding even then volume.. object's counting intersections that of the surfaceregions. of the shows these and bounding points region curve. is a plane normal to 5.16 in on surfaces the unit boundaries onto their square respective parametric mapped made).q6.This the condition of between point being a and with p\342\200\236 q\342\200\236 this results. We Each surfaceis a unique in \317\207 array the surface each R a surface with establish by intersecting adjacent region on \342\226\240 we surfaces. lies exactly on the surface of the objectby each region. \316\267 of parametric surface patches. any classify) outside. we intersections. which we us to allows to be know test (or of inside the the straight p.) Figure 6. enclosed volumeof other We can do this easy to determine testing the distance determine by connecting occur the test object. or inside line. is closed 53 cylindrical intersecting S. It is .w plane. If the line intersectsthe number of times. but it takes an angular cut through S^. the u. total surface. We define the interiors by six points qi. an 54 is open cylindrical the bottom flange. (Alternatively.. thenit liesoutsidethe object. that establishes one facet of the near-endplane. By Ihe if a point of pv from point backinto the interiorof the object.on. To complete the definition q. If there line and each are no inside the object. could use an expression defining the intersectingtwo-dimensional halfof traversal or we could use the right-left re/ationshipto Ihedirection spaces.

four of which are also sufficient. Four coiner points.Thereasonfor both parametricvariablesare cubic terms the if 169 .\302\273) \316\243 \316\243\342\226\240</\"'\302\273' = () j = U \316\271 (7\320\233) where \302\273. and subdividing a interior.generating the polynomial.A large complex surface can be defined by a composite collectionofsimpler while patches. patch proceedin much the same way as for curves. of 7. truncating. form. preserving certain levels of continuity. because (7. Sixteen points. together wilh two vectors and a geometric tangent vector at each of these points.\302\273\316\265[0.1 the ALGEBRAIC AND The algebraic GEOMETRIC FORMS form of a bicubicHermite patchis given 3 by the tensor product 3 = \317\201(\". Reparamctcrizing.HERMITE BICUBIC THE SURFACE of cubic families Two Hermite curves forming a parametric net are the basis bicubic Hermite surface.1] The term a(J vectors bicubic are the algebraic is obvious.2) coefficients of the patch. A simple tensor productproducesthe 16term to which boundary conditions are applied. are the necessaryand twist sufficient the bicubic are conditions defining Hermite patch.

>v) and expressions In matrix notation the + a3Uu3w + uvxifw2 form algebraic p(u. is = UAWT (7. Since are three-component vectors. correspond to the normalindexingconvention the a elements is matrices. (7.1)and produces a result similarto Equation - p(u. Patchesof the same . Equation for not.5) where \320\2702\320\2701] U=[i? w2 W=[h\"3 w a33 a32 a23 a22 a13 a12 all a2i 1] a2J a10 \320\260\320\264\320\260 \320\260<\320\270 \320\260\320\271 \320\260\320\256_ of the elements in U and W.2) a^w2 + a]3i(w3 + + + a^icV + a^ii2iv2 a^irw3 in descending order curves: for + \320\260\320\267\320\267^\320\275\"3 + a.w) = <733lu3w3 similar with for_y(u. Thus.170 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic w and that as with Hermite curves. Ihe parametricvariables\320\270 0 to I inclusive. and position in space.w). We wi II discuss us method to describe allows irregular boundarieslater.w) + - + \321\217\320\250\320\264. in this instance. the subscripts to those in They correspond (7.y polynomials. or 48 degreesof freedom.Thetensorproduct 0. 16-term This polynomial and it is vector each is component x(u.3). terms + + \320\2603\320\276\320\2702 + a^u2 a2\\U2w anuw2 + atiuw (7. patch.This makes the restricted lo values in the interval and the use of this restriction patch bounded in a regular way. Notice a53 \316\246 are usually a rectangular patchas a product Expanding Equation (7.3) + a]0i( + + a02w* + \320\260\342\204\226 \320\257\321\211\321\213 \320\260\320\276\320\267\320\270^ on the and w defines the set of all points lying in \320\270 the form of the bicubic Hermite patch. Ihe A matrix of Because vector elements actually a4x4x As we Hermite patch Ihe order of the A matrix in the do 3 array found with determine the Hermite its shape the algebraic coefficients of a curves. expanded algebraic has 3 independent Because each of the 16 vector coefficients \320\260.\321\203 components.w) the curve-defining of the arranging (3.4) z(u. there is a total of 48 algebraiccoefficients.

y. Although the u. u.z occurs An infinite number of of also in the coordinates. A patch consists of an infinite number of points given by their x. components corresponding each its parameter space. space.y. model space from its . and \316\266 because the range of the algebraic coefficientsis not restricted.w values pair size and shape is by Equation (7. the range of the variablesx. space in parameter space.2). Change any positions a point on the patch each time we insert a different patch.We generate of u. pair of u.5).1 shows Parametric Figure 7.w values specific are into Equation (7.w values pairs restricted not restricted.1 spaces A bicubic Hermite patch mapped into componenls in parameter space.Algebraic and Geometric Forms \342\226\240 171 have a different set of coefficients if they different occupy in one of the and the 48 result is a coefficients.w valuesis associatedwith a from bicubic Figure patch mappedintomodel point. A unique 7.

0) a useful convention for the elementsof a patch. and they do not contributeto way to define and controlthe shape our understanding we must turn to the geoof surface behavior. algebraic coefficientsare not the most convenient of a patch. Therefore. we have almost scheme defining Ihe boundary surface 7. be obvious. example.2 shows \321\200(\302\253.p(0. This. curves are denoied a| |he limit values each boundary curve is a as: p(i(.and p(u. direction of the the freedom to course.0). . points Ihe subscripting andp(l.0).172 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic A bicubic patch is bounded by cubicHermile These curve.w).6) is the expression for a cubicHermile curve. (7. 1)..0\302\2533+ curve is indeed a cubic p(u.0). because arise Ihey \321\200(1. 1).\320\2700. we saw Figure 7.\317\201.w parameterization external modeling constraints (for any the aside And. and is by appropriately curves Another way of denoting the boundary use should we vector their Thus. for curves..\317\201. p(0. There are also four corner unique p(0. The subscriptindicatesw Equation = 0. p(l. p(O. us investigate terms containing w a boundary that the curve vanish.pio.2 Elements of a bicubic Hermite patch.w) It is Hermile so all must be normals).l). and p(ii. pi \342\200\236. interpretation p.0) = a.0).orpoo. a simple exerc/seto show curve. be must opposite p(l. may \321\200\320\262\320\270.\316\277. Figure Hermile bicubic from the parameterization assign opposite of does not change the u.3) becomes + + ai0u \321\217\320\266\320\2702 a\342\204\226 (7.w) on the patch.I).poi.. Let complete Of curves. p(u.and of |he parametric variables.\316\271. As of course.pii- Reversing sequence shape of a surface. four curves.

W) 48 points. the e'ghl and pointspoo. one at each of the the twist vectors-as follows: express so-called the we Mathematically. + 6\320\26073 + 4\320\26022 \320\270 \317\201\316\220\317\212\" .\320\270\320\236 \320\240[\321\20010 p\342\200\236 curves These geometric use coefficients.we obtain pBo=\"u =3\320\26031+2\320\26021 \316\241\317\212\316\277 + \320\260\320\270 = + 2\321\21712 + \320\257\321\206 \320\227\321\2171\321\217 \317\201\316\232\317\212' = 9\320\260 + 2\320\260\320\263.3 + 2\320\260.w) the indicated u. + 6\320\26032 + \320\227\320\260-.0)\320\240[\321\200\320\276\320\276 \317\20110 \317\201\317\213\316\277\316\277 p(\302\253. They.w values. \317\201\316\212\316\212.10) \316\241\316\271'. .\321\200\320\271\320\276.pn = (7. \317\201\317\200. metric lain the geomeiric form from a relationshipbetweencerthe and |he algebraic form.w) = = Pm F[poi pn F[pfl0 p& \321\200\320\270 \317\201\317\212\316\271\316\223 (7-8) \316\241\316\260. ?pb^ an aw Calculating the mixedpartial derivative at of -u the = l.w =0 1>w = function 1 p(u. 12 of provide the 16 vectorsneededto specify are needed.and Four additional vectors twist vectors.\316\223 (7-9) = pTb \321\200(1.\321\200\302\245\320\276.pio.\321\20 the boundary curves define of course.3)we lit: \320\2552\321\200(\302\273.. from Equation (7.7) \321\200\320\223\320\276\320\223 \321\200(\320\270.w ^ ^ an aw \320\2401'*\320\243 \316\261\316\271\316\271 aw result comer four the for these we will at poo the evaluating (7.poi.\342\200\236.We will use |he four paich We derive conditions boundary used approach corner \342\226\240 173 tangenl vectors\321\200\320\271\320\276.Forms Algebraicand Geometric form. + \320\227\320\260.\320\263 + \320\260. \320\2552\321\200(\321\206.l) p(0. -.w = l -i^uiaa aw Pl1~ aI u -=^ul -= -. in keeping with for the cubic Hermile curves.\316\223 1 1 and obtain 1 Sit aw + 4\320\26022\320\274\320\270> + 2a2iii +6\320\2602\320\267\302\253\320\275'2 +3a13w2 When we evaluate this equation at the + 2a12w + an comer points. \342\200\236-\320\277\321\213-\320\277 \320\270 -U. w) - at u = % 01 \320\240\320\232\320\237 at a=0.

-) must find the at such as \321\200(\302\253..w).w. we now do the samefor evaluaie Equaiion(7-3). p(0.. proceed and computing \317\201(\316\237. we express along p\"(l.we obtain + a00 + aI0 + a02 \320\260\320\250 |he wi|h when we 12 veciors..\316\271\316\275.w. tangent vectors pu(u.>v) must change same w.Oneset containsthe constant values by and and an infinite number of intermediate \317\201(\316\257\316\257.-).iv) p(l. and w. + + % 2\320\260\320\264\320\260 in Figure sets orthogonal mutually 7. w = 1. for the generalcase.174 > The Bicubic Her mite Surface Having gone this Ear poo = aoo plO = a30 + a2() p01 = + a01 + the aM + \320\26032 + \320\260.. of the parametric variables u.w) as and but vectors tangent (dldw)(puln).\320\270>.)curvesoverlays are to define the but how do we define sufficient curves.10) boundary They are the in intermediate these We curves. Equations (7. forming p(w.Thus. The \320\255\321\200\321\206(0>) \320\2552\321\200(0.\342\204\226) 3iv \320\264\320\270 dw = \317\201\317\213\316\231\"(0. 0 lo equal.2 + 28(2 + aoi + 2a21 + 3\320\260\320\271+ + \320\260\321\215\320\270 =3\320\260\320\267\321\215 \320\227\320\26031 +2a2J +2a22 \321\200\320\275 = 3aH \321\200\320\271 use + 2a3: + as1+ 3a\342\200\236 + 2a22 A geometric of iriterpre|a|ion |he faci jhaj a bicubic paich + a21 + |he + 3a13+ 2aJ2 consisisof |wo + a]2 +au + \320\260\320\270 + 3ao3 is shown veciors Iwisl 2a2(l + +\320\260\321\210 \320\260.)? First.. (3/3w)(pjj\342\200\236.)V. oiher an + a. as follows. similar sweeping boundary an orthogonal net.3. (7. Mathematically.9) and (7..)v. through thing happens to curve p(l.poo as w the this from changes tangent change vectors in the and To \321\200\"(1.<*0 (71\316\240 .w) a A set of across surface from one to the other. we find the endpointsof p(i(. from Equations (7. by Next.) w are not \321\200\320\271] and w = \342\226\240=.\320\275\". do this. + + aw + aM \316\206\316\262 + aWl = a io poo poo = % = + 2\320\2602\342\200\236+\320\26010 \320\227\320\260\320\266 \321\200\"\320\276 pU) = aS] poi =ai3+ poi =3803 + a21 + + \320\257(|] \320\260\320\230 + \320\260\320\270 + \320\260]\320\241 \320\260.Thus.) that.) w = w.\316\227') curves.1 + aM =\320\260\320\2643 pi \316\271 + aLi + jwist vectors. Wc of cubic curves defined curves\342\200\224orthogonal parameter space.10).) p(l. we we observe pu(0. + + an + a12+ a21 + am a.7) to these.

\342\226\240 175 \302\273J 1 of Iwist vectors.'.w). example.1.w) = WMji[p\"w Equation(7. similarly \320\255\321\200\320\274(1. a curve for along by using (7.)U p. p& \321\200\320\271\320\223 We use an identical form to determine an intermediate tangent point on and orthogonally crossinga curve boundary: p\"(0. we specifypoints can intermediate specify tangent vectors along a boundary curve by the two end tangent We find points vector values and correspondingtwist vectors.14)describescurve a by the arrowhead endpoints of the p'd. pSl' pKT (7. these terms are p^...13) vector at (7.and Algebraic Geometric I 1 0 Figure and 7. \317\201'^\".9) boundary p(0. \317\201'\316\257\"'.14) that we might visualize as being formed intermediate tangent vectorsas w varies .\342\204\226) dw \320\264\320\270 dw 12\\ /\316\267 of the the twist vectors corners. \317\201'.\342\204\226) \320\2552\321\200(1.Just as we on a cubic Hermite curve by twoendpoints and tangentvectors.3 Geometric interpretation Forms \302\253'. Equation At a the patch p(0. There is an analogy between the way we a curve and the way we handle to find the intermediate usethe twist vectors tangent vectors. set of boundary conditionswe saw earlier.vv) = WMi-[p.

w). their the Column I: J- Column 4. matrix. p\"'(0. The parametric componentsof the curve w = 1 and iis associaied auxiliary curve are shown in Figure boundary 7. who Meriwelher. form of the bicubic Hermite patch. Note that theordinates are labeled p(l. or y.w) Row 2: p(l -> poo some that them assembling poi the in turn. We cannot point |o generalmathematical themon any physical model of a surface.u).We begin by filling the first two rows with of curves p(0. I geometric coefficients of these coefficients of curves are already entered.w) We summarize Next. an veclors. Now. the order point Anolher mixedpartial not is derivalive means This properly important. the x. to see and an N ow we begin selecting analyzing appropriate |he Because of patch in terms of Hermite define the boundary patch necessary in curves geometric conditions. \317\201'\317\207\316\220.noting form.0) and p(w.p\"\" = \321\200\320\270\". and These curves an are abstract property of the pu(l. is lhal vectors dislinguishthe u.176 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic Ihis interpretation.0) \316\241\316\277\317\205 poi poo 2: p(i(.w) and p(l.\316\257\316\257). these of \316\266 components interesting mathematical property of twist bicubicpatch. conditions permil a complele and unambiguous boundary a bicubic definition curves. That on the is.w \320\270 and that and no experimenton a physical are completely interchangeable of a bicubic patch can lion at any we take the in which w manifesta- order.w).l) poi pin \321\200\320\270 \321\200\320\242\320\276 \321\200\320\270 poo poi \316\241\317\212\316\271 \316\241\316\257\316\277 We have 12 of the 16 vectors enteredinto the auxiliary curvesto finish filling the matrix. in a 4x 4 coefficients geometric \321\200\320\274 \321\200\321\202\320\276 .3. we fill the Row 1: p(0. we must use the .tv)-\302\273 \317\2011\316\271\316\274 \321\200\320\270 \321\200?0 \321\200\320\270 first two columns with p(u. calls proposed are four auxiliary auxiliary curves:p\"(0.l). that there Note curve. these patch-definingcurvesby matrix. patch as an orthogonal net of cubicHermite of a patch we can investigate by any interior point or geometricproperty the setofcurves. p(w. They.w) and \321\200'\320\246 denoting expediently along the this unit interval.

. observe thai we the four points. we determine the geometric the. Finally.w). can a point evaluate on the w.while veciors langenl respeel the to \320\270 are in lower left.. \321\200(\320\270.lJ. coefficients malrix. First.The vector repeals subscripts in a regular of geometric coefficients. the geometryof this u. Here say.w values. coefficients p(u..4 point p(u\342\200\236wj).and Geometric Algebraic -> p(0. the intersection reduced the coordinates of the point Figure 7.we this matrix patch at a specificpair of situation.0). the lower right quadrant or cross-derivatives vector at the corner points. and w. pSo p'\"(\302\273-l) \321\200>. p\"(0>) ! p(u.ii') and \317\201(\316\271\316\271. so we arbitrarily variable. problem to finding a point on a curve at a given value of a parametric with choose to begin can work with either curve. a .0) pft. Determining on a bicubic the coordinates of Hermite patch. The upper righi with tow at the corner points.l) 4^ 4- \316\271 JI J^ p\342\204\226 poi : poi \342\200\224> __Pi\302\253l Pii_ -> pfi.With p(Ui.4 illustrates that the point of interest liesat is easily of the curves This p(w. Figure 7. we can easilyexlracithe curves and the When we partition the malrix into quadrants. we see way.\\\316\275}).w).7 \317\201\317\212\316\271 \320\240\"(1\320\273\302\2730 \317\201\317\212\316\277 jpft from this complcled of the four boundary Conversely.w) P_(_l_. the four corner vectors in the upper left define quadrant the contains with those contains pattern of Using respeel the these twist Forms \342\226\240 177 four geometric auxiliary curves.0) p(u.p\"'(\"\342\200\2360).l). We of this curve.. p'Vj.se can then determine and we coefficients. Pw______P_n____ \321\200\320\271\320\223 jpSS' -> p'.

We variables parametric the function drop /\320\247\320\270.. and simplifying that and are and to and row [notice F.. follows: + Ft(u.l).18)as substituting and at this do + ^(\"\316\237\316\241'\316\257\316\277 (7\302\2671?) /\320\234'\320\236\320\240\320\231' (7..w) Now w and w are F(u)BF(\302\273>)T (7-21) basis-function the function notation and use the Hermite = UMF.\316\237)..(udpw + ^(\"Opi\" + \320\240\321\212\320\253\321\200\320\252\320\260 \316\233(<\316\233)\317\201\317\212\302\273 We compute We using p(w.-)pSi F2(ut)pu an using p\"(uh0) compute Fi(\302\253.15) p(w.18) /\316\257\316\234\316\241\316\277\316\212+ ^(\"\316\237\317\201\317\212\316\212 ^(\"\316\237\317\201\317\212\317\212' + /^HfiOOPoi We could ft(\"i)pi\302\273 we have p(u/.l): p(\".0)using curve \317\201(\316\272.\316\237): + (7. but we can to read equation \321\200(\302\253.)\321\200\320\255\320\224 + ^(wOP'aJ + can certainly yet + F4(\302\253.>Vj) as the (7.Wj) (7.(w) arrays F(w) F(w) F(w) Fi{u) F(u) Denoting vectors] produces p(u.)p40] + F3(u. and because Because it is also true that \320\251\320\270) and interchangeable parametric variables.l) compute = p(w\342\200\236l) We + + F3(w. the + Equation ftW^uJpui + b(u.another p\"(w\342\200\236l)using pu'(ii\342\200\236l) + + Fa(ut)pb will by dropping notation. abbreviate curve: auxiliary the geometric coefficientsof the curve from Equations (7.\320\270>).)\321\200\"\302\253 we Finally.it is also symmetrical we eliminate transformation = matrix. it evaluate working curve.19) initial be reduced to matrixform.178 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic p(\". compute = that Now at W/.-)pii> \317\201\"\302\267(\"\342\200\2360) ^(\320\270.)pM auxiliary \317\201'\316\247\316\257\316\257.15) to (7.)V% + /^^(\"^pKi + (7.)p\302\25301 + the the same time generalize We + /^(\"Opoo + /M'OpH obtain the sameresultby the subscripts. \316\241\316\252\316\271 P& \316\277\316\271 \316\241 P&i \321\200\320\271\321\201\320\242 \316\241\316\277\316\220 \321\200\320\223\302\273 (7.20) Pfo \321\205^\320\230 F2(w) F3(w) \316\272 Pffi' \316\241 \317\201\316\220\316\257 F4(w)]T the the 4x4 matrix of geometriccoefficients as B.o Fiiw^F^ypa.)pnJ /\320\234\"0\320\240\320\270 ^(w/Jpff using we \321\200(\302\253.*\320\253\320\257(\302\253) F2(u) Fa(u)] Fi(u) poo poi pio \320\240\320\270 \316\241\316\252\316\212.0) F. . = + F2(\302\253.16) curve: p\"'(u. = + + /s(^)p.19) cannot + ^(\"iJpBo+ curve p(u.

-BM\302\243 (7.23) and = \320\222 7.7) Equation and the twist vector: F.21).w) = Remember the tangent We can UM\302\243BM\302\243rWr that Mj? (and MJ?')is the Hermitebasistransformation vector at a point on a cubic Hermite curve.\320\233\342\204\242(\/>(\")") / =0 (7\302\26726) .Functions Basis Patch Hermite = WMf. the same tangent-vectorbasis patches and obtain the same form and two tangent principal p\"(u.12).2 AM/ M^ (7.we have F(w)T = the substitution into Equation(7.w) p\302\273(u.25) matrix for as n \320\245\320\254.'W''' (7. F(w) p(H.w) = VMPBM\302\243TXVT p\"\"(u. functions Hermite patch have the basis functions for the cubic bicubic the two see We independent parametric this in Equation (7.'(u)BF(w)T F(u)BFw(w)T puw(u.in the it.w) = Fu(u)BF\302\273'(w)T or = VMfBMf\\VT p\"(u.24) HERMITE PATCH BASIS FUNCTIONS The basis serve same for functions the Because the basis preceding development We apply as the purpose has patch twice.\302\273v) \342\226\240 179 the we can relationship convert from formulas: following A = see M. variables.w) functions vectors of to (3. between the algebraic and geometricformsand see that one form to the other with With MfW. we use the and.we derive appropriate form of a bicubic patch using matrix notation geometric true that the conventional = UMfBM/.w)= = pw(u. From matrix algebra.22) we By comparing Equation (7.21) Hermitecurve. of course. the form use a tensor product to express geometric in \320\240(\320\270^) =\316\243 /=0 (7.22)to Equation (3.

magnitudes: \320\222 directions wc Earlier.olff \321\202\321\202\321\207\321\216 \"\316\220\316\261. multipliersof the twist vectors does not curves that by a change change changing to any the of the any of the four scalar boundary .T now add a superscript u. partial twist vectors and tangent for curves. of a shape patch.To Changing the tangent and twist we of manipulating vectors.27) (7. of The m \316\267 are because have their limits.w)= The twist derivatives.\317\212\316\277\316\244 >\"jji'. The is the vector \320\255\321\200(\302\273.(u).28) dudw curves. on and we must take care in how wc interpret the Ftn. because the appropriate = dp(M. \317\210we shifted consequences F/t\342\200\236(w). are vectors tangent must deal with the for used we system variables instead of just the independent that we expressions developed notation the significance of the parametric derivatives basis functions are similar to these same patch curve.180 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic in This is analogous to the algebraicform expressed Equation Again. (7. subscripts \320\252\321\206. scalars. We can think p](i &ii]ifii &1\320\256\320\234\320\256 Pll] Ajtfi ^loi'ii) Pn 'oot'ii ^01*0] 'JO1]!) /\342\226\240\320\233 m. not 7. The difference is that the bicubic Hermite understanding Hermite bicubic the one or more of the boundary we notice However.w) (7. We change set r we must that on review these procedures. these in vectors terms of unit vectors by expressing did piw Notice v use these vectorsto changethe We can for partial derivative mixed r vector Let us briefly one the partial derivatives p\"(H. or uw there are two independent variablesand of to the unit two distinct tangent patch. by investigate recompose and scalar the effect the \320\222 matrix i. explained TANGENT AND TWISTVECTORS and Computing of processes functions are cubic the in in two expressed This means curves. and extended the taking the same of the with patch as being the curves in the net changes the patch.3 here. w.\320\270\321\200 and approachhere defined a curve we that net.1).

only C1 continuity is possibleacrossthe Ferguson. curves and still change the the a twist change on the the fix interior shape vector in magnitudes (see Figure the twist vector at \321\200\321\206. . where patch highlightsthe effectof boundary curves this comer four the Twist Vectors points \342\226\240 181 and boundary operations on indicatesthe result of 7. boundaries of because these patches are constrainedto have adjacent /-\"-patches. developer. arc zero at their corners.The figure of a patch through The \317\201'. However. vectors equal to zeroiscalledan /-\"-patch. and they are adequate The of geometric situations. changes The when of twist vectors dashed curves boundary on the on the conditions interior of a bicubic how it patch show change. curve Wc note net that are unaffected. change on dashed the interior.5). for many geometric-modeling modify F-patches.'5''-\302\273 (\317\201\317\2127)'.S The effect Hermitepatch. This We can is interesting. after its Here.and Tangent curves. This can lead to surfaces that not cross-derivatives and smooth for some it is to construct easy enough applications. matrix coefficients then becomes A patch with all twist Figure7.

silhouette curves.w) on a requires a vector that is perpendicular to it. and in most direction is required.w) patch.one that for the bicubic form.At any point p(u.30).and shading Computing effects information about surface normals. This the area of several way to write Equation (7-30).the normals and this to be a we see later that useful will patch.w). Here we component \321\203 [(y\"zw offi is - \320\243\" zw] Z\"]x[*\"' y\"z\") {z\"xw - x\"z\") (x\"yv y\"x\] takes .4 \342\226\240 The Hermlte Bicubic Surface PO! PTi poci pui \321\200\321\202\320\276 pio Pu p'io pSo pSi Pto \317\213 \316\241\317\212\316\271 0 (7.6. is algorithms convenient existing = = \317\207 thumb as defined by Equation sign when summing algebraic k\342\200\236n [x\" The see that if the fingers direction of ascending curve or points in the direction of the in the normal surface a consistent convention gives patch the then numbering. for convention A curves boundary assigning identifying subject of Figure is the of the right hand curlaround the corner-point positive or outward surface patches.Forexample.w) = \317\201\" where k\342\200\236 \317\201\"'. hidden surfaces. interpretn((i.w).\316\227').we can construct This is the unit normal vector which is a function of the tangent ii(u. bicubic Hermite patch. proves very it is interpretation. shadows.29) 0 0 NORMALS in geometric modeling. The out a It turns that we can itselfas \316\277\316\257\316\256(\316\257\316\257.182 7. numbers to the corner points and 7.it normal is applications common for the normal to point outward from the surface of a solid practice model. A more advantage of (7. and at The vectors the unit normalis given by p\" p\" point p(u. \316\231\317\201\" order in which the vector productis taken determines direction the pH1. The is almost normal unit indispensable a consistent (730) \342\200\242(\"\342\226\240\"^fcti = \317\207 \317\207 often convenient to express this as k\342\200\236n(u.

w [0 1].32) where \320\237 : \320\237 \320\262\342\200\236 \320\270. so point on the surfacewith in w and is \320\270> and surface is well behaved(not on).. and ht. determines We have components of already derived f\\x. expensive relatively and to without normal is a \302\253. compute. ft?\" three remaining matrix algebra is B\342\200\236. we make = of Equations UMfBMfWr p\"(u. B\342\200\236 \320\273\342\200\236 B\342\200\236 Nil \316\256'\316\257\\\316\256 \320\257.M^Wr)(UM^B.w) becomes = A(Mlw) UMfBnMjW7' (7. them gained by presenting evaluating each of the e : at that at is. Nonetheless. resulting expressions u.This at any polynomial biquintic if the However. by appropriate but rather lengthy expressions. so that n(u. (1. (1.w) y\".. ny. self-intersecting..1).w) (7. y\"\\ and UM?BM?Wr to a vector Normal 7. their matrix form.MiWr)] and undulations.0). The .31) - and similarly fori).6 Figure x \317\201\"\". and find terms patch. approximate the (UM/B>. (0. We differentiation find the of nx. z\" in and that fis - \342\200\224[(UM\302\243B.\342\226\240 183 Normals Ip\" To rewriteeachof the use of = p\"(u. Nothing is tedious.26). we can instead a bicubic expression. (0.M'fW') Wr)(UMf (7.Mf B.0). straightforward producing here.1). z\"'.

Similar elements of remaining 7. + a3:(0)3(0): + .w by assuming points. Remember.We can generate the 16 points. .S Surface Hermite Bicubic for matrices and B\342\200\236.w. specify we and the 48 conditions satisfies However.184 \342\226\240 The the 16 elements of B\342\200\236x.w values for points other than the corner to a of values between 0 and l. There are severalways to do this: by estimating the u.values in Figure 7-7. FORM SIXTEEN-POINT possible to provide the tangent and a Hermitepatch.U) = a33(0)3(O)3 of p(~A Figure = *J\\](PY 7.w) = UAWr form produces Expandingthe algebraic It is twist not always easy.or ratio line lengths get segment points using values at the one-third u.\320\270>) This for is. we bicubic required this we must now another way of representing patch. Let us use the u:. Thus. develop A 4 \317\207 4 grid of 16 48 degrees of freedom or algebraiccoefficients.7 + \"J Sixteen-point + \\)\\\316\270\316\263 form of Hermitepatch.+ aOT a bicubic . Equation (7.Therefore. points supplies must also choosevalues for w and w at these points. one course. of each + aM + \342\226\240\320\260\320\267\320\263\320\2703\320\270>2 16 of these equations.3). even to define values vector = + aHii3w3 \321\200(\320\270. or practical.+ a^ p(0. will determine B\342\200\236\342\200\236 the B\342\200\236. (see Figure 7-7). of the patch p(u.

Form Sixteen-Point * 185 (7. and coefficients algebraic is a 16 x 1 vector of the given data that the solution to p(w. \316\225 a is is a 16 x 16 matrix of uw products.\316\277) >\320\232) Performing form.w)=UNFPNiWr We replace the by a \320\222 matrix P= matrix P.35) p((i.1) W (7.36) 4\302\273) \317\201(\316\2314) p(ll) HI\302\2671) \317\201\316\237.. a 16 x 1 vector of the unknown of the A matrix.\320\270'.Notice this equation involves three A matrices\342\200\224one for each of the coordinates x. as the indicated \320\240\320\236\320\224) >(\302\267!) algebra.. where \317\201(\317\213.f) >(H p(if) \321\200\320\271) \320\240(0.33) \321\200|\320\235)=\320\247\320\267)\320\250+'\320\271(1)(\321\202|+-+\"\321\216 = \321\200(1. Furthermore. Next.w) the 16-point solutionfor we investigate = UMFBMiWr the geometric (7.1) In matrix form. result The y. rewritingp(u.) points. we find Nf to be .)=\321\217 is a system of simultaneouslinear equationswhose unknowns are the elements of a. and z.34) \320\225_1\321\200(\320\270(-.\316\237) \321\200(\321\207) P(o.w.Wy)=E> or (7. this set \320\26033(1)3(1)5 + \320\260\320\267:(1)3(1)2+- + \320\260 (\302\253\316\271 of equations becomes p(lt.

patch independently.still.39) U 2 also encounteredearlier. is neither guaranteednor likely For these ilaws many modeling applications.they motivate 7. so on). With parametrically 2 9 This 9 2 9 2 27 while investigating form.6 REPARAMETERIZATION The reparameterization curve. approach.37) 9 0 is. deciding points. requiring problem. For example. wben using this approach analytically and known surfaces (spherical. is better for the surfacecharacteristics remain that make its use somewhat in representing tedious.= 11 2 1 The uniformly speaking. The simplestform OF A PATCH of a patch proceedsin of repaTameterization much is a the same way as reversal of the for a direction . are unimportant.38) where 1 0 L = M^NF = 11 2 -I which we This fitting \317\213 0 0 0 0 1 Q 9 2 1 9 -9 2 (7. the same matrixwe the four-point form for curves.. of course. us to make further improvements.a significant deviation on a arises because of nonuniformspacingof the input Also. \320\222 and \316\241 matrices are related 18 1 2 0 0 earlier encountered the (7. ihc input 16-point distributed over the as follows: data \316\241 are. patch. but certain only point data for input. = LPL7 \320\222 (7.parabolicsheets.186 \342\226\240 The Hermite Bicubic Surface 27 2 45 2 9 2 9 N. patch distribution over a compositesurface requires si fit across nee each is the boundaries continuity Finally. considerable care.

.Reparameterizationofa Patch \342\226\240 187 of the parametric variablesw and w. the three shows the initial parameterization of a patch and possible because this is the only reversals. Again as with curves. we reversethe parametricvariable that all of constant curves To do this. matrix. matrix of geometric coefficients of one or both can do this where PlX) pin \321\200\320\270\320\263. PTi (740) \316\271 Pci pSo \317\201\317\213\316\277 \320\240\320\2311 Pi'c \316\241\316\257\316\277\" \316\241\317\212\316\271 Pn First. The for the initial reversals will be B.8b.B The their change in Figure direction of 7. We will confine our attention to the \320\222 matrix. Pill pin \342\200\224 \320\222 Pll Ph. Next. patch. . rows I and 2 of the B| effect of reparameterizationon the patch normal. wc and it docs not change the shape of the 7-8 Figure easily. matrix whose elementschange. we these each coefficient in rows by -1. first we interchange rows Figure w 4 and 7. This as means parameterization. multiply interchange simply 3 and will u.

9b patch. or We reverse either \320\270 w first.We let Bj denote the matrix range from r. reparairieterization.= qKT = \342\200\224 \316\24111 =\321\200\320\271 (741) -\317\201\317\212\317\212 4\302\267\316\2574=-\317\201\317\212\316\223 qu' = -pil!'J -p3Sr coefficients of the auxiliary curvesare normals -1. we obtain we interchange 4. B2. we obtain B4: Again.Poo = \320\263<\321\216 Jm \316\241\316\277\316\271 - ~ ~pw 'i\302\273 _\320\240\320\276) \317\204\316\277\316\271 = \342\200\242\316\212)) r \316\267 \302\267\316\212\316\271=\316\241\316\271\316\277 \320\263\320\223\320\270^-\321\200\320\277 =\342\200\224pi'o \317\201\316\271\316\271 -II = _ nll _ \342\200\236u\342\200\236u \320\263'\"1'\342\200\224 \342\226\240\302\273\"\"' rllw \342\200\224 n\"u \342\200\224 \320\263 riw \316\223\316\277\316\271 \320\263\320\264\320\260 \320\270 prx) poo ptu \321\200\320\276\320\267 B. of both parametricvariables(seeFigure we Finally. starting in or we reverse w by operating on B2. P. we considerthe bicubicHerand mite the patch is parameterizedfrom \321\211 to \321\211 in 7.Next.* Pi' Pj* P\"i Pf* v. 7-8d).\302\253 \320\240\320\271 P. multiplying each coefficientin 3 interchangingcolumns1 and 2.except parametric of variables and from vk to 1^.> pi* rT Pi* vT \316\241\316\252 \321\200\320\263* (7.i p. patch Figure same from to the that the shows Wi w/. to \320\246 in the second: coefficients in the first case and B2 the matrix geometric In this case..188 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermfte Bicubic =Pn qoi qn =Poi qiu-pix) \342\200\224 \320\222 '2 = \320\247\320\262\320\276\320\276 -\321\200?\320\271 q5i Lq'm\342\200\224Pi'. the by multiplied are reversed. Here. Next. with can B. multiplying variable w. rio = pn fn-pio (7. the directions of the patch First. p 01 \321\20000 _\320\254\321\216 pOl _ of the patch normalsare not reversed. that the directions reverse the direction we notice Soi = sm-pn B< = Su - Pm \342\200\224 \316\257\316\277 \321\214\320\2761\342\200\224 \320\276\320\264\320\260--\321\200]| \316\241 sic>J=r poi pi\302\273 \320\254\321\216\342\200\224poi\320\254\320\270\321\200\320\276\320\276 \342\200\224 II U (7. starting 7. 3 and columns thus. second. time. as parameterization columns 1 and 2 of Bj and in Figure of curves also each coefficient in these rows by -1.A P.Thus. resulting Equation (7-41). This of constant interchange with we Bj. the directions For a more generalized B.9a.42) \320\263\321\216\342\200\224pn 'n\342\200\224pio of the patch normalsare reversed.43) \321\201 \321\214 11 01 \342\200\224 10 \320\254\320\276\320\276\342\200\224 =-\321\200?\321\217 \320\254\320\276\320\276\342\200\224 \321\200 \321\200 \342\200\224pnsSi \342\200\22411 _ c\302\253 \342\200\224 S 11 \302\273\316\271\316\277\342\200\224 sHi=-p\"\302\253. the parametric reverse directionof operation will change the This w. Figure 7.8c.44) . B3: . two notice We and interchanged things: 4oi = -p?i 4\316\2231 PSi II\302\267\342\200\236 W \320\273 qi'i qi(i -\317\201\342\204\242 483. and and 4 by-1. Let us choose u. 3 and 4.

The relationships betweenthe reasoning patch. q.i=py The tangent vectors area different matter. = (7. In particular.we find the patch between w .29). (7.9 General Figure of a reparameterization q* 4i* \342\200\224 \320\222 .2 for corner curves..To preservethe bicubic form of t and \320\270 and equations. For patches. we obtain results similar to those expressedby the tangent vectors in Equations (3.j <\317\212\316\257 of Bj elements and B2 are the same as those applies.as for curves. q* qi* q> qi* q!v u* q.i ty 7.46) p/i q. the directly. When we do this. = \320\247\321\203* py* q/. and points are the same related qc 4.of a Reparameterization Patch \342\226\240 189 \302\273.45) q? q.. we assumea linear relationshipbetween and v.

10. 3\317\201\316\257\316\220 \321\200\320\270 3\317\201\316\257\302\273 \320\227\321\200\321\216 3p\302\243o 3pSi 3plV yp'iT 3\317\201\317\212\316\271 \320\243\321\200\320\232\320\227\" 9\321\200\320\271\320\223 9\317\2018\316\277 pairs of integers.10 rectangular Parameterization array of patches.-\320\223. then \320\270. Figure 7. of a .-u. and v.- \342\200\236\342\200\236 (748) P 4 ft-\316\237\316\270\316\212-\316\275*) is ail example. similarly for f(- is useful when contiguous patches.w e [0. W] Wj - and with in the array successive are \316\267.190 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Surface Hermite that \316\257\316\257. As of are readily poo Poi pio 3\317\201\316\220\316\231. we B' If i.)(w.-\320\270.-\316\257\316\257. IE Here we \320\265[0. dealing a patch reparameterize from u.we obtain _ wk) {u. Wk.individual patches identified by the array indexingschemeof successive we this relationship integers./\320\267]. and 4' = (747) ^VP' For the cross-derivatives.1] to u\\w' obtain arrays - vh. In Figure 7. noted for curves..

and Subdividing a Truncating 7.11. \342\200\224 = v0 1.11 Subdividing a patch. patch points of the Qoo = = qio new w\342\200\236 wb \320\270.49) where the Using =p(\"\342\200\236Wi) qn =p(uj.) (^-\302\253i)p\"(\302\253i..w.50) .-.w.of a new patch that of constant curves by we find to create a new patch from a patch whose as follows: Given \321\200\320\263\320\276\320\254\320\227\321\201\321\202 given patch and bounded 7.) q vectors. New Figure 7.. is and a subpatch \320\270>. \342\226\240 191 A PATCH reparameterizing apply an existingone. are the tangent (747).7 can We SUBDIVIDING AND TRUNCATING now the stating geometric of the Figure are coefficients techniques the matrix Bbfind the corner B.M'*) qoi qIi Remember that = = qw = = (w/ - wk)pw{uhwk) (wi-wk)p\"(uk.\302\273'*) qfo=(\302\253j-\"i)p\"(li.wk) qoi =(w. W/)p\"(M.-wk)p\"'(Uj.respectively.\320\270>/) p(\"..)p\"(\"/.\320\240\320\263\320\2 patch \321\200(\320\270/.\302\273'/) t\\-to = l and v.H'i) (H/-\302\253. parch (7.w*) (7. vectors are quo (\302\253. and vectors \317\201 Equations qoo qoi = elements of Bj and B2..

w) p(l. continuity the p'm(u\342\200\236Wk). that follows..and more complex of 3 array composite surfacedefinedby a 4 \317\207 of evaluating (\302\253y \320\270. patch is the basisfor the investigation of We are interested in the continuity two and q(\302\253.w) patches the curves common thai and are identical 3 such having boundary q(0.)(\320\251 A composite the by Equalion using \317\201'\342\204\242'(\316\257\316\257(.w) the on in effeclof twist vectors the the (see Figure 7-13). (748): wk)p\"\"(u.p\"K(uhwi).and continuity along this shared patch boundary. particularly.) quo 7. First.)(wi- Wi)p>\342\200\236i*i) SURFACES questionsto consider. extensive. how do we construct surface.)(>v/ w^p'M(uhw/) u.51) h. control such Second. - qi'i - - (Mj Wk)9m(uhwk) (7.192 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Surface Hermite We obtain Ihe cross-derivativesor twisl p\"w(u\342\200\236wk). and - qio = COMPOSITE HERMITE - - - - \302\253i)(wi (\"/ qSi = (jj.ToensureG1continuity the across this boundary. .\316\271\316\275.iv) p(u.12 A composite surface. of be scalar coefficients of the respective auxiliary curves must multiples surfaces? The bicubic Figure 7.B vectors and factors whal composite surface? patches joined to form a Figure 7-12 shows a 12 patches. There are two basic the shape and.wk) surface is a collectionof individual more continuous.

we find lhal q\"(0. 4$' al any prevail.") \317\201\316\212\342\204\242.14 The requirement boundary p(u.w) When Ihese conditions \316\257\316\220\317\201'.tv) coefficients common boundary then and continuity.1 I. Given along p(l. q'6o' \320\264\321\200\"\320\276. are related q(u.1 0.w) (namelyp'fo.\320\270>) Curve \317\201 Curve q Figure each 7. -+\"\321\207 1 \316\274\316\271\316\277 \342\226\240 4 \"\316\241\".0 geometric coefficientsaffectedby for G' continuity across a common betweentwo patches. \"p. along q(0.Surfaces Hermite Composite \302\253193 Curve \317\201 = %\316\223 \"\316\241. \320\240|\302\253. that The geometric on vector 0. qi'u \302\253\317\201\317\212\316\271.0 Figure the 7. 1 --1 -11IU 1.1 \320\232 .1.This for- to required two between patches 1. along p(l.0 0.iv).13 The Ihe coefficientsof the olher. is..\342\204\242. coefficients point effect of the twist of Ihe of patch G1 continuity across a produce are shown in Figure 7.tv). . \317\201\316\220\.14.w)= iip\"(l.w) corresponding = = = as follows: q'oo = <?\317\201\317\212\\>. curve auxiliary \317\201\317\212\316\271.

next the vectors in boundary only be in the Gl continuity . Because the basis functions the all the thai adjacent patches rows (or columns) conclude position-determining and if common auxiliary curve-determining are columns) (or exhibit We (1974).p\"'((i. Each quadrant surrounding this patches of the a list vectors.\320\232 \320\223\320\247 Parch IV 111 Figure 1 \"\320\246 V/C *. p(u. whereas to its contribute -vectors four patch.194 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic introduced by have Gl continuity only mal was of rows disjoint of multiples a total of a total of 96. two patches 73 degrees of freedom. share an interior at an conditions shows and are functions basis as the points two shape throughthe four these in to joined 7. identical are \320\222 matrices their Pelers if common shape-determining powerlies p\"(if. Figure composite point 7.*:\342\226\240 it will situations.>v). The tangent the w direction must be identical to ensure that the respective direction must curves do match. each other.15 surface contains four where centers vectors applied to the patch in Clearly. differing only by multiple f Patch Patch 1/ \302\273\316\256 \302\267*? kK *v \"K\" w Patch \342\200\242V \"3 \"3 !\320\260\320\270. have \320\241 continuity have patches At a corner of any of operation invariant.15 Continuity characteristics of a composite surface.In many modeling us to consider thesemeshpointsor corner shapingparameters. The tangentvectorsin the \320\270 a scalar \320\272 to ensure same direction. or foci help of the arbitrary internal point p. Consider common curve between boundary patch I and patch II.Four patchessurround corner point of a compositesurface. that quadrant.w).w). Thus.iv).all four patches share the commonpointpy. and p\"w(u.( of a meet. on them.

. '/ '/ .\302\267. \317\201\316\223.. \317\201?.\302\267 *\342\200\236.. they. \320\263 \320\240\320\223\320\274....Composite curve through the point. 1 1 *...\342\200\236 1 \316\271 propagation of scalefactors. \320\252. 1 \317\201.\302\273 w \316\275.\316\271 *. analysis relationships affect cross-derivatives the too.... <*.. *. \320\263 '/\342\226\240\342\226\240 1 V/ 1 \317\201\" Pi.\316\244.-. 1 r 1 1 \317\201... p.. \302\253.. between a constant adjacent auxiliary scalar-multiple relationship scalars) Notice do preserving 1 1 \"i/.16 Continuity-driven 1 *.'... \302\253\\. must differ only 195 the by a patch boundary combinations we as the figure shows.'. *( 1 '.-! '/ *\302\273''. \316\241\317\213\342\200\236.. 1 *\342\200\236\316\233\316\271 *!.And along the slope along scalar this boundary. only 14 degrees and two vectors of the composite surface (that is. 1 '/- '/\302\267. \342\226\240*. 1 I 1 '/ *i. generate that at an control the the for the other between vectors. are not strictly unique to eachpoint. '\320\223\".We conclude of freedom are available to arbitrary point pl7.i \302\253\316\223.-. 7.-= i *f Vm 1 i *...r. \321\200\320\223...j ' *.. *r i 1 \316\234\316\271 \"if *. Figure 1 *. four local shape if we are to preserveGlcontinuity. k: K..l. 1 *l since seen... *7j '... '/. \320\276 1 'm i '.j \320\263 1 *. *. that the \320\272 / scale factors and of thus not change constant aline ('or/ (seeFigure along 7-16). multiple. By continuing this They we have as > Surfaces Hermite \316\275 \317\201? Pf \316\212 '.

.Z + \320\240<.a more came interpolation from a corresponding the complete were spline set introduced of Timmeris Here is a summary to defininga rectangularnetwork./'as follows: patch - pi p. \316\241\316\271. m] and /' e[l : \320\270]. with extra point useful lPi+(.+\316\257 \317\201\316\223\316\271-1.17-Although the arrows at eachend of of constant the band scale factor are bidirectional./' vectors the corresponding multiply They The distributionof scalefactors for a 4 \317\207 5 array the in of patches first quadrant seven with distinct scale factors in Figure 7.Applying problems once required the userto supply corner as well as point coordinatesat the patch were schemes to definepatcheswithout Some schemes replaced the required input coordinates other than individual creating patches.j indexing scheme. two families of intersectingcurves into vogue to by Gordon (1969)./+f Pi + 1. of Gordon's approach (1976) application of bicubic Hermite patches. there for + ! to modeling twist tangent vectors. the but corner points. of the node. \320\240>.. let us consider cubic forms Now parametric and tangent points./ '/ + 1 + 1\321\200\"+1. r. If we identify the of by patch pair of matrix the four sets defining the patch corners. unsatisfactory for most a number to require this way complex itself and how to Soon. or wt.) p<.ui+i./' Pi + l. to specify having vectors This approach was most surfaces tangent are sufficiently of patches joined together.196 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic and w take curves along a curve of constant u-. + the an element of the matrix. Also notice that when \320\270 on integer values at intervals correspondingto the i.because. fti brackets on \320\222 identify + i'./ +1 \"\316\271 + lpr + lPi+l.52) +i applications. patch (7... In the the \320\272 and are shown in three of the four quadrantsat /scale factors figure. [B]\342\200\236 \"\316\271 + lpi+f./ \"i '/+ip. Cardinal splines. (. we can then develop a lowest indices of for any specific patch. Parametric network spline of patches of differentiation required elegant for approach. the generate a rectangular network of points.\321\211~1./+\316\271 1 //+\316\257\316\241\317\212. only each node.for example. . consistentdirection for band each Once a convention for associating the data at the points we select with the a \320\222 scheme to fill in the matrix easily adjacent patches. then we readily fill the \320\222 is shown (.. usingnumerical to calculate the derivatives interpolation of patch coefficients./ Here outside the indices the + l. We consider \316\271 and with efl: q. vectors created not construct a composite surface.Composite surfaces usually lacked G' continuity. reparameterization is not necessary. we must select a single to which the scalar relationshipapplies.

and q. family of m curves in terms of the parameter in terms of the parameter t.(t) is not necessarily identicalfor all of the qf S.] p(t)=r.5 \342\226\240 197 6.The parameters (7..53) point on the indicatedcurve..] to a double subscript on indicated. form p(5) = 4f(5) where \317\201 is the The range 17..54) = I '11 \316\271 at the intersection node to map the entire surface . for a typical curve.Surfaces Hermite Composite 1.1 7.\302\267..\302\267. u.\\ N\342\226\240\342\226\2401 \342\226\240\342\226\240-\321\207\321\211\321\200\32 \342\226\240I \316\223\316\271.5.5 \316\271 iyii'ii' *\302\267[. and m The of scale factors. Then.\316\271|\316\220\316\220\316\271\316\271\316\271\316\231'\316\234 \342\226\240!\320\242/\320\226 jfe^ \316\246 6..17 Distribution Figure to combine which are mxn there thai We the express of 17 family \316\267 curves the wireframe surface shown in Figure7-18.t\\>t\\. a second set of parameters 1 f- te[0.1 1. the 4-. therefore.T.Note intersection points. vector position of the parameter we define and Je[0.\\\\\\.w \" s and t \320\270 and denotes w are such 1 V '. their value normalized or that (7.

therefore. is to a distinct value of the parameter w. In practice.j e [I : n] and m to a I = (7.it corresponds Next we network and curves to natural interpolate these curves separately. S.w parameter square single value of w and each t to map curve corresponds \316\267 functions defining m].) = s0 -0 - 1 if i*j if '=/ (7.w) = \302\243 = i The Fj(w) are (7-56) q. = corresponds single value of u. of as a combination two interpolation problems. . As a result.55) /e[l:n] we \320\275\320\265 [0. the into unit procedure has functions s = the effect spline-interpolating of curves of ie[l: functions.(i/).(w) p(u.(u).(ii) l basis or interpolatingfunctions. These have the obvious properties: f.57) q. This Tj(w). them into the unit a so that \320\240\320\230=\320\223. families Space. consider the m curvesof q.Eachof these tj separately. Each s curve in u. F.[7\302\273] \321\200(\320\270) \320\247\320\224-(\320\270)] and ie[l:m] to we express these as parametric we reparamelerize the two square.<w.1B curves.1] [0. interpolatingthe For example.1] can this We treat consider the actualinterpolationproblem.198 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Surface Hermite Rectangular networkof intersecting Figure 7.

(\302\273>) the F.(u) and Fj(w).j mesh i=1j=l points. becauseil is often lo truncate possible lo as of wt. Selectingendpoinl curvature considerations the other constraints for of any two spline fits is not so obvious. in only the immediate neighborhood for the dependent values variable at each of the interpolating Specifying mesh points results in two unspecified these conditions conditions.w) functions The our example.-(\302\253)assume where = + \302\243/\302\267\302\273 F{w) \321\206.57) lo act as interpolation. F. This is significant. the constraints reflect the obvious slope and for a space curve.Composite Hermite are free We lo choose basis any often referred functions.In the absence other constraints.56) using the F. interpolation we specify = are the F{u) r.19shows several of the F lhal the maxima as the from curvemoves damp rapidly away node.((i) by using p(\302\253.(w) J /- p\342\200\236 (7-58) XW'.(s). Notice defining lhal functions indicated consider the classof cubic Let us the the for functions Equation satisfy Surfaces \342\226\240 199 (7.59) .19 at \317\201 Cardinal the i.w) where the F. (7. we achieve the optimum role as same both q.we could Equation have the performed interpolation p(u. functions spline-interpolating tor the F-\342\200\236 cardinal splines. Figure 7.56). we assume lhala constant secondderivative of the in each two end segments will be imposed on both S. at constraints each applied For the splines defining the q.(u) p\342\200\236 (7.(\320\270) \302\243 \302\243 1=1 I values of Figure 7.{w)in Equation(7. For and ij(>v). Usually are first.or second-derivative end of the mesh.Clearly. spline-inierpolati\316\267gfunction.

61)can be interpolated over the entire surface more and u.200 Bicubic Hermite > The II to way we However. this becomes expression (7.((i) and to be defined. We now decide to represent q. similar to the process we usedfor the bicubic Hermite obvious difference is lhal. If the of bicubic Hermite array the patches are not arbitrarily throughout continuity unit square is subdivided into patches. to the unit each patch example. u.l]. for the patch. continuity is preserved. and approaches way over regular curvature First.It is likely the form of discrete points distributedin some it is at will G2 be the lhal semi- the prospective surface. and G\302\260.59) the unit square. There are different we can lake.59). Equation interpolate can use the of bicubic we can points. data initial tf(w) original of continuity the be in Equation surface-generating unlikely lhal the two families of curveswill outset of the modeling problem.The a immediateexample.59) or mapped into the unit /I l/ = \316\271 constraints.the interpolation may be expressed as the familiar . of a bicubic in the sense within lhal.For reparamelerize createa we discontinuous square. relationship the between new the (7.w parameter square space. equivalent patch any quadrilateral patch in element..and rectangular provided if we reparamelerized. parametersand p\342\204\242. p\"u.-(\302\253)and r^(w) as follows: may and 4. defined completely lose the practical implicationsof this What are the interpolation scheme? and we parameters.00 = \316\243\320\222\320\224\320\240\320\260 . the nature of the input data will determine the strategy Let us consider the case where the point data are in the form of an m over distributed the surface.\316\241 \320\243 Substituting these - Wv\302\253 \316\243 i into Equation equations \316\234\") \317\207 \316\267 (7-6\302\260) = 1 (7. then Equation (7. Once we selectthe patch corner use the equation to determinevalues and r.perhapsincluding and slope then the parametricrepresentations of q.w e[0.. without slope or curvature array uniformly preconditions.59) producesa simpler expression: \"I fIf we include complex. a network for lhal oul turns inefficient equation to determine the geometriccoefficients Hermite patches. of G2 continuity. have if q. each patch element formed by the two of curves is the families However. Surface guarantees same this a p'('ni. does not cover the entire unit single equation square. If this remain is the case. (7-59) is an elegant but computationally two families of curves forming a rectangularmesh. Finally. G\\ data. slope or curvature Equation (7.

I i\342\200\224 I \342\200\224 __L\302\267- \316\271 1- +--|-\321\207 \316\271 I + \342\226\240 -r J__ -r \342\226\240T-t \342\200\224 -+\342\200\224! \316\223\" \\\342\200\224 1\342\200\224I\342\200\224 r I |_4 \320\223--\320\223--\320\223- I 4--f -i --1--+-r\342\200\224\316\271 -15 Parches Figure 7. Because discontinuity composite \317\207 \316\223 I _+_. What was potentially an 11 \317\207 patches is replaced by a 3 x 3 array. In the secondsegment._ f \342\226\240\320\247--1 -1\342\200\224r- I I L_J __L \342\200\224 --v\342\200\224t\342\200\224! I\342\200\224 \316\267\342\200\224\320\263 \"T \316\271 \316\271 4-4--I--.The segment single single cubic Hermite curve lo approximateseven the curvature will match the original endpoinlsand however. of patches.for This loss apparent continuity we use a the curve in the figure. boundary example. This means unit that without square danger by Equation of {m.\316\247.61)is equivalent the Hermite without bicubic guaranteed affecting 1) patches (n it can A disadvantage of this approach is that lead to a large number of continuity allow us lo model the samesurface alternative would patches. - -I .20 r\342\200\224\317\204 reduced io 3- Patch array on a compositesurface. at lo the the the leads curvature deviate somewhat. Freeing endpoinls the original curve had continuous curvature.62) Any of altering parameterized lo the can be subelemenl the compositesurface.A practical and fewer without changing the original input point data.and may by.1) interpolation a network be replaced lo. (7.59) or (7. however. using patches to selectively reduce the number of patches illustrates a scheme Figure 7.20 of 15 array in a composite used surface model. upper curves. may tangents. could causea lossof G2 the number Reducing becomes when we consider a singlecurve.201 Composite Hermite Surfaces \342\226\240 (7. -J\342\200\224r- .

21). following strategy. rectangular of a m \317\207 mesh instead mesh nQ however. We let nQ grid of to the crossdenote data points required define most the number complex A mesh section curve and m the number of crosssections. simple points \320\256\320\276 We constraint requires us to supply conclude that the rectangularity is To can and it avoid we the thus inefficient.21 Transition for the from a complex to a simple crosssection.In the preceding data example. use much this.202 \342\226\240 The Bicubic the new discontinuities Surface Hermite single-curve approximationshould Note discernible. the resulting this reduction in A final simplification is possible. input has the same number of points in row points form a rectangular mesh\342\200\224each the problem it. barely the numberof patches. data. these for the sections than shapes would otherwisewarrant.the final network be close and that in the course of is slill rectangular. formal. To preserve a complex data we would have to specify moredata rectangular meshof initial points. section is less than 7. using only Using this approach. . points. is number of points required to describe the surface to define a simple the simple Figure one (see Figure 7. data We for a series of crossassume thai in most cases we prefer to supply on a section curves rather than for a rectangular surface. rectangular requires now of points we allow the model input to consist of the exact number for each cross section individually Thus. we could describea linear necessary cross-section curve two the total points. Now consider of a surface with transitions from a complex crosssectionto The number of pointswe need one.

for each curve.Patches Hermite Special \342\226\240 203 (7-63) \316\235=\316\243\316\267' section curve. Figure7-22shows the simplest construction. 7.22 Vettor equation of a plane. mathematics representational input data.l] the point Hermite (7-64) and pTO patch. we interpolateeachcrossspline or other form of representation.1 Figure 7.w e[0. interpret of variety great investigate we which as = + \321\200(\321\213. It is a specialcaseofthe bicubic u. Obviously. we have The literature abounds with a surfaces composite the pun). and construction situations. and will of them here. 1. a conventional using Next. parallel We set to the all the .9 SPECIAL There three HERMITE barely scratchedthe for most techniques modeling PATCHES we are several ways to construct a plane patch. compute rectangularmesh. a set wc as Insofar surface (pardon of n0 points are concerned. and we continue as for a this reduced Using N<mntl.\320\270>) \321\20000 ur + ws This equationdefinesa plane patch through vectors rands.

67) = \317\213 \317\201\316\257\316\277 \316\241'.68) method of construction.23 these points in such a way as to guarantee that we easily Using the elementsfrom the figures. We start with the point poo and vectors piio.69) than two. and av. poo. and we find am . a^. \320\222 matrix: ~~ poo - poo 0 \317\213 0 \317\213 is considerablymoregeneralized (7. the s final plane pio-poo patch construction pm the ~~ - lies patch the assemble poo poi poo poi in this plane. We a0i. = identical to (7. We construct all the other geometric coefficients from 7.64).we do not restrict the boundary curves to being lines.\320\275>) can determine Poo - = poi pixi + s \317\201* + r+S + \320\263 \321\200\321\216=\321\200(\320\256 pn-poo \320\263 \316\241'\317\214\316\277= = \320\263 \316\241\316\277\316\271 = \320\263 \316\241\317\212\316\262 .65) .65) is Equation s.\320\263 \317\201\317\212\316\271 Pot=s =S \316\241\316\277\316\271 = s twist the vectors > (7. in are are = \317\213 = 0 \321\200\320\271\320\276 \316\241\316\277? (7.poothe two tangent . Here we start with From elementary geometrywe know that three points. a]0 the geometric coefficients for this constructionas well: (7.\321\200\321\210. It permits us to construct planefigures with boundaries.66) pn=s \316\241\316\252\316\277 where (7.r.204 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic algebraic coefficients in to zero equal (73) Equation and \320\260\320\260\320\264. poidefine a plane. pm. curved see in Figure 7-24.\316\244'=\316\277 We assemble the \316\222 matrix from directly these equations: s + s \321\200\320\274 \321\200\320\276\321\202 poo + r +r B = poo Figure three points +s s s r r 0 0 r r 0 0 a second illustrates poi poo B = + Poi \316\241\316\257\316\277 pin poi \"poo \316\241\316\272\316\271-\316\241\316\277\316\277 -poo \321\200\321\210 _pio~Poo The first As we straight (7. except resulting = + \320\275\320\260\321\210+ wa0 \320\260\320\276\320\270 \321\200(\320\275.

= \"\316\277\316\212 l'oi Pm ' \316\232 '\".24 General bicubic Hermite a plane. =Pqd+ \302\260..\317\201\302\243 + *.\316\271^+\316\233\316\271\316\237\316\261. /oiP\302\253! \316\232 -'\342\200\236\316\241^+\316\257|.205 Special HermitePatches\342\226\240 Figure Special bicubic 7.\316\277\316\241\342\204\226 \316\257\316\212\316\257\316\241\316\252\316\271 PTo^mPSn+^olu Figure 7..\"'. patch form of . PS .23 Hermite patch form of a plane.pSo = + \316\241|\316\270 \316\241\316\277\316\277-.

or we can define them We by some relationship. Po\" In Pi\"]''> coefficients of (p2 - po)]7- Figure an^ the surfacegenerated by curve. we readily find the Cylindrical surface. curve and line: Line Figure 7.25.(. such as pig' = (vti matrix we can assemble the elements of-\320\260\320\222 poo B= pm poo + + + \320\254\320\276 [PS) onp&i+bnp. a Here.25 \320\222 matrix for pj fpo (p2 - pa) a patch .)\321\200\320\276\321\201 {d-\321\206 <^)\321\200\321\210- + ^npiio (7. a straight will construct we line as it moves parallel to a cylindrical bicubicHermite see a curve whosegeometric coefficients are line defined from pr) to p2.. We can define the cross-derivatives or twist vectorsto bezero.206 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic use and define these vectors as a basisin the planeof the patch tangent the other geometric coefficients as linear combinations of them.70) 0 0 0 Surface Cylindrical A cylinder is a itself along patch. pr\302\253 figure: eoipoo + /[iip\302\253) eiipoo+/np!xi \320\265\321\216\321\200(\321\216+/\321\216\321\200!\321\216 + ^\316\262\316\257\317\201\316\264\317\214 0 \320\24101\320\240\320\2310 pHoo cmp!io + <Woo poo + Npoo + flfopoo - + \321\201. we a straight straight these Using defined by the given elements.) from the f'loprSj cnpoo Once again. The geometric line in the cubic Hermile format are [p0 p2 7.

Special Hermite po B = Pi P: pi + P2 \320\240\320\231 LP\" more A general expression - po P: p2 p(u) is any form. the surface. .calledrulings. polynomial Ruled A cylindrical po p2 PS Pi' 0 - \342\226\240 207 po po 0 (7. boloidof onesheet are also special ruled surfaces. 5urface one degree of freedom is the locusof a movingpoint with of a one degree know that the locus with also straight linemoving of freedom is a surface.w) = p(u) + where po Patches do not surface wr direction restrict is a (7. The in lying entirely simplest the cone. at each of least one straight line defined such that through it point passes of all ruled surfaces are the plane. We Figure 7.26 An other cylindrical surface.72) vector the function of the straight-line p(u) to the cubic special caseof a ruled surface. called a ruled surface. This is a specialtype of surface.26).71) _ is space curveand r is the rulings (see Figure7. Each of these surfaceshas two families of straight lines.and the cylinder. all special cases because each js governedby a set The hyperbolic and the hyperof constraints that make \320\232 paraboloid unique. distinct mathematically We now know that a curve.We p2 oo p(ti.

eight tangent straight the \320\222 vectors as equal to zero (seeFigure follows From matrix this.27 Ruled surface. We point \321\200(\321\213) point fill in the B-matrix elements accordingly: surface A is one B= curve parametric a linear interpolation po Qi-pi 9i) - PS q& 0 0 41 0 0 \320\270 is between Po \342\200\224 Qi constant of - pi LP? Each surfaceis Qd Qo po pi Qi (7. or distorting without stretching cones and cylinders are good examples.we will However. Given the four parametric p(t(.73) . directly: Figure 7. Later. 7. line. . but surface ruled every is not that can be unrolledontoa plane developable developable.27 testable special shows the of a surface. Figure7. it.28). Thus. the is not developable. a straight a general ruled of The hyperbolic paraboloidis a specialcase. two curves.wf) we as the four twist define the vectors lines and points. hyperbolic paraboloid examine the characteristics of developable surfaces. each on line to a on q(u) having an equivalent \320\270 value.208 \342\226\240 The Hermite Bicubic Surface Every developable surface is ruled. Given two cubic Hermite bicubic ruled geometry and a straight curves we a surface by joining construct ruled with p(\302\253) q(w).because both families corner curves and p(ujtw) are straight lines.

ways of representing use (7.74) 0 0 0 \321\2004-\321\200\320\267 improve the representationif we and why? (Hint:Try p'ffi = (pj . and so a ruled twist vectors? How on.p2-pi 0 equation. \320\240\320\267 \320\240\320\267 -\321\200\321\200 \321\200\320\267-\321\200\321\200 p4 P2 \342\226\240 209 nonzero pi). form An alternative based on the straight-line rulings joining expression on two space curves d(t() and h(u) is corresponding points \320\270 on the d(u) direction is the The parameter w vector of a .29).(p2 more p4-p2 p4-p2 p4p! Can we Here are two paraboloid.w (see Figure p(ti.1].75) straight line at curve. The vector functions g(t() and a(u) in this are not necessarily restricted to the cubicpolynomialform.\320\2700 g(u) where g(u) is a curve and + wd(u) (7. u.) surface with a parametric The first is = \320\240(\302\273.SpecialHermite Patches 7.2B Figure Pi B= Hyperbolic P2P1 .p3) . the distance ratio of the point point gives e then If 7. ld(u)l equalsthe length of the straight line when w = 1.w)fromg(u) [0.

Some vertices vertices of their characteristic polyhedra.w e [0.29 Ruled surface. .1].210 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Hermite Surface p(u. 730 Figure vector construction of a ruledsurfacevia Equation (7. we are about The conditions to explore can be createdwith of the forms we have discussed thus far. the best source of these patches is our imagination. Degenerate through intention relationships.w) . patches For now. any as wellas those yet to be discussed. or. in this form the vector functionsg(u) not necessarily restricted to cubic polynomials.g(u)] where u. these strange shapes are the result which may with unusual coefficients characteristics.(1 - w)g(u) + wh(u) w[h(u) .76). jumbled Degenerate Figure 7.76) g(t() + and h(u) illustrates are the Patches unusual patches immediately attract our attention to their of an array of Almost shapes. = Degenerate (7. invariably. geometric equally and include coincident control points or other unconventional values or are possible accident. bizarre Any form we can conjure up is certain to appear unbidden and at an awkward moment in any sophisticated modelingsystem. perhaps. Again. including the Bezjer and B-Spline of these forms have obvious idiosyncrasies\342\200\224superimposed surfaces.

A patch degenerates to a straight line when \317\201'\317\214\316\277 \316\241\316\271\316\277\321\200\320\270> \317\201\316\257\316\214 all other are zero. if we Pi'. boundary exhibiting degenerate with those and internal corners. side. such patch is a The simplest are identically equal point wherepm-pio-poi-pn ar. strictly degeneracies. Its Instead \320\222 matrix of a might . Figure 7.30 There \342\226\240 211 degenerate patches.77) \320\240\320\227\320\223 \316\241\316\257\316\223 \316\241\316\257\316\257 \316\241\317\212\316\271 Pi'o three-sided patch is shown in Figure one of the sides does double duty. = pm pw. those exhibitingsuperimposed curves. then For the the B(n)- poo 0 0 A different zero-length be as kind of fourth follows: three-sided easily identifiable patch in Pm \320\240\321\210 pop Pli pBi Pm 7. (7.d all other coefficients = and to zero. coefficients several are ways categorize those The degeneratepatchesin characteristics in their assume that \320\222 matrices. for example. We can demonstrate them all using a single bicubicHermitepatch.31 Figure 731b.Special Hermite Patches P|'\"f- to Pat4) Another ruled surface.31 a. Figure is \320\222 matrix poo have 7.

31c. the and B<d- \320\222 matrix would be as poi P<M! Pio \320\264\320\260 \316\241 pio Pn \316\241\316\257\316\220 \317\201\317\212\316\277 pSo pi'.31 may follows: \316\241\317\212\316\271 pio \316\241\316\212\316\244 .: \317\201\316\257\316\257\316\271 poo (7.212 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Hermite Surface poo \321\200\321\210 poo poo poi \320\257\320\274- Pm \320\240\321\210 \321\200\320\271\320\276 Poi (7.78) \316\241&\316\244 Poi \320\240\320\2311 \316\241\316\252\316\252 \316\241\316\257\316\277 \316\241\317\212\316\271 pio When be as points shown in Figure the each other are coincident.\316\241\316\220\316\277 Figure result Degenerate patches. opposite diagonally 7. .79) *Vio \320\240\320\276.\320\257\321\200\320\256 {0 7.

fairings. and Varady Martin. We r(l.31d. have a certain aesthetic appeal. among The Vjda. and rounds and a somewhatdifferent polyhedral. others.\320\270>) a direct requirements to blend an arbitrary patch to the the first patch is interior to the second a way where bicubic Hermite patchesp(u.10 of \320\222 matrix: least SURFACES BLEND secondary surfaces forming a locally smoothGl (at least) two or more primary surfaces. subject.or at more general blendproblems.w) (see Figure 7. the with interesting shape arisesby 7.32). for the examples we have just explored. of based.we can find a smoothly them. and Requicha (1984) do identify of blends: four Rossignac major categories are surfaces between Blend transition blending surfaces generated blends. we first example we Then another Blendbetween Two Given continuous conditions are and \321\200(1.w) r(0. classify (1994) take of constructing methods spine based.Although some have little may practical value.w).which not or may may most t he curves of the between blend intersect. composite simple blend between two disjoint of tangency correspond to patch Patches Disjoint two disjoint = trimline based. boundaries. fillets. consider will patches. an jn Figure Finally. they clearly the terms Perhaps 7.w) patch.w) extension and q(ii. The blend . rolling-ball bicubic Hermite boundaries and aesthetic constraints. in part because of widely different approaches to this However. and primary do not correspond to isoparametric curves or patch surfaces boundaries.w) is a curves where study patch. A more rigorous definition seems to be lackingin the literature. we look Finally.16 between blends that surface. creating a G1 that assume the common boundaries are such q(0. The modeling of those shown in Figure for continuity 7.Blend Surfaces 731c and points.80) B\302\253i)\320\240'\321\210 pSj Pii Lpio \316\241\317\212\316\277 pvr at degenerate and pathologicalare toopejorative. In the tangency generalcase. from Figure by the joining the results opposing pair diagonally remaining using \342\226\240 213 following \316\241\317\211 pio poo pio poo pi'o \316\277\316\271 \316\241 piio \320\240\320\231\320\223 Pn (7. third patch r(u. approach as blends parametric functional strong by = across a common boundary between two patches.

\320\240\320\237 ps.32 two has \320\263(\320\275.w) Figure of of to boundaries such that the bounding curves p(u. I Pdo ! Po. \320\247\320\225..w).We assume that q(u.33.w) from the larger compositesurface. by the If we we wish surrounding are given to patches. PTd P|\302\260P\342\200\236 ! P.w) of the modified section.\320\234') A patch degrees %a I ioi \"\316\257\316\277 . \316\271.214 \342\226\240 The Surface Hermite Bicubic 0.w) subpatches that blend it with \320\241 eight to of q(u.p.w)? the then we describe by modify. wu and w2 on q(u. I I. '.32. ! iSd 43. PEl Figure MlBo i VSi blended the Boundaries of Another ' \320\272\320\260\320\2478\320\276 \302\253 between two disjoint patches. shape might begin letting p(u.w). the the \"hole\" left by the removal continuity surrounding patches illustrated This is an extensionofthe procedure in Figure 7. patch I.w) itselfis part of a G1 composite surface and is surrounded by other patches. I 0. The influence of the surrounding of p(u. are . as shown in the The blank elements in the \320\222 matrices are determined figure..w) on the geometric coefficients eight blend is shown assume We that is blendedto the in 7..w) q(u.w) correspond the constant-parameter values ulf u2. and the constant coefficients k. shape somewhat.\316\241\316\220\316\261 k.I I.\316\241\317\212\317\213 *. proceeding q(ti.Thereareno restrictions Blend to P7.w). No generalityis lost by We -'remove\" this way. 7. and new create \"insert\" p(u. patches p(u.w) and us to vary its q(u. Pi\302\273 \316\241\317\212\316\271 \317\201\317\212\302\260 pt. PS. of freedom. Patch a bicubic Hermite patch a portion of whose interior q(w. I kt that allow \320\272\321\212 and on p(u. pSd \321\200\320\270\320\267 \316\232. 0. PED pe.

jnterpolants.\320\240\320\237 \316\247.81) 11 lli- = \302\253[ 1- \302\2532 \320\272\320\273 UZ- General t(] Blend Surfaces The constructionof constant-radiusblendsbetween two intersecting are and Ju and surfaces others. \316\2418\316\257 k3ps\302\253 : vs<: ^m \320\223 -\316\271 Pud ^p?d Mt.' Po.o Pdo \342\226\240 Pod . *. .Pui p1D wa ! 1 ! 1 Wo M?d *.Surfaces Blend \342\226\240 215 \320\230 1 - w2- 1- W| w2 w2- wl (7.d \\\320\272*.Theirmethod parametric studied by Choi (1989) the allows of constant-radius construction surfaces as long as their parametric self-intersections. and singularities radius.)Edgeblends Corner created are blends by a blends for distance rational by sweeping type of rectangular smooth. 0. \316\271 Pqi p. ! 1 Pn PS.33 Blending a patch to the boundaries of another patch. VB. ! I^PET i i \316\271 Pd. pn \316\234>\317\212\316\271 P\302\260i \316\271 PSd ! 1 Wj ! Pn ! P1d \316\241\316\257\316\277 \316\241\316\252\316\231 PTo \320\230 PES PET k'P% ! Pdi *<\316\241\316\252.PI\"a \316\272<\316\241\316\220\316\220 \302\253\320\266 \316\241\316\257\316\277 \316\241\317\212\316\271 ! \316\241\316\252\316\252 i \320\240\320\247\320\223 1 1 1 1 \316\241<\317\207> ! ! K|PfjD ! \320\240\321\216 ! ! 1 1 \342\226\240 h -r h \317\204 \"I h k.0 Figure 7. without any are surfaces offset (The created are offset convex combination of Taylor is equal to the blend quadratic curves. j^pff! \317\201\317\212\316\271 ! ^\317\201\317\212\317\204 ! 1 1 *? Pod P\342\200\236 \342\226\240 W.' ! ! ^Pdi \316\241\316\277\316\271 W PS.\317\2015\317\212 k<p.\316\232\317\205\316\241\316\222\316\252 P% \"\316\212\316\241\316\252\316\252 ! \320\272\320\267\320\240\320\225\320\276 ! I I '.

. quadric blending of implicitly piecewjse defined and Sears (1985). approach between the blend and easily achieves the requireddegreeofcontinuity d and surfaces. Holmstrom who djscusse-s (1987).216 \342\226\240 The Bicubic Hermite Surface differential is Representing blend surfaces as solutionstopartial equations Bloor and Wilson demonstrate that this by They proposed (1989). and Woodward (1987). Choi Chiyokura (1987).Rockwood and Owen (1987). who blend discuss surfaces in solid modeling. More work in blen surfaces related topicsis reportedby primary and Lee (1990). Hoffmann and Hopcroft (1987). among many others. Middlcdjtch surfaces.

\316\221\302\273 = (\316\231 = II \316\271 \316\271 (m + definingthe verticesof which lies entirely hy for points equation general topics are PATCH Bezier patch are given extensionof functions. patch is Bezier = UM\342\200\236PM\302\243Wr \321\200(\320\270. briefly. surface. a direct is surface to B.1) of control points the Bezier patch. the bicubic Bezier and Hermite forms. the rational Beziersurface. eonvex for a Bezier product.w array of polyhedron hull.Ju) and simple (8.w) \321\200\321\206 comprise an 1) the The general following \317\207 + (\316\267 1) on a tensor not conversion composite same way as matrix equationfor e [0. degreeelevation. are 5. BEZIER PRODUCT TENSOR The extension of the Bezier curve. here.1] u.w) U1Xi.lMamxi.Many but discussed under Bezier curves.lPMX\342\200\236M\302\243(IX(IWiX| 217 .1 THE and. Points on a the = p(u.\342\200\236(w) the basis curves. a Bezier curve: rectangular characteristic its within defined in the the Bhi(w) \316\243 \316\243\317\201.\320\270>) (8.2) or = p(\302\253. applicable repeated between Bezier 8.This chapter does discussthe bicubicBezierpatch.SURFACES BEZIER The Bezier these surfaces.

w)=[(l-\3") 3w2(l (8. of control boundary the points curve number of .3) 4^4*1 \320\2701\321\2074\320\234\321\207\320\264>.Thefour interior \321\200\321\2154 points \321\200\320\270.wf u3]P 3u2(\\-u) 3ti(l-ii): P(\". the dimensions where control 8. The Bezier patch need not be describedby a a 4 x 4 array of control points. the Using matrix PATCH BEZIER BICUBIC for a equation binomial p(U.5) characteristic polyhedron patch. pis Pi4 p21 p22 p23 p24 p31 p32 p33 p34 p41 p42 p43 p44 points that define the (8. the \316\241 contains the Bezier pn pi.2 THE We can express a bicubic Bezierpatch in mite patch.1 illustrates the control points.\320\264\320\2404.4) w) wJ where P= The matrix and. plz.Each or vertices\342\200\224the is defined by a polygon of four greater points the the of the used.the of the representation patch defined by a 4 x 4 array bicubic Her- to the similar a form of control points is (8. As this figure shows. \321\200\320\2642. patch. \321\200]\320\224. and in the control the the curves cross boundary \321\20032\321\202 \321\20023\321\202 pjj slopes along same way as do the twist vectors of the bicubic Hermite patch.218 Surfaces \342\226\240 Bezier of the of the matricesdependon the dimensions sizes are not the matrix array.the polyhedron. thereby. higher degree points polynomial. and and lie on the patch. only points pn. and the resulting Figure 8.The indicating repeatedin point subscripts their later and are used here to illustrate expressions.W)= where again.\321\20024\32 control the end slopes of the boundary curves. the the four corner In bicubic Bezier formulation. this Expanded.^\320\234^4\302\253 the subscripts on becomes equation the matrices indicatetheir ' dimensions. p31. patch.p44 actually \321\200\320\264\320\267. they merely to the control relationship points. although we will begin by exploring square of Bezier which the bicubic defines array points. p13. the Bezier patch is completely defined by a net describing two families of Beziercurveson the patch. cubic Bezier curve. The pointsp21. (1- wf 3w(l . p41.

w^O curve p{u. points (1-\320\271-.0) - u-1 curve p{1.)3 \320\240\321\215 The Bezier so p2 and that these on indicate the patch boundary an the slopes at either end of p.1 Figure on Consider the generationof an isoparametric curve the bicuhic for iv = w\342\200\236 The matrix a constant.j] 3w(| -iv)2 - 3w2(\\ w w) (8. and curve for a expression point on \321\200(\321\213. Now we canwrite points are puiv.: Pi P2 3wX\\-Wi)2 = P on pb wherethe singlesubscripts point the lies on \321\200\320\264 curve point curve Points pi.) [(1 - u)3 P2 3u2(\\-u) 3u(\\-uf \316\2673] (8.1)\302\267 P\302\253=Pf1. lie on do not and the patchalong the curve (8.) \302\273'? and p2.p{0.2(\\ [ Lpi curve-defining. control the it.0) Bezier patch. product yields four following patch the at the Bezier curve along defining patch w. Cubic B.\320\270>.7) Lp4 Here each value of to define the \320\270 yields on the a point boundary curves.6) w.w) = [pn pi2 pla p.w).): Pi = p(u. a similar use We procedure \320\270 0 is curve (\\-wy p(0.8) . the example.For patch.0).w.w). pj lies on - 3w.\342\200\236.1) \320\240\321\206=\320\240(0. \320\240\342\200\2361-\320\240(1. u=0 curve Bezier Patch Bicubic The \342\226\240 219 p\342\204\242 \321\200\321\213 f23 \"13 --- curve w-1 Piu.

in bounded by simple or vice versa.3 has a three-point Bezier curve along boundaries Figure Occasionally we want that is not to create . the other define We twist vector = p\"*(u.220 Surfaces \342\226\240 Bezier or Pii Pl2 3w2(l-w) 3w(\\-w)2 -w)3 p(0.0 w is Pl4 3u2(1-u) 3h(1-u)2 p(u. .12) + \316\24124) \316\241'\317\214\317\212'-9(\317\20115-\317\20123-\317\201.w)=[(l w3] Pi3 (8. the patch shown curves. the vector twist point in question affect This 8.Pk The curve boundary for . For example.0)=[(l-u)3 p24 u3] P34 (8.w) produces (8-4) Equation differentiating Appropriately the two boundary curvessimilarly.9) .11) (3^) For the vectors twist at the Poo patch corner = points we have + p2z) 9(pii-p2j-p^ Pl0 = 9(p31-P41-P32 + P\302\253) (8. at any poinJ [(-3u2 + 6u~3) (-9u2 (9u2 - + 6u) 12u + the equation for 3) (3u2)]P (~3w2 + 6w .0 and \320\270 .P\302\253.12w+ (9w2 (-9w7 + 6w) 3) 3) (8. on the bicubic Bezierpatch.IU) .I \320\270 8.3 A 3 \317\207 5 tells us ARRAY RECTANGULAR OF CONTROL POINTS of a patch that is described by an array a to be This allows surface control points relatively complex square.4 = - - + P\302\253 \320\240\320\274 p44) \316\241\316\212\316\244 9(\317\2013\316\257 to the corner that only the four control points at and adjacent at that corner (see Figure8.2).

the Points \342\226\240 221 .3 S \317\207 3 Bezier patch. Figure B.2 Control points influencing twist vectorat a patch corner. + \320\240\320\263\320\263) \342\226\240\321\200\320\2325-9(\320\240\321\206-\320\240\320\263'-\320\24015 Figure B.A3 \317\207 5 Rectangular Array of Control \320\240\320\263\321\215 \320\240\320\263\320\263 \320\240\320\263.

Pl2 Pll \320\240\320\273 p:2 P32 P31 The of a advantage a change that in the Thus.222 Surfaces \342\226\240 Bezier curve along boundariesw a five-point and = 0 \320\270 along boundary = 0 w= 1.4 6u\\\\-u)2 4ti'7(l-t() 4u(\\-uf p(u. FORMS or UM^PM^W7 Hermite for the and vice (8. matrices MF and Mg are the Bezier to Hermite we To convert from B.14) p3i Pji Psi For the patch itself. obtaining B=Mf-1MflPMBr[M/]-1 solve .\342\204\226) w1] 2w(\\-w) [(l-\302\273')2 (8. end slopes. Pl3 23 \316\241 five-point boundary hence CONVERTING u\"] third or middlepoint slope at eitherend. convert versa. The and equation for the is Pi \316\271 = p(0.17) MfBMi=M\302\253PM|\" where is curve affect the without changing the the bicubic Bezier to the bicubicHermiteform. transformation respectively.w)=[(\\-u)4 basis function Bezier.16) simply.13) piz pis Along w = 0we obtain Pn p:i p(ti. maintaining 8.0)= [(l-(()J 4u(\\-uf 4u\\\\-u) 6u2(\\-u)2 t(4] (8. we begin with the mathematical statementof this equivalence.15) w) w2 can curve over a four-point of the curve be changed adjacent with continuity BICUBIC BEZIER AND BETWEEN HERMITE does not from UMpBM/'W^ or more patches. (8. To (1-w)2 2w(l - \316\241\316\2573 P41 PJ2 pJ3 p5l p52 p5:i shape patch (8.

/? (8.18) Here we see expressed in polyhedron.. . the degree in the w \"*-ui*- 1 direction: i = 0. jn = 0. We begin hy adding control points a way that does not change the shape of the patch. We can the w curves.) 9(Pii-p4i-p32 3(p\302\253-p34) \342\226\240 223 that 3(p4i 3(p24-p|4) 3(p2|-p]]) 3(p4i~p3i) Surface Bezier a in - pi4 + p44> p43 (8..Degree Elevation After B = matrix algebra. + '-^r j = 0 .2). . process appliesto convert from A similar P = 8.m \316\267 + I (8. control more Thus.\342\200\236 \342\200\236 \316\243 \316\243^\316\233-^\316\271\316\257\") flii\302\273(\". . Mi'MfBM/[Mj]-1 A BEZIER IN ELEVATION DEGREE to Bezier.() Solving for \316\247\316\206\317\206\316\256 produces = 1\320\233\320\240* m + 1 \342\226\240P-i. respectively.21) .)=XZpA\"-(u)^(w) = 111=0 = \316\271 \320\263-(). The processis analogousto that defining to curves Bezier Section (see applied 4.19) SURFACE the manipulate of a Bezier surface raises the degreeof the shape This. \316\240. or increase the numberof controlpoints the both.. of boundary The the the that tangent of terms points vectors tangent while polyhedron. the patch... +I .The douhleindex the number of times the degree-elevation procedure has been applied indicates to each parametric To elevate direction. . + i I.20) on the left superscript upper (see Equation [4.+ (' = 1- m+ 1 j 0. . begin by equating shapes defining polynomial \320\270 curves. Hermite points.10]). are equivalently the characteristic defining the vertices of are given solely in terms of pointson the the interior points contributeonly to the twist vectors and vectors twist vectors.S A way to extend our requires adding to ability (8.To elevate the in degree the of the Bezier patch in the \320\270 we two direction. we find the required performing Pn Pi4 P41 p4J 3(pi:-pn) p41) 3(\321\200|4-\321\200]\320\267) - p4j) 3(p44 + p24) + 9(\321\200\320\277-\321\2002|-\321\2001\320\263 \321\200\320\263\320\263) 9(pii-p23-pl4 9(p3i + p4. of course.

.4. : to be collinear.\321\200. Palch Pll a 3 \317\207 3 adjacent shown Patch 1 \316\241 13 \316\241 2 1 I. \316\271 1 \342\226\240\316\271 \316\231 Pi \316\271 P41 \320\240\321\215\321\215 pj Li* \320\240\320\267\320\263 -\342\200\22411 \316\271. is idealized as a rectangular grid in Figure 8.. x 7 rectangular array of control points defining a composite two-patch The surface.\316\223_- \316\271 \316\271 \320\240\320\263\321\215 \320\240\320\2634| \320\240\320\263> \320\240\320\263\320\263 1 \316\271 .4.To points \317\201. \320\240\320\263\320\265 \320\240\320\2637 \320\24035 \316\241\302\253\316\271 \316\241\302\253 \316\2414\316\257 ! | j \316\24146 .\321\200.4...5].4 G1 continuity bicubic must patches as solid circles in defining the curve across two Bezierpatches. Thus .\320\267. . \321\217 + 1 1~- 1). . of Bezier patches.224 \342\226\240 Bezier Surfaces both at Doing Pi . (' e[l must We this other 4] easily generalize [\321\200.\302\253+1 n + 1 (8. \317\201.4.22) 8.5). _--_\317\204 1 \316\231 - P\302\253 . arrangements Consider a compositesurfaceconstructed by Bezier patches (see Figure 8. share control points along theirjoiningboundary. \316\241 \316\241>4 \317\204-- -\316\271 array of 2 \316\241 6 \317\201 7 ..6 COMPOSITE BEZIER SURFACES A simple geometricconstraint allowsus to assemble Bezier patches into with Consider more complex compositesurfaces at least \320\241 the 4 continuity. \320\240\320\2557 \316\24147 \316\223 Set of collinear points / '\" Points boundary Figure B.The common array control curve is defined ensure at boundary by pw..and of least G1 continuity across this all four sets three points boundary. . p34.m +1 .For G\302\260 continuity.U 1 - = \316\234\316\241\342\200\236 m+ once produces a patch of degree(m m+ 1 1 - \316\271 Pi- \320\270 P'j Pij-i + 1) \317\207 + (\316\267 i = 0.

1 \316\2311 ' \342\200\224\"Tt H^ \320\223 Patch Bezier Rational \342\226\240 225 u \316\267 \316\223 \316\212 - J L hU \320\263 \316\267 L ' . \" ~ (8. \342\226\240 j \316\271 \321\201 j 1 \316\271 1 1 1 r-i \320\263 \316\212 \317\200 I \316\223 n 1 1 LJ 1 1 L L J \320\263 points tangent the same 8. G1 continuous continuity throughout boundaries must thus L J J across tangents defining corresponding II B. the control be collinear.The properties of the and effects on patch are direct for the rational Bezier of those analogs shape it is . is the but weights curve. Bj\342\200\236(w) \316\243 \316\243\316\233</\316\241\316\206\"'(\") ' n(u.w)= This patch.7 G1 least vectors \342\226\240 the same have 1 3x3 array.23) central projection of a four-dimensionaltensorproduct hypernot itself a tensor product. RATIONAL BEZIERPATCH The rational Bezier patch is expressed as J'J I.For at \316\271\316\271 1 J the surface. but not necessarily magnitude. The direction. h4 ji.5 Composite Figure the figure.

24) simply h. 2XpA\302\253K) p. One way to evaluate curves and points on this patch proceeds = w.. h{\\jim \317\210 l. corresponding . as the control points and In general.25) weights that describing the w we may need to repa- .226 Surfaces \342\226\240 Bezier as follows. . p. including computing corresponding Thus. ^r to each p. and h. points the We each of these curves at w evaluate w\342\200\236. is (8..j>>AK) We = the interpret wa curve on rameterize. the surface.\342\200\236we w each For a curve of constantparametervalue. \316\271\316\267 \320\270 the characteristic as control points (or each row.m 0. if \320\270\321\214) polyhedron control the characteristic defining polygon of a rational Bezier curve.\342\226\240 and the weight /\320\263.so (8. treat column of say. weight.. = = .

K(u) points and and are =0 the NhL(w) are the vertices of the characteristic basis functions.2) knot values are requiredand that the control Nh.. each of same basis-function the respectively.{w) array. and that and two sets of + (\320\273 1) points form an (m + 1) \317\207 . using Equations (5. and knot tj values just select as for recursively.The degreeof is controlled by \320\232 and L. NiK(ii) compute Notice L.like the Bezier Furthermore. the approximates polyhedron. we define the B-Spline surface.1 THE SURFACE B-SPLINE PRODUCT TENSOR product equationof the B-Splinesurface The tensor = 0/ \316\257 The p. We (5. m.3). 9.SURFACES B-SPLINE of a B-Spline surface follows directly from the equationof a This Spline relationship is analogous to that between Beziercurves and surfaces.we the is and the values curves. t.and they are the for B-Spline curves. nonperiodjc B-Spline surface. The approximation is weakerthe higher the degree. of K. n. in terms of a characteristic polyhedron. are polyhedron. The equation B- curve..The shapeof the surface surface. The as those polynomials For a compute control N.

t /e[i-l :s je[t-\\ :t+L-2] :m+l] K-2] (9.w) 1e UMsP^M^W + 2 . then Pkl The matrix curve.2 Surfaces \342\226\240 B-Spline FORM MATRIX The matrix form for the B-Spline surface segments [5. of to compute patcheson the an 1) rectangular B-Spline curveis computedin the parametric variable \320\270 (see on the variables square parametric periodic B-Spline array of points is open. A unit [5-15].j is. then . Ms 9.14]. dimensions of the matrices. form that we to the similar Recall that the curve.228 9.Let p. rolled must reflect this . Equations u w and matrix general surface that approximates an (m + 1) \317\207 (\316\267 se[\\:m+2-K\\ = pD(u.the s and t identify a particular patch in the surface.4) I] points necessary particular patch to be evaluated. The matrixU is where the parameters L denote \320\232 and = \320\270 \320\270\320\272~\320\263 \320\2701] [\320\272*-' (9.( to these denote fill PKL matrix elements. and. Therange on s and r is a function of the parameters \320\232and L and the the rectangular dimensions of array of control points.3) W is and wL~2 - w \\\316\275-[\316\271\316\275\302\243-] Elements of the depend on the of control matrix \316\232 \317\207 L full (9.1] of the that control the continuity the of the basis-function surface. B-Spline a unit is B-Spline The surface.23]). consequently. is used equation + the for developed of interval on and [5.5) matrix for the B-Spline SURFACES closed\342\200\224that and i. degree polynomials. if .ve[l + transformation to the B-Spline surfaceis partially tube\342\200\224then the w is = pj into an closure. For open-ended example.3 OPEN CLOSED AND If the identical the B-SPLINE ranges on s.constant curvesare closed.L] [1 : \316\267 (9-2) \320\275.\320\270>\320\265[0.

3 L^i \316\241 \316\241 1 K = L=3 = 4 .i = 5 1 m \316\274- 1. --* | 1 1 __ 1 in ^ jj = 2 1 1 I 1 1 \316\271 ( ) .\342\200\224.1 -\316\227* \316\241 3. \342\200\224\320\276 \"\316\244 1. i 1 \320\223 2. the when mod (m + 1)] K-2) the wc idealize an array of control points and with a two-dimensional diagram.3 1.^-\342\200\224.1 3.\316\225.2 'J 2.6) \320\270 are closed.L\302\267.1 \320\263 \316\257 .6 \317\201\342\200\224 \316\2414.1 \316\241\"\342\200\224*\342\226\240\316\223 P. idealizations.1 2.Open and ie [I :n+2-L] i e [(s - +\\):(x 1) je[r-l :T+L-2] Similar a characteristic some grid.3 \316\244\" \342\200\224J 3. arrangingthe points Solid lines represent the edges of the facesof the produce rectangular + (m figures following they patches on mod apply expressions In the Closed B-SplineSurfaces\342\226\240 229 . .J 0>) Figure 9.2 \316\2522. (9. lines Dashed polyhedron. boundaries. curves constant lines these ' overlap. For the dashed lines \342\226\240\342\200\224 .1 Open quadric B-Spline surface idealizations. the patch represent when this happens.2 3. \321\214 -j (a) Po. .

230 \342\226\240 B-Spljne Surfaces is patches are lightly shaded to highlightthem.this technique between for exploring the effects of parameterson the relationship useful of the All at some the control points and patches. surface .s \302\267 <\320\254) Figure 9.The instancesof Equation (9.' m.2 Open cubic B-Spline idealizations.2). \". are surfaces generated by specific B-Spline following periodic examples are shown. Let us look examples.

then a 2 \317\207 to the result obtained this for the quadricsurface (see Figure9.= 5 m \320\23131 = A = 5 \302\253 1 \342\226\240 \321\202*\320\240\321\207 4.Open Closed and B-Spline Surfaces \342\226\240 231 This surface quadric B-Splinesurfaceis produced.1a). patches = L = 4. \321\203 1 K = l. points results (see Figure 9. a C1 continuily 9.4 and \316\267 = If m a x 3 4 then of control 5.1 \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\200\224 -< -i I > _ \302\267 1 ^. .compare When exhibits in Figure \320\232 L .compare = of patches 3 array is produced Bezier surfaces.1 b).2a).If in = 4 and \316\267 5.C2continuity at all points on this surface and requires a minimum 4x4 of exisls array to the bicubic this Hermite and control poinls (see Figure 9. \302\267 \342\200\224i Pj.3. array (see Figure 9. a 3x3 and minimum of array throughout requires . m = it = A \320\226 m \321\210\302\260\320\230 i (a) 9* \320\233 \342\200\224\342\200\2240 Po.0 (b) Figure 9.1b.o Po.f \320\255 \342\200\224 u .3 Open surface quartic B-Spline idealizations. a bicubic \320\232 When B-Spline surface is produced.2b).

'\316\271.6 0 1 1 1I < \342\200\224\"\342\200\224p .more particularly evident along the patch regions.4 Open quintic B-Spline surface idealizations..----Ml \316\275\302\267\"-.3and of the basis-function surfaces that as the degree controlpoints each define and control-point It is example.232 Surfaces \342\226\240 B-Sp|jne Quartic Notice are shown in Figure 9.. quintic surfaces in Figure 94. \302\273_\342\200\224.--\342\226\240-.6 '. a array is This patch. . ' \342\226\240 -* \342\226\2401 f 1 . \302\273\342\200\224\342\226\240\342\200\224 \316\227 ( <' (a) Pe. For surface often more efficient to definea B-Spline ruled surface may require second-derivative continuity in one para\342\226\240. . L. \342\200\224\320\276 (\320\254) Figure 9. boundary with K = L.\302\267> \342\200\224\342\200\224. -J .\342\200\224 -___J t\342\200\224- \320\236 \342\226\240 1 - . >\342\200\224 .-\342\226\240:\342\226\240 \316\275 : \342\226\240 \342\226\2401 \342\200\224* \342\226\240 1 \342\200\224 \342\226\240. polynomials increases.

1 m . \342\200\224Q 1. + and 81 for a 4 \317\207 The 4 array. edges a 2 \317\207 An bicubic open.\320\236 \320\240\320\276\320\273 Figure 9. A in closed partially (9. points defining an np np \317\207 As + If the of patches. B-Spline surface .7) where K = L. \317\2000 na na increases. (n\342\200\2363)2 approaches n\\. x 3 patch array The w = 4 \320\232 - and constant \342\226\240 233 A other.5.( \342\200\224\320\271 Pi. A 3 \317\207 a x 36 control and 4 4 49 control requires poinls.6). cubic-quadricB-Spline first-derivative continuity suffices for surface is shown in Figure9.3 .With m patch array is produced. 64 for a 3 \317\207 np (na 5)2.Openand Closed Surfaces B-Spline metric while direction. then we need 49 conlrolpoinls for of patches = 3 array. periodic B-Spline surface (K L = 4) definedover 2 of patches 3 array of patches array requires 25 control points. = curves are closed. -\320\254\342\200\224\320\247 r B. the \320\270 two-dimensional idealization is shownin Figure and a 9.6c.\317\200 11.Only 20 control points produce the surface in 9. constant are open. array requires points.6) Equation a4 to produce results when surface B-Spline (see Figure 9. Notice the characteristic Figure complex polyhedron whose and vertices (control points) are superimposed.3 I K-4 J (\342\200\224-.6b. array a 2 \317\207 2 array are biquintic.S Open cubic-quadric idealizations. where patches.6a three-dimensional one in Figure 9. A curves numberof controlpointsisrelatedto polynomials the degree of the basis-function by np^{nu + K-\\f (9. the -n -4. t.We that + find where is the number of control (na 3)2.3 2. with m = 3 and \317\200 4.2 | \342\226\240 . Here.a2x3 we imposethe conditions = L = 3.

:--\342\226\240 \316\223\316\216. preserve not propagated B-Spline throughout surface suitable the entire for use in surface. [\302\267\321\215.\317\206.\342\226\240 \342\226\240\320\263.\316\271r-.\\\316\220:\302\267. environment.\316\271'\302\267.1-:\302\267 \\: .\342\226\240 .\302\267. 1.3 4. np-na(na One arbitrarily from advantage degrees high the properties shape of a of B-Spline surface is modeling + (9.3.V. \320\240\320\276\320\264 Figure 9.' \316\271. . = 3 \321\210 .\316\271. = \320\273\321\202.2 \342\204\242=~4\" -:-.i. \316\223 L=3 \" * \"\316\244 \317\204\"? \316\244 .\302\267.1 \316\212...Iv\" ' ' I f 1 \342\226\240'\342\226\240 \302\243\342\226\240::\342\226\240 2..\302\267\302\267.3 4.!\342\226\240..6 closed B-Spline Partially If the surfaceis partially then closed.t.T \342\226\240: \316\244 ~vl. an ..\316\271 .This follows directly of the B-Spline curves. 2.\342\226\240t'-ij:..\302\267 j.3.3 3.2\302\267'-}.2 |. Also.4.234 Surfaces \342\226\240 B-Spllne \320\240\320\276. [-\342\226\240'..\320\263 j 4.\320\263...:. any in the local change These characteristicsmakethe interactive surface.\" :.\342\226\240..\320\273 \342\200\224\320\276\342\200\224 \342\200\224a- ' ..\302\2673.\".\316\244\302\273\"\"\302\267-' \316\252\"4: \302\267\317\210 4.8) K-l) the B-Spline formulation is its ability to of continuity over complex surfaces.. 1 \". 1.

surface.4 The NURBSsurfaceis.like projection product The hypersurface. which Ml values rational model three-dimensional into \342\226\240 235 B-SPLINE SURFACES RATIONAL NONUNIFORM B-Spline Surfaces the and surface weights and control points. of and discusses t he Tiller by Piegl problem (1987). Piegl (1989d) the of a rational B-Spline surface directly from its definition.w) where the increases control corresponding detail modifying using are weights. increasingthe the it toward of the surface.Rational Nonuniform 9. curve the apply generally - P(m.9) weight points. including discussed are in and ruled torus.pulling As with the fullness surface. general sphere. four-dimensional tensor characteristics of the NURBS (9. cylinder. . the central is expressedas rl \320\251\320\234 the rational curves. shape Curve circular hif Bezier space of a underlying geometric to the surface. the constructions using rational B-Splines.

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in mathematics and this we the However.v. shape supporting of even assemblies complex and SOLIDS PARAMETRIC Perhaps the model a solid the scheme.SOLIDS do not solids are limited because they modeling the cannot internal interior of solid.w) x=x(u. and solids generated by some parameterized of nonlinear Mortenson transformation. can to use of functions form where the parametric M.w) to the interval constrained coordinates of the set of points are as interior.These functions comprising the solid. and Appendix \320\241 (1995) valuable discussions for solid transformations.1 the for methods solids are creating not Boolean simple solid shapes.we[0. investigate geometry ior techniques Many represent the a more supporting complete simple in the sensethat otherwise instances form provide 10. constructions or simpler solids.v. For many purposes they the homogeneity adequate.w) variables define as well u. continuous. They represent propertiesor offer of representing behavior.l]. The discussionhereincludes solids.v. The termshyperpatch and para- 237 .1) z(u.v.v. exterior z= y-y(u. The techniques assume total internal ways internal are of model.w the (10. solid-representation There are severalwell-known simplest is by and most direct mathematicalapproachwe single-valued three-parameter. chapter. sweeps.

23\320\222 \342\226\240
Solids

the
are often used interchangeably, although historically
term
a
has
narrower meaning.
hyperpatch
We
will
the mathematics
of these solids as we did for curves
and
develop
surfaces.
In doing this, we find that fixing the value of one of the parametric
variablesresults in a surface within or on the boundary of the solid in terms
this process
of the other
two variables, which remain free.We continue
for
first
for one variable
any number of arbitrary valuesin the allowedinterval,

solid

metric

each of the others in
of three two-parameter
families
each point p(\302\253,v,w) there passes
and then for

called

of

a parametric

network of cells

the solid.

Through
of each family.
These
surfaces, indicating a surface within
throughout

one surface

just

isoparametric

As
one of the three parametricvariablesis constant.
with
and surfaces, the positive sense on any surface
is the sense in which

curves

the free parametersincrease.
with

Associated
Figure

forming
surfaces

on which

solid

the

sometimes

are

surfaces

turn,

The

10.1).

set

is a set of boundary
8 corner points,the

solid

a parametric

consists

of the

elements
12

curves

(see

defining

the

the tangent
include
edges, and the 6 patches definingthe faces.Others
twist
the
and
face
vectors and
vectors
of
patches.
edge curves
For
an
solid, there are always eight and
only
ordinary
parametric
eight
corner
points: p(0,0,0), p( 1,0,0),p{0,1.0),p(0,0,l),p(l,l,0),p(l,0,l),
p(0,l,l),

andp(l,l,l).
The

obtain

edge

them

curves

are functions

by allowing

three parametricvariables.
We
the variablesto remainfree while succes-

of one of the

one of

Face surlace

\316\241
100

Figure

10.1

Parametric

solid boundary

elements.

239
ParametricSolids \342\226\240

of the other two at their limiting
combinations
values. This
fixing
results in the 12 possiblecombinations
the
functions
of the
yielding
defining
12 parametric edge curves
\321\200(\321\206.1,0),\321\200(\321\206,0,1),
\321\200(\320\274,1,1),
p(G>,0),
p(u,0,0),

sively

and

\317\201(0,\316\275,1),\317\201(1,\316\275,1),
\317\201(\317\213,\317\213,\316\271\316\275),
\317\201(1,0,w), p(0,l,w),
\316\241(1,\316\275,0),

The

them

obtain

We

faces

bounding

successively

fixing

results

in the

by allowing
the

p(0,v,w),

p(u,l,w),

remaining

six possible permutationsyielding
and

p(l ,v,w).
a rectangular

represent

equations

followingparametric

\317\201(\316\272,\316\275,\316\231),
\317\201(\316\272,\316\237,\316\275\316\275)
\317\201(\316\272,\316\275,\317\213),

solid is the simplestexample(seeFigure

A rectangular

\317\201(1,1,\316\271\316\275).

of two of the three parametricvariables.
two of the variables to remain free while
This
values.
variable to each of its two limiting

are functions

]0.2).The

solid in an x,y,z coordinate

system:
\317\207

(b

y

=

-

a)u + a
+ c

(d-c)v

z = (f-e)w
example

define

not

also

all the

Here
cubic

points interior to it.
the

introduce

we

parametric

e

an important feature. These parametricequations
illustrates
ofthe solid,
only the points comprising the boundingelements

This

the

+

(10.2)

w,v,we[0,l]

and
solids

tricubic

forms for
and the
general,

bicubic
in

Figure

10.2

but

Hermite solid. It is a natural continuationof
on
curves and surfaces.The literature
tricubic model in particular,is sparse,espe-

Rectangular

parametric

solid.

240

\342\226\240
Solids

on the lower-dimension
formsof
a
it
area
is
fertile
for
However,
development,
a
is
a
where
greater analytic potential
requiredof solidmodel.This potential
has already
been amply demonstrated by Stanton and Gain (1974)
andTimet al. (1970) in the areas of structural mechanicsand
ablation
thermomer,
and aerodynamics.
Also see Lasser's (1985)Bemstein-Bezier
representation
of solids.
Earlier
limits on research and developmentof solid-modeling
of this
techniques
type were due to the thenseeminglymassivedata requirements.
have nearly removed this constraint.
current
resources
However,
computing
when

cially

to research

compared

functions.

multivariate
interpolation

10.2 THETR1CUB1C
SOLID
The

form

algebraic

tricubic solid
3
3 3

of a

p(u,v,w) = J^
=
/

the

of

source

the

\320\270,v,we

\316\243a^ifVw*

() / = (>* = ()

equation:

following

(10.3)

[0,1]

are the algebraic coefficients of the solid.Noticethe
term tricubic: Each of the three parametric
variables

a:jk vectors

The

J

is given by

obvious

can

cubic term. The parametricvariables
are restricted
u,v,w
by
appear
in the interval 0 to 1, inclusive.
This
definition
to values
restriction
makes
We will explore this
solid bounded in a regular way
by cubic
patches.
as a

situation

this section.

in

later

When we
polynomials

There
consists
coefficients

are

perform the indicatedsummationand expansion
x(u,v,w), we obtain
\342\226\240
=
+ flmri(Vw2 + \342\226\240
+ amx
iimiH W
x(u,v,w)

similar

expressions

for y(u,v,w)

64 terms, which means
times this,
available
is three
we

of

the

cubic

in u,v,w for

of

Next,

the

write

these

coefficients

notation:
p(M,v.w)

the

that

and z(u,v,w).Each expression

total

of algebraic

number

or 192 coefficients.
in a more compact

- a^juW

+a32iU3v2wi

+ a3i2iiVW
+

(\320\256.4)

+

form using vector

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
+

a_130ii3v3

\342\226\240
\342\226\240
\342\226\240

+\320\260(\320\250

This
but perhaps we can do even
is an improvement,
matrix notation. We are now confronted
with a modest
we
have
an extra
dimension.
With
parametric
three-component

(10.5)
belter

if we

use

complication, since
vectors

and

The Tricubic

lo

\342\226\240
241

are more

cumbersome.
variables, the matrices
independent
parametric
the product
cubic polynomials
in \320\270
and
of the first and second
matrix
form as UA\342\200\236,
and
reduce
the
so
third polynomial A\342\200\236Wr, lhal
V,

three
We

Solid

reduce

\316\275

lo

-

p(M,v,w)

4JA\342\200\236,.VrA,,Wr

(10.6)

where

U =

[u3

\\ = [v3

for

(10.7)

1]

w

1]

more complex than the analogousequation

is considerably

(10.6)

1]

\316\2752\316\275

w2

W-[w3
Equation

\320\2702 it

surfaces.

Here

way to indexEquation(10.3):

is another

=
P(\".v,h>)

X

/=1

This

equation

is compatible

\316\243 \316\243 V\302\2734\"'^\"^4\"*
;= 1 \320\272=1

with the

one we will

and
more acceptable form of tensor
this
by
simplify
dropping the summationsigns and
lhal for cubics the range of the indicesis from
1 to
p1(lw

The same

=

The

approach applies lo the

a repealed
/-\"terms

are

notation.

We

adopting

the

can further
convention

4. so that
(10.9)

a(,tu4-'v4-V-1
form

geometric

=
\342\226\240
\316\241
F,(u)

where

the

for

encounter

it is a

geometric
form,

(\320\256.8)

\317\206)

(10.10)

Fk(w)bllk

subscript implies summation.
the Hermile
basis functions Fl; F2,

F3,

F4. as

determined

by

is
the subscripted index and in terms of the specified
variable.
parametric
\320\252,)\320\272
of boundary conditions or geometricvectors.
the array
Notice
that
and
a,/lt
are
vectors.
4 or 64 algebraic
Again, there are 4 x 4 \317\207
\320\252\321\206\320\272
three-eomponent
sothat there are 192 algebraic coefficients
vectors and 64 geometricveetors,

coefficients.
and, of course, 192geometric
Considerthe b,y( terms. How do we interpret them? Although we will
more
formal procedures for doing this in the last section
of this
investigate
for
now
we
will
lo
their
empirical
apply
analysis
chapter,
interpretation.
Because the indiceson the
F terms, we can draw
some
functions

as

they

apply

b array

are

conclusions

to curves

with
those
coordinated
from our knowledge

we

establish

some

on the

of these basis

and surfaces.

First we must have a frame of reference,so from
parameter
space

indices

nomenclature

the

unit

cube

(see Figure 10.3).

At

in
each

of

the

242

\342\226\240
Solids

0O1

(a)
10.3

Figure

eight

corners,

itself,

three

64 vectors.
and
\317\201(1,\317\213,1)

on the

coefficients

unit

cube.

following boundary conditions:the comerpoint
vectors, three twist vectors, and a vector definedby the
partial derivative of the function. There are 8 vectors
at each of the 8 comers,resulting
in a total
conditions
of

boundary

defining

Geometric

we find the
tangent
mixed

third-order

(b)

Here is an example,arbitrarily
the eight

listing

boundary

comer

Pioi

comer

the

choosing

defined

by

condition vectors:

point

'
p',V

tangent

\316\241\317\212\316\277\316\271

jLJLA.

vectors

du

dv'dw

\316\241\317\212\317\214\316\271

\316\241\317\212\316\257\316\271

\320\240\320\270\320\273

twist vectors
dudv'dudw'dvdw

PlOl

triple mixedpa

10]
\316\241

Now, we return to the problemof interpreting
Similar representationand expansion
for

clues.

Thus,

for

-?\342\200\224

I

dudvdw
the

of the b array
surfaces offer more

elements

and

curves

we have

curves

(10.11)

which we

expand to
-

\317\201

F,(u)b[

+ F2(u)b2

+ fi(a)b3

+

FA(u)b4

(10.12)

The Tricubic

and

Solid

as

interpret

=

+

+

+
/\320\255\320\224\320\240\302\273
\316\241 \320\222\320\224\321\200\320\276
\320\227\320\224\321\200'/
\320\222\320\224\321\200!

boundary
look at this

Now

obvious.

development
-

(10-13)

vectors to elements of the b, array

condition

curve

Assigning

\342\226\240
243

(10.14)

/vO)b,y

F,(u)

\317\201

is

surfaces:

for

which we expandto
-

\316\241

F,(w)bu

F(u)

+ F(u)

+F2(u) F,(w)b2, +

F2(w)bl2+

F3(w)bn

+ F2(u)

F2(w)b22

F2(u)

F,(u)

F^w)^

+F3(u)

F^w)^

+ F3(u)

F2(w)b22+ F3(u)F^w)^

+F,(u)

F^w)^

+

F2(w)bi2

FA(u)

+ FA(u)

ft(w)b\302\253

+ F^u)

F,(w)bu

+ F2{u)\320\240\320\273(\321\213)\320\25423
+

F3(u)

+ F,(u)

F,(w)b^

F,(w)bAi

(10.15)

as

and interpret
=

+

\316\241 F^u)

+ F^u)

F2(w)Pl)l

\320\233(\342\204\226)\321\200\320\274
Ft(u)

+ F2(u)

F2(w)pu +

+

Fziwfth

+ FA(u)

/?2(w)pl1'1+

+F2(u)

/?1(w)p10

+F,(u)

^\320\230\321\200\320\271\320\276
F3(u)

+F,(u)

F,(w)P\"o

+

ft(w)pK, + Ft(u) Ft(w)p^

F2(u)F3(w)tf0+ F2(u) fi(w)p\302\267;,
F3(u) F3(w)v-%+ F3(u)FA(w)$Z
FA(u)

FA(u)

ft(w)pff+

F^W

(10.16)

Assigning boundary conditionvectorsto the
obvious

by

comparing

simply

Some

generalizations

that when

elements

of the

b}, array

(10.15) and (10.16) term for
these equations first lead us

Equations
based on

the indices of the basis functionsof a termare

all

less

is

term.

to observe
than

3, then

the associated b vectordenotesa point.
when one, and only one. of
Second,
the indicesof a term is 3 or 4, then the associatedb vectordenotesa tangent
when two, and only two, of the indices
are
3 or 4, then the
vector.Third,
associated
b vector
denotes
a twist vector (second-order mixed partial
in the case of a tricubic solid,threeindices
of a term
are
when,
derivative). Fourth,
3 or 4, then the associated
b vector denotes
that
defined by the thirdvector

order mixedpartialderivative
Next, we must find a rule
of constructing

method

current

empirical

following

the

of

the

interpretation:

function

p(w,v,w).

b vectoris applied.Our
arrays of geometric coefficientssuggeststhe
a zero,
For each odd index on b, assign

to tell

us where the

even index, assigna one.
to test these observations on someexamples.
ready
that
then
the index is less than 3, we find
it
given \320\254\320\263, because

for each

and

Now

curve,

we

are

For

denotes

a

a

244 -

Solids

point.

index is even, we assign a one to the geometric
a tri cubic solid,
For a sur face,given bAi, we obtain \317\201\317\2120.
For

the

because

And

is p,.

result

coefficient; the

given bl3l,we find

it denotes

that

from

transformation

The

\321\200'\321\210.

to algebraic

geometric
4

V-\316\243

4

coefficientsis given by

4

\316\243 \316\243 \320\234\342\200\236\320\234;,\320\257\320\234,\320\220\320\250|(10.17)

- 1 \316\271\316\271
= l
I = 1 \321\202

compactly as

or more

=

\320\260\321\206\320\272
\320\234\320\260\320\251\320\277\320\234\320\272\320\277\320\2521\321\202\320\260
(10.18)
\320\234
\320\235\320\265\320\263\320\265
is the

Stanton
the

denote

indices

subscripted

64

transformation
matrix, and the various
elements
of the matrix.
specific
a slightly different approach, treating
(1974)
developed
us to
as 4 sets of 16 parameters.This
allows
parameters

Crain

and

hyperpatch

more easily the basis-function properties and
patches and hyperpatches. They beginby defining

understand
between

forms: the

equivalent

form where p(u,v.w)

ables.The
as

F\",(u),

the

familiar

is

at tbe

requires

triple

following

and

algebraic

given

thus

form

point

given

basis

Hermite

p(w,v,w)

Point form:

p(\302\253,v,w)

=

basis

and a

but

point

summations:

Geometric form:

are

distinct

forms,

points of the parametric vari64 points to be complete.Theseformsare

p(w,v,w)

F\302\243(w)

relationship

three

one-third

Algebraic form:

F\"(v),

geometric

the

functions

defined

Ff(u)

Ff(v)

Fl(w)al}k

(10.19)

F?(u)

Ff(v)

Ft(w)bljk

(10.20)

Ff(u)

Fj^v)

\320\257\320\230\321\200,,*

(10.21)

applied

to the

algebraic coefficients,

by

Fi(u)
F$(u)

=

\320\2703

= u2

(10.22)

Fi(u) =

and similarly
Ff(u),
coefficients,

\316\275
and

for

Ff(v),
defined

1

w.

F*(w) are basis functionsappliedto the
by

Fftu)

=

F%(u) =

2\302\253s

-2u2 +

3u2 + 1
u2

geometric

Tricubic

The

F%(u)

=

F%(u)

and

for

similarly
Finally.

coefficients,

/*?(\302\253),

defined

\316\275
and

Ff(v),

w. Equations
F((w)

= ri3

are

-

2u2

Solid

\342\226\240
245

(10.23)

+ \320\270

- \320\2702
\316\257\316\2573

(10.23) are
basis functions

simply from F - UM.
applied to the point

by

(10.24)

and similarly
We

are

for

free

\316\275
and

w>.

to contract

(10.24)

Equations

are from

- UN.

F

If we
coordinates.
any of the three parametric

a
for w. then we write the geometriccoefficients
in
element arrays.Wc denote
these
as the matrices
arrays

this

sequence

of four

do

16-

-

\320\262. [\321\214,71]

-

\320\2622 [\320\260\320\264

(10.25)

-

\320\262, [\320\260\320\264

=

\320\262, [\320\260\320\264

We

expand

them

\\fim
as follows:

pooo

B,=

B,=

\320\240\320\276\321\216
\321\200\320\276\321\216
\321\200'\320\276\321\216

Pioo

\321\200\320\270\320\276
\320\240\320\272\321\216
\317\201\317\212\316\212\316\277
\342\200\236III\302\267
\302\253\317\207\316\271
in
\317\214
\316\241
\316\241
\316\241\317\213\316\257\316\267
\321\200\320\276\321\216

pv>

(\316\234 \316\241
\320\275\320\276
\316\241'\316\257,\317\213
\316\241\316\231

pooi

\320\240\320\276\320\270
Pom

pioi

pin

mi
\316\241

\321\200\320\276\320\270
\317\201'\316\257\316\271\316\271

\321\200\320\270\320\273 Pitoi
\316\241'\316\277\316\257\316\271
\321\200\320\263
\316\267\"1'
\316\241\316\252\316\277>
Pioi
\317\201'\316\257\316\271\316\220
plli

(10.26)
\317\201\316\257\316\272\317\212\316\277
pom
\321\200\320\266\321\216
pom

Pun

\320\262,-

pioo
\316\241'\316\257\316\277\316\277
\320\240\320\277\320\276
nv
\342\200\236\320\270
\342\200\236III.
p \302\253\316\272\316\271
\320\240\320\276\321\216
\321\200(\320\232\320\256
Pnii)
\342\200\224
II HI'
\342\200\236H1V\320\270\320\2701111
\316\241
Piwi
\320\240\320\277\320\276
_ pino

\320\271\320\277
\316\241
\316\241\316\271\316\220\316\271\316\271
\317\201\317\214\316\277\316\271
\321\200\320\276\320\270

111
\320\222,-

KU
III
\316\241
\316\241
\316\241\317\212\316\277\316\271
\321\200\320\242\320\275
\342\200\224
\320\235\320\230'
\320\274\320\270
(\302\253\320\270
\316\241
\316\241
\316\241\316\252)\316\212\316\212

pun

\316\267\"\"\"'

\320\232\320\230
. \316\241
\316\241',\",\", \316\241\317\212\316\277\316\271
Pin

in a three-dimensional
think of these equations as being
organized
as
We
must
in
of
in
10.4.
vectors,
mind, however, that
array
Figure
keep
are
the
each
the
because
elementsof
vectors,
array is more correctly 4
array
x 4 x 4 x 3, a four-dimensional array.
a similar approach
with the point form, contractingthe third
We
take
w
and
variable
expressing the point-form coefficientsas a
parametric
We denote these arrays as the matrices
arrays.
sequenceof four 16-element
We

can

=

and

expand

=

=

\321\2001 [\321\200\320\224
V2-[Pifl],

\320\240\321\215
\320\253,

(10.27)

\321\2004 [\321\200\342\200\236\321\207]

as follows

\317\200\342\204\242
\316\241\316\277\316\271\316\271
\321\200\320\254,
\316\241?\342\200\236
\317\201\316\232

pS\302\273

Pcoi

\320\240\320\260\321\216
POIQ

Pioo

\317\201\342\204\242
\320\240\320\276\321\216
&
\316\241\317\213\316\223\316\277

Pq\342\200\236Pool

PSoo

VW
\316\241\316\2777\316\223
\320\240\320\276\320\270
\316\241|\316\271\316\237

\316\241\316\277\316\212\316\277
\317\201\316\220\316\223
\317\201;,.
\316\241\316\277\316\220\316\277\"'

\316\241^
\316\241\316\252,\316\277
\317\201\316\226
\320\240\320\277\320\276
P\302\260,\302\253>
\316\2223

\"\316\277\316\257\316\277
\321\200\320\223\320\223,
Pa\302\273 \316\241\316\277,\316\214
\316\2222

\316\241\316\252*

\316\241\316\271\316\231\316\237
\316\241\316\220\317\216
\320\262,

Figure

10.4

Three-dimensional

array of

geometric coefficientsof a parametricsolid.

Tricubic

The

\317\201(\317\213.\317\213,\317\213)

p(o,j,o)

Solid

\317\201(\316\237,\316\231,\317\213)

p(o,|,0J

p(J,lo

p(H

\317\201(\316\257\316\2570Plj.fo)

p(\302\273

p(H\302\273)

\317\201(!\302\267'\302\267\302\260
\317\201(\316\234\302\267\302\273)

P(i,j,o)

pfi,f.o)

Pi

P(i,o,0)

I

PI \302\260
At

Pi

\321\200(\302\260'\320\243\320\243
o,f

,1\320\233

P2 =

p(LLO)

111

111

\316\277,\316\271,\316\241

l'1

]

1

\320\227'\320\227'\320\227 \320\227'\320\227'\320\227
\321\200(,\320\243\320\273'\320\243
\321\200(,\320\267\320\264\320\267

1

\316\271'2
\316\267

111

2\320\246

J

\316\271'2
.

\320\240(\320\243\320\233'\320\243
\320\227'\320\227'\320\227 \320\227'\320\227'\320\227

1
I
\316\271.
\316\271,\316\277,-r\317\201
\316\241
'\320\227'\320\227

,.21

pi1

\317\201
-\321\203
-\320\267

,\342\200\23612
\321\200\320\276\320\264
\321\200(\302\260'\320\243'\320\243
'3

p(4i

,1

111

111
-\320\270

\320\240(0,.|

. 2

\320\227'\320\227'\320\227 \320\227'\320\227'\320\227
\321\200(\321\203\320\273\321\203

LLPs'

'111

,'2

\320\250

,

2

\321\200(\321\203\320\273\321\203
\321\200'\320\267'\320\267'\320\267
\320\227'\320\227'\320\227

11
\320\240|..\320\276|

2

,-,

2

\321\200\320\237
'\320\227'\320\227 \321\200(]'\320\243'\320\243p(Ll|

\321\200(0\320\2241)

P(0,1,1)

Plafi

\321\200^\320\236.\321\203.1

,12.
\316\211

>(11

Pf

\320\243'\320\243'1

\320\240\320\267

,22.

p(

\317\201(\316\231,\316\237,\316\231)

p(l,y,l

P|

yy\302\2671

i.f

.1

P(LL1)

\342\226\240
247

32) j'.\320\234\320\222./J] \320\2203=[\320\260.\320\234\320\223 \320\2342\321\215\320\234\320\2223\320\234\320\263+ a. = A2 \320\220^\320\263\320\260\320\224 or. we express them in coefficients an a-llk are unexpanded operating on the geometriccoefficients matrix M.291 v\316\240 M3|MB1Mr+Ms2MB2Mr+M1.MB. [a. the this them by transformation universal = \316\234.26).2\320\234\320\2222\320\234\320\223+ \320\234\342\200\236\320\234\320\222. the Because algebraic way..1 ailt where and M/m is = = 0.\320\234\320\223+ \320\234.\316\234\316\222^-\316\227 \320\234|2\320\234\320\2222\320\234\320\223+ a. we obtain with to present cumbersome too matrix determining format.31) (10.\320\234\320\223 \320\2342|\320\234\320\222.3\320\234\320\2223\320\234\320\223+ \316\234^\316\234\316\222..\320\233 then ' 10.p= a.\316\2341 + \320\234.. (10.\320\234\320\223 specific element ofthe universal Bj are given by Equations (10.5 illustrates Figure distribution within the point cube unit the in parameter space.\321\203\320\267].If we a single BbB2.S repealed Sixty-four-point tricubic solid.in [ail2].\342\200\236 \320\2341\320\255\320\234\320\222\320\255\320\234\320\223+ \320\234\320\230\320\234\320\222.248 \342\226\240 Solids 10. subscript form of a .iMB3M7+MMMBJMr + \316\234^\316\234\316\222.Thus. = we rewrite Equation we take = M*. transformation = \320\220.30) general.B3.29) more compactlyas A* where matrix let \320\220* [\320\260(. (10.Mr the summationoverthe Figure (10.\316\234' \320\234.

35) 1 _9_ 2 0 from results the to obtain final B.23) evaluated at the one-third where [Fj] is a is Ft(0) FS(0) F$(0) Ft \302\245\321\214 F\302\247 Fj(0) . of w.33) F4(W)B.Next. (10.34) G^M-'NPjN^M\302\2671]1 function \342\226\240 249 form to be able lo transformequations from point we introduce a we denote as function that this. Tricubic 9 _27 2 9 18 _9 2 2 (10.The We geometric would do defines hyperpatch function this (10.33) and substitute solve for 2 11 2 1 the evaluate N is the array of basis- (10.24). (10.ltI] from which we extract the B.\320\2532 \316\267\\\317\204\\ \321\211=\320\263 Fb2(\\) FS(1) it becomes Fill FJ(1)_ . Thus.3~ \321\200\321\202\320\260- '2 \316\220 Ffd) When this matrix is evaluated. Equation 9 We and transform\320\260\320\270'\321\215\320\277 matrix F/1 from coefficients given (10. arrays.36) in Equation matrix whose elements are the basis functions The expanded form of this matrix points.\316\235^\316\234-1]^ (10.37) . the B.-= [Fg]-1 0 Equation 0 (10.we at the one-third points to obtain a bicubic where \316\234 is the basis 9 27 2 2 N= _45_ now (10.34) into Equation transformation equation \316\234-'\316\235\316\241./1 . value patch corresponding to a specific array [b. patch Giw) = This Solid as follows: define and G(w) like to To form.

lattice of control points. and Twist Vectors Vectors the parametric similar to those Computing processes the parallels tricubic function partial of derivatives for the the tricubic solid bicubic patch. We encountered constituents We of now the geometric here. We could create a Bezier parametricsolid. dw p(w.40) \342\226\240=g^(\302\253. oil (10.\302\267. continue with higher-dimension elements.Solids 0 0 1 \317\213 = [\320\237] 11 0 9 9 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 2 its - w as the them recognize respectively..40 - p. becausethey are important coefficients. these vectors earlier. independent compute of derivatives this function.v.Wc express the as three and of we must variables.37)and (3.38) 1 2 -1 and 0 1 0 arrays from (10.38). course.. Let us summarize them briefly have three species of tangent vectors.250 .39) 0 Equations (3. on the basis used for a Iricubicsolidor any other solid.w) .In fact. or we could createa B- solid.as we might involves suspect.V.. is no or single Spline Tangent restriction mixed-degree a three-dimensional using 9 2 -9 0 0 11 2 0 7 4 2 27 7 27 27 27 20 2 4 27 27 27 0 1 27 0 20 There 1 is inverse 1 We (10.

but also the triple-mixed partial through the solid.\342\204\242. triple-mixed \320\2553 lC\"= Just as these distribution also control only the shape of the variables. so do they control a a a solid tangent vectors.The Tricubic Solid three of twist 251 \342\226\240 vectors..v.42) p(\302\273. the parametric not of the s-hape of edges in place control the Second-level and shape of Hermitc auxiliary the 10. Noticethat of the twist vectors change vectors (10.Thesevectors faces. ^\321\215^*\"^ (10.6 illustrates someof the on a solid.6 Parametric and a tricubic solid.\"\342\204\242 .w) vectors change and control the surfaces. crnve \321\200\302\273\321\202 P.\302\253\321\200\320\223'1' \321\200^-\320\270\320\274\320\262=\320\270\320\274[\321\200\302\253 Figure curves interior Figure 10. vectors tangent p.41) and the singular partial.

therefore. We will have satisfied Ihe interior all required external surfaces of the continuity conditions acrossthe adjoining bounding two solids p([(. and surfaces.w). of or surface.8 the solids. becausewc a set have now decomposing a tricubic to difficult solid visualize in model behavior coordinates. some a unit convenient d from each of the six faces.252 .v. Now we proceed We can. By fixing The Parameter The of a \320\221\321\200\320\260\321\201\320\265 solid space of a solid differsfrom that parameter course. the square plane parallel plane designated = 0 or \316\266 = with the bicubic decompositionof plane (or \321\203 0). (u. following We now = (10-43) Piv\342\200\236. To ensure C\" across continuity we must the on Ihe commonsurface: meet condition continuity. faces.wjc). Solids a variety of ways lo control the exterior of a provide shape Ihe corner points of a solid. vectors These solid.The tangent points must be collinear. qo. to Ihe faces in exactly the same way this technique bicubic patches.and account must parametric variable.u>. thus. if produce not display of Ihe resulting computer-graphics phenomena. (u.\320\263) a curve of an additional for of four-dimensional ([(. apply did for each of the insights. six from We a dynamic might some interesting effects. we can take parametric slices surfaces On which of the variablesis constant and one then generating parametric with the familiar bicubic decomposition.we can create concave and convex faces at will by the tangent and twist vectors. For simple manipulating wc can set equal lo shapes and constrained demands on interiorbehavior. At Figure 10. zero some or allof Ihemixed mixed vectors defined in derivatives. Continuity and Composite Solids consider the possible continuity at the common requirements surface of two 10.v. proceed We start with the unit cube. curves vectors of constant of the \316\275 and curves w passing at these . through each of we must investigate the these points. For G1 continuity.we construct distance = 0 a \317\207 in to the This is as face. We parameter spacesdefinedby to curves Contrary into its parameter-space less likely and. components is much more to help us understand its space. In fact. we will ignore curvature continuity Also. as we however. and focus on \320\241parametric this surface. by partial the manner of the F-patch for surfaces. details of the boundary joined Figure gives conditions across of this face.\\>.w)and q(u. \320\234'.!'.7shows an interesting approach.y)..v.

10. An isoparametric for example.7 Embedded Surfaces and Curves space of a In a Solid parametric solid. the then 10..9 b are constants. = (10.\316\274 \316\241\316\220. on which we hold two the of someconstantvalues.45) \317\201'\316\271\316\275.The curve - a and - \316\275 (\320\256. we find two . A:q'(W normals of the adjoiningsurfacesare The surface = * in the same x modify this condition so that we now have = \321\200\320\270\321\205\321\200\320\270 \320\263>\321\200\320\263*. In a directly analogous a Ihree-dimensional curvilinear coordinate solid supports we can define both curves and surfaces.Figure Parameter 10. a parametric that found We are also normalto the EMBEDDED IN A SOLID SURFACES AND CURVES indicated vectors if direction (10.\342\200\236 qon. curve. In the and p\342\200\236blr variables fixed al results when we assign \320\270 parametric same figure.the simplest being curves and surfaces. a paramelric system which on the isoparametric results when surface supports a two-dimensional curvilinear we can define curves. where a and isoparametric surfaces p0V11.46) surface.44) P'i\342\200\236. three tricubic in Figure p\342\200\236&11.\302\267\302\273 If we \342\226\240 253 b.) fl(qo.3 tangent coordinate system way.

8 Figure A parametric For isoparametric surfaces.10.\317\205\317\201\317\204\317\205) 10.Thecurve c(f) is modelspace parameter componentsof pointson and curve shown in space an introducing by additional para- tricubic solid in both mapped The 10. pnm\302\267. solid in Figure 10.254 - Solids \317\201(\".47) space.11. Continuity cell is a subelementof the example. curvilinear vector Figure in a are curve the c(0 In model by six ar|d p\342\200\236ve> p. the curve is expressedas = c&.\342\2 Such a cell is orthogonal if the curve nets of the defined on orthogonal nets. We define a noniso parametric melric variable I. Pa\342\204\242.z) p[u(t).(1/.v(t)M0] (10-48) .. pnrfiv. three families of isoparametricsurfacesare parametric curve bounded = u(0 + v(f) + w(f) (10. the six boundary surfacesare \321\200\320\2571.y. conditions.

Parametric and orthogonalcells.10 cubical a parametric solid. \342\226\240 255 . curves and surfaces solid. p\342\200\236fc^ A distcwied Figure 10.Curves and Surfaces Embedded In a Solid Suifacei' = i\302\267.9 Isoparametric in Figure 10.

parametric happens when a How do we map sucha surfacein solid? on surfaces.f) + In model we proceed as wilh variety of surfacesto Beziersurfacelies within model are (10. a parametric embedded curves for use space in surfaces.256 \342\226\240 Solids \" 000 Parameter The procedures General 10.49) w(j.w(sJ)] curves in solidsand in the a tricubic (10-5\302\260) We can choose a What solid.y. the patch is expressedas - r(*.t) space model p[u(s.z) Again + v(s.v(s. irregular A specific .t).i) = u(s. often called we permit trimmed them to have boundaries. space? A variety of complex solids is possibleif or nonisoparametricboundaries. within the solid. solid offers a three-dimensional curvilinear the additional option of defining nonisoparametric system. a surface patch is mappedin both the cube of parameter space and in a corresponding solid in model space.t).r) space.12. a parametric we have Because coordinate surfaces unit The vector componentsof the patch in parameter t(s. In Figure 10.11 Figure curve in are identical to those we solid.

dependingon the 10. the vector Incorporating and complexity logicalstep is to the preceding introduce awkwardness a more extends to the representation of not sections useda traditionalalgebraic and matrix notation significantly of these formulations. The next only solids and higher-ordergeometricforms. curves The scheme that surfaces. 10. but also to convention we use summation generalized and notation . The surface is convenientlydefined space or model space. The solid has one of its cornersclippedand surface.12 Figure is shown example initially in either in in a parametric solid.Generalized Notation Schemeand Higher-Dimension Elements\342\226\240 257 000 \316\267 Parameter space 10.13. scheme.4 SCHEME NOTATION GENERALIZED AND HIGHER-DIMENSION ELEMENTS To each introduce notation reduces subject. Figure by a nonisoparametric defined surfaces Nonisoparametric parameter modelingsituation.

parametricvariable(independent [(= rrijk II lo polycubic interpolation paramelric variables and and others. lhal apply \\h these has arbitrary a system suggests a trimmed with solid parametric the transformation matrix \316\234 \320\222 . an involving We will vectorelementsof ~ ith component = vector elementsof aihl2--->n -/\342\200\236 ith .la component vector the polynomial form.\342\200\236) point algebraic coefficient array of the bjl)2__ in model geometric coefficient array hi space (dependent variables) variable) = elements algebraic form is of A oialil2.13 A here (largelyattributablelo Timmer) can extend to spacesof any dimension.. .Xl. characterislics it applies of independent number can directly extend to any odd-ordered the following general symbol definitions: \316\206\316\231\\)2--\316\212\342\200\236 p(X\\.. The = .*.. boundary.258 \342\226\240 Solids Parameter space Figure 10.

construct applied operators -2u\\ requires we can correctly.:=[1).The geometric elementdescribed component is of 3/rth degreeand has arem dependent variables and \316\267 or parametric 4/T terms.1=1 /l (10. The following The coefficients.+l j.rth omit can \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \"\"\"'\342\226\240') (\316\214..(ur)= 2ii?-3u.^) The = 1 is arbitrary m and \316\267 form for geometric 4 4 (10-52) ief1:3i \316\243 \316\243\316\275'\"'1\"5''1 =1/2 /\316\271 4 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 x&MuUi \302\253\342\200\236)= \316\243 \316\243\"'\316\243 = 1/2 = 1 :m] FiSu\bm---i/ieV") Fit(ui)Fb(ud 1.\320\2702.(1)=. independent we as an example.(I) to use this table: . - (10. function. : i e[l where and m\\ p.1 is of the/rth Ff. F2(\302\253f) 3.(\321\211..53) are Hermtte basisfunctions.Forthe The F-terms /.(\302\253. values Ft(ur) = = 4.y. F.^''1\"'\"''' = 4\\=l is the ith J.and we rewrite Equation (10. n = 1.= l. = \320\270? 2u2r \320\240\321\212{\320\270. . variables.r= 2.. If we use the a correct and unambiguousset of the specific boundary on i identifies subscript of basis functions is to operate. 2.cubic have care to interpret. The followingexamplesdemonstrate Example I. we F-terra.\342\226\240 = \321\205. \316\267 Table + 3u. the which determined the four product preceding of a sequence boundary.It alsoidentifies 10.\302\253\342\200\236) \316\243 \316\243 \316\243^.) = /r = /'. + \316\267. geometric = - \320\254 array multisubscripted rules rth Hermite how curves Z>. Using Chebicubic Hermile patchin Ihrec-space as havem = 3 and. each definedby isof 259 \342\226\240 this \317\200-cubic vector parametric polynomial symbols. Wc .Generalized Notation Scheme and Elements Higher-Dimension .54) \320\270} uzr more to at evaluated p\342\200\236 a summary of the the previously information associatedwith subscript..51) of each the equation and order.y.51) /\342\200\236=1 the summation a dependent-variable of component of m components. There = *.

\320\270 [1] \320\255\302\2532 6.0\320\224\320\224) \320\255\320\271? \320\255\302\2533 \320\255\302\2731\320\2551.2\320\255\302\253\320\267 \320\255 = [1 \320\231/413 . Example Hermite bicubic patches \320\255 = \320\254.(0.J44 \320\255\302\2533 \320\255\320\247-0.55) straightforward to duplicate the aboveproceduresfor basis geometry.1 Subscriptinterpretation J. Iransformation The operations do not from geometric to algebraic 4 /1 = 1/2=1 Bezier the separate in the case of and indicate \321\215\302\253. = \317\200 2. Let us considera unit cube.U).1) \320\255\320\271 \316\271\320\255\320\271. 2. 1 = 0 \320\274.5 and quite B-Spline INSTANCESAND A direct an existing operators. = l \320\255\320\270.\321\215\302\253\320\267 /n = ] \321\202\320\243<\321\202*\320\271 \342\226\240.260 > Solids Table 10.4J = 3. Hermite tricubic solids \320\260 \320\254\320\23724={1][1 .(1\320\2200).^ui \320\255\320\270\320\260 \320\255 ^ b. u.1\320\224) = *. \320\273 3. There are several ways of of trans- . \320\255\320\271.i(o. The braces [ ) multiplication imply the Finally. ''e[l:m] (10. PARAMETERIZED SOLIDS iransformation way of defining a new shape is as a simplelinear one. is coefficients equation except for the 4 4 <4\316\275-\316\233=\316\243 It is simple and \316\243'\"\316\243 10.. 1 = 1 \320\270. Example \317\203\316\257\316\2572 \320\255\316\257 \321\215 \316\257 = \342\226\240*.. [1].^1\320\2501 \320\255\302\2531 \320\255\320\230. Boinidarv J>1 \320\263\320\260 lor Ope = 0 \320\270.nUiV---4.

happen to be regular convexshapes. or . Each new creates of the instance transformalions The scaling using of rectangular variety particular Figure 10. shape transformation Unit produces specific cubes.The of its is often called |he primitiveshape. Differential cube or rectangular simple scaling transformations create of an original shape. shape. Notice that instances the geometry but not the topology of a this figure original.14 Instances.14shows an unlimitedvariety such by components scalingcreates solidis shape Solids Parameterized scaling scaling UniT cube 5 \320\222 C=^ UnlL cvlmdei Figure10. of how examples of \342\226\240 261 scaling of Equal operators. new different-size solids. sphere DilFerenLial Unilorm all initial cube.Instances and a new it into forming three-dimensional a a in shapes initial.and the result affect an instance.

is not a by They elliptic flaw fatal when instancing. the same see basic shape as that in Figure 10. .15. the shapes of simple then we can producea or by specifying the key dimensions then use these parametersto Geometric-modeling parameters.15but with much greater particular shape representational within a class of objects power.as there are certain built-in restrictions: The widths of the here.shape is the shape in Figure a primitive Instancing note example.16.and the thickness of the section be one-tenth the height. specified top and bottom flanges will always be equal. 10. A few key dimensionsare usually objects. algorithms a more mathematical In Figure 10. not limited to such simpleprimitives.We can transform this for \316\226 section by scaling into an infinite number of instances.Bui.but restricting to three orthogonal change shape coordinate scale factorslimits the a of system based modeling prospects equal or differential solelyon these transformations.If each dimension is an sufficient independent to define variable. fully Using parameterized shapes removes this limitation. And look at what to the will always happens defined the bend radii: This circular arcs become arcs.1S instances of a Z section. Figure 10.we compute complete representation.

we can apply /z. fc. A related scheme. /.17. parameterizedshapes in Figure specifyinga model.calledgroup technology.Solids Instancesand Parameterized \342\226\240 263 It is not difficult in Figure section and easily to check them: \321\217. of group technologyis that many manufactured parts can be grouped into of similar where individual members are distinclassesor families shapes. . topologies.16.16 Figure example.b f Figure 10.Forthe 4/. such as parameterized-shape single topology. procedures are restricted shape. but most \316\226 restrictions following h > variable with to a the > 2r. for We can develop (he \317\204\317\204-celled structure Parameterized 10. came into use in concert with manufacturing computer-aided techniques to encourage and The standardization in part central thesis and main advantage design production. of data the validity verify 10. \321\217 \321\201/. certain = numbei of \320\273 i o. / > 0. Z> < and 10.17 wall cells [hickness = tell dimensions = length Parameterized shape of variable topology.

Sweep solids are simple to understand and execute. whieh. a particular of Procedures defining and the flesh out type sweep develop full of to shape for a sweep point- They are mathematicallyconciseand often form shape representation. Modeling systems built only on this of type are highly specialized.Solids a few by guished parameters (key dimensions). and individual 10.1B Typical generic primitives.For more in this area that includes advanced work and of deformed differential volumes analysis modeling using swept sweep wise equation among techniques. large.or three-dimensional object. usually combined to form more complexshapesas solid geometry. the data and analytical framework for subsequentinterpretation a variety as of analytical surfaces or solids. The relatively constrainedgeometry means that only a small data setisneeded specify the shape. however. group-technology are easy to validate and the number of useful generic models concise. is required 10. they are prevent it.264 . and Shih others. primitive is a shapes Figure example. A members generic primitive.in turn.18 shows examplesof genericprimitives. in constructive For primitive surfaces). see the work of Blackmore. a large repertoire of genericprimitives representation for them to have wide application. and forms or Parameterized-shape are They of instances. . are based on The locus of the notion of moving a curve.Leu.surface. and for representations they offer modeling opportunities developing new methods. may be used in boundary or CSG representations. single family are not instances The are unquestionably though primitives.6 SWEEP Sweep SOLIDS solid representations along some path. (1994). use. or defines points generated by this process a new two. although no theoretical barriers converts we could envision a modeling system that any complexshapes. SSS/SA \320\243///\320\243/\320\233 ZZZZZ2 \320\243////\320\233 (a) VmL\302\267 (c) (b) Figure 10. an envelope of instance into a boundary representation (probably to more evaluates it Boolean combinations of instances. is limited.

sweepingobject. The sweeping object must be a curve. Fortunately. geometry of the volumes swept by in studying a hall-shaped the cylindrical cutter moving raw stock for a part. the shape of the object. for example.19shows examples representations. latter curve or the former plane of the curve. and which itself may size. from clear When does a intuitive sweep become so generalized in concept generator a director shape. each point if we path. change an object to move and a path to for solid modelingwe need two ingredients: move it along. at generator application? we cannot go wrong answer. Although this is to the normal line a planar moving finite curve or shape with the axis is usually in the plane of the. straight and the a solid. verh. Unfortunately. and rules on the director. the is or is used as a noun. Note that the -swept object. We can efficient for and modeling for them to detect potential interference betweenparts of mechanisms.or solid. We define a rotational sweep by area about an axis. the predefined path intersectingand machining from the part. use \320\222 if the volume a A th a collides wi fixed swept example. curved path. along a types of are trajectories and depicted\342\200\224translation director curve is not necessarilyan element of the rotation. A related Sweep shapes arc important a large removal operations and spherical dass in manufacturing. adjective. along swept that the nonlinearsweep director of a representations. However. meaning sweep and most usually the context. rotational . Later we will investigate general. figure\342\200\224at least for the A less-restrictive common applicatio-ns. Also note sweep amounts to an algorithmto moveeach a the to the in circular arc in a plane along perpendicular generator point axis of rotation and with a radius defined as the perpendicular distance from the point to the axis. no presence of a easy controlling the orientationof the in geometric because they modeling of and manufacturingobjectsand engineering accurately represent and in contemporary modeling systems they prove to be practical processes. it is that is a This difficult no longer question on the insist with a useful. cons tant-ciOss-scetion mechanical parts. where parallel plane curve. somcwh. object moving object is in simulating use and analyzing materialby A intersects B. shape. removed material where the intersectionvolume represents The two principal of sweep Figure 10.being more does not change. surface. generating some A general sweep is one whose generatingshape follows arbitrary and orientation.and the must be analytically definable. or generator.it simplest another definition of a translation surface is produced by sweeping one curve along curve remains it is a the to itself if curve.'Hie term generatordenotesthe path the and word the term director denotes the path. Thus.265 Sweep Solids \342\226\240 planar shape alonga a surface generating sweep or extrusionby a translational define We rotating a planar a spatial rotation.In all cases.

as in Figures 10. dimensionallynonhomogeneous objects.20a.20eand 10.20d.20b. axis of rotation. two two-dimensional regions are connected Figure In Figures 10. or solid with a unacceptable and .creatingsolids dimensional structure.266 \342\226\240 Solids Generator J Axis surface Figure or levofurion id) \316\234 10. These conditionsproduce but sometimes the results are expected applications. produces nonhomogeneous for most a singularity. There are and some obvious not-so-obvious ways of creating In the translational 10. several Figure two by using or invalid solids nonhomogeneous passing results the through surface results in dimensionally generators and The rotational sweep of a generator ambiguities. a one10.20c and 10. a of curve a surface alsocreates In creating sweep dangling edges.19 Examples of sweep shapes.20f.

This is true for modelingsystems art.20 Figure ff) Djmensionally nonhomogeneous sweep representations. Translation and we requiring can degrees of in By following them in the design of sweep-representation be sure to create dimensionally models. incorporating generating homogeneous for constant-cross-section objects.Sweep Solids \342\226\240 267 \320\236 <\320\254) \316\257\316\237 (\320\265) \320\256. even desired. freedom\342\200\224computer this and figure algorithms. Generalized Sweeps a Lossing and Eshleman (1974)developed powerful representing greater criteria suggested example. Their approach technique for emphasizes proce- .

and n: equation).we find the orthogonal Limil Figure 10.'. a local orthogonal We construct system at pj as follows:Computep.usually Specifies position and an associateddirection. an almost unlimited Lossing and Eshlemanare ableto define variety of define a PD curve as a general form swept solids using (heir technique. trajectory and generatororientation curve called They use a a position six-component and direction section of a mechanical planar is an axis surface of a raw-stock translated along part model.A describe curve closed defining the cross to form the outline this representation. The second three components define a corresponding cubic continuous for an associated direction vector.the vector.268 .This model is then trimmed by limiting planes to produce the of the part.22 position twisting coordinate system. part (PD) curve. d. Figure 10. (remember.m. is given by another parametric tangent p\" unit vectors l. If the finished boundingsurfaces the a a on model curved nonlinear would followed transformation axis. The pD curve in Figure 10.The first three components define a continuous parametric cubic equation of positionin threedimensional Space.Solids dures that minimize data storage requirements.21 Outline Diane surface of a constant-cross-section solid.21 illustrates these features. From and d.A parametric equation a variable associates the direction vector with common parametric specific defines a curved and on the curve.They a cubic Hermile curve that continuously of a six-component curve. .

associated wild ^ curve PD Trans . of a PD curve. !. A tan gent as the or plane in which d.SweepSolids \342\226\240 269 Difeclion d. (he with cross complex with an multiple section.22 Characteristics Figure axis aipoinlp. * m = Id. changecontinuously the PD along a PD curve to producegeneralized a constant-cross-section part twists. cross Losing and surfaces. Figure 10.___!_ m = ld' n= I \320\223\320\276 rmed \342\200\236 orlhogonal \" \316\241\"' on curve x m 10.Multiple PD . Multiple cross sections can be used to generate a morecomplex PD curves or variable Positive and negative generator curves are to create used curves can cross-section an generator. a pipe or outer cross-section curve).Thisreference vector and d..23 illustrates tube xm PD curve definescontinuoustransformationsfor pointson curve extract p'/l a direction \316\267 define changes plane outline and I (10.56) Pi1 \317\207 inner sections and with high variability in the axial direction. We can use 10. n = The axes I curve. outline that is not only curved Figure but also (he two curves comprising a of the parametric variable and how to Eshleman also point out that two or more coordinate be used with one PD curve (for example.24illustrateshow to a common PD curve through value elements. I = ip'/i d. is located.

23 A constant-cross-section curves and curves and associatedgeneratorcurves directed normals and can be part that twists.24 Components of a PD curve. which we will not discuss here. a field Choi and Lee (1990) describesweep-modeling schemes based on conventional engineering They address parallel and rotational drawing techniques. create. Parametric Figure variable 10. sweeping. in effect.spincdsweeping. and show that a and synchronized sweeping.270 . Some of these modelingprocedures on the user to must depend verify model validity. representations. half-spaces used to add or subtract \"material'\" lo with a raw- stock model. three more be added to the to yield scale factors to apply curve.Solids Swepi solid Reference dneciion Consiam Cfoss-secriori curve (genefarc-f PD curve Figure 10. differentially contracting coordinating expanding This motions the PD introduces curve. . A six-component curve trajectory for controlling the movement of a curve has generator obvious najural extensions. For example. components may generator and it or with the it. nonrigid imposed by sweep still in its formative stages.

in its various positions around the axis. we simplest curve Ihe surface of revolution has Then \316\266 \321\200(\320\274) x(u) + z(r\316\271)in the \317\207. and.with appropriate and Stephenson(1990)show to find envelope \342\226\240 271 of section and rules.57) segment. Martin blending from differential surfaces of a solid body.\316\270) x(u) Of course. circular arc. The plane curveis called the curve.25). and transformation how a sel specifying Solids theory the volumes swept out the by Rotational 5weeps One a plane of revolution is by revolving curve around an axis line in its plane (see Figure 10. (10.it creates profile meridians. elliptic soon. Figure 10. plane. way to generate a surface the equation = \317\201(\316\272.2S Surface of revolution. .and the profile curve might cos be + x(u) \316\270 a general sin + \316\270 z{u) curve.Sweep of surface variety be used can geometry be defined by shapes can control curves.The circles created by each point on this curve are calledparallels. the let the axis For be the axis of rotation and definethe \316\266 case.

First. Solids shown general surface of revolution.63) .59). We do this by solving the following sets of vector like to find would terms a angle of these vectors equations: \320\252 + kpa +To-p0 where a-r0-0 where a (10. we considerthe situation The are a cubic Hermite curve 10. We surface in and the the b locating a point through which the the curve rotates to sweep out vector axis the which \317\210 through a a bicubic Hermite patch that describes such and elements.26 = p! - A:. (10. and surface. r(( and r.26. passes.a (10\302\26762) . Figure 10.272 .60) (10. obtain \320\233\342\200\236=\320\260.b Another surfaceof revolution.a unit vector a more For in the axisof revolution.58) and = b +/c.59) perpendicular. mutually = r0 po Equation (10. we a and 0 makes r0 \302\267= r. or initial elements Figure given a defining the direction of defined by its geometric coefficients. we (10..58).61) obtain Ma-(pi-b) r. we must determinethe scalars k0 /\321\201.a+11! pi The condition asserted for a and r^ similarly by \302\267- a r0 From Equation (10.(\321\2000-\320\254) From 0 - - \316\234 \320\254 (10.

65) simplified.27 vectors of al Circumferentialtangent a surface of revolution. r0 \317\207 a -smf lr0l lr0x Figure 10.64) of two We t0. tu.. tangent vector product of magnitude (10. one in the begin by observing that the elementary r0.p'0= b + and \320\263'. \320\272\320\263\320\260 \317\201\316\212 We will have to determine and a \320\223\321\206 two other the find r'0 and 10. .66) . final the \317\207 a I the vector magnitude of r0 equals the and trigonometry direction find to and r'0 r(|Xa = lr0 can define p'.The unit produces arc al p0 and p'0 are denotedby thesevectorslo in the vector directionof r(. (10. r0= r0cos\\ii + .Solids Sweep Now can we proceed Clearly. so that t0 We corner points p'0 and we must determine = b + + r\\. Applying we obtain = I rn \320\223\320\277 \320\223(1 sin lr0l or. of the t'0. Thus. (see The tangents respectively vectors at of + to these points.27). components. and vector as the \320\263\302\243 sum in the direction of one arithmetic. lo the circular Figure unit faa \342\226\240 273 lr0 \317\210 \317\207 al (10.

tangent vectors.70) and 1 .j we obtain Ipo-pol = + p \320\273P\302\273 Using equations from Section 3.p0 of the initial curve is \317\201^on the patch. Recall how we in Chapter 3 (Section 3.71) \320\276 and \317\201'. ~r0 sm \317\210 \342\226\240i\"oJ (10.We arcs vectors developed tangent used a point at the two endlines p2 lying on the intersection of the tangent of We the arc. of course.69) = t'.cos (\317\210/2) po-p. By symmetry. = and t0 . that po + \342\204\242t0=pO-mto and Ipo-ppl m = itn From these.8). find the will do same points p2 by computing of the intersection two straight lines p0 + /nto and po + iiit0. Solids find We in a r.= sin lp pz' (10. 41\320\2630 \321\200\320\276\". at the other end of the the have changed nomenclature: We now denote patch. sin xal \317\210 (10-67) r. \316\267 Furthermore.\316\214 pjl. It should help to keep in mind that we are creating a surface patch by sweeping a curve an arc around an axis. appropriate .\320\260 r..274 .68) \317\210 lr0l or \317\207 a \316\223\316\267 = \342\200\224 \320\263 cos r\342\200\236 \317\207 al lr(l know We that t. through We use this Notice same procedure to - (\317\210/2) that we find . We the now.and. = r.8 with 1 pu=4lr0l substitutions. we see We must now find t\\ - \317\210 the of these magnitudes for circular the = -\321\202. point p'o as p01. similar way: \321\205 \320\263. We components in (he unit tangent vector to also define can of directions the tfl and to = the as sum of two r0: cos t\342\200\236 \317\210-\316\263--sin (10.cos sin Ito + toi (\317\210/2) (\317\210/2) p2-po Ip2 - Pol we find (10. cos \317\210+\316\231\317\204. + t.

= find We the vector tangent required elementsof 10. of the result course.28 \320\270 and t. w) determined or with p\"\"' (u.7 vectors. w) * 0? CONTROLLED DEFORMATION SOLIDS We can thereby of deformation the use new creating the parametric to deform shapes in a controlledway.29). First around \317\210 = lp. All of the patch except the twist do the \320\260\320\270\321\205\320\250\320\260\321\202\321\203 curves on have the interioT of the with are \320\222 matrix the effect revolution at the (10. Hint'.275 Controlled Deformation Solids \342\226\240 (he tangent we compute Next. Now magnitude as the projection of po onto the unit vector in the direction and to define as the sum a we are ready of its t'0 p^ along components Figure Also. rotating pi!through the vector p^.^) = 0 \317\201\"\"'(\302\253. Axial tangent vectors of a surface of revolution. we sec that a.(il of Ip'ol (see vectors have identical projections on the unit vector a. \302\267 \302\267 = a a.a)a + p.72) (pS. surfaces of What other end \317\201 ft in the same way. . between by r(i) (see Figure 10..anddefinea relationship transformations nonlinear praxis variables Figure 10. both (pS.28). We use so pm the symmetry of the construction and realizethat the \316\222 \317\201 of \321\200\321\210\" onto the unit vector in the direction of r'0 has the same projection of r0. deform we define shapes. 10. a To a curve \321\200(\320\274). angle which is.

but convenient.Solids Axis 10. technique reference lo some convenientaxisin and bending. makes axis use of an arbitrary.30). This controls . as is the casefor Bezierand B- sections. and unit \316\266 is (he vector in the \316\266 direction. and Jancene (1994) have worked in this area. model or If ihe existing (straight deforming curved) itself is representedby a sel of control points. hy which wc induce the desired deformations subsequently lo be passedon lo the model.276 . axial-deformalion approach (1992).29 Figure deformation. Another p'. stretching. basis deformation way lo deform a shape is by a simple (sec Figure We the in the m and \316\267 initial coordinate define with system shape 10. and Bechmann (1991). = m(m' + nn' (10. t=t(u) Then Ihe deformed curveis (10. twisting.Welch earlier work Borrel and Wilkin on drawing by Barr and Their lo ihe others. m= \317\207 \316\266 1. Lazarus. deformed wilh lo a orthogonal map shape respeel is no longer and express il as transformed basis m' and n'.74) Axial Deformations of Ihe Axial deformations are a generalization methods discussed in (he preceding shaping operations.73) p'= r[t(u)}+Pim where 1 = r1. such as scaling. Coquillarl. which orthogonal. unit hasis Wc Ihe vectors. (1984). Ihree-dimensional technique as Ihe basis for models.

or a axis deformations is \"attached\" to coordinate the Frenel frame. the used and to represent deformed model.w \320\273-. transformed model control points are computedand deformation. proposed by Bishop (1975)orKlok(1986). Finally. If the axis itself is defined hy control then the points may he movedto producethe axis points. w (see Figure 10.w(t)] or (see in . We define a and map the curve accordingto solid p(u. Pi \316\271 ^- \302\273. then control point a local Simple basis deformation.usedas *\342\226\240 \317\207 system work the axis Next. to achieve the desired resultsin the model.75) Deformation Similarly. space shape by defining it passed on to the are = surface.w) it in a trivari- ale = p\302\243 p[\"(0.76) . \316\266 \321\203. (\320\256.v. This may he of Lossing and Eshlcman (1974).we curve c(r)and emhedit the domain of the parametric plane defining Bezier. in three dimensions we can definea curve t(i) and embed normalized parametric space a. m Deformed shape Inifial shape Figure 10.32).Solids Deformation Controlled n/ \342\226\240 277 )p.\316\275. We Then or B-Spline define a bivariate we map the curve V. For example. compute such frame as that is deformed Bfvariate Deformation We define a deformed create can this of Deformations parametric Figure 10. w) in the ti. object. v. TVivariate in an embeddingspace. a Hcrmite. Each within located surfaces. in a normalized variables p(u. space. \321\203 plane p[u(t). in the are simply passed on to a point on the axis and defined at that point. v(0\302\267w(0J (10.31).30 Spline and curves these points.

.v.w) (b) in 2D p{u.w) in 3D \320\230 Figure 1031 deformed bivariate Shapes via embedding spaces.Solids (a) in parameter space p{u.278 .

whose Relatedwork in direct method allows of geometric properties and manipulation surface to control shape. (1982). and Witkin. Clark (1976).32 Shapes via deformed univariate and that points (1992) a set of local and curves. and Witkin (1991).Light and Gossard Welch.Figure 10. embedding Using an analogous process we can embedand is sometimes called volumedeformation. and Battels (1993). Gleicher. Coquillart (1990). Kramer (1991). DeformableSurfaces Celniker Welch Solids Deformation Controlled embedded coordinate as shape to constrain how curve fair system. Also lattices. rather than to control verticesor deformation relationships see Battels and Bcatty (1989).They demonstrate to a fixed location. Fleischer (1987).a parametric point maintain fixed contours in the world a global This surfaces. Their leaves describe a method process for sculpting B-Splinesurfaces geometric constraints invariant. normals along a parametric curve this area includes Fowler . interpolated by minimizing any parametric in the surface to and how to on the surface. constrain surface among others. deform 279 \342\226\240 spaces. and Barr Serano and Gossard (1987).such method seeksto achievea energy function.

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Model are topological properties. boundary representations. so consideration of of the modeling process.Appendix implicit discuss the geometric transformations of these and Mortenson (1995) In the previous chapter we discussed how to generate simplesolid boundaryrepresentation simpler a and The associating the \320\241 The elements. schemes models. da ta and surfaces that comprise the boundary ofa solid. subject these complex solid models. and model: parametric curves.MODEL CONSTRUCTION COMPLEX In models. part to representing complex models. and deformations. the curves the basic elements of a geometric we discussed In early chapters. an two constructive technique solid geometry called CSG scheme defines complex solidsas Boolean (b-rep). we build on which the complexmodelsthat Here we will discuss topology. One approach we modeling. and connectivity we techniques model simple shapes to construct complex a produce valid models. graphs. If it is a threehave no dangling edges or surfaces. The completed dimensional must solid. 281 . form the foundation of this chapter. For example.Tht The is sometimes solids. combinationsof complete representation referred to as a CSGtree. geometric it must homogeneity combine must use topologyis also important There are approaches uses aii implicitconstructiontechnique called and the other uses an explicitboundary-based (CSG). shapes sweeps. and solids. be dimensiDnally homogeneous. and space-partitioning using All are of the Boolean of instances of parameterized shapes. surfaces.becauseil uses binary tree whose terminal nodes are so-called regularized arc simple solids whose nonterminal nodes structure of a b-rep is a graph Boolean combiningoperations.

as simple and obvious as it appears. Topological thoroughly and imaginatively for sources recommended. however. integer multiple is an of and is of the It intrinsic the where palh. relevant lo geomelric modeling. are two classes of paths: There always have lolal turning different from \302\261360\302\260. and topological The Topologyof a ClosedPath is an theorem slates: The lolal turning along any closed palh rotation of is Ihe number the 360\302\260. and the branches properties logically of a hyperbolabelongto the class of topologically figures called equivalent We arcs.so of curves and planes. topology of closed in geometric The of a closed path is relatedto problems topology we will develop the closed-path theorem. Abelson fundamental this subject. puncturing. but concern such things as properties and The properties of geometric shapes dimensional connectivity continuity. parabolas. twist. integer. or inducing self-intersection. including palh on a lo For closed surface. property palh independent starts or how it is oriented. plane always loops. present the Jordan curve deformations on the topology define of total curvature. In olher (clockwise intersecling closed path is \302\261360\302\260 iVK of words. will these and other address simple topics here. being topological properly open surface is a topological invariant. invariant Lines. Figure11.Studying of Ihis of some closed palhs demonstratesthe validity examples simple The theorem. bend. and simple Sell-intersecting self-intersecting polygons theorem stales that the total turning in a non-selfThe simple-closed-path or counter clock wise). invariant that are transformations that stretch. are not transformations.282 11. We must the complex model lo form lo a variety of to their metrical. (1952). surfaces. and and Disessa Alexandrolf Abclson wrote (1981) (1961). offer unique insightsinto Disessa. piecewise flat surfaces. path equal depending and curved closed is traversed. arc star polygons. or under arc a figure. One-side dness and two-sidedncssare lopoof surfaces. These authors are the primary is and reference lo Iheir work highly in particular. principles on this discussion. an or closed curve The of or properties. review the effect of modeling. happens lo be difficult to .Self-intersectingpolygons paths. palhs simple polygons appear in Ihe have total turning on direction which Ihe lo \302\261360\302\260. Ihe rotationnumber any simple closed path is \302\2611. closed-path which. includingthe and closedcurved paths. and and the concept Hubert Cohn-Vossen theorem.1 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex TOPOLOGY OF MODELS Complexmodels require attention considerable understand how simpleelementsare and how its topology is preservedwhen connected subjected topology. without compress tearing. This denoted of W\302\253.1 shows several examples.

implies that path\342\200\224the there is a turning and relationship between the crossings or self- intersection points. and only il.The converse is also true:If two paths have the same total turning. properties of a closed Rotation number. .1 prove two the theorem The rigorously. \320\241 first proved in 1936 by H. and any two closed paths that equivalent must have the same total turning. Total turning is a topological invariant for arc closed topologically paths. into one another if. are that can be deformed into one another closed paths arc topologically equivalent. they can be deformed into one another.283 Topologyof Models \342\226\240 (b) (d) ' (f) (e) Figure 11. Whitney and who observed that Graustein. Curves curves defining that two closed they have coplanar paths can be deformed the same total turning. This was W.

it is possible to determine total turning by local computation. of deformations show of curves and planes. we path.\320\220\321\203\320\273\321\203 the or . Since link between local global closed-path theorem is no direct crossing points on a curve are nonlocal phenomena.carefully as positive). possibleto determine by accumulating global properties This theoremis useful in determining the validity of a model. the crossing points a is an example of powerful principle: It is often theorem simple-closed-path local information. curve at once.There are many paths for which this result is To develop about the square. that any simple closed path can be deformed into showing is Since we already know that under invariant we tolal deformations. turning a can show that has same as the total closed \320\260\321\203\320\273\321\203 turning simple path around the square. Thus. We must that. Deformationsof playye be but the entire plane can be deformed. and global can walk arounda closed by a returning to the startingpoint that then local between link observe them while we can determinethat one the theorem must exist.and its proofis complicated. unable to Deformation of and Curves the traversing or path. is a information.This reduces the direction square\342\200\224\302\261360\302\260\342\200\224depending on obvious. the playye that kind of slretchiyyg arbitrarily stretchable rubber sheet.This suggests a strategy for proving the theorem by a square.If we complete clockwise (taking the total accumulating the circuit does not turning perhaps total our on and find equal \302\261360\302\260.We can even consider into a curved surface. so that the path becomes a square. Imagiyye ayyd pulled. as in the contained information defined turning capability exercise demonstratesthe A simple We theorem. way for a traversal algorithm around is. a square. this theorem relates total turning to the existence of considerably and there (that a However.2B4 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction The simple-closed-pa is more theorem th than the comprehensive closed- The simplemore path theorem. as itself deformed closed \320\260\321\203\320\273\321\203 simple to showing that any In fact. we can go a bit can the path itself be theorem simple-closed-path into a square. the is the simplest the problemof proving simpleclosed curve Given further: stretched. the total turning around the path is equal to \302\261360\302\260. being deformed into deformed the can is an paths ayyd playyes are closely related. and a powerful crossing points. that somewhere the path must have at least one crossing we do not know where the crossingpoi\302\273ts are and we were assert can Although point. set of written instructions. an algorithm proceeding stepwise the path) to detect crossing To do this requires looking at the entire point. not only path. by applying more Planes theorems proofs of the simple-closed-path theoremand related turn our attention we to the topology of simple closed curves. given a consequences simple closed path (a path with no crossing points).

stretchedand distorted must in the initial plane. If deformation of Figure 11. ean theorem for simple closed In summary.Themathematical is loo violent a rubber term while for a path deformation sheet is regular homotopy. plane are more conservative than path deformations. We observe crossing points are neither created nor destroyedduring deformation. a plane deformation. straight-linesegments curve under thai are (he of the deformation. of the plane happen V \316\224 \\- \\ \\V \\ \\ \\ \\ \\ 1 !AXt O^-ViVr^. make observation to deformation is an ambient An here is that isotropy. legitimate Many changes and cannot of curves.but a path deformation that plane deformation introduces crossovers to be a plane deformation. such as the overlap phenomenon. do the plane resultsin imagine result in cutting or tearing is a valid path on Models \342\226\240 285 the flat of the a deformation path (see sheet is arbitrarily rubber but may a for not a deformation that with in the plane. deformation.2).Topology of that shrinking we draw does not a closed that remain such deformation rubber the sheet deformation.2 Rubber sheet deformation. there is a rubber sheetdeformation that reduces the curve to a square. Clearly. this and. any simple closed path can be deformedinto can be done with a conservative that is. Plane Every deformations is a path deformation. important a square. we stale the deformation curvesasfollows:Forany simple closed eurve in Ihe plane. ^ v ^ j -\342\226\240* 0*\302\267 4/\302\267 ** \317\207_ / Figure 11. then any plane. \320\233\320\224?\321\221^\321\206^\321\213- =\320\250\320\266 \320\272.Next. . moreover.

but the inside of a circle in dcformable. closed torus into Not two curves consider curve distinct only docs probably and can be loo obvious. A region that can be deformed in this way is a topological disk. turns is reduced to summing clockwiseand counterclockwise 90\302\260 itself is Figure 11.3 shows a is. but simple closed We note that the theorem seems convoluted.3 a curve by Approximating a rectilinear a grid. of If the the The Jordan curves can be theorem curve complex arbitrarily is not true if we a simple example.A a disk has no holes or isolated points in it. the original nondeformed curve. \321\215\320\277 path . in the rubber sheetsense. of topology theorem the that also followsfrom which states: Any plane divides the plane into exactly two regions. an inside having deformations must in the curve closed inside closed paths simple Jordan curve theorem. the region may be planar or nonplanar).For drawn on a torus.an Such properties as dividing the plane into two regions and an outsidearc under invariant rubber sheet deformed curve has these properties. on surfaces so other than the plane. In general.into the interior the plane. deforming topological the rubber sheet region does not require a of flat the region part keeping 11.286 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction Curve Theorem The Jordan Another resultof the deformation the is simple and and an outside. (that Figure plane the total curve deformed into a rectilinear polygon. then plane.wherewe see that turning or angles. a closed curve have an inside and outside. yet it may not divide the regions.

4 Angle excessassociated with a closed path on a sphere. begins. general concept. 2. The excessof any polygon is the sum of the areas of the in any pieces polygonal subdivision. we is find that the following excess additive. proceedlo the meridian different relative For (11. then of the is the sum the excesses of triangle pieces. that some reference turning pointer undergoes whencarriedaround a a closed Excess rather is path. theorems apply. Figure 11. \302\243=360\302\260 the trip pole.it is an angle associated a on a curved surface. along with a equator. is by mathematicians call angleexcess.4illustratesthe sphere. If a triangle is subdivided into two sublriangles. .Noiice be transported parallello itself to the return then the that a fixed Angle lo the is the closed path on a continue and reference pointer surface in which same no matterwhere path.of Models Topology Angle \342\226\240 287 Excess or simply excess. We can restate the closed-path with closed path theorem so that surfaces: it holds for simple closed paths on arbitrary The concept definition the 74 where T~.1) = excess along the path and \316\225 Figure 11.and the excess the path. the excess of the 1. along the must always the path lies.total turning A trip along this path associated excess angle might start at the equator along a equator to the starling point.

Thevalue of \320\272 at a area of a small is the excess unit point per of the of the surface \320\272 the We call curvature containing density patch point. smaller the radius of the approximatingsphere(that is. for this definition to make sense. very middle. with the condition that region on the surface. density is measured the surface is at us how curved although \320\272 using excess.The resultisthe total curvature of the Of \320\232 region.the additivity the excess around the boundary theorem implies of the polygon. of the excess angle around interior.if \320\272 radically then all of the geometry there\342\200\224angles.1/r2 (if \302\243ismeasured where in radians). polygonal excesses for all the pieces. The is the pieces If the initial \320\232 is precisely Therefore. example. at a We use the surface term density because \320\272 is \"something point. almost We can sphere. A the area is enclosed and r where is the radius of the sphere. polygon on a sphere of radius k. of is called version curvature arbitrary density global point We start with a region of an arbitrary divide it and total curvature. and total turning. the the curvature density).or E. the more curvedis the surface. itself a polygon. small ends. Therefore. kind of excessover the region. total turning in radians \320\276\320\275 the surface is expressed as T-2n-A!r. in order be sure that if we in two subdivide a regioninto polygons different ways. we observe that within a small very patch enougharea. choose will We as area unit surface any will appear make an even better approximation small in the so on\342\200\224isvery the the approximating planar./i true for any same region is equal to in both cases. sphere the to \320\272 middle increases. close to the geometry on a sphere whoseradius is determined patch. per unit area\" and the term curvature rather than excess density because.kA. is measurement taken on the surface. it tells To the a small of an surface by a small approximate point. not just for polygons.288 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction topological disk on an arbitrary the boundary is equal lo the total curvature 3. \320\272 at any point In general. Total Curvature and Curvature Density that show can We the total curvature for a sphere for any is and 4\317\200 the angle excess is proportional lo the area. For a simple closed path i\\ E-K of a sphere. for greater is not curved in at the pointed the \320\272 is small But there. surface For sum the each polygon. patch arbitrary of some surface we know well. For any the surface. the sum of the excess by of \320\272 the 1/r2. Thus. the football is curved much Fromthe as as a of radius. is a that it is . by using piece of a a small sphere to have the same excessper not change does patch of a surface. we computethe excess and into pieces. by ibe path for an arbitrary surface. A football. gradually Curvature that is measured in the vicinity of a density is a local quantity an A on surface. pointed ends. we must course.

we observe that as much torus has any just negative curvature. . as we flat and thus have \320\232 were Figure11. changes process. The resultis be words. ones handle is topologically cylinder.though not it is easy to keep track of how total closedsurfacesfromold because curvature Let in the us a little more. The process of is a practical way of making new handle attaching.A know the totalcurvature is not sphere the same topologically can be describedasa spherewith The torus kinds two of of closed as a torus. . yet a handle attached. we know has which hemispheres.4\317\200. which would imply the curvature like that density is zero everywhere. Models \342\226\240 289 Handles and Tori. We a divide and southern sphere into two pieces. excess 2\317\200. as positive curvature We now and tori. instead.2disks + Next. do not affect the vicinity that of the of the surface.S Sphere with a handle. but the total curvature density sphere depends \320\232 same for all Spheres. but a flared topologically to blend out a torus with (see the Figure flat regions 11. a cylinder or a plane. sphere we has compute .the northern Each of them is hounded by the equator. is the It turns out that the total curvature \320\232 is a topological for closed invariant the total curvature is unchanged by surfaces. explore this process Wc start with a sphere and flatten out two regions on it. The torus. surfaces.yielding 4\317\200 for the total curvature of the spheres. of Let us compute\320\232 for a region that has no boundary at all\342\200\224the sphere.Topology Spheres.0. The a deformation.5). \320\232 the the total disks the edges of the cylinder must around the disks. From each region we cut out a flat disk and attach a handle in the holes left by the disks. For surfaceswith a boundary. spheres they are related. handle = torus (11\302\2672) The curvature on each sideof the equation. Observethat the A: of the curvature a on radius. deformations boundary are not asserting We that a torus is flat Any torus has zero totalcurvature. for example. In other sphere.

4\317\200 .290 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction .3) 11. culling. We always by or of a two-holed torus is the same as that of a torus with a handle attached handle total have must a sphere with two handles attached. (b) five of a handles.4\317\200 = 4\317\200 = -4\317\200 \342\200\242Ki-hoied \321\216\342\204\242. and gluing.This topological of applicable to the synthesis and complex objects. in three-dimensional characteristic What handles.) the total curvature of any closed space is an is immediately surfaces characteristic of topological \321\215\320\263 determinant <a| Figure is: Any closed surface to a sphere with some surface integer multipleof4\317\200. handles surface attached. just asserted. deform We handles For example.6b?(Hint:Topologically g (H-4) g) equivalent lopologically attached. total curvature find that the total curvature decreases the 4\317\200. to a sphere - 4\320\242\320\223(1 with spheres three-dimensionalspace as a sphere with by handles = wdhji ^sphere The important the same is lopologically that curvature total (11. the surface in 11. <b| Topological equivalent handles. Then. is given about fact is of number handles equivalent six with see from Equation solid also of models as closed of an analytic it as (11.0. curvature a handle of this process With flattening. the = -4\317\200.4) thai shown.We now know the curvature in the handle. sphere with: (a) six .6 type.Thisis expressedas . for a In general. Figure 11.we can attach and we see that it lo any surface. for the also has \320\232 equation lo be balanced. particularly boundary representations.6a in is about the object in Figure then count handles.

then every path between from each of the regions(such \321\201\320\260\320\275 the be called cut \320\241 11.b and the \320\241 divides property c. geometric Knots Before ending this exploration of the we will take a last look in knots.we to fit into three-dimensional There are closed surfacesthat are too a total curvature that is a multiple space and. that arbitrary combine somehow \302\253291 an integer property for and denting to give precisely the total curvature of an a multiple of 4\317\200 at all. inside of C. The bounded region \320\220 (see Figure necessarily The first proof of the now-famous Jordan the outside.Remarkably. appeared Jordan did not solve the problem Jordan \320\241 although (1838-1922). into two regions. are It is of closed properties topological Jordan theorem obvious characterized regions (such and curves that by the as a. do not have must ones. the at a \320\241 the which two points within any one curve of the plane. or not in changing change ordinary closedsurface.d) paths. of 4\317\200. and \320\222 the plane that curve theorem. as a consequence. Fjgure11. forming can plane that any be a point a path that lies wholly within the region. includingthesetwisted is not of 2\317\200. by Jordan's Even simplioriginal proof has by now been greatly though completely. This class of surfaces a have total curvature equal to multiple it by twisted must significant in modeling.Consider circle into two regions A and B. Coursd'Analyse. . any closed surface. every simple closed curve in the plane divides in 1893 in the important book. whereasif we take connected by them will as a and c).7 Division into two regionsby of a a closed plane curve.As it turns out.and we multiple in three-dimensional closed surfaces have space\342\200\224all bending and all those excessanglesmust an integer multipleof 4\317\200.of Models Topology that Remember total turning for a closed curve path is always discovered an analogous now of 2\317\200.7).

not still is it definednotionof easy to inside bearing on theorem Jordan's circle embedded problemof knot Incidentally. also applies to embedded circlesin those who want to space. geometric-modeling many An prove this apparently obvious theorem. was J. which is intuitively the number of times two knots are intertwined(see is. For example. However. basic that be transformed into each otherby twisting and pulling. and thus this problem is different other to between where we want objects. special case of the general problem is to determinewhen a knot is unknotted. they can shows an the first to make a seriousstudy mathematician Listing (1808-1882).9). build or escapefrom mazes.The wellfor simple closed curves has direct outside and theory in is to three-dimensional also is useful for three-dimensional knot. B. distinguish topological problems Gaussmade some brief remarks on knot theory at various timesbetween 1823and 1840. in this Bringing requires keeping the endpoints of the string the ends together to form a circlecreatesanother but one familiar problem. The is a space when two determine it knots are equivalent. of two knots. that is easier to handle mathematically a knot trivial or unknotted if it can be deformed We call into a conventional A circle. intrinsically they topological equivalent here is to distinguish between various possibleplacements of the problem in three-dimensional from same circle space. if we are given a pile of string.B Jordan curve theorem knots onto the (\320\253 <a| Figure the knot and knots. distinguish types pieces context fixed. plane and .someof arose the projection which from of a knot.Hisapproach was to project of 11. problems.8 Figure 11. when Figure 11. out Try working example nonequivalent knot these ideas with of To different between string.292 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex fied. how can we tell if a knot is present? We notice that knots we cannot distinguish between trivial because are all the of Our circles. and in 1833 he found a formula a certain double connecting integral with the linking number of two knots. He attempted to classify singular curves in the plane.

Dehn many have mentioned this topic only characteristic that might topological prove useful in remain. The simple are the sourceof topology's polyhedra the contribution simple a polyhedra. Furthermore.is very difficult. however. the more elementary knots. are historically The term polyhedra that can be continuouslydeformedinto are an example and subset of the simple have no reentrant edges. on one side of each of its polygonal is not Although convexity polyhedra sphere. and N. keeping used later by \342\226\240 293 to classify characteristics invariant first found intersections.These 1920s the in of knots. P. the complement over. they are convex. which Knot theory.9 Figure Models of Topology We modeling. questions it has because by J. most all that it is possible its by crossing edges and moving have been traversed by polygons refers Regular to all polyhedra . (1831-1901). by studying space and obtained were invariants track of T. Linking numbers 11.The classical many opportunities applying a discussion of is an excellent with which to begin polyhedron example we mean an arrangement of polygons piecewise flat surfaces. Regular polyhedra the term convex to every polyhedron that we lies apply faces. entirely important. defined important unanswered another geometric P. By polyhedron thai such potential use modelingsolid two and to traverse the only two surface of the polygons meetat an edge.analyze it by the considering Kirkman. and in three- M. W.and polyhedron from one polygonalfaceto anotheruntil this continuous path. of knots that were effectively computed Alexander and K. Reidemeist. Flat 5urfaces Piecewise Many of the existingand future schemes for representation and their supporting topology. to geometric since they modeling. \320\241Little The were Euclidean dimensional had in 1910. G.and under- Tail of the knot its associated knot group. was also a method Such crossings. thus. so thereare objects polyhedra the for material presented here.

every edge belongs exactly 2EEuler's that Vk. Therefore. as As long the numbers h and \320\272 still have five are we constant:. By symmetry. \342\200\236\320\2 > 3.3. that is.3. k.30). Substitute formula: follows Fhthis into To prove this.3.Thus.6).k.30) are the only the the tetrahedron.and a of simple polyhedronis calledEuler's formula.8) v/ 2 or \320\272 equals 3 <h if 3. states and relationship F. those polyhedrawith determine all face regular polyhedra. (5. On the other hand. then (h. E. If < 5. h and \320\272 were than larger 1 implies that impossible. possibilities. assume that h. stretching . simple A toroidal polyhedron. fact. it length.every the same vertex having having number of and from the same it. in (3. the cube. then 0 (\316\227. one: Every imply is a polyhedron convex polyhedron is a nonsimple polyhedron. realized by the icosahedron. and (3./. \316\231_\316\231 = 4 2 if - \320\272 3. (4. every possible the same number of edges. use Observe that we did not really dodecahedron.say. then the above equationwould imply = \316\231+'1<! \316\277<\316\247 \320\272 \316\225 h which is obviously 1 + 4 either/. f-E+f-2 or 1 For both we safely a polyhedron. the octahedron. between formula regular It that + F=2 V-E This faces and simple a direct provides (11..and respectively the fact that the edges of the polyhedron all have the samelength. edge edges emanating say. 3 < \320\272 1 \342\200\236. < 5. only possibilities (up to or contracting).edges. respectively.294 > ComplexModel Construction a topological it does property.12). h .5. us digress slightly and explore an application ofEuler's of a W e will more classical geometric modeling vintage. \320\272 that 3.5) proof that there arc only five polyhedra.6. the number of vertices.3. Euler's Formula A well-known V. let to theorem 9F 9F (11. every having has and to two two Since vertices faces.E) - They are.

/?.10arc of nonsimple polyhedra. . respectively. general sense in which he statesit. of each numbers (or polytope) formula as defined as Nt). correct by today's standards. this These regular were there however. and his claimis not quite polyhedra. examples parallelepiped a hypcrpolyand expressed in l-(-l)\" direct (11. rather \316\233\316\212.-\316\233\316\212 For n-dimenstonal space. .10 Examples of nonsimple polyhedra.10) Euler's formula. to Euclid. \316\267 3. .. \316\235\342\200\236 \316\271. reduces to polyhedra no others.. some whose . us in to geometric modeling.edges. \316\234. . and he even claimedthat were known Euclid's definition of a regularpolyhedronwas. cue to investigate nonsimple is our in the . also in the shape of a parallelepiped equivalents of elements.Insteadof ofany solid object use /\320\245\320\226\320\226\320\223\320\233 Figure 11. imprecise This are topological = therefore.1-dimensional of these elementspresent + jV. In Figure 11.. 1-T2-. The simplest of theseis a rectangular a through with hole.295 Topologyof Models\342\226\240 Poincare points. and the denoted He hedron Euler's Euler's generalized he faces. Nonsimplcpolyhedra with holes in it and are. formula to 0-. N2.

of a solid figure eight. because polyhedron has connectivity N = 0. the Furthermore. merely to emphasizethe properly grid edges. faces or of interconnected faceted. This is the Euler-Poincareformula. of a holes. separaie maximum or that do genus N=-V+E-F+2 G= (-V+E-F+2) 2 Thus.Thus.10. Conversely. Thus. We can also replace more structures by topologically equivalentpolyhedra. faces.The two end are beveled. that is. self-intersecting surfaee. edges. N= with (Jean be deformed into a sphere. we say that the (loop) defined by edges of the polygonsmaking up have N= 0. closed surface of a polyhedron is divided into two separate regionsby every path its faces.296 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction are parallel to the other faces. All simple polyhedra the surface of a sphereis divided into two parts by any closed curve lying on it. V-E+F-2(l-G) =0 (11. regions. we can determine the counting and connectivity and connectivity by Conversely. As we see in Figure 11. complicated Topological deform with (11-12) and Orientation additional a more general approachto developing consider surfaces formed by taking a collection of flat gluing them together along their edges. and but have The other faces are treated the same way more vertices.creatingpiecewise be flat everywhere surface formed in this way will obviously now take properties and Any and . If the A connectivity number N is associatedwith every polyhedron. We define connectivity number greater than sides as the maximumnumber of distinctloopswith a polyhedron to be found on (intersections) into Iwo two polyhedraof where2G = the without common points not divide its surface Jhe genus G of a polyhedronas Jhe that do not divide its loops to be found we can extend Euler's formula io connectivity. and G surface. and faces.11) number. simple a through into a sphere and the rectangular polyhedra hole into a torus.as a sphere with = or any simply connected 2 for the surface \320\241 1 for a torus. there arc closed loops of edgesthat do not divide the of a surface these a into two parts. any closed nonany G = 0 for a sphere G handles.The number G iscalledthe genus of the surface. any polyhedron can define We orientable unbounded surface. vertices. genus any N. None them can be deformed into sphere. can we parallelepiped Atlas We will topological planar pieces surfaces. We assign nonsimple polyhedra polyhedron the connectivity number N one. define of nonintcrsecting number surface into We regions.

Figure11. . The to describe each face separately and keep track This data structure is calledan atlas. then together. This topologicalatlasis similarto an -\320\232\320\255 11.11 pyramid. surface can have vertices.11 flat most \302\251\342\200\224 Figure In fact.297 Topologyof Models \342\226\240 the planar pieceshave curvatureonlyat crucial The is simply representation which shows edges the straight deciding how to straightforward are atlas where the piecesare glued edges. the step in designing is in geometry of the edges along possibly except if all Topological atlas of a truncated pyramid. the glued adjoining. of a truncated a modeling algorithmto explorepiecewise represent thesesurfaces.

Orientation-reversing pointing same rotational sense\342\200\224either clockwise or counterclockwise\342\200\224around their respective faces. However.2) edges number of each is (2.1) (5. of matched-edge pairs as the atlas label each edge with a pair of enables atlas an in joints orientation-reversing the of direction is orientation-preserving. possibility. square piecewise specifying the take for a closed numbers curiosities mathematical In Figure 11. which is a collectionof separatemaps information directing the user to the next map.while shown on the right.3) (6.2) (6. if one arrow points clockwise and the other the ascending that the numbersmatchand the some including the sequentially face collection We surface.using arrow figure 11. identifies an orientation-reversing an we have numbered each edge.2)] [(2. The identifies an orientation-preserving construction.1) (5.0)] We the face clockwise (4. construction the counterclockwise.0)] (5.In illustrates two ways of joining a pair of edges.0)] [(1.3)] [(3. For the [0. We can numbers or arrows alone to identify the use either way the two edges are in the have both arrows constructions joined. called nonorientable surfaces.1)] [(3.0)][(1.3) (3.0) cube the atlas shown.3)][(4.3)][(4. Oof 3 12 4 \320\263-\342\200\224\316\271 \316\231 \316\271 faces (4.1) Including us to construct new surfaces.shown the other to indicate joined opposite edges so two arrows is the same.We starting from 1. numberingthe from 0 to 3.2) this as edge 0 of face 1 with interpret matched 12 \316\227 3 3 edge \316\227 4 4 1\342\200\224l 2 3 (b| <al Figure 11. the left. . and 4 \316\227 1 so on.3)] (6.13.12 Orientation.0)][(1. face 2. we and edge of the face of interest. have and numbers. four (3.1)] [(5.1) [(2.2) [(2.2) (6.298 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction ordinary road atlas. construction.12 Figure on the direction of the contain each that first.

This happens because Externally. right are As inhabitants phenomenon.Thereis nothing to ensure that. We must first move around a priori that one directionis either right on the surface. then decide works only locally. This identification the strip before gluing the edges together. we get back to our initial we find that and left position. If when reversed. and left are characteristics of the two-dimensionalMobius strip Right of the surface. amountsto resulting in the Try a half-twist making Mobius Atlas 11. As inhabitantsof the inhabitant's not characteristics motions. instead. as we move around the sur- . a cylinder with this in a strip strip. specify observation is from the top sideor the bottom side. identify edges of paper. on the side of the not intrinsically depends and from. of a Mobiusstrip we would observe a curious we start out at some point and take a trip allthe way around the strip. whether a appears and righl turn surface depends are looking on setting up we left left or right are defined. we take a squareand to produce orientation-preserving way the orientation reversed. It is an extrinsicpropertyof the surface the an external reference.but the definition the surface. Mobiusstrip. We cannot look at some point on or left.we can define right and left on the surface. of opposite sides in an the with or.13 of a a pair identify cube. we must that Thus.Topology of Models 0 3 2 3 1 2 0 0 0 3 4 3 1 3 1 2 2 \342\226\240 299 5 1 2 \320\276 e 3 \316\271 2 Figure Next.

opposite one. space.Next. can a path the orientability an orientable example. (Note: q may equal p. Now we add another condition.14). Now. an orientation-preserving make identification of the top and bottom we atlas as did o n the we when edges exactly producing a torus froma cylinder The like the Mobius and. the of a sphere with g handles. bottle will not fit into a three-dimensional space without self-intersections. the produce The is and nonorientable projective topologicallydistinct plane.The Klein we can do operation.namely. and wc right a consistent left and right definitionon the surface.300 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex each time exactly what on happens A surface on which left or the same generate orientation given point. matter is not then is orientable. a sense clockwise counterclockwisefor rotationsat q.and it is not hard to show that adding a handle cannot the surface change that. To transform the Mobiusstrip into a closedsurface. 11. Note that the Mobius strip does fit into three-dimensional closed. (see Figure resulting surf ace isa Kleinbottle.) As we some as walk to cf along path. orientation at p. and are never reversed is orientable.we decide surface on the point \317\201 is called an this which of the two possible rotations to call clockwise. This potential reversaland confusionis the Mobius strip. that of clockwise or clockwise. If we We that confuses left and right. If we obtain the same orientation there Furthermore. but it is not strip.the surfaceisnonorientable.if of \320\260 our end orientation from we will with the Mobius up original strip. Therefore. projective plane Producing rather the Klein drastic froma Klein bottle. . induce different paths may we take. are There many obviously paths from always a uniqueshortestpath. where g can equal equivalent logically that the surface must be orientable. and close it up by making a second If we start with a Mobius strip we another identification. closed surface that fits into three-dimensional space must be topoAny zero. we keep track of which rotation we defined This induces an orientation at q. we again conclude that the Mobius is nonorientable. We conclude an intrinsicpropertyof surfaces.However. it is nonorientable. property. we let q be another point on S. is. of a surface in termsof another we can define surface is one on which a and counterclockwise rotations in a consistentway: We choose S and imagine standing at that point. bottle involves sticking the bottle through itself\342\200\224a but the best in three dimensions. demonstrate easily will right to establish able find to a return we are to go left the commands face. strip that orientability is and our new definition agrees with the old.Different orientations. no which path we walk around |he meridian to \317\201 q. A sphere is orientable. orientation-reversing type of surface. For too.

which sum up the angle easy to compute.of Topology Models \342\226\240 301 b <a| (\320\253 b b (dl W 11. transition parity. not only which edges are identified. It so seemingly paradoxicalsubject:the happens that all of the curvature wise flat surface is concentratedat the vertices. of Piecewise Flat Surfaces We now turn of piecewise to a our attention flat surfaces.14 Figure The atlas must specify the orientation is whether the scheme. Wc denote by including but also a +1 or-1. thus. the including that simple topological properties Curvature (a) a cylinder. We need only around eachof the vertices. strip. and (d) a Klein Atlas of: (b) a torus. makes total curvature a piececurvature in excesses of small paths . transition It should now be obvious parity changes produce dramatic changes in the bookkeeping of a surface. this reversed. a shows several of 11. (c) a Mobius bottle.15 notation Figure examples number.

01(1.21-1].1] [(1.3)t 1] (1.13) \316\243\316\225. (\302\243>) bottle.11(1.01(1.2) (1.15) .3) +1] + I].11(1.3) 10. (11. is the (one total of a path around the vertexi vertex) we obtain turning for each = 2\317\200 V \316\232 - ^ Ti = 1 \316\271 Factoring out the (11. we rewrite the (11. and = \316\232 parity of: (a) a sphere. 1(1.3)-]] <d| Figure 11.01(1.15 transition Atlas and (c) a Klein a torus.2) til.2) .'.11(1. most tumijig. !=1 excessofa around this expressioninto recall that excess is equal to minus Ej is the To transform where the path the 2\317\200 vertex simplest.[11. meaningful and we terms.[(1.302 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex *\342\200\224\302\273 0 3 I' 1 2 2 \302\273\342\200\224\302\273 t 1].14) \316\232=\316\243(2*-\320\223() \316\271 <= where 2\317\200 terms 7\".1)0.[(1. total the equationas .0)0. (d) a projectiveplane.

Regrouping these anglesaccording to the faces in. We do not know much about in general the sum of the interior anglesof a face. need the and and know total numberof faces vertices the number of only edges. the formulais even since the sum simpler. is the numberof edgesof the the facesgives = to sum to \317\200 and 18\317\213\302\260. \342\226\240 303 the total that fact Models of Topology Summing faces in the of all the they lie F (11. Summing this quantity over all . curvature of flat surface without knowing any closed We any piecewise angles. 2\317\200(\316\275 for total does not on at curvature all! And f). Curiously the total we can compute enough.exterior \316\277\316\257(\317\200 there are as angles)] (sum of exterior anglesof the face) (11. + F) 2n(V-E and F (11. V . . the second compute together.2\317\200 = of interior angles of any face is 2\317\200.= angle edges . of course. The exterior quan ty\342\200\224the angl boundary of each faceisa dosed so sum we the of the exterior anglesis 2\317\200. Therefore.17) Xf=]/can expressedindependently the particular values of the angles. we we term have can without all the compute atlas. with surface \316\225 edges. Therefore. to a face. where e.This equation depend angles we can do even better. we compute total curvature as vertex. face i. the \321\201\320\260\320\275 further interior angles turning meeting at that over all the vertices gives us all the interiorangles surface.16) K^lKV-^ft where/ isthe of sum This is a knowing the edges of the angles we because result surprising how interior the face i.2n \317\207 \317\200 e. For a closed piecewiseflat faces.where clarify V is.18) . For piecewise square surfaces.2\317\200 \320\232 F or \316\232 Therefore. this expression the numberof verticesin if we rewrite is using the around a vertexis equalto the all the of sum We surface. are joined if individual faces of a piecewise flat surface total curvature without knowing anything we know and the about V.we notice - angle pairs off with an interior are many of these pairs as there f.To know that simple path. relate the exterior each exterior that angles to the interior angles. the total curvature is K = V vertices.17) = 2\317\200 Because we already know that \316\232 V to \316\243\316\257= \\f\342\200\236prove Equation we show that sum be must the of (11. = [sum = nxf. but we do know a closely related ti sum of the es.

then. This. Can If surface? we As characteristic also has these questions: Can we show directly that (V modeling. (11. properties. Look at topological deform a piecewise flat just a following ones? is \320\232 more. a piecewise flat counting for defined invariant. .This F ^e.20) Equation Combining (11. This E + F) is not just tools for ones. and that separate faces countseachedgeexactly all the that means twice.20) (\316\2311.-2nF = \316\271 \316\271 \316\271 closed surface each edge is shared number of edgesin a face over the summing in a lhal \316\271 Xf= e-\342\200\236 noting simplify two faces.2\316\231) 2\317\200(\316\225-\316\267 \316\243/. \316\225 + when F) remove of we .23) Euler characteristic of a surface and we rewrite the this notation. (V an edge.is our introduction to the (V After two.^ we Now precisely by (11. has \320\232 only piecewiseflat equation leadsus to properties.19) = yields into (11.304 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex = Xf. it also impliesmuch have seen.22) K^2%V-^j] 1=1 or = K The denoted by \316\225 + is the F) letter Greek the \317\207 (chi). What and all surfaces. special total the a piecewise of is as formula curvature - (V quantity + F) 2n(V-E Absolutely unless to happens we cut nothing! a face in transformation.E + F) for all surfaces. 1= 1 Substituting = 2E yields F (11. not this we define (V . we achieve these goals.24) \316\232=2\317\200\317\207 We think can curvature of this equation as a convenientway to calculate flat surface. we providepowerful invariance.19) Xe.21) Equation (11. the Euler that invariant? topological geometric \320\232 is Also. a topological algorithm. the numbers or .16) (11. suspect the suggests First.E + F) is all. none next - topic. 1=1 with (11. perform some other nontopological can change. However. Therefore. Using (11.

and as topological but polygons on a general surfaceas an each end by a vertex) that at arbitrary surface. net on a surface.of Models Topology The Curved Surfaces of Closed Topology Lei us imageof distorted a lerms vertices. we know the and the total curvature characteristic \317\207 = that they are related by \316\232 for flat surfaces. by because V is unchanged. can do We into net this a different this in several ways. into everywhere the elements to call continue will will arcs of simple surface the divide edges vertex at either end. But 1. The a definitionfor the new suggests for an F works surface as simple but lines - flat surfaces not as flat a net (terminated V and faces edges. and is a topological surface has an Euler characteristic \317\207. we increase We conclude net transformations just defined. net edges. we couldimaginestarting then or transforming edges.To any two nets on the samesurface that. Furthermore. (or erasing) an edge between existing vertices.E+ Fis vertex transform a (ton. \317\207=V . This means that now we have two topologicalinvariants surfaces\342\200\224 Euler K. Adding (or by drawing in deleting) a face deleting) a vertex. Given faces. and vertices. F is unchanged. \317\207 Every for invariant. and that complete is \317\207 the affect transformations by F also 1. we assert from one gel other by somesequenceofthese transformations.then under invariant proof of the value increases And unchanged.For convenience. Adding (or Let us see how edge. first these \316\225 increases V the two - \316\225 + F is again an add we - F \316\225 is unchanged by the an edge. we can always that If \317\207. 2. faces on the piecewisc \316\225 + on a general surface. We collection arbitrary define will disks. Euler same the have surface To prove this. given any two nets. with a particular one by adding or deletingvertices We out two elementary net single transformations: 1. not as straight define Ihc sum how see now \342\226\240 305 \316\225 + F Euler characteristicraisesa question: If we can draw definition an infinite number of different nets on a surface. how do we decide which net to use in computingthe Euler characteristic? The answer is that it does not all valid nets on the same closed matter which one we choose. the \317\207 by formula same = V \317\207 - of a we define the Eulercharacteristic a net. then produce type of not only hy 1. but also a new edge. \302\243 each unchanged. hence will give the same value to the of \317\207. we arcs with a we topological disks.Thus. But does this hold 2\317\200\317\207 pieccwise .Therefore. If we insert a new into Vand a new vertex. because of the The characteristic.

edges. pushing all the curvature piece into the edges between the pieces. surface distinct of being non-self-intersecting are global and depend on all of its parts. a new The processes Euler object are the that add Euler or delete operators. certain other conditions musl be met. caveat only be deformedinto piecewise flatten the in this The \320\232 and both are \317\207 leaves them unchanged. flat then is that proof flat surface. by both arc \317\207 now assert the following theorem: For may curvature and the Eulcr characteristic are the Ga ass-Bonnet theorem. Sincewe have just seen that Euler's formula is not restrictedto plane-faced but also applies to any closed surfaceon which we can construct a polyhedra the formula a useful check on the becomes of net. Euler'sformula a asserts between these parts that allows us to assign certain relationship characteristic surface distinctive global characteristics:the number of handles or through holes. in the geometry of surfaces it a relationship between produces quantities defined purely in terms of topology(such as the Euler characteristic) and quantities defined in termsof distances as a nd a total purely ngles (such curvature). the and orientation. this seems possible. Connectivity. for the 2\317\200\317\207 Since surface. Then we flatten and the edges straighten all the curvature into the The vertices. for constructing operators provide a rationa I method solid. closed and These oriented).To apply the formula. flat surfaces. and properties of the quantitative the boundary the enclosed of a solid is a property interior points.The surface by piece. polyhedralike objects and ensure that they are topologically valid (that is. and any solid whose surface we can expressas a net of patches. The first is based on the fact thai \320\232 this theorem. always and Euler's satisfy vertices to create formula. independent of.and we for any closed any related surface. so on. We start with an arbitrary invariants. total . vertices.Sincewe is it we topological that know = \320\232 the original surface as that any surface can true for must show Intuitively. proof that \316\232-2\317\200\317\207 for surface and is similar to the way the theorem we for pieceany proved a approachis to wise flat surface. details of this piece by piece. is important theorem Gauss-Bonnet The because Euler Operators Eulerobjects faces. There are two and the is of proofs topological a piecewise the deformation it into deform invariants. The connectedness of from. connectivity. proper topological validity curve segments. surface and total = \316\232 This 2\317\200\317\207. however. ihey A second is based on a direct computation of \320\232 necessary here. pushing are difficult \321\216 more and are not procedure express rigorously.306 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex surface? It does. and curvature. piecewise well.

Models of Topology \342\226\240 307 All faces must be simply connected(i. (2.Distorting these the the and faces surfaces straight edges curves shapes by making nonplanar does not change the applicability or of the formula. terminatedat eachend of simple collection in action in formula the the surface into topologicaldisks. 4. .19 states that the ohject two and edges define a formula the stands..18b.16. vertices. The solid objectmust be connected (i. 5). 2.5) and (2. Each edgemust adjoin two faces and terminate at a vertex at each exactly 1. In 11. An (1. to the modifications interesting can <a| remedy longer spherical nets. Vertices.edges.17 validity demonstratesthis with two examples of spherical nets. valid shows and divide for a three- edges. 1) \320\241 polyhedral cells.18c edges(3.they are topological disks).and faces added to a model must produce a result that the Euler satisfies both formula and the four conditions mentioned above. a cubical polyhedron is legitimatelymodified.18a Figure the but is notice formula that satisfied. its complement is simply with no holes it. is.e. and edge Figure 11. Figure 11.Therefore.It is Euler's formula and the nets arcs (edges). certainly edges (1. <c| (\320\253 Euler's Figure 11.18c. in by adding faces. Furthermore.5) Edges (1. (4. a that of in this each vertex. 5) do not adjoin two faces. valid 2). Figure 11.2) adjoins three is not a (4. that vertex. with no holes in them. (3..' t F \320\243 ' 2 Euler'sformulaand simplepolyhedra. At least three edges must meet at Let us look at someexamples easy to see that the objects are proper.e.16 formula: \342\200\224 /. end. as it We solid. and boundedby a single ring of edges. Figure 11. 3). this situation net gain of two no of Euler's modification space divided into dimensional in a resulting and faces. figure satisfy Figure 11.In and 11. face. only two edges meetat by a vertex 5. faces. 4). connected) through 3.

21b by adding to the formula. and cell count.21. Figure surface net the edges the the vertex. a six-celled create face. by V-E+F-C=\\ By addinga vertex.25) 11. the Euler proper.20)and edge. the other eight verticeswith polyhedron. \320\270 '2 (b| <a| Figure of therefore the We correct as dashed formula we edges. Figure The convention.26) 5 A \\ / 1 \320\243 /\320\243 / 1 1 1 a \320\243 S 1 1 . \\ \\ . + 2P E+F-H V- = 2B (11. object with a hole through il in our faces disks. but objects. It is easy to verify Lookat what 11. Thus.1B Euler operations <c| on a cube.point it to joining each of 9. formula is satisfiedin the is not cube (seeFigure 11.17 Euler's formula sphericalnet.21a. polyhedral inadmissibleaccording to and exit to hole are not shown the Modifying to happens Although the faces are the entrance of a interior the to (11. and containing this situation in Figure11. look at what happens deleting conditions 1 and 2 accommodates such lines. and topological two 11.308 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex figure related are cells and applied to a 11.

21bis now merelya If we add edges as in Figure 11. variation acceptable is shown in Figure 11.21d. and faces. and Models of Topology \342\226\240 309 <b| Modification 11. pairs edges.20 Euler's formula polyhedral cells. figure 11.as as the satisfy vertices.22).<a| Figure where V. then the original Euler formula. here. the in Figure 11. the of passages (holes through entireobject). well are each entities. F retain their //denotes usual meaningand denote the of number the number of holes in the faces. a vertexis topologically interior. and between (see by Figure adjacent .19 Euler net of an on a sphere.and faces characterized 11. the denotes number of separate. edges. E. number \316\241 denotes \320\222 and Another through we concavity. for example.21a and passage 11. disjoint bodies (objects). (The individual faces. Thus.) simply connected A polyhedron exhibits nine classesof topological relationships of the three types of elements:vertices.21c.

represent a solidobjectas respectivesurface equations. one of the / 16-28+14= Euler to use S the Euler operators usually a good idea how vertices by the ring of require {F). emphasizing an object's . faces adjacency 11. with data pointers is a graph-based object's faces model. with to the edges pointers Notice that there are two kinds of information: vertices vertex.\302\243: F: [V] to know are facilitated operations shape V : [F].21 Figure vertices.or [V).32 + 16 = 0*2 V-E* F + 16-32 + 16- 0 2P = 2B + 2 = 2 / \\ > / W <d| ? / M\342\200\224 ^ \316\223\316\221 V / \302\243 V-E + 21>\302\2612B F-H + +0 = 2 + 11-1 16-24 11. edges. [V]. edges. GRAPH-BASED MODELS A model geometric together linking We can meeting at pointers the represent each to a list of the structure. it is relationships are joined.24*10 = 2 16 = 2B f -+ 2/\302\267 16 .2 F: faces among : \321\203 X y-E+F=2 2 formula. with topological faces.310 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex S\320\243 / /- \316\233 / <a| /1 |b| \320\243 // / f-E+F=2 V~E tF=2 16. vertices.We as lists of coordinates. and the represent their endpoinl We equations.24 + 10-2+2=2 \320\243-F+ F . arkd vertex the around V Boolean whereas X For certain graphicsapplications. and their edges of these facesas curve vertices and adjoining faces. 7 4N polyhedra and a modified connected Multiply and faces.

can in but many speed graph-based model in of time amount an proportional to the number of edges. The edges. model. In addition differences in how the graph-based systems allow an outer require a face plus boundary \316\226\316\233 / V: F \316\265 \316\275 F 1 E: V E: F \320\257: \316\225 FA l/ F. V F: F. redundancy up searching thereby eliminating the need for searches. rotation) only leaving pointers can be derived from a addition. and vertex equations coordinates or just the pointers.23 is an Figure may alter operations modeling Subsequent numericaldata.jusi the both. the topology or pointers defining and faces 2.\\ F L._K Figure 11.22 Topological relationships between polyhedron elements. Numerical data definingcurve and between connectivity surface vertices. Some situations algorithms.Graph-Based \342\226\240 311 Models 1. In numerical data. edges ofa face to have a single are with boundary no are there Some accommodated.F. systems. and transformations global Scaling rigid-body (translation and the alter unaffected. pairs of F . 11. wireframe-based computer-graphics displays redundant information. There are differences interesting among to differences in degree of redundancy.The example of a graph-based contains model this is desirable. graph-hased Others hole.

\302\243\342\200\236.312 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex Vertices Faces Edges v. \302\243. Or treat a as a we can simple graph... offers This computational the advantages for characterizes solids. \302\243\342\200\236\302\2432.... polyhedron. ^\321\207. and face boundaries as ordered lists segments. Ex. Figure disjoint in 11. ^ l\302\267\302\267.. ^ \302\2433 F3 ^2.F4 ^2 Fi \302\2432 \302\2435 Ei> Ej. the faces of the and elements indicatethat no elements indicate that connectivity exists We can construct such a matrix for other one is shown in this figure for the connectivity between one-valued of pair matrix.. ..F. \302\2432. F. representing and model.24). E\342\200\236ElrE j \302\243\342\200\236 F\342\200\236F. latter is \321\217 connectivity (see Figure 11. \302\243]. F.F3. F\342\200\236F5. Zero-valued vertices. The For available is a matrix connectivity connectivity elements and exists.F. Because all edges are straight-line we can store them as vertex pairs. between as the binary well. as planar-faced polyhedra.many are solids represented economies with graph-based systems. of vertices. listing (chains) polyhedron the vertices with their coordinates in one array and their connectivity in The matrix another.23 loops \320\273\320\265\320\263-boundary structured more highly systems connected) complex (multiply A graph-based holes.

A graph some containing or all of the nodes and branches of a graph G and no other nodesor branches is a subgraph G is a subgraph of G. assign degree degree to graphs.25). there If is a path between any pair of nodes of a graph. I 8 6 7 0 J 0 I 0 1 0 0 I 1 0 I 0 Face 1 = 0= Connectivity Wo connectivity u. can requirement A graph. I . describing then an algorithm accesses atj and reads its value. path the path is a circuit.Models Graph-Based \342\226\240 313 called an adjacencymatrix. Vertcs I 2 3 4 I II 1 0 2 I 0 0 1 1)000 0 0 10 I 0 10 0 10 \320\233 1 \342\200\224\302\243 5 I 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 I 11 0 0)01 3 __- 5 6 0 1 0 0 7 0 0 0 1 11 0 0 1 A \320\262 CDF.The time needed to do this is independent of the number of vertices and the numberof edges.Ifany branch has a The number of branches at anode determines associated with it. traversed. A tree is a connected graph without circuits. Figure 11. A spanning tree of a connectedgraph all t o and branches maintain withits nodes containing enough connectivity storage out creating any circuits. eachnodeby counting the branches to it and from it. then. The main a matrix is that it V2 of connectivity requires storage (V= disadvantage number of even though most a:j = 0. pointing away A tobe from one node to another is the sequenceof branches respectively. If the start and end nodes of a path are the same. If efficientpackingis availablethe vertices) The are is also matrix connectivity for convenient be reduced to V1 bits.24 F 4 0 1 I 1 0 I a 1 0 1 1 J 0 \321\201 I I 0 0 11 D I 0 0 1) \316\225 I 0 J 0 F I Connectivity matrices I 0 for 1 {j 11 a polyhedron. itsdegree. If we let a:j denote the clement of the connectivity matrix the existence of an edge betweenvertex \320\263 and vertex j.Thesematrices that determine whether an edge exists algorithms between two vertices. the is graph connected.is a set of nodes(orpoints)connected hy branches (lines). then the graph is a directedgraph direction (see Figure For directed we can an in and an out 11. 10.

matrix elements. way interesting bit vector uses matrixis Note vertex .' that to The B CD A 0 1 0 0 \320\222 0 0 1 \317\213 \316\225 F \320\241 0 0 0 1 D 0 \317\213 0 0 \316\225 0 0 0 F \317\213 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 \317\213 1 only if there is a directed edge from graph.314 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex (a) Figure 11.Another One ways. connectivity way uses a list of vertices as we saw earlier.25 We may a graph represent (nodes) their and in Examplesof graphs. an \342\200\224 six adjacency lists are for a directed vertex/.25b showsa directedgraph with six nodes. A . many matrix (branches). graph each a list of vertices associated with or node. Figure vertex adjacent having Its connectivity (or adjacency) 11. which often results in for Lists may represent a graph by considerable efficiency algorithms.

then 11. A leaf node has no properdescendants. There is a bold and and node to only no has the following enter. exiling branch. Although leavesat R = the it may bottom. each other node(shown in 11. Again.When wc delete an edge from an undirected then a\342\200\236 we delete graph. as in Figure the father of b). is There 2. if the branchis directedfrom b. Every one only one unique The terms entering all relative one the root from path in Figure outline node are node.26 A tree graph .i from the matrix. a tree is a directed graph no with A tree circuits.26). parent node. In the case of adjacency lists. dj.Graph-BasedModels \342\226\240 315 vertex vertex D[E] A[B.F] vertex B[QF\\ vertexE[C] vertex vertex C[D] F[E] in an adjacency of undirected graphs are representedtwice matrix. additionalproperties: 1. we create a the search to link the double entries of edges and speed supplementary array Edges If there process. called the root. to see disconcerting that is the convention. trees with roots at the top and Given two adjacent nodesa and a is a proper a to b. branches one entering branch. (or edge) connecting = 1.26. and descendant root node. which node except the root nodehas 3. both a(J and a. and bis a proper descendant ancestorofb (sometimes called ofa (a son of a). to the branch. be iqqj nude Figure 11. is an undirectedbranch vertex / to vertex j.

28a): must Algorithms information about it 1. /\342\200\236 of tree T. height of the is the If the descendants the tree is ordered. binary tree. The level tree minus the depth of the of each node are in order.27 A complete = in that 2*' '-1 = 15 dR. descendants\342\200\224a two 11. 11. we will Boolean study a binary tree.26.27.28 in illustrates Figure a \316\267 as 11. we find that the depth of this node in the tree is the from the root R to b The length of the path (numberof branchestraversed) of the longest height of node b is the length path from b to a leaf. order. We also that the height \316\277\316\271 notice tree of anode the Ls the height of the root. Visit the 2. The node \316\267 of t\342\200\236. and its descendants subtree we define a node all Figure First. a \320\243\321\201 tree is completeif A binary is complete.27 less than leaf is. true for the nodes at depth \320\272 in a heights is2*+1. where one. The tree tree._ and dR its immediate descendants.When use a specialtype has each node in is a binary The binary tree in some descendant = node every then models in Section 11. Looking at node b.26 Figure of node. that is. postorder traversal. visit each node to get lies.316 \342\226\240 Complex Construction Model Several quantitative parameters are associatedwith a tree. Visit in L root preorder traverse often or the r.1. We will investigate three path systematic to do lh\\s: preorder traversal.3. the subtrees with roots dL and Height = * .3 of nodes Number = leal node rooi node R = Figure 11. which is an tree ordered and a right descendant left left to right. complete binary a binary on which it tree of tree. as in Figure 11. 3 in Figure \320\272 integer and we called tree. of depth of depth node every This is for and right a left \320\272 has The total number of nodes the figure. Then we define the preorder traversal of \316\244 as follows recursively (see Figure 11. We the root of the tree and is the root let r denote d. from say. and inorder ways Lhese traversal on the binary tree shown traversal 11. .

28b): 1. Visit in postorder the rootr. in that order.2B Traversals traversal of 7\" of a binary tree. . the subtrees with roots dL and dR. recursively follows as (see Figure 11. Visit 2.317 Graph-Based Models \342\226\240 (a) Figure We define the poslorder 11.

3 it any part of parts MODELS BOOLEAN The in in contingent reflected discussion affects Boolean of Boolean models models begins with and operators. a connectivity defining how the vertices are connectedto form straight-line edges. and by the work of many others. points. wc as follows (see Figure 11. and on demonstrated by the work of Agarwal Waggenspack (1992) for extracting face topologies from wireframe models. Vicknair. the basics of wireframe modeling The literature describing methods is vast and accessible. require support embedded entities on curves on surfaces. and so on) and relative curves. model is the simplest exampleof a graph-based set of vertices defined by their coordinatesand model. is more structure because most of their geometricentities The RGS schemeincorporates two or more nodes. as durability of the resultsof compositional processes. Visit in inorder the left subtree inorder the right subtree If we assigna number in The properties. when we . and Lequett wireframe from curvilinear solids wireframes converting Usinga data (1995a) for (RGS) structure a present synthesis new to surfaced of (1989)on views. Changes a complex geometric model are automatically of the model. a brief review In geometric of set theory as modeling. each in the node right subtree has nH. on converting CAD wireframe data on the automatic construction (1988) (1988) (see complex geometric models Chapter 12). we visit. (points entities. of Brewer. r. interesting node nR has a number a numbergreaterthan A wireframe a of consisting sequence inorder a way that in such occur tree binary less than r (if it of root of r (if it to exists). Visit in 2.Their graph from curves.28c): 1. data ensures of intersection as well The structure curves. 11.and Courier to solids. we notice some numbers of the nodes of a node in the left subtree of a root node each traversal each while \302\253R.318 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex define the inorder traversalrecursively Finally. durability complicated the than conventional tree. Letcher and Shook equivalent framework logical they call relational geometric constructing and solids surfaces. or circuit of vertices. exists). to a directed graph. Visit 3. as a separate either are not explicitlydefinedor are given list.of methods decomposition matrix Faces Hojnicki White of representations. Work in this area is by no means This is finished.

.Models Boolean * 319 shapes.Two sets if we can pair each elementin correspondence one element exactly B li contain set and A in one-to-one \320\222 arc as equal. a look at pointwith some of the basic concepts of set theory and finish with to its set topology.Thus. each element sets equivalent \320\222 with in if we one exactly A and A their elements can place with in element in one- correspondence.expressed The is a subset of setti only the \321\201 indicates symbol if subset every in A element is also an clement relationship.'' On the right-hand side we have the conditions for set membership. For from the axioms set drawn of considerably theory. all. the basic clementis the point. (Incidentally. On the left-hand side of the vertical line we read. but New sets are formed by \320\222 and some fashion. example. includingset-membership classification and relevance of sets dates back to treatment solid modeling. element element arbitrary every Forexample.. Two sets A to-one in and S. the elements in two B. particular. \"the set of all \317\207. Any set/1 B. well-defined Objects In geometric to a are its members. Given if sets is a proper at least \320\222 has not a proper combining A and subset (11. Conversely. A deck 52 cards universal sei. a null set which has no elements at poker to as the empty sel or tbe void set. one subset.5<x<3.A is contained in set is a subset of itself.27) exactly the same elements.) The term sel denotes any collection of objects. is a set consisting of all real numbersin the [x\\2. \320\233\320\265\320\271 means that A is a subset of B. in theory Solid-modeling techniques. important from to point-set early work at the University of Rochester draws topology for establish more rigorous mathematicalfoundations solid modeling (see and Voelker and and We Tilove begin Requicha Requicha [1977] [1978]).28) of li if element every element not contained in A. in \320\222 are and (11. the first formal second of the half the when Cantor created the nineteenth century. \320\222 are and A A = wheneverset A. set elements o r solid modeling. we can constructa third or more set \320\241 whose in A Every sets in e|e- . thai is A contains all the elements of all the sets under consideration set the of be the H. belonging indicate the or otherwise. shapes calledprimitivesto form morecomplex have useful.The symbols I [ } and on notation describe the in terms of conditions set-builder set any of the set\342\200\224conditions that of the set must meet.5] specified interval. It is denoted by \317\206 and is also referred the simple combine becomes set In two sets genera]. only main body of the theory. denoted playing may by if we are investigating of the probabilities of certaincombinations set universal a selis a cards in hand.

. and only if A = [a. If we forma setD comprised of elements is the intersection of A and the elements includes AkjB to common and B. C|early.Forexample. . with appropriate pre.d]. the union of A elements in A the elements in all of with together C-AuB or in other set sets.[c.and postprocessing.outside.only the evaluation intersection algorithms.Thus.e. then their difference (or more formally.e. Notice \321\201 is in element though or is what logicians (11. We and (11.e. For example. well-established rules govern operations (see Table as union 11.29illustrates set some are these There can several we using operations diagrams. We may read A kj \320\222 as A or \320\222.b.d.b. Thus.f].c] and \320\222 [d.B.29) mean the set of all elementsin one set or in the if A = [a. that this as write B. the Here.and = [c. both/1 B. and the universal set \316\225 consist is the set of points defining modeling.g].d]. wc of two union the By sets.1). sets.cfd. and \320\222 then A-B-\320\220 = [a. -A = 0.30) mean sets.e.oron the boundary of a geometric solid.f]. both Akj B= [a. D then sets. One way useful particularly operations properties combine and to study sets and in representing subsets is with Venn diagrams.f].bfcfd}. kj A 0. ways and certain that these sets.b. The geometricnature of Venn useful diagrams suggests ways for us to the of on them.h. but A kj A) (A = A. both/1 call the inclusiveor because that belong to A as well as B. there is no repetition of elements in C.d. both in we selD as D=AnB D=AnB.f. The A to with a universal set \302\243 is and If/1 (A the \320\222 are complementofa set A) a|] elements set of Furthermore. \321\201(\321\201\320\220 often allow us to simplify In boundary computations. is operator required. in if A = [a.320 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex are all of the menls is.f\\. the set of all elements.sets a Euclidean space with a dimension of our choosing. Set theory suggests methodsfor operating on these points and classifying them according to such propertiesas inside. expressed By the intersectionof two those are that elements.c) and \320\222 then C[c. in \316\225 that complements = \320\222 A ncB are not respect elements in A. cA. their Boolean AB set of elements i n A that denotes the are not also elements difference) = B. form if we - then/1 subsets.c.This minus sign does not combine with \317\205 in the way [e. B. even that and B. such set relationships as equality which and are such set and intersection. written with respect to a set Econtaining/1 and \320\222 as = and Au \320\222 These two identities ncB)./4 = that a plus analogy might suggest.Figure11. setsand In interpret properties operations geometric of points.

set of points we are considering (sec Figure 11. point of all all points in its limit points.We will use the set operators union (u). open open points E'is where \342\226\240 321 the universal We define a limiting b symbolizethat in the lower figure these are points not included their inclusion.Thus. the intersection and difference and rules (n).29 and set diagrams line defined real \320\237 \320\237 \320\270 (\320\233 \320\257) \320\241> (\320\220 (J) theory.1. the of the set X where a is an circles at and set. (-). by a continuous set of pointsin F.30). also called Booleanoperators.31) and iX denotes the set of points. for their application and combination. calledBooleanalgebra. of all its limit indicate set with the set two-and three-dimensional spacesand The boundary of a closed set is the set union of the interiorof a closedsetis the set of X = where bX denotes the interior set of boundary the set. These set Open concepts circles is the extend to sets. Boolean Operators feature of the geometric objectswe will a boundary define them as closedsetsofpointshaving A distinguishing that we deal with subset here is and an . Conversely. and the solid The closureof an points.Boolean Models \320\273 \321\217 \320\270 (\320\260) \320\233-\320\222 (c) figure Let consider us the Venn 11. subset Xof El by the line segment a < X< b.the of a set not on its boundary. We are now ready to see how theseconcepts allow us lo use simple shapes to create morecomplexones. where \321\217 b are and X. bXuiX points (11.

interior that c-omplemeni Thecomplement -A and The We use to combine preserve the dimensionality and homogeneityof the initial objects. difference algorithms are also DeMorgan's of a empty set. Complement \320\263\\ \320\222 1. empty set is the universal of a set \320\233 is \320\233. c(A 5. Boolean operations similar to set intersection. Voelker(1985) . Associative properly. suchas \316\233 kj \320\222 means \320\241. Commutative property Complement \302\247 U i stri but i ve Proper! jes 1. \316\221 \316\267 \\j \320\241)(\316\221 \316\267 \317\205 \316\267 2.322 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex Properties of operations on Table 11. Ar\\A~A Idempoiem property = r\\cA properly. A \\jA = A 6. \320\220 \320\270 \320\222 is a 2. requirement the objects SeealsoRequicha and must be of the same spatial dimension. DeMorgan's law. Associative \320\270 \\j (\320\222 \320\241) 5.\320\222=:\320\222\320\223\\\320\220 = \320\220 \320\223\\ \320\263.\316\225 2. A\\j cA. \316\221 \317\206 sett property. Idempoiem properly. property. \321\201\321\204 3.The = latter all that in any Boolean operation. 3. union. Identity Intersection A property. Commutative properly. {\316\222 (\316\221 \316\262) \320\241) Intersection Properties Complementation 1. property. complement law. cE = \317\206 . {A ri B) r\\ \320\241 (\320\222 \320\241) 4. and Putnam and Subrahmanyam (1986). 1. simple objects complex that as these must operations perform produce output objects sets of points having and interior subsets and closed boundary subset. \320\220\320\263. \320\233\320\270(\320\271\320\277\320\241|=(\320\233\320\270\320\224)\320\223|(/1\320\270\320\241) Union is distributive over intersection. more The to form ones. A nE=A Properties Closure properly. Identity 5. ~ \320\222 \320\220 \320\270 \320\222 \320\270\320\233 =A 3.1 Union Properties Closure set. c(cA) 4. is distributive over union. 2. property. (du8|uC = A \317\205 4. \320\220 Is a sei. c(A = \321\201/1\320\273\320\263\320\271 \320\270\320\271) cA^jcB r.B)- of the universal set is the The complement of the set.\316\225 6.

geometrically is not Thus. Notice lhat in a consistent direction.31demonstrates two well-defined two-dimensionalobjectsproducesa result that does not meet our requirements.The importance of these regularized parts operators will become soon apparent. clearly. In this case. both are . A and The arrows \320\222 are \320\222 are indicate parameterized simple two-dimensional polygons A and objects B. they Ob Figure shown in Figure with straight-line 11. First. We begin by combining two 11.30 Figure * Open and closed sets. the set bA and bB and an interior set iA and to set but resulting intersection is mathematicallycorrectaccording theory \320\241 has no interior. this intersection did not preserve dimensionality.Requicha and others (1977) early on proposed the use of regularizedset operators. It is not a two-dimensional objectand. which and homogeneity dimensionality (no dangling or preserve disconnected of lower dimension).Both and A boundaries. the ordinary set-theoretic how intersection of Figure11. \320\241 like A and B.A and \320\222 are defined because each well possesses a boundary iB. incorrect.BooleanModels \342\226\240 323 a<x <b sei Open a ^ \317\207 ^ b \317\207 Closed set a 11. or at least because inadmissible. as the direction of parameterization.31 Degenerate intersection of two well-defined two-dimensionalobjects.32. We would operation prefer an operator that recognizes this condition and producesa nullset. Second.

and ve of edges from parameterized of the edges of A points has \320\222 also if the segments: four and to and scaling B. [\321\206. L \316\271 Difference: two simple polygons. but we have not we found We have only one loop. yet exhausted the list of segments.\302\253 segments: e \316\275 [vj. point 4.Then B. polygon of A is 1.\320\263* \320\265[\302\253>\302\253^]. \316\275\316\221]. \320\270 1 and has four example \320\270 \320\265 [\302\253jjuj. finding 1.3. Find the . we discover increasing \316\275 that have traced back to the starting segmenton A.324 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex \320\227\320\242 2 I \316\271 \316\271 \316\271 L_ i-P^ -\321\213\316\271 U \320\257 \320\233 Union: 11. intersecting segmentof B. a point segment 4. At this point. Find that the \320\233 and \320\270 0 to \320\222. Thus. then the boundary \316\275 \320\270 e \320\263*\320\263].32 Figure /1-\320\257 I Intersection\302\267 \320\224\320\237\320\222 and intersection of difference. \320\265[\302\2532.2. both polygons' can we edges. Find all intersection the 2. so now we will transformations look positioning C-AkjB. Segmentthe of A and in 3. points - for an algorithm at boundary = 0 \316\275 \320\222 from the orienting which side contains 1.\302\253\320\267]. p0. [\316\271\316\257. and trace along it in the direction of to its intersection with A. v3]. e [v2\\ \316\275 i-'i]. \316\275 e [v3. point on the is also trace boundary polygon of A outside the that is outside B. pointsinside the We assume that we have alreadyappliedthe appropriate A and B. Union. consistency in By maintaining a convention defining establish the left in our example. and 4. polygon\342\200\224on counterclockwise. boundary of A to the next intersectionpoint with 1. B. say. 5. Starting at p0. vz].

subject complex process and continues to be a challenging the two-dimensional objects A and \320\222 in Consider 11. segment tracing must start from a point except on the boundary of A that is inside /i.too. the union operation is Nate that the second loop is parameterizedin a complete.32) boundary to combining them by the (he se!-!heoretic perform . a procedure for whether a is or outside a closed inside determining point polygon.31). The for finding the intersection principal ones are a procedure points. Trace this boundary with B. forming loops. we translate Boolean operationto A B=bB\\JiB and bAviA b denotes the set of interior points.The list will grow as we investigate more sophisticated problems The difference Boolean involving operators. segment to the next intersectionpoint 8. point Becausethere are no more qualifying segments to trace. and procedures the tracing segments. The algorithmjust outlined several requires supporting algorithms. ally homogeneous. segments inactive. 7. In any evenl. forming lvvo separate and distinct loops. intersection segments operation.as and \320\263 denotes in (11. tracing \320\222 to 3. we discard them and delete I hem the modeling from dalahasc. which direction. we have just explored is very The example simple\342\200\224too simple. sorting. encloses it the boundary segmentsof \320\233 and the loops as the we label as segments. Thus.33. clockwise that means a hale. and form \320\222 into object position \320\241First. illuminate most modelingproblemswe encounter operators. However. is similar to union. just operation is the same as the union operation except that we trace the boundary of \320\222 The -clockwise. If we no longer need representations of the initial objects A and B. Repeat step 5. We have completed another loop. and tracing. that and dimension closed is.and rcparameleri/ing loops. Equation the set of Next. Determining when basic applying in fact.as we We label aaive have /i that comprise boundarv other the seen. point 2. prior we points on the (11. Then segments that segment.isoutside/i. to Boolean approach: the topology of surfaces combinations of other surfacesis a suhtlc of research. 6. testing. the exampledemonstratesthe intersecting. that too. conversely.Boolean Models \342\226\240 325 Find a point on one of the remaining of A that is outside B. we that the are product of Boolean and express A and \320\222 as A = where. we of the appropriate concatenations represent object\320\241by reparameterized active segments of A and B. Each is Figure well defined.

We notice.35). parameterization in is indicated 11.34d. dimensionally We Given homogeneous.34shows a geometricinterpretationof each of the four in above. this rewrite the intersection.33) uM)n(iBuifc) (11. Figure expressions correctly surmise that iC=iC* = iAniB (11.36) .326 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction edge -Wangling Figure and regularized proper shown result in the Booleanintersections.35) Figure 11. edge. (11. figure. Set-theoretic set-theoretic is the regularized denoted \316\221 \316\267 Booleanintersection closed *\320\222. again. and we have C^AnB (11.34a. The result we seek is shown to the right.34) as C = (bA which set-theoretic to expands C = (bAn bB) u (iA \320\270 \317\200 \316\267 (\320\254\320\220 \320\250)\320\270 \320\254\320\222) (iA n iB) (11. that the direction of parentheses. We must derive candidates for Equation In the two-dimensional and we see interior of \320\241 11.yet it is the intersection.33 intersection. dimensionally C* from the terms in homogeneous object C*. It is obviously result this intersection the with correct Regularized intersection Set-theoretic 11. Since C-bCw arrows by iQwe must Figure find the subsets form a of bC and iC that closed. Notice the dangling not dimensionally homogeneous.

.We can generalize Boundary points can becomeinterior points. must we Next. have successfully set-theoreticintersection accounted we (11. The isolated point is a valid member of bC*.34dof the for to determine effort the regularized to determine which r\\bB) (see Figure11. ft) (a) \320\262 \316\262 id) \317\211 Figure Candidate 11.Boolean Models \342\226\240 327 A \320\222 \316\262 { . we that bC* iAnbBtz (11. become boundary points.38) Figures 11. of our now must A We and to neither are left with two identical apparently overlapping B.34 components of a regularized Booleanintersection. where object will bC* - always Valid the combiningelements. Let us find a test to differentiate between them. Furthermore.We and (bA intersections interior \316\267 iB). These intersections are distinguishedbecausethey are A nor B. of boundary consist this observation whereas regularized interior that the segments of as follows. points cannot intersections.becauseit must of be a member both (iA \316\267 always \320\252\320\222) in intersection.for without proof assert (bA kj Note \320\252\320\222). determine of any new boundaries bC*.34a) analyze (bA of its subsets are valid subsets of the boundary of C*.34b to 11.37) and bAniBcbC* So far.

_ to the left of direction 11. Pfl Segment 7 P2 L. a consistent we adopt At p. regularized intersection of two objects A and \320\222 is C*=An*B (11. For segment test point is insideboth A and S. From this we conclude:If the respectivetangent vectors A and \320\222 of the overlapping boundaries of two intersection objects point are in the same direction. is inside A or B.35 Regularized boundary InB \316\231\316\267\316\233 test.we construct a table for each segment each to test whether 1. neither point pR and p. Next. point p. where the tangent for segment arc vectors in the same at a direction. we compute the and p'.we create it a distance e to the right (relative to the offset p\302\253 from perpendicularly a similar and parameterization).39) Segment \316\231\316\267\316\233 InB 1 Pr 0 1 Pi 1 0 o-*~ P. on segment1. whereas for segment 2. simpler classificationtest is available convention for the direction of parameterization. test point pL is 2 is a valid boundary inside both A and B. boundary We from the same A boundary In our example.Thisprocedureanalyzes the of points on the segment so neighborhood same that we can classify it.328 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex At some a new point point p. properly Another. (see Figure do We the at a point p2 on segment 2. 2. .A n * the segment is not a valid boundary. valid Let us summarize The the results. -\302\273U 1 PR 0 0 Pi 1 1 Note1 1 = yes 0= no P\302\253J Figure 11. of C* otherwise \320\222. from the \320\222 representation if they are in opposite directions. This test determines that segment of C*.35). tangent vectorp/' do the representation. then the overlappingsegment is a valid boundary .

Figure The Figure expression section. investigate the Boolean combinationof us continue operations on the objectsin we will First.43) without Thus. by expanding the of the components they Again. in are shown set-theoretic union of A and \320\222 are the full set of valid candidates for determining as in the preceding intersection. (11.36.40) = Valid. three-dimensional \320\270 \316\267 \320\270 \316\267 \316\267 (\320\254\320\220 \320\250) (\320\263/1 iB) \320\254\320\222) 11. dimensionality. one-. let 11.42) iB) \320\270 \320\270 \320\270 u (\320\254\320\220 \320\250) \320\254\320\222) as correct of separation terms. set-theoretic expression C = Equation (11. C=Mu6flui/lu6fl^MuiBuMu/B (11. solids.43) the parenthetic \320\270 \320\254\320\222) (iA (\320\237-41) iA )\\j(bBu C=(bAu C^(Mu AuB is just and subject to (iA \320\270 iB) interpretation (11.33. Later in this to equally indicates that two-. We begin. so we or n-dimensional three-. \316\267 \320\270 (\320\254\320\220 \320\254\320\222) (iA in this is nothing There conclude that it applies objects..44) \320\262 \320\222 {< ) (\320\254) A \320\262 (0 Figure 11.Boolean Models \342\226\240 329 where C* = bC*uiC* (11. \320\241* -\320\220 \320\270* \320\222. of a .36 Candidate components regularized Boolean union.

we see that (bA \316\267bB) is subdivided. bB)] (11.47) bB) where Valid ~ in \320\254\320\220 not \320\254\320\220 iB and part on bB (11.52) to yield C--(bA-hB- iB) \320\270 (iA -bB- iB) (11.\316\267 [(\320\254\320\220iB) \320\270 Valid^M bB)] Similarly.C*. is identical which components.46) boundary points become interiorpoints.If we do not amounts to a hole in iC*. these From deleted.37.We The redundant so that them delete Equation (11.50) or Valid \320\254\320\220-\320\254\320\220. bB) of the we consider Finally.Furthermore. operator. is nothing portion assigned to iC* and a portion to bC*.42)with parentheses we determine bC*. Therefore. Here are the components the difference we set-theoretic (A B).(M \316\267 \316\267 Valid. we we will have what to add is redundant of Equation (11.45) kjiB \320\270 bB^JiA \320\254\320\220 include notice that some these points. iC* = note and (11. it that that observe we \317\212\316\233\317\205\316\257\316\260\317\205 \316\267 (\320\254\320\220 [Valid.Why Next.53) .46) and C^A-B a lost.48) \316\267 (11.iC*.51) (11.and.First.51). expression operator expand In Equations (11..44) becomes = to Equation (11. Figure 11. the of the regularized set C* is is incomplete. hence. boundary ambiguity that [(bB exists in (bA for \316\267 />S) that we must the intersection bC* ^bA^jbB- [(bA \316\267 iB) \320\270 (bB \316\267 iA) \320\270 Valid^M \316\267 Z>S)] (11. Again. since we assert Valid.49) \316\267 Z>S)] (11. Valid bB^bBAn discussed then bC* \320\270 \316\267 \316\234) Valid. not this is \316\267 \320\250)\316\267 (bB \\j(hA the case to \316\267 iA) for u[Valid.46).(M resolve by a test similarto If we discardall of (bA \316\267bB).(M the right side \316\267 bB)}'} that we observe bC* = Valid\342\200\236(M \320\270 (11.330 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex elements are underlined. Also. (11.(M bB).

C*= (bA-bB- \316\267 Valid(M bB) (\316\240. must a to \316\267 Here.37d.5). \316\267 bB is 11. perform subset. segments adjacent to only iC* or (iA as in Figure a subset of valid those bC* -fcCu = Therefore (bA the \320\241*.Boolean Models W Figure Two bB . to C.37 Candidate of a components regularized Booleandifference. two disjoint sets result. r \316\262).iB.First. - iA equal Second.In a set of Figure . the certain because (d) clear from the figure. in 11. \\vay Boolean to model 11.54) -bB- iB) \\j \320\270 (iA \316\267 \320\270 \316\267 \320\243\320\260\320\251\320\254\320\220 \320\254\320\222) bB) (iA .38 shows B. we lest determine the again.Here. (~\\ are For the case of the difference operator. operations order of the on a sequence.iB) (HAS) Other between relationships A and \320\222 are particularly useful example. execute a sequenceof two objects. If wc add iA of'bC* are missing from \320\241 segments are things \342\226\240 331 C* \317\210 \320\241.is (A regularized iB) \320\270 \316\267 bB) (iA u Valid(M \316\267 bB) .'1\320\252\320\265 missing segment bA bB.bB \316\267 \320\270 \320\254\320\222) (iA .objectA equations just If we developed verify the results. the boundary is still incomplete.tC* must immediately case of our example.Valid(Zvl bB) Thus. The holes. then the result depends or more encJoses completely This is a on the Figure possible.

nonregularizedoperations results. the results on the order. unusual but in Figures 11.nothing objects.332 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction |a) aus \320\273 \320\262 \316\221 \316\223. Classification Set-Membership In order we must to regularize sets resultingfromcombiningoperations onother determine whether a given point is inside.40c.40a to 11.40 illustrates the effect of various combiningoperations necessary. are obviously dependent in exactly the same Boolean way objects regularized combining operationsare the same. The that intersections regularized to two-dimensional that are not last three three-dimensional.\316\222 |\320\254) (\320\241)\320\220-\320\222 Figure 11. bound- .3B 11.40d to 11. and closure and dimensional homogeneity are also 11.39.40f.outside. BooJeanoperators operations. oron the sets. apply produce three-dimensional operators to these solids do. Applying cases properly producesnull the results.three objectsare of Boolean Examples and combined. Figure on two simple three-dimensional In Figures 11.

Assignment The classification. is on Polygon polygon Solid is the point. Given a solid and boundary 2. denoted of a specific bA.Tilovc at the others modeling by (1980) University a Rochester. or polygon? a line segment. Three important subsets of any regularized set A are: the ary set of all ils interior points. and of geometric was B. a solid? of the and B. dependence of a given set. the sel of all points on its boundary. similarity between four types of geometric They observed problems to modeling: related 1. what of is the \316\221 \316\222? \316\267 interference. outside. Given two solids.Models Boolean Order 11. denoted cA. point inside. and all points outside ii.39 Figure \342\226\240 333 of Boolean operations. Point on the inclusion. do interfere they (that is. requiring us relationship between them.denotediA. point to one of thesesetsisset-membership early work in and for class i fication formalizing making rigorousset-membership done R. what part is outside the polygon? What and polygon What part the boundary of the polygon? Given two polygons A intersection. Given a the line is inside the part 3. intersect unintentionally)? In each problem.Creatinga \320\263\320\276 set- .two determine some sort geometric of inclusion elements are involved. Line/polygon clipping. intersection 4.

which ]. points. and Ei universal sets.iS. given curve.E\\El. the approach to these problems. or cS. on the if on the curve. or on an subclasses are intermediate point.classification Figure yet relationship test point may be the same as a given point.334 Model Construction > Complex Id lb) / \316\262 4r / 4\321\2027 i 47 / /7 /\317\210-\316\263 / |f) {e| Id| 11.S] Xinto partitions to their membership in bS. subsets corresponding Let us look at several classification relationships and some classification methods. A point possible\342\200\224on may be on or off the initial a point. or it may some degree algorithm to compare coordinates with produce the is 11. The between be two different. points: A A simple will classification. operates on two specified point sets\342\200\224a reference set 5 and a candidate set X.M[X.40 Figure Boolean operations on a three-dimensional solid. Thus. . denote and solids.linesor curves. of precision most basic. that is.three endpoint. this as M[ function involving points Relationships unifies function classification membership We are shownin easily overlooked.41. surfaces. We consider the possible relationships between sets taken will from E\302\260.

there are a be on or a vertex. of the extension on the given curve nearest the candidate the sign of the resultingvectorproduct convention. then a point may be inside the disk.a on a surface. Given on a plane curve is a on indicates lying Special case). .42). of which a convex additional the its a consistent Given outsideof it. may specific edge point One to classify a point as inside or outsidea diskor is its boundary. or to point.Models Boolean pair of on the a straight line. an additional extension of the line or For back the a point can beto the direction or right left A \316\277\316\271 parameterization. the a point for classifications forward \320\262 335 1 la) [\320\254) Id Id) Figure 11. simply-connected non-seif-intersecting polygon exist\342\200\224on line. Finally. integration of the arrange appropriate line and the direction of integral paxiimeterizalionto yield cither the shown in the figure or the reverse. The sign of (see Figure signs \321\203\342\200\224\302\260\321\215 \316\257\316\261 / 2 1 on boundary\342\200\224the way compute side which the number find topological disk (for example. of a line or curve on a surfacerelative test for right-left status is to first simple point closed. polygon winding plane (see Apostol [1978] or any calculus other to textbook). point. of parameterization the winding numberdependson the direction We can the numerical 11.In special case of a straight-edged relative to the classifications polygon. of the curve we find the a bounded.41 Point classification.

There us look at two boundary we will we computethe closestpoint direction \302\253 solid whose we q and q to it compare its of an outward- . Assuming normal the \317\200 at convention *-x la) lb) Figure 11. Given candidate a solid. Next. have relationships again solid is a polyhedron.43 Inside and outside a solid- further can are vertex.then the point on its boundary as beingon an edge or a Let several ways to determinethe inside-outside status. outside. Given p.a that is. we compute the surface to the vector (p .336 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex Winding numbei = -1 = +1 number Winding number Winding Outside Inside Figure 11. on or If the its boundary. surface. a regulari zed three-dimensional the three basic to it\342\200\224inside. describe approaches. point can setof points. Figure 11.42 =0 The winding number and the inside-outside classification.q).43ashows is a parametric assume on tife an shaped arbitrarily surface.

M[X. remaining two or a in common and common common absolute ing points point vectors at the point indicates the directionof tangent overlap. overlap defining Ihe As we half-spaces. Il. with of an An n \320\222 separately. Line and polygon classifications are shown in represent regularized sets in Figure 11. 11. WiLh curves. it \317\200 and - q) have the is outside same sign.in which case\317\201 q defined as the Boolean intersection of (if not on inside is (p Figure 11.46. Here.A\\OP\\Ii\\ in terms .44h. 11. perhaps straight lines and polygons. the point is on bA ambiguities.44c. Figure This Several 11.also mentioned us to locate the directionof the inside convention permits from any point on the boundary. suggested In earlier.44i for straight.and lines are fairly The cases are examples of overlap. vector convention. say. the is a subset outside or of R intersects polygon function M[ of boundary \320\224 X2 is complementof/1. and any we the status as outside the solid. although\320\241 and \316\267 \316\222.then we its slatus to change on the boundary. We see in the figure that wc can use informationembeddedin the boundary itself to remove ambiguities. cannot boundary. the algorithm terminates. pointing solid. A line segment defining an edge of single A in three polygon ways. situation is more complex. we try to classify only the classification of the point then boundary poim with extract respect to respect to A A and about information representation.BooleanModels \342\226\240 337 then if normal. flag point's classification to curves and straight-line also extends Set-membership segments most to and. its immediateneighborhoodfrom the We object ambiguity arises w hen were \316\257\316\277\317\204 these conditions tests membership will not discuss we see the tangent so we previously. is a suhset ] a subset of the interior of A.A) and M[X. given We of M[X. p. them again here. Jj. flag on p.\317\201 the . As long as \317\201 update it is the we it. = \316\221 on bB.44aand 11. the boundary. identically. so. 2.0). otherwise. we simply test set of the \317\201 against inequalities proceed through an ordered list of these we status each successive a satisfies inequalities. The membership-classification and of the subdivides classifies this line: \316\233-. dcfinilion. lines.Of this does presuppose an analytical representation of the course.44bfor curves. . Forstraight straightforward. inside so flag 11 \317\201 solid. dctecllines. and identically half-space satisfies a half-space limit (for example.45: the polygons E2. we must accept an approximation of unless forced to do mate most matches will not incidental because. If the point \317\201 fails test.43bpresumesa solid half-spacesin \302\243\\Here.e).Figure importantly. or \316\247\317\204. and express solely we need moreinformation lo resolve Here.44shows the principal relationships hetween two curves and two straight Detection and computation in Figures 11.B]. but not on bC. and Figures 11.

nfl.We assume on them in a way that the normal at an. classification. then iA and iB are on opposite sides and do not intersect neighborhood. solids intersecting is represented point on them. always points outward. If \320\277\320\273 Then. If n. and \316\212\316\221 in the -na.338 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction la) If) lb) lg) |h) id) Figure 11.. We can use this in a information of that the surfaces setthe membership classificationalgorithm. If the then we can computenormal analytically. on overlapping surfaces. the iA and iB are on the same side. we considerthe two surface of vectors each at one any and line-segment in Figure 11. we can easilyclassify = \316\267 iB is not a null set. . away a neighborhood.y solids are parameterized such point the the interioror material of from object.44 ii> Curve Finally.47.

Models Boolean \342\226\240 339 \320\222 \317\207. \321\2051.\321\2052.\321\2051\321\201\321\214\320\262 \321\210 X2C\\A X^CcA Figure Line and 11.46 Tangent vector convention two-dimensional objects. polygon V.45 classifications. \321\217 1 \320\226 \\\316\221\302\267 3\316\257 L4ftifl Figure 11. for .

48).These other concepts that we touched and CAD/CAM modeling algorithms conceptspervade computer graphics and other moreabstract lions. study and research. offering ample Opportunity for further appliea We have taken classification. \320\250\320\2501 \320\262 ^ \316\212 fej Figure 11. a somewhat rigorousapproachto solving the of problems ter discussion reveal the La will of importance set-membership on only briefly here (sec Figure11.48 ibj Probiems for set-membershipclassification.340 * Model Complex Construction \320\233/ \320\243 j/ / // \320\262 \317\207 \302\267\342\200\224 -1 *\342\226\240 \"\320\273 \"\320\262- / / / \317\200 ^ \320\243 /\321\203 =\316\267\316\257 \320\260\320\273 Figure 11.47 Normal three-dimensional vector convention for solids. .

or more B. compute know more. that we know the size. perhaps as a list of vertex coordina tes. is a procedural representation. The Boolean modelof D isD (a u . and C. Boolean is any (OP) model of is a Boolean same spatial combination of Boolean by the object then the objects. Boolean r *_j- D . about to this leads us to say that Boolean Therefore.It doesnot tell us the coordinates the new solidor anything about or faces. It only specifies the procedure for combining the of the vertices of primitive constituents. Remember \320\241 dimension. and \320\241 regularized Boolean that A. B.\320\241.Boolean \342\226\240 341 Models 8oolean Models If we represent simpler denote be then solid and if A {OP)B of the representation is a where \320\241 ~A(Op)B. solids operator. model. \320\241 must a If A.and orientation let us assume oiA. but all wc know topologically the D is how assemble it. symbols two we for - denote will the regularized operators: union. B. position. and difference. n. and assume that will on. The this term as a qualifier. This statement Boolean \320\222) defining D says nothing quantitative about the new solid it creates. intersection. so thai. or an unevaluated If we want to model model the Boolean model. B. then we must evaluate new edges and vertices. and u.49). is a procedural For A model model (sec Figure11. wc can drop conciseness.respectively.49 A -C simple procedural model. We may know all thereis its edges and to know geometrically about A.fAUBl Figure 11. and analyze the connectivity of intersections to determine to determine thesenew elements the model's topological characteristics. Boolean example. . From now all Boolean operations are regularized. and C.

Each internal node combinesthe two objects below it in immediately in readiness the tree and. if necessary. each in model is connected Since vertex this exactly others. with Boolean operators at eachinternal and the root. The nodes The leaf tree for this model is shown in Figure11. A boundary routine only uses this information to construct the boundary representation. systems.transforms the result for the next oper- The of boundary D matrix ation.50 a unit The binary tree for D = (A wB) - \320\241 . A In many modeled? become 11. they are stored as a or parameterized shape to template tree. Or a as a leaf node of the model's binary combination of directed surfacesor half-spaces.024 array containing connectivity to 3 elements.342 > Complex Model Construction The has 32 vertices.The the constructive Boolean How are into operators the primitives graph-basedmodel be scaled positioned and and primitive may be of representation a Boolean Figure an object is a direct translationof a binary tree structure.there 96 nonzero cvaluator are elements in the matrix. are binary node the primitive solids. 48 edges. undirected \317\207 is a of the 32 32 vertices 1. and 18 faces.50.

z) = 0.. The binary tree.Fora sec fuller treatment Mortenson (1989).The Booleandifference a circular hole and pairof keyways in 5. defines a pair of holes. cylinder. similar Here 7\". ofdirected object hy the union of the intersection surfaces directed use may model. Next.\316\266) to the set or to its belonging object's point complement.To compactness demonstrate this more explicitly.j>.56) f=G(n^ /. Then and S2 creates the intersection . which evaluate points we then classify as \316\277\317\204\316\262.(*. S2.First. two valid solids combine to producea third are circular a right to produce and two solids complex is generated quickly in very compact and concisedata structure. we express 5s as a string of symbols between produce 5. but a transformation ears. At any node of the opera valid solid. Wc example of a Boolean modelof a solidobject.51 Figure let functions The half-spaces. space intersection of an appropriate set of and outside of the divides surface The Boolean a half-space- is region form can half-spaces the inside Cartesian determines point An \342\226\240 343 three- a closed dimensional solid. f(x.producingSA.)'. respectively.Models Boolean directed is a surface surface whose normal at any unbounded primitive solid. we can Although this model represents a modest accomplishment.\320\263)>0 < 0. would first have to be converted into implicit surfaces. the Si object shape. giving them a radius to that of T^nz's.\316\266\317\207. to produce SH. SA and S5 equal combine to produce Sfi and add a further refinement to the geometryof the ears. and conciseness appreciate the that a Boolean model achieves.(*. f4 describing the These functions we can easily half-spaces. is given surface directed Each defining half-spaces to construct an entire by an implicit equation of the form is zero at the surface and positive insidethe object. as satisfying/.\316\240. T2l\\z to and 7'\320\224\320\242. are directedsurfaces where the or surfaces of the implicit usually divide spaceinto define surfaces that model of even relatively Boolean these and systems. these are \"drilled\" in St. and parallelepiped that scales and and \316\223. We The 0- define we Thus. and S7 combine to produce Ss.\316\263.z)- function a complex surfaces: (11. into two unbounded each regions. final Notice that S(. a primitive \316\240 denote is \316\2402 it has a is another 11. object.. analytical way They te Othersystems with solid. '\320\223\320\224\320\242? smaller in size. with 7\"4ib reforms the outer surface of the ears. to of S. bounded primitives. St.the produce i'b a hub-like shape with combine form/. positions the primitives.y.. is a \316\240\316\271 rectangular denotes union combines operator rectangular to 5. Parametric surfaces do not formally define because they do not divide spaceinto two parts in a direct half-spaces.

344 \342\226\240 Complex Model Construction Se = ^6 ~ ^7 ^4 \302\2736= .^5 s2=r3n1uriln2 Figure It.51 A Boolean model of a mechanical part. .

-52)\320\277^\320\2372-(76\320\2372\320\2707\321\202\320\2372)-(\320\2238\320\2372\320\270\320\2239\320\2372) \317\205 \316\267 \320\270 \316\2445\316\2402 [(\316\223. - u 74\316\2402) (\316\223\302\253\316\2402 (11.52 is inside that belongs to the surface of \320\222 and collection of points three collection objects. vary also note that for We depending shape of the objectmodeled. \316\244. \316\2442\316\2402) (\316\2233\316\240. a that interior of belongs points A. 7<\316\2402)] -(\320\223\320\271\320\270\320\2237\320\237\320\263)-(\320\222\320\224\320\270\320\242.\320\237\320\263) = Ss \316\267 u (7. interior comprising points. review the effectof the three Boolean operators on a set of two or including primitives. If boundary complete the then the is sum of the primitives or subobjects.and three-dimensionalexamples. The difference of two A. geometric Although property of the intersect operator to obtain the distributive use we Then fixed are \316\2402 types. \320\270 of points that belong to The union of two objects. \316\2445\316\2402 \316\2443\316\240. note that this symbol string is not unique. symbol unevaluated and \316\240.\316\2402\316\267 75\316\2402\317\205 72\316\2402\316\267 \316\2445\316\2402) \316\2445\316\2402) (\316\244^\316\223\316\231 \317\205 77\316\2402) (7\"6\316\2402 string.58) nine transformations. to be a the and some the boundary. or A and B.Boolean Models \342\226\240 345 - - S5) \342\204\226 - \320\270 \320\237\320\2372) (78\320\2372 \316\267 \320\270 u \316\2447\316\2402) \342\204\226 \316\2442\316\2402) 7\320\243\320\2372) (7\342\200\236\316\2402 (\316\244\316\230\316\2402 = = (\320\220'. including the We model.\316\240\316\271 75\316\2402 This \316\267 7. \320\263\\\320\2422\320\2372 except since all the other bodieslie entirely within Thus. B. \316\2445\316\2403. \320\220 is a collection \320\222.\316\240. These of A and \320\222 are the active regions on A segments segments bounded by the intersection of the original \320\222 are themselves and and boundaries of and A Let us B. some shows two. on the size and 7\320\263\320\2372\320\27775\320\2372=7\320\263\320\2372 \316\267 \316\223?\316\240. all operations involving T5Yl2 are trivial.is the procedural. the primitive transformations \316\223.\316\240. . primitive of We consider an object. complete boundary of A(OP)B boundaries.\316\2402\316\267\316\2445\316\2402=\316\244. r\\ this example. Figure 11. say. 7.\316\2402 A these process system modeling sophisticated will detect the condition and will not trivial operations. in evaluating the importance Computing intersections is of central we of two define the boundaries of a Boolean model. B) is a collection of objects (A to the surface A but and is not inside B.

three those interiorto both A and those on B. of union Examples The operation the set of points belonging to both A and B. \320\233 \316\267 Bis are of These The order in is important. which we perform combining for example. Only points 1 and 2 of \316\221 interior \316\267 \316\222 in Figure are important. because they are the 11.-59) a sequence subset the resulting where all shape.346 > Construction Model Complex A-B AS AUB-C 11. and those on boundary regionsof \320\222 boundary regions of A interior to A (see Figure 11. in general operations in a Boolean AuB-C*A-BuC However.53).52 Figure and difference. points types: to B. . we the operators can randomly mix the are rhe samerype order without within affecting model (11. points of intersectionof the two-dimensional boundary depending on their shapes. than two A There be more regions bounding may curves. Thus.53a the active of bounding points of the curves of and B.

To order system geometric-modeling and difficult.54. of where one in union two primitives the other contains wholly appears Figure of two primitives where the positive primitive the difference 11.54a.54d.54h. -C (11.54f. situations when evaluating the boundary of 11.61) M-(DuBuC)u\302\243 so and A understand on. Modeling systems union the difference use algorithmic computations. The situations are shown in Figure must of two disjoint primitives (that is.nonintersecting)appearsin Figure of two disjoint primitivesappearsin Figure the 11.54e.54g. that are in and the union of two primitives tangent appears Figure 11. If numberof Figure two points\342\200\224a 11. to equivalents closed planar If two . contains the negative wholly primitive appears in Figure 11. the difference primitives appears creates two or more new objectsappearsin Figure the union of two 11. 11.Boolean Models\342\226\240 347 Figure 11.39. Somegeneralizations are in order (see Figure 11.55a). they will intersect at an even condition is not counted as an intersection(sec tangent closed coplanar curves-4 and \320\222 do not and if intersect. potentially a complexshape.54c. has a direct threethe preceding situationsare two-dimensional.54b. that inner or creates cavities primitives loops (bubbles) appearsin Figure Not are shown in this figure the operations^ <jA or A -A Although 11.60) or H-B-C-Du\302\243M-(3uCuO)u\302\243 ^-(SuOuC)u\302\243 (11. check the validity or to speed of results curves intersect. accommodate many interesting. each also dimensional analog.55). see again Figure 11. pathological Some of these dependence better.the difference of two primitives where the negative primitive wholly contains the positive primitive of two that in Figure 11.S3 The intersection uB-C=BuA A operation.

curve \316\241 intersects nonintersecting modeling (see Figure 11.55b). where the leaf represented b.55d).Voelcker.it intersect points\342\200\224again. Solid Geometry Constructivesolid is the name for a set of modeling (CSG) as solids complex compositions of simpler solids. If a closed a three-dimensional shape. user interfaces. and the branch nodes are the set (union. Constructive entirely will the curves (see the not are tangents then inside closed intersection Figure curve A\342\200\224the the intersecis it at an even (see Figure 11.Model Construction 348 > Complex <d) <c) */ 1 1 1 s \\ I 1 1 1 rn I 1 ' a point 11. see Requicha and Rossignac(1992).Requicha. representations. are surfaces simple primitive . They survey critique field of solid modeling. of this and intersection).S4 is also surface bounding number of A true of Boolean A. and the method. For a good entry into the literature difference.The a binary tree of Boolean operations.If an surface of a threebounding will consist of one or more closed counted 11. and systems. unbounded plane dimensionalshape of variety curve is inside \320\276\320\275 \320\222 converse (h) <g) <0 Figure <e) defines that Boolean operators is model nodes or directed sized and positioned in space. shapes. a are used to create procedural model of a complex solid. operators (half-spaces). applications.y geometry methods \320\222 is situations.including mathematical foundations.55c). algorithms. then curve S.

(\321\201) of text others.Boolean on others and the Production Automation Project at the University many of the most importantconceptsof CSG. Furthermore. boundary-evaluation we have of decomposition limited wc will review them here in many con the CSG as a generalization of cell decomposition. since boundaries of joined components(primitives) and interiors need not be disjoint.Tilove among (1977). Requicha(19S0) a operators.SS Four general \316\216/ all the <d) properties of Boolean models. many CSG. Boolean includingregularized and procedures. primitives. classification. form of the union operator where we join components need uses 11. Constructive solidgeometry more versatile. point-membership discussed operation. Also of these concepts. In at are operators \321\202\321\210. viewed only perfectly matched faces. we combine individual cells usinga gluing models. Figure already Although see Mortenson(1989). CSG match. \342\226\240 349 introduced Rochester cell Models not reg- .

represents a node of course.350 * Model Complex Construction Boolean add material ularized can solid Constructive transformations. of sealing and transformations are not limiLed is S uch transformations are theoretically possible. The transformations subtree of combining geometry and intersect\342\200\224so representations of complex thai we solids are ordered or or terminal nodes are either primitives are either regularized Boolean operatorsor nonterminal nodes that on their two subnodes (or subsolids).then solid models resulting \320\273 \321\203 f \320\266 \320\247 \321\207 S / > *>\342\226\240\342\200\224' 1* > _^s \342\226\240^ i primitive \320\237 Figure 11.\320\242\320\254\320\265 represents \316\2402) (\316\223\316\244 the four Ax. Note that the \320\224\320\273\320\2372. operators\342\200\224union.Each operate leaf whose trees binary difference. . primitive and intermediate objectsare valid bounded The full range to rigid motions. simple example. Of course. from (not a transformation leaf) representsa solidresulting it. as well as removeit. leaf nodes the primitives \316\240] and andn2 represent nodes results two internal of the the translation represent operations and root node the final object.56. bounded If the elements of a modeling system are valid solids primitive the and the combining operators are regularized. In Figure11. The solids. The and transforming root.S6 Constructive solid geometry representation. symmetry transformations limited only by the capabilities of subsequentBooleanalgorithms. operations indicated below Let a us look at the final object.

set compact orientation). validity of a \342\226\240 351 model. the direction necessarily . specialized operators. cylinder.\320\222 = \320\222 and \320\263\320\273 \320\222 \320\220 \320\270 \320\222 \320\270 A \320\220 \316\267 but the difference is. The modelingsystem specify then checks the validity of the parameters (that is. be values must all real common Other height primitives positive numbers). primitives shape. are the cylinder. The number of primitives. is a of basic suchas which version the three. provide block-type primitive. for which we can the width. The most modeling systems is to offer whose size.Boolean Models However.57 parameters (excluding common a finite position and in contemporary approach of concise. The first is the procedural or constructive by representation exemplified a binary tree data structure linking and subsolids successive by primitives primitive shown are block material are of and not in Figure 11.58a.y checking input parameters.Only are usually For represented example. and tetrahedron if both more The operators. not (that \\s. modeling systems can also generate quasiwith Sweeping. and width.For a most systems example. height. is not a sign of the descriptive For however.or extruding-type operators. and torus. are other sphere. either the user or the system verify and bounded. (that operator is A).position.(If normals the can be they part representation. However.These and examples shown in Figure with their corresponding 11.A -B^B-A). length. is not in an otherwise because used. recall from the discussionofset nonregular and Boolean that union and intersect are commutative theory operators .and intersect. difference.58).The glue. Also. assigned during the boundaryevaluation Purely graph-based phase. represented by the regularized by the intersection cylinder spaces sophisticated (see Figure 11. cylinder descriptive power the primitive set consisting of the block. valid are user-defined primitives. and initial position.and a orientation are determined set of small by user-specifiedparameters. block and alone as the have the same example. cone. wedge. power of a modelingsystem. The Booleanoperatorsused by CSG systems are the familiar threesome: some modelers include other union. a modeling system is possiblethat allows the must Here. Even here. fillet. transforming The primitives set of themselves curved or planarhalf-spaces. More powerful of a modeling systems often generate two representations solid. the length. intersection of six the by the primitive of the six half-spaces two of a block is planar half-spacesand of a cylindrical half-spaceand three intersection planar defining the the half- Arrows indicate the directionof the of the surface normals. complementoperator regularized scheme it produces objects. cylindrical sets have the same combining and segment. the system primitives controls validity b.) primitives are also possible.

This descriptionitselfhas two forms\342\200\224 a topological elements of the connectivity of the boundary representation operators combining using second and is and numerical elements.57 Figure \320\223\320\276\320\273\320\270 Primitive Tetrahedron |i) Cone solids. The data shapedata. The data describing the shape geometryand position the object's topology usuallypoint to defining representation boundary sen \"tation by a set of algorithms of these the geometric from the constructive repreis computed called the boundary evaluator.and boundary representation. which the describes the faces.The transformations. as we just discussed.Model Construction 352 > Complex \316\212 \316\227 Cylinder (\320\254) |d) Insidefittel /1 ~L\302\267*^ \316\223 \316\227 R>*j \\ |f) |e) Cylindrical Segment |h) |g) Spftere 11. of the boundary vertices of the sotid.The boundary .edges.

the vertices must be classified.We Again. tha t is. where the edge intersects a surface. Where Models faces are truncated and elements boundary \342\226\240 353 new edges overlap or and thus maintains element coincide. solids New edges are created where surfacesof two combined determines The boundary evaluator finds these intersectionsand then by are actual classification which segments of the intersection set-membership are terminated edges of the new solid. intersect. the evaluator mergestheminto a single a solid's a consistent.Boolean evaluator and determines vertices where are created component or deleted. .S8 Primitives as intersections of half-spaces. nonredundantdata structurerepresenting boundary. c<y<</ Primitive Half-spaces: solid \316\271\316\257\316\257.The new edges by new vertices.^\316\257 !\316\220/ nOi shown Figure 11.

.354 > Model Complex Construction little deeper into some of these the using example in Figure 11. we intersect each surface of A with will look a assumes intersection that of or heuristic tests for intersection. making all Next. to produce is divided defining also. as tentative edges. we intersect all /-edges with (potentialvertices) boundary each surface of B. or /-edges.) candidates and face b. our In example. this operation unbounded. Knowingonly that a segment is on a primitive is levels in a model's tree. First.59. and list for with combinations. Only segments on the boundary are real inside. 36 the /-edges. The list of/-edges is a supersetof the pair intersecting face a and faceb are unbounded. At the root node.S9 ace b Boundary evaluation. Using a it at higher binary inadequatefor classifying Weneed solid to know and which F Figure 71. into by two of the verticalplane facesof \320\257We classify these of C. points three segmen Is segments as outside. or on the boundary we first classify each /-edge segment with edges. primitive. (Note will soon of the of concepts /-edge the faces Edge enb of surfaces e\342\200\236b unbounded. there are only 10 producing intersection edges. Doing this in steps. the segments of /-edges on the boundary are realedgesof \320\241 which points near each segmentof a/-edgeare inside the are outside. simple reasons actual edges are surfaces both that that the edges that techniques can dramatically reducethe number We produce edge eab by intersecting face a this way produced be apparent. respect to each the of the Then we use classifications instead primitives. and tree them at them through the model's binary processing reclassifying each successive node. new solid \320\241The segment evaluation.

61. We can now make some generalizations.we can which ones are outsidethe solid.unlesswe admit sweep operators. Neighborhood Figure 11. 11. examples are presentedin at any node in the tree by applying the tree. is from an end of the segment. symbolizesthe and the shaded area indicates points insidethe solid. Again. vertices.faces of a new solid are a subset of the facesof the combining We can modify but cannot create solids. inside. However.60 Neighborhood a wealth of of segmeni 2 of e^ model. neighborhood. More highest Figure if determine a neighborhood indicated operator to the neighborhoodsof the two subnodes. form procedural global the evaluated model. Extensive system (circa 1980s) in Figure to generate the boundary representation from but the boundary contains a representation useful information for computing and other applications. . wc can create new edges faces. consisting are inside and points neighborhood which indicate of points dose to the segment. neighborhood models of two primitives and the corresponding operator to (or subsolids) shows a neighborhood to combinetheseneighborhoods or on the next of the level 11. we can and and delete any element type. First. The neighborhood Our modelis perspective defined the faces bound the model I We use that this a by edge. We is have seen that the procedural representation of a complex solid we it and can This is true of the solid created generate rapidly. by compact the ROMULUS computationsare procedural necessary representation. and the boundary form is an powerful modeling systems graphic display models.Boolean Models model. We create the segment is outside. Figure \342\226\240 355 11. a small disk Here. The most versatileand use both. properties. is an unevalua ted model.60 model of segment2 of e\342\200\236h.62.

and verticesare at edge endpoints. edges lie on A boundary ean represent (curves).356 > ComplexModel Construction Side view \320\233 11. faces (surfaces). on curves.61 figure \320\222 models.bounded by vertices (points). A Boolean helpful. neighborhood Combining The next section continues the discussionof boundary and review of the sections on set-membershipclassification operators 11.4 will be evaluation. Faces.then. which surfaces. edges lie in model stores the . BOUNDARY MODELS The objectiveof representation of a a solid as an as a union of turn are bounded by a solid model boundary (or b-rep) is to build a complete We organized collection of surfaces.

62 Cub* A ROMULUS-treated solid. .357 Boundary Models \342\226\240 Cytinde Cylinder \320\241 utavirey view chamber ol Diiierince1 Spherjcal Figure chamber 11.

and the curve point solids by means of a set of plane represents or tessellated models). R2. and Rh. lies..Theseconditions rule must the of a solid satisfy boundary Finally. \316\267 real unbounded. is the set of pointsin the interior set of points on its boundary. Thus. It must be connected.in the to regions of any dimension. We write this as lie entirely either comprise within or on the R = [R\342\200\236Rb] objects are All physical Ry region is a closed three-ciimensional regionsR3. applies A is a curve unlessit is the curve A a are surface one-dimensional closed in (1162) curve.It has two points in the set are no points in R[. Points in E2 are defined three by real and numbers. any vertex (with the surrounding faces surround and a conical-type surface). \316\267 can be denoted certain concepts.All other points there R[ of R]. then in in space. in E\" by Coordinate numbers. with an equal number of A vertices on the ring edges and of number method b-rcp simple edges any face. where R. because the numbersdefining coordinate -\342\204\242 real to +\302\253.Eachedge relationships is adjoinedby two and only two faces and vertices. bounding. the The it is interior boundary obviously set of an either this and R\342\200\236 region \316\2331. bounded portion of spaceE\". in \302\2433 space is E2. can take any values from A region R\" is a finite. and twodimensional by two real numbers.The faceedges polygonal faces called polyhedral (sometimes are lines. This is obviously a special caseof boundary straight representation where curved surfaces and edges are approximatedby planes and straight lines. an equal of the apex of Similarly. points The is space space of the points that its boundary Thus. Cartesian space of any dimension by the symbol E\". or boundary surface. We are assured of a closedboundary surface certain by topological between the elements of a polyhedral net on the surface. surfaces. On the An ordinary surface within open this surface curve is may . ordinary three-dimensionalspace is F?. conditions: certain closed. the face the which hounds the face. orientable. Given any point set Rb.non-self-intersecting. outside the region. any region region the set of pointsdenotedby R can be divided conveniently into two subsets the of a region andi^is R. Generalized of a Concept exception out shell-like open.358 Model \342\226\240 Complex Construction data of the mathematical geometry on which the surfacegeometry on edge (the coordinates) geometry lies and which of the vertices. is a always bounded two-dimensional region by a dosed curve. and Boundary of physical To begin the discussionof boundaries let us review objects.

63) B'\" in spaces is contained boundary point for of set allowable \320\246.Boundary to one occur Figure nonintcrsecting other All R\\. of the set S\"'\"'\". Then is located. It is on the boundary of the region.where 1 Figure 11. All of the curve curves closed \316\267 comprise the set the loops points Models \342\226\240 359 points on all the are in R\\ (see 11. Itis of ~yjl regions in the has one and only in space to respect regions (11.Thus.dimensionality of R and \316\267 Note that m <n.63 A the explicit explicit its boundaries. a member not of the set R'\"'\". 3. set /\"'\342\226\240\". m \302\243in which space little and alsomodify where E\". we expand Now Let of a region R'\"\302\267\" be the of dimensionality our horizons a notation the R = \316\257\316\223'\" [\316\222'\"-'-\".\316\223'\"1 B\"' where points in ~'\342\226\240\" is the points on the boundary region..that is. a member can /'\"\342\226\240\" by an imply solid in E3. that a homogeneous region boundary and a set the following of set of dimension. it region. - it is \316\267 we is necessaryand in /\") of the a member a homogeneous outline the is when m for B'\"~1\302\267\". Of course. or loops.63). . The set set of of the interior the because it can be decomposed intoa on its a similar conceptof Any with Table interior.B2. The general expression one inside For in \316\223'\302\267\" is the a proper is itself of any It is outside.2defines table scheme. construct a any region 2. wc can B'\"~'\342\226\240\". for / \320\247-* ~-fi| plane figure and definition of of the solid. three properties R'\"\": the region.the sufficient or boundary surface are implied by B13. . R\"1\" and on ils points 1. B13 of is. R3i of the solid.i \302\243?. of formulation definition of the the solid is pointson the inside (that is.

must We have or<- already object (including two-dimensional dimensions) our notation that shape.2 & r-O Class Order E3 RIU Point TTiepoint R13 Curve The iwo R2 Surface One or more Jmn No interior iiseif endpoinLs points define the surface ihni curves closed oF the boundaries soiici the on the surface bounding The set of all points within the solid excepi thoseon the the boundaries of define thai \320\222\321\216 in sei of all points those on the except fi'J curves in The One or more closedsurfaces Solid R1 points The set oF points of the curve except for the two boundary surfaces bounding in B2i B-reps The of a solid boundary are appearance Even The reflection. we have representations.color. outside points solid and the between of light Reflection environment.and by the bounding surface of transparent objects influenceslight other solids.the solid's the surface properties of shape. surrounding texture. of an arbitrary have discusseda boundary most of the ingredientsfor We and bounded. certain satisfy connected. be closed. surface of a solid is where it contacts bounding the of the surface interaction processes are concerned with of a surface the part's raw-stock Boundaryrepresentations (b-reps)ofsolids The conditions for a well-forme-d surface are must between distinguished and objects the of refine will boundary each with patches. and we Thus. \316\267 on-self-intersecting. The union face number of a face satisfy CSG and its for boundary representations. objects the determined envelope of a tool path with entable. therefore. separates pointsinsidefrom is the primary The boundary bounding interior points. solid's defines boundary. the solid. A finite 2. . of surface a solid It is and then computationally surface of a solidinto facesor or patch in turn bounded by a set of edges and the following minimal set of conditions: of faces boundary the representation. A 3. of the it conditions. evaluator investigate a specifictype of convenient for us to segment vertices. boundary defines the solid is a subset of of all faces of object the an boundary of a solid. interface Manufacturing from a solid and.360 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex Allowable regions in Table 11. its boundary. should Faces 1.

A face must havea finite area and of some more be dimensionally extensive \342\226\240 361 surface. requiring (That number of faces assuming by vertical edges. defined The cube's boundary is convenientlysegmented our intuitive notion by the discontinuities at the edges. homogeneous. wc can have any segmentation of equal or unequalsize. cylindrical is. and it coincideswith with of a boundary. the and the natural the end planar faceshaving only segmentation surface a division into faces in any number of ways. of the simple These conditions are illustratedby the boundary surface of [aces. .Boundary Models 4. A face is itself a subset or limitedregion 5.64 Faces defining the boundary of a solid.) <b| Figure 11. 11. Both objects have a finite cube and cylinder in Figure number intosix planar faces.64. The cylinder'sboundary is more arbitrarily segmented.

Howabout the disks surface circular cylindrical a finite area and is dimensionitself? Each face of the cube and cylinderhas or isolated ally homogeneous. For curved face However. listing the on consists of one or more shells. or end faces of the cylinder. so there is no Unique b-rep valid object.and Figure 11. Thus. Each shell consists-of one or more faces.The faces. face is also every complete boundary.there are boundary many representaThe data structure of a edges. such direction a consistent characteristic its with curve. where a face is a subset of a surface An connected bounded by a elosed connectedset of edges. As Figure 11. b-repis best describedby a hierarchical graph that form the boundary of a solid. and vertices surface of a solid Figure 17. each face of the cube is a boundedregionof an infinite and so are the plane. .66 shows.65 Here. We convention. the face-bounding curve is to the face side of so that the vector \316\267 xt points lies. There on which side of an are edge or have investigated several. or limited(bounded)regionof a more extensive sUrfaee.) We can represent the planar facessimply bounding by their edges. We can Usuallysegment the boundary of an object into faces. be a of a surface Bezier where we define this surface. or disconnected islands solids (if imaginary are admitted). face is a Each a subset the delimits computational face or conventions one illustrates parameterized in face the delimiting curve the actual devices to indicate polygon. complete bounding depending the presence of internal voids. of a the a curve bounded two vertices. (There areno dangling edges points. is segment by edge points. the faces more information. and of an verticesin an unlimited number of ways. curved require example. edges. cube or the cylinder defines the of the subset entire object. by its may region and the eUrve on this surface characteristic we similarly define that polyhedron.65 Face boundary convention.362 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex face of either the No single therefore.

Models Boundary tions and cylinder. topological the same Geometricdata for eachobject different. segmented. boundary combinatorial structure.topological structure independentof course. a Strictly of how their bounding confusion when diseussing an of its topological or regardless speak the term metric information the coordinates of a point). These conditions characteristics depend \316\252} /\320\243 \320\273 1 1 L_ j\342\200\224~ > \320\243 \320\243 Figure \320\243 \321\203 \320\243 \320\243 11.67. the same cylinder and cube topology have are object's information (for we segmentation. use In general. We must reestablish validity on of |he representation topological dala. if we We make arc not 1 coincide a valid a valid vertex that conclude combinatorial or topologicalstructuredoesnot in itself guarantee for both metric and conditions object.66 Boundary representations are not unique. 2.in then the object is other. scheme. with each vertex For example. no longer valid. speaking. of to avoid Sometimes. . We example. cube is its of each right boundary-segmentation are surfaces Ihe to \342\226\240 363 and metric to mean geometric information Figure 11. The cylinder the cube for having equivalent.

We can construct such models surfaces to create in two different ways\342\200\224assemble solid that combine to more as in CSG create then. \316\261\316\273 set means this schemes. of the intersection the that the bounding surface of the bounding surfacesof te regions of appropria B. and vertex relationships. The procedures and intersecting directlyby assembling appropriate to and external behavior remote on b-repsare using Booleanoperations evaluation or algorithms. schemes b-\320\263\320\265\321\200 meansother computing theseschemesdescribe solid extended are schemes These schemes are not true Boolean intersection is usually directed in of intersections since half-spaces. we \\ \\ J \\ V \\ ' /S '1^-V f I / / \\ /\342\226\240 / f K. to the related not the their net object model. the In two-dimensional B.and we denote regions with two conditions. as the union of very general than surfaces.64) \320\254\320\222. boundary-representation of S consistsofa (11. a these surfaces. and the independent region ofaspe- of . The statement following as boundary known commonly look at some two-andthree-dimensional Let us the shape implies of a complexohjectb: S=AuB In primitives A We regions are regions are the determine these active bounded by active regions.67 of topology geometry. lim- edges).j y/ select -~ Figure Interdependence and 11.Second. complex primitives and construct complex shapes altogether shapes. bA \316\267 intersection consists of points 1 and 2. is. These and and aH. in obviously the hy First. where edge. merging examples.68. facesembedded edges are definedby the solid's where be determined must validity face. and surface from the face is not important.many three by Ordinarily.364 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex which the construction ited to faces defined by There are powerful processes allow (for example. schemes. ihe surfaces of boundary are them active Figure A 11. which that the type example of combiningoperation.or omit the primitive phase surfaces.

The zero point of the parametric variable is shown. of bA and (bC determine Figure doing of results the using respective consists aA.\320\2702] This operation. To the right in this figure from other We complete its Boolean the union For segments.outside. the primitives arc closed curves. In regions \316\267 Once part the we find effect of bC that 11.66) proper interval ac on bC and this is a differenceoperation. only two intervals\342\200\224 active interval \320\270 \320\224 and \320\220 a\342\200\236 taking we find the active Computing the intersection of bB.or on based on its primitive of other combining boundary eific the primitives. The combiningsequenceof the tree (seeFigure11. (11.68 Boundary intersection. bC with the the as well the first again. the active regionofbBis are both curves divides operation of bA is region that boundarycurves. There to \302\253M definition by the shape difference with regionson bCas t of bA lying outside B. .69a). The union of A and Sin two steps is shown in Figure 11.along parametric with an arrow the direction of parameterization. active \320\241 (see revised step. regions on aA) is one we this. We re tainaA and aB by modify u3 and we \320\2704. Curve loopsparameterized clockwise or define enclose holes. For our example.69)reduces to three linear by the represented primitives the A uB-C.65) \320\234\320\277\320\254\320\222=[\320\270.69c). indicating Counterclockwise is tlic positive direction of parameterization for curve a loops enclosing solid region.69b. on bA. sequence binary Each the Boolean operations (see Figure performing a two-dimensional example.Boundary Models \342\226\240 365 classification being inside. on aA and select the aB. The active from 0 to ulA and u>B to u2B- on bB\342\200\224from intersections is. The active lying outside A. points uy and u2: is primitive in for position this is Because 11. denoted region the two parametric intervalsof the regions on the unit active one of bB segment into t segmen tha \320\270 (bC \316\267 aH) = [\320\2703. Here we find the intersection of the two bounding curves of A and B.\320\224\320\276:is that is inside the result of \320\233\320\270 \320\222. Because Figure11..\320\270\320\273] (11. of Here and bA Find bB. 1.

.69c.\321\217 ^bS \320\272 IS ] \"\320\260\321\201UJC Figure ing Only those by the bold Two-dimensional 11.366 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex S = [AVB) - \320\241 \321\214\320\274\320\270\320\273| \"\320\267\321\217 . '\342\226\240\320\233\"\320\267\320\273 ] \".69 A similar regions representation. form The a solid active will define . three-dimensional the primitives combined to objects. C. The union of always definesoneor surface boundary situation (faces) the more active closed occurs on all with after intervals 1 J aH. The effect on aA. the and right any combining is shown \321\217\321\201 in Figure operation loops. lying outside portions at sections on the unit parametric intervals 11.

there are multiply connected two parts with topology. active of regions primitive onto a Ylt unit into (cylinder) square outlined. parts until wc meet some predetermined describability is known as cell decomposition. is unique. a closed of \342\226\240 367 separate coffee pieces so that mug.70the define the cylinder by whose intersection curvesoutlineand face regions definesthe boundary and curves active regionson curves. representations. none but all are unambiguous. To define a solid using spatialbody as a set of contiguous points enumeration a convenient way to represent this set of occupancy requires cubical cells. wc detach the handle from the mug. As the first step.As the size of the cube decreases. We sphere Figure 11.In t. The intersection curve. each for imagine example\342\200\224and piece is easier to describe than the original (see Figure11. There are many ways of decomposing a solid into constituentcells. second. these Spatial-occupancy enumerationis a specialcaseof celldecomposition cells are cubical in shape and located in a fixedspatialgrid.but useful where its cellsare. we continue to and one with a decompose any or all ol This criterion.We decompose its constituent surfaces and map each of in parameter (Remember lace bound cylinder by \316\240 and \316\271 of three combination the union of [he consists shape cylinder.Now object. instead of simply-connected onemultiply connected Next. We denote the a skew-truncated with sphere [he For example. it is associated the curve is a function ol a third parametric variable into the unit square in u.Models Space-Partitioning a by fl2. topologically there are then two parts.Cell is decomposition the total object may not be amenableto representation. The of surface bound we also closed-space First. Points bound aetive regions on surfaces. The fl3 of functions space from the or each unit MODELS take a commonobject\342\200\224a it into decomposing these space. parameter SPACE-PARTITIONING We can the space. we detach the bottom of the mug.This seemsnatural and because reasonable.) We of and bYlt parametric space surface case.The the cylinder.w parameter the curve interval 11.Wc can represent any solid as the process sum or union of a set of cells into which it is divided.71)..5 sec surfaces union of these in this figure are shaded. which appears twice in the the intersection curve is associatedwith with constituent surface A of \316\240. each a with topology. Their respective active regions are parameterize loops defining holes in the D. t map is a \320\254\320\2372 regions. in surface. a simply connected topology If necessary. One way is simply to list the coordinates of the centers of the where . in f the primitive \316\2402 (sphere). surfaces the that clockwise direction. this method approaches of a solid the representation in space.

.70 Three-dimensional boundary representation.368 \342\226\240 Complex Model Construction Figure 11.

Two advantages of representinga solidby is easy to accessa given size determines the cells. becauseall cellsof an it was were even though marked. object highly likely that any particular cells had the samestateas cellsadjacent to it. A ceil can be marked with the binary this of were schemes Early type highly redundant. Let us look at way quadtrees to of a two-dimensional object is basedon representation of a square array into quadrants. . octrees. arrays spatial are often cited: It There are spatial alsodisadvantages: There is no explicit between the parts of an relationship schemes demand and such amounts of data usually storage. suggest a more efficiently.Eachnoderepresents subdivision on a plane. 1 or 0 to indicate spatialoccupancy. Only close to an object's boundary for a change of state. is assured. Cell of adjacent set example. In computer-graphic be the this may region applications. a solid objectis thus maximum a of the resolution Cell decomposition 11. do chances increase Quadtrees and use first. large A ceil in a spatial array is either occupiedby a piece of the solid or it is not.Space-Partitioning \342\226\240 369 Models Figure cells. and three-dimensional enumeration uniqueness analogs. object. spatial-occupancy The quadtree recursive a square their point.71 model.

which is true for then we do not need to subdivide it further.72. node of the quadtree representsthe entire It is the universe array. If any of the resulting quadrants is full the square into four equal quadrants. 2\" \317\207 interesting complex solid objects. Whereas each node a binary has four. on algorithms uses also algorithms advantage of the The octree encoding of a Here we recursively by taking or eight cubicalregions(seeFigure |1. ft analyzing. We the arbitrarily a full or as either full quadrants empty according to conventionwe partially establish. quadtree two-dimensional In Figure 11. the by the and the also the the tree is n. Meagher (1982b) developed for the encoding manipulation. Octree and quadtree encoding schemes possibilitiesfor solids. nodes element. of the quadrant 3 in this is full.All based on integer arithmetic. and in Figure 11. we resultingquadrants example.Thegreaterthe magnitude features of n. we superimpose a square on an arbitrary If the object does not uniformly cover the then we subdivide square. complexity object tree the quadtree structure. and computer-graphic high-speed a of solid uses His objects.Meagherand .The Such regionshave standard sizes positions The root from a subdivisions nested of number determines the node's level in represented quadtree to node given height of If the node. each node a of descendants. If any partially We continue to subdivide partially subdivide it again full into quadrants. not a leaf node has eight descendants. encoding. spatially presorted8-ary display approach tree hierarchical that the structure. the greater the resolution. For the example array size is 2\" \317\207 potential are 33 of the efficiencies of quadtree representation. then is the maximum potentialarray = 3. representation Octree is an extension into three dimensions of qu adtree encoding a sol id-mo deling method basedon octree encoding. are full or or until wc until the either quadrants empty resulting regions screen can declare reach some predeterminedlevelof resolution. require leaf regions represent and related to powers of 2. Reducingan object model into a quadtree is quadtreeencoding. computations analysis representing. necessary in size of gross and fine represent an object dependson the difference of the object and curvature of the boundary. no and that further subdivision. the example in the \316\267 figure.If the into octants octree that is n. \316\267 2\". 23 \317\207 resolution to accurately 23). grow only linearly with inherent data presorting in model proceedssimilarly to subdivide Each a cubical height For of an node of region the tree to represent octree. analysis.370 Construction Model \342\226\240 Complex of tree has two plane of the display. there because only The nodes instead of 64 (that is. or empty.73). these fast and models are and amenable suggest displacing many size is 2\" \317\207 2\".making to parallel processing. element universe size of the region maximum the then ~ 3.72. object.

\342\226\240\320\270 \321\212_ \317\211 \317\211 \342\226\240*-\302\267 \317\207\316\271 ta \317\203 \320\263\321\207 \320\263\302\273 \316\277\316\271 . \320\223\321\207 \317\203> . tD \320\263\320\276 (\320\234 \320\276 \320\241\321\2071 \320\223\321\207 \320\233 \320\223\321\207 \" \321\201\320\276 \342\226\240%. 1\320\233 \320\223\321\207 \320\277 \320\240^ ~ *\320\242 \320\223\320\2471 \" \317\204 (0 \320\223\320\236 \316\261.\320\276 \320\263\320\276 1\320\233 \320\263\320\273 r*j fl\320\263\320\273 ~..

These schemes.372 \342\226\240 Complex Construction Model Figure 11. algorithms them modelsbasedonothertechniques. and that compute and interference analysis. rotate.73 others models. and scale octree Boolean using operators. Octree representation. and perform offer hcuristi-c tools for rapid preprocessing or sorting demonstrated have properties variations on them. . combine that geometric that translate.

INTRODUCTION Relationalgeometric synthesis provides a outstanding important profound structure new benefits characterized in practical (RGS)\342\200\224or relational for CAD problems design. object oriented..O.Jr..1 approach it offers geometric issues This is anew synthesis geometric computer-aided 04679.This chapter Relational relational in developer Seth chapter of relational H.model by and relational evaluation. entities. of relational model structure. RG for computer-aided framework object-oriented programs and CAD models that solves modeling and confers in geometric Compared with conventional CAD. (207) 244-7347.Letcher. Inc. MichaelShook. Porter. Hydro http://www. serialization. This chapter to the characteristics of relational geometric begins with an introduction a discussion followed synthesis. geometry. geometry an (KG)\342\200\224is geometric design. design. com.RELATIONAL GEOMETRIC SYNTHESIS to geomemc modelingand an innovative. Dickson.principal synthesis. and his associates D. Southwest Harbor.John S. They can be contacted at: Aero- was co-authored geometric and George Box 684. P. A detailed example and several are concludes with a discussion of open applications presented. by Dr. A.aero 12. RG is by: 373 .ME hydro. structured environment that the relationally efficiency of greatly improves the design processand resolves many long-standing problems.

curves RG approach constructedfrom points curves. for throughout geometry parametrically generating and/or evaluation engineering for refinement and In the advantageous applications for design. and construction for Methods 4. The to more complex simpler Curves are typically model. Capture of Relationships The CAD conventional geometric objects added to a CAD by model design process execution is created of requires \316\220\316\267\316\265 creation user commands. In particular. topology.Surfacesare in a typically in some and from cases.374 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational 1. from other in a variety of ways from or. 2. of para metrically variable modelsinvolving in the 6. in embedded durably of point. we Introduction. 7. in some definite of a Almost sequence of every object relationship to one or . A Synthesis synthetic design approach. Supportof rich a large variety elements the between relationships of a retention and Representation easily of (objects) set of constructive comprising a geometric methods for object construction. in the textual amplify briefly each of these characteristics. in some cases. from simpler to more complex sequential surfaces\342\200\224through constructions. its facility computer-aided varied geometries in forms suitable for visual analysis enables an unprecedented potential to many lead characteristics These relational of optimization balance of designs. curve. geometry\342\200\224from Up to curves. and serialization Compact of complex storage form of a geometric-representation language. embedded surface between 5.building to points. 3. 5yn thesis to modeling builds upward for Point objectsare the foundation objects. for example. geometric and extensible model. Methods for construction of accurateand durable joins objects without performing surface-surfaceintersections. any of ways or. from variety constructed from other surfaces. Further geometrycan constructed be on surfaces. points and in surfaces. this geometries. and surfaceobjectsexplicitly curves other objects. Facility construction surfaces combined with durable free-form and sculptured complex.

all captured relationships. have been lost.shape.the supportof the object upon second the first. conversely. In each stage. it is well a design simple forward process. and the sequence of designstagesto achieve particularly them. as soonas the new object information is discarded. CAD model consistsof a collection self-contained objects. this loss of be of little consequence. Thus. However. relationships disrupted by the revision of earlier and optimization designelements. the difficulty of the designspecifications. of one constructive dependency directed graph. can be and difficult. only the cases where the intended relationshipis explicitly utilized is by the CAD program. The relationships automaticallyupdated preserving relationship property to capturing and maintaining interobject affected objects can be identified and in appropriate a following sequence change in any object. RG provides a comprehensive frameworkfor capturing. for example. and someobjects two or more other objects. if the relationships.\342\226\240 375 Introduction more objects in even but and model.change elements. unrelated. designer some earlier stage.storing. to will have designer repeat many previously performed operations to restore in order (updating). Since some objectsmay depend on two or more object by other objects.A change that an early stage of the designrequiresat least one forward pass through oi Revision common alters a previously in which situation all the subsequent design stages to restore disrupted The relationships. is a existing design to meet new requirements similar problems are encountered. information relationship might is seldom that known forward the objectives may be present. updating process very time-consuming\342\200\224 error-prone. A qualitative property or quantitative is so captured and maintained is referred to as a durable that the RG model. depending on the and whatever constraints designer. It is typical that of the iterative skills many cycles are required. and work forward again. a conventional relationship communicatedto and the constructed in the already these of Most orientation.and Each relationship expresses a another or. then analyzed and then the has to retreat to some evaluated. the may support in a relational overall structureof dependencies model is that of a relation or utilizing relationships between objects.It is far more often an iterative process: Design is carriedforward to some stage.position. If the designer had perfect foresight modeland allits properties from the of essentially and outset independent. principal is that of advantage the set of . problemsare identified.size. the completed could envision of the design. exist in of the mind the relationships designer.

The mostfundamentaJ of an RG object is simply a representation precise statement of its method of construction plus thosedata values requiredto complete the of any supporting objects. heterogeneous. cvaluator procedure. solid objects can coexist and complementone another. pluralistic framework. In contrast to the restrictiveness and homogeneity of NURBS-hasedmodin which all geometry is fundamentally represented as ratiosof B-Spline eling.Many the identities construction. the object-oriented modeling Embedded and types different additional complexityis found program design. what other objects. inclusive.376 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Rich and Synthesis Extensible Entity 5et RG is also set of geometric object classes{entities). RG providesa unified information is part on framework which many useful methods of construction of points. ways: characterized of each by a rich one or which 1. The entitiesall require different 2.for example: of objects that a the qualitative embedded property object (guest) captured on the AccurateJoinsbetween5urfaces In play conventional a prominent must share a solid modeling. Essentially. Geometry Many ofthe entitiesin embedded in other RG of higher objects in a embedded Beads\342\200\224points Magnets\342\200\224points Snakes\342\200\224curves constructions provide embedded embedded or same curve in a surface in a surface object is durable relationshipof supporting object (host). when two surfaces commonedgeeach of the surfaces is made arbitrarily larger surface and and often . intersections between surfaces troublesome role. and it does flexibility and quantities of dsta. Typically.This pluralism has a cost in complexity. An a set RG instantiated from one of these object classesknows it and from how was constructed. to confer be through in advantages manageable profound accuracy. more distinct constructionsofa singleobject represents from of other objects. this of its stored data. including in two important NURBS. including different methods of construction can be supported within RG. tensor RG is a products.each entity requiresa However.curves. and surfaces. The embedding of an through a dependency are explicitly dimensionality.

enables customization and to work of existing requirements.or coordinate point objects which are acting as supports permit visual.so projectionand methods intersection-based are also supported. are the of the conventional inverse process. account which of robustness lack and ParametricModeling combined result from with many captured so as to are constructed models RG Typically. or properties. either variable models high level parametrically of as as optimization designs. can and for parameter other point by with well new a combination.They relationships objects on at a refinement and rapid the ability case.Thedurableproperties can be qualitative. and embedding. results from the expressionofthe modelin prescriptions\342\200\224a sort than scratch\342\200\224rather as all the relationships and profoundly. response. first design the build the adjoining surface or surfaces to conformto it. An alternative objects. form. extremely compact of references to objects to eliminate expresses in relationships. then do not solve all surface-to-surface methods joining problems. and difficulties pitfalls. of genetic Related Developments Sutherland's Sketchpad project to point objectsto establishdurable (Sutherland connections [1963]) utilized between stored references to Reference lines. . frequent RG providesseveralrelatively and efficient robust ways to construct surface durable Often these procedures objects having joins. multiple precise. Storage The serialization of an RG model includinginterobject the compactnessresults from redundsneies in the the the complete model structure. and necessary of intersection of each surfacea re trimmed the curve portions solution the intersection. relational as In Compact properties.the between themis then determined.interactivevariations dragging is to support numeric variables expressions which geometric elementscan depend. be expressed and designs to satisfy durable many parametric degrees of freedom. but they are neededfor at mosta small percentage of the junctions in typical RG models.These intersection. parameter values.Introduction \342\226\240 377 than so that they deliberately intersect.This a long off for the unwanted process has many for much of the complexity. as coordinate offsets of various tends to This geometry. use an More representation. that is. adaptation quantitative. In part. have metrical topologicalpropertiesor The parametric degrees of freedom often values. of terms the compactness constructive code for recreating the modelfrom elaborated detail.slow found in these programs.

achievingat least Snyder (1992) presents a proceduralUpdating. and TAG projects (Armit [1982]). MODEL STRUCTURE Entity geometric-modeling from must program or classes.TAG. and geometry languages. PADL-2 is a CSG solidorder in executed are some there framework modeling with this feature (Brown [1982]). Armit (J982) portionsofthe modelwhich discussesthis capability in a surface modeler. will permit the interested reader to about in learn relational far geometry greater depth than the subjectcan be treated in this chapter. ICON. may a pomeroy [1987]). automatic of level of RG reference which entities in the Multiob- Multipatch. rectangular apply more or less interchangeably to both the abstract objectclass object and entity several Bezier object types . line. that the novel features of RGS are the subject of patents and patent applications 12. RGKernel. The working demo version availa blc free from the address or web site noted previously. Inc. examples storing structure of selective updates of only the interobject dependencies. limited. underlie Boeing'saerodynamics grid some one (AGPS). the \320\241 the data storage.polyline. serialization. Aero Hydro. permitting are actually affected by a change. which CAD rapid regeneration supports following Each of these systems a Howsa scriptto be objects. geometry with parametric of a multilevel r elational Further.as a software It is noted component. AGPS has at least (Sneppand other objects for their data. geometry is also available from AeroHydro. Inc.378 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis objects by name or address. elements system paneling used also system generation grid proprietary and were languageapproachto changes in underlying a complex to regenerate variations. CAD nomenclature tends to the words patch. and Constraint-based of RG. APT machine-tool programming system and in Armit's Some ject. functions maintenance. (1988) RGKemel and MultiSurf is a Windows-based relational surfacemodeler available from of MultiSurf. library providing and evaluation of MultiSurf.Gossard.et describe a dimension-drivenpolygonalsolidmodeler. such provide means of creating objects as point.2 in several RELATIONAL Object versus Any countries. solid. circular arc. Updatingcapabilities variationalmodelingaccomplish but we and their relevanceto free-form MultiSurf flavor to three-dimensional some of the different from to be modeling be quite RG. relatively apparently find their al.

Object for objects on the screen. points is specified by an ordered A B-SpHne made of Curve from an The degree of supporting specified set Example: CLoftSurf A C-Lofted Surface curve objects in object is a parametric surface sequence. the and one for form blank structure.z by offsets filling in from the basis point. convention. Example: BCurve object is a parametric B-Splinecurve ordered set of controlpoints(vertices). the entity is an or more methods for utilizing the data. an object data filled-in is as a is created In RG. every object has a unique object name. one of the data fieldsin any entity is for an object naive. following The abstract The instantiated object class is called an entity. names have model. objects is for RG in the an specifying object by filling in all required fields the programmer's point of view. interrogation. identifying the more critical and and However. Most of an object from one or moreother of the supports is expressedby use of their names. Most RG into a class as in primarily on the 12. these plus type. Entity Classes and Subclasses entities can be arranged basis of dimensionalityand embedding. and for selecting objects editing. characteristic use 379 \342\226\240 the need to from it. The parent classis hierarchy.1.An on oneof abstractdata is allocated From forms. In RG we experience to avoid confusion wc recommendadherenceto instantiated the objects and Structure Model Relational construction identity a Within in utility specifying interob/ect dependencies. of the entity to think way suggestive object of a particular class. export operations. Example: RelPoint A Point Relative the name object from the is instantiated of a basis-point object.y. list of object names. and the RelPoint entity coordinate x. of object names RG entities represent the (supports).these differentiate the A and concepts. object is called an object. Figure . The set of that interpolates curves supporting is specified a set of by an ordered list of objectnames.

380 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis the member data at this levelincludean object and such codes. order of the is in RGObject. requires for coordinates RGCurve. surfaces.1. used to enhancethe modeling way of also nongeometric entities. points are points embedded in an RGCurve. are parametric RGSurfaccs three in solids parametric an entity name. RGMagnet any curves.w). versus iterative.z given parameter value /. For example. RGFrames are local Cartesian ways variety a coordinate frames. There are some problems with in Figure 12.RGGraphsarenongeometric entities that provide uniform to specify univariate functions. difficulties conceptual implementational Embedding Similarly.) be evaluated as a degenerate RGSnake. inheritance diagrammed in Figure 12. RGBeads RGMagnets RGRingsarepointsembedded in an RGSnake. (assuming supports .y. but it returning does not make sense to try to evaluate an RGCurve a s an RGSnake. x(u. RGSolidsare RGCurvesare parametric are RGSnakes are RGPoints = \317\207 dimensions. degenerate of the parameter as an the indicates as /. as direct Entities can also be classified Objects instantiated number from a direct entity be evaluated can exactly and uniquely in a finite be evaJuof operations the can exact and that arithmetic. flexibility There are other versatile way to reparameterizc curves and surfaces. (The converse is not RGPoint would not make sense. curves in three-dimensions. can be evaluated samex. in an RGSurface. The to RGPoint. as a value degenerate existence instances object subclassed from it just returns the RGCurve. Clearly. x.sincean in general RGCurve does no! Jie in any surface.\317\207 x(\302\253.any or any RGPoint. commonattributesas colorand visibility code.y. although supported to somedegreein many object-oriented systems.y.z coordinatesfor any an RGCurve evaluating true. is nonetheless a rich sourceof programming and of solids. are points embedded in an RGSurface. curves embedded parametric in three-dimensions \317\207 =x(f). hierarchy dimensionality: descending RGObject. From = surfaces in three-dimensions. entity classes that do not fit into these dimensionality/ in several embedding classifieslionsRGPiauesare infinite planes specified and used in a of constructions. As another method to be evaluated as an an RGSnake a example.1 primarily of methods permitting objects of one class serve of another class. it is the hierarchy rife with multiple inheritance which. and points in sentablc in the can solids presents more complex possibilities not repre- diagram.v). provide a entities many RGRelabels.

.381 Relational Model Structure \342\226\240 RGObject Contours Solid (5) Frame (2) Plane (5) (0) Surface (24) Line Curve (1H *. Numbersin parentheses population of each class.SubSurf (17) Snake(15) SubCurve (2) Point (15) Bead SubSnake (4) Magnet (3) (1) (1) Ring (3) Figure 12.1 Class hierarchy represent the of relational current entities.

2 12. and each edgeis a directed is the number two objects. and of constructive r.oy) of elements can be depicted by a directed graph (digraph) which degreeis a set of descendants path as the there the object. exist. may have multiple solutions.may may require provision of starting va lues for the unknowns. available through class of entity is designated as procedural..y..Direct are highly entities preferred ated exactly). three simple relational models.in fact may for shows absolute configuration.w. r. or surface using any sequence of point. IntMagnetis point on a surface at its intersectionwith a curve. truncationerrors. This .2b consists of five objects: Figure four absolute points and a BCurvemadefrom them. the out- dependents.) 12. Figure 12. essentially user-defined vastly procedural the direct not constructions necessary by and accuracy.. and may have limited accuracy becauseof for their simplicity. ordered A relation dependent).The simultaneous(usually equations nonlinear) iterativesolutionmay require many surface and curve evaluations.it just requires evaluated Iterative entities at a single specifiedu. is a downward path and the set of all objects object's ancestors. the to a new position. 'ITie in-degree of an object the number We speak of the of its to is an there which upward the Figure 12. . curve. to be surface supporting A recently procedural Essentially. three of the provides a quite with this possibly useful property: If PO is moved..2b.u. However. has no supports. different relational structure.2aconsistsofjust relationship of its in between supports. the then automating over a one-. developed the construction of a curve.z coordinates. . curve. bu tivc itera t entities sometimes provide entities. oiV. curve translate \320\222\320\241 will the case of Figure 12. of relational flexibility modeling.v. surface. locating it requires solution of three in the three unknowns t.2c also consists of five objects and form the identical is similar to Figure 12. in points are RelPbints. constructing combination repetition that of domain. its data is simply absolute point plus some attributes commonto allRGPoints..or solid entities permit one or typical point. efficiency. set of all objectsto which through the digraph as the R (the of \320\236 in the order pair (<?. while retaining its originalshape. relative to the AbsPoint PO..ri.382 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis the AnAbsMagnetisa simple example. As broaden the robustness. Model Relation and Digraph of objects model consists of a set \320\236 ou o2. a or an a search For iterative solution. or three-dimensional construction parametric the entities entities.(An its x. may fail to fail to converge. or surface objects. require example.2c. two-.each relation) dependencyrelationships A logical an relationshipcomprising (support. point and a relative point.v position. Figure digraphs absolute an two objects. the nodes are objects.

thai is. one absolutepoint. or contradictory the digraphis requiredtobe 12. it presumably of a desired interrogation. for display. and a BCurve made from the four points. AbsPoint objects are available in a form suitable for immediatedisplay. dependencies cyclic simple relational models:{a) models. Two objects. Forexample. EVALUATION The logical model is insufficient Although manufacturing purposes. corresponding logical .Evaluation Model RelPoint PI PI RelPointPI \342\226\240 383 P3 \320\236 P3 RelPoint \317\203 PO AbsPoini P2 RelPoimP2 (a) 12. As for three point and a relative absolute poirkt. acyclic.The geometric representations\342\200\224explicit complete model specification thitt in representations objects is the terms you can get of x. they evidently indeterminate MODEL four objects. absolute three an points and relative lead to infinite recursion and selfare currently forbidden. contains and a fundamentally exact and geometric configuration.2 Figure Digraphs a BCurve from made points.z coordinates\342\200\224from the principal computationaltask of RG.y.3 Five {\302\243>) (c) five them. the logical the contains little only your teeth into. objects.The of any objects actual having one or more supportsis only configuration of evaluation absolute implied.

an RGMagnetor RGRing supporting can be immediately utilized for the display object data in various formats. they fail to supporting points.y.z object will include or RGRing class will additionally RGBead include the object's t parameter location on the include the object's evaluation of points from a topologically could Derivativevalues The of evaluation any object will the supporting a uniform tabulation of an RGSurface might additionally surface.\316\226 RGBead: out- identity of host interface curve. RGPIane class object consists oi a pointin the plane and a unit normal vector.\316\245. on location \302\253. for example. class argument entity any cvalua te. Another possibilityis that evaluation one of the supporting points may be an Intthe supports fails. t parameter requiring one object to . An object in the x. The otherarguments on class: the depend principal RGPoint: out-\316\247. One class entity is a Plane3\342\200\224the determined RGPIane plane by three to be collinear. The (sampling) of be from the surface. Variouserrorconditionscan arise during the evaluation of an object. An indicating evaluated data contains structures object holding some evaluated form appropriate to its entity class. the evaluation of any RGPoint the coordinates of the point. Each objectcontains whether variable evaluated its evaluation is currently valid. object-oriented an of implementation in RGKernel is implemented between an application is a set oi classevalualors. evaluation rectangular be present also be might the curve. For example.the evaluation the part. For example. for most of an these are entity-specific. Such failures must the must not be marked as evaluateduntil handled\342\200\224the Plane3 object problem some is corrected\342\200\224or nonsense will ensue other object depends (assuming purposes on Program the and for of absolute export plane). structure Although geometry is presented as an relational framework\342\200\224suggesting object-oriented the particular language\342\200\224in The entirely in ANSI \320\241 appropriateness to date fact. If these three pointshappen of one or more of determine a plane.384 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Object Synthesis Evaluation the What constitutes the evaluation of an object dependsupon class object's a state and may be implementation-dependent.v parameter RGCurve an the tabulation of curve. mesh of points in curve and surfaceevaluations. and that to be detected failed Magnet converge. absolute geometricdsta and the RGKernel for each One for evaluator is the class.

other arguments) int RGClass [ int err = 0. if( object->entity is not in this class) return 1. of value return The a primary math routine is an error codeif an error 0.tabulation ter values.\316\226 of out-\316\247. object.\316\245. err = Entity2( object. else ITie essential structure of a classe-valuator is simply (pseudo-C): ( object.\316\245.\316\226 RGPlane: one point-. unit normal RGFrame: out. ve-ctor of \316\275 vector values.Z of one point. parameter of w values out. arguments output else 5witch(object->entity) [ case ENTITY1: break.v parameters of values \316\275 of sampled points: \316\247.t.v identities of host snake and surface. other arguments).identity of host surface.Evaluation Model RGRing: out- RGLine: out- of in- t parameters of vector t points: \316\247.\316\226 u values.\316\245.\316\245. case ENTITY2: err = Entityl( object.u. = EntityN( arguments): . unit tangent vector in. other break. if( objcct->evaluated && LookUpEnabled) fill from lookup table. RGSurface: in. return err.vector of u paramc tabulation out- vector RGSolid:in- of parameters values parameter of sampled tabulation outRGSnake: u.vector RGCurve: surface: of host out-identity RGMagnet: \342\226\240 385 of vector u.transformationmatrix occurs.v X. other arguments).\316\226 va lues parameter out.tabulation of sampled points:\316\247. case ENTITYN: err break.Y.

procedures has have an the entity evaluator will entity supports. Addition of user interface code for creationand editing Recursive is required to indefinitely extend the effort linear Only set. = can (with LookupEnabled recursively evaluate any valid model FALSE) the in model that is incompletely valid). Creationof the cvaluator for this entity procedure 2. present. as in almostall cases. Entity2( so on are cvaluator ). Thus.386 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis above pseudocode. in our experienceinterpolation-based evaluation for visual interactive ample provide modeling accuracy displays during and in most cases for the output of actualmanufacturing data. However. In the case needed.the If. Anew casein the class evaluator 3. as the inner product of the control points with evaluating each output point In the basis B-Spline functions. tabulated values be that enormously sampling will be and the evaluation of an and object in later required will accumulate as a prevents process. accelerating structure previous when the will to a degree that is difficult to predict monitor. some evaluations possiblyrepeating many times. the addition of a new entity to an existing class requires only: 1.it is truncation error apparentthat when are deep levels of dependency many there function calls are required. Entityl( ). entity supported Model Evaluation Provided evaluator the that reentrant functions are all programmed recursively (i.as parameter evaluations. the cvaluator for a BCurve will first iterate through its pointsupports.e. curves. is to utilize the evaluation LookupEnabled table. and by controllable in the case of iterative entities. phases.includedin the is TRUE. unacceptablv Lookup recursive evaluation. structure previously outlined program permitted). Truncation errors generally solids. the recursion Table lookupshort-circuits lookup An alternative to duplicate of evaluations. and for the individual entities in the class. equivalentnumber of classcvaluator calls to evaluate them. some form of interpolation is not include the particular will generally and surfaces. so the model evaluationprocess be may Table the arc calls slow. For example. Nevertheless.. RGPoint the class calling for each of them and storing the resulting evaluator control-point coordinates. and can .Accuracy of errors a (or identify recursive evaluation is limited only by roundoff. Then it can iterate through its input list of /parameter values.

they object is changedin an editing operation. This required process previously For efficient updating. symmetry flags.eachofits supports evaluation During be evaluated. the objectaspects of the object's for displaying controlling appearance. (Invalidation is resetting the evaluateduag. it can notify its dependents.No object needs to be sequence Part of the evaluated 12. SERIALIZATION File mode I requires a serialization of a relational of the object data storage for all of the model's objects. the file must convey model any model-level information. of the store and a list to maintain When an expedient objeet's dependents. for has a method the file is a sequenceof objects. data stored in an objectis an ordered as for the is the model evaluation outlined.RelPoint. identifying keyword [other object attributes]/ for example. object's reconstructed the file is read back in. If a support is marked as invalid. A name object-name: color: visibility: display color integer An integer code code object.) the of an object. as noted earlier. in a recursive processthat finally notify invalidates all descendajits. so on. Entity-name: A as follows: is essentially string color visibility divisions the entity. It is not necessary to output the as this information can easily be list of dependents.Thus. the correct to update this particularobject. identifica tion of units. is output as the name of the referenced object. model-levelcomments.Besidesthe object data. when The body of The formatfor an object Entity-name object-name (entity-specific data). the identity writing support.4 more the entire in updating once than model.Each entity of its data a a to string. the number of divisions and subdivisionsfor . and version. can their dependents. it will be evaluated must before a value is returned.Serialization \342\226\240 387 Updating Est of its supports. invalidated evaluating any object will cause of to in its ancestors that are invalid reevaluate themselves. any recursively. An object pointer. that is. and so on.This canincludea language version. divisions: tabulation An for the and Specifies display. BCurve. Abs- Point. it is also primary representationof the model relation.

passed of a serialization The functions as an interactiveintcrpreler/compiler for The model language docs not currently support ming-language constructs as subroutines. /: Terminates entity-specificdata: The sequenceof names supporting object required AbsPoint object-name RelPoint object-name /\316\247\316\245 \316\226. representation by typing language. explanation: order. so longas correctsyntax is observed. for example: to instantiate dZ. or can be automatically and modified generated by other programs. The object's data values are like Ihe parameters names are analogous to variables. the object. an object had to be definedbeforeit could another object)as well as in the internal data storage. pointN point2 (point] supports.unit object weight. could be for additions fruitful the the model such and langnage.) arc presented entities descriptions. the optional attributes. dX dY /point / relabel BCurve object-name type A variable-length list of is enclosed in and float. of the entities current Mul- population. suchas of a points BCurve. (This is about 75 Some shorthand percent in the form of a template notation used in these surface. curve. relational model can be viewed as a geometryModel canbe in files crea ted this language. Entity names are commands to create. the control j. integer. and so on: Entity of the object specifiedclass.5 with RELATIONAL In this \316\225\316\235\316\244\316\223\316\240\316\2255 we specify section representing all object tiSurf/ RGKernel The entity for concrcteness' sake about 80 relational classes. braces. This conditionwas when editing the model file manually It was lo difficult to maintain later found file read-in lo require only a modest amount of bookkeeping during dispense 12. order file in the model Early versions of MulliSurf required top-down be used as a support for (i. top-down class names for their templates signify model file requires the name of an .branching.. point. calls to predefined procedures.388 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis object attributes: other Include optionallayer.Multisurf to the Object procedure. that is. typical iterators. programbut these future.e. remark.

../pointlat In the specified magnet/surface. /point name RelPoint PolarRelPt name .. The Projected is Point name MirrPoint at the located . direction from poinl are polar coordinates./pointlineangle../point mirror. times is. family one-parameter around a line... : Ellipsis indicates color. mirror: A plane.. about the . knotlist: and ring/snake Similarly entities. cylinders parallel to a plane. two of point upon the mirror.. counted \342\226\240 389 Bitities Relational visibility.... spheres dual intersection..... NURBS Points Three-Dimensional AbsPoint name . of spherical terms Jon Point. The Rotated axis line. 1 to N. vector object usedfor A knot optionally fixed-point radius. or point object usedfor mirrorimaging For mirror/surface: a two-parameter family of projection projection.radials through point. line.. ProjPointname . of some position attributes and for tabulation divisions that are class-specific\342\200\224 some display\342\200\224plus optional layer and unit weight. and bead/curve: Either a bead or a curve.of indicated the objects.. ting from the of angle. the distance and Polar Relative in dZ. an arbitrary -length list indicate ): Braces { . The Mirror Pointis locatedat that projection the mirror the displacement image of poinl with respect to the of the ProjPoint. planes around a point. or such as attributes surfaces to a parallel surface. a curve. the of implicit surfaces./bead offset./XY Z. position of point.. a a normals to For lines... plane.through Point is located by an angular rota distance TanPoint name ....or surface.Thisspecifies a point on it. RotatPoint name . line./pointmirror. mirror. dX dY .. which is usually used as the starting value for a iteration.

./framepointdx dy \316\266 specified name Beads and Point is Blended The wtl .. host curve the distance offsel..... \321\203 Frame The of bead.. / bead dt./{point! dz.x. specified BlendPoint of magnel.. y. therefore can at value parameter t. pointN wtN dx./magnet Point is locatedalong the normalto the host surface the at location of magnet. .\316\243 \317\207 w. \317\207 \316\266. at signed the offsets the .. to tangent offset. wt2 point! the weighted sum of coordinates. is a point on the host curve of dt.at signeddistanceoffsel.. dy. A Since snakes Rings A bead class class entity a single constructs entity subclass of curves. name ...rings also as a magnet on that name AbsBead The Absolute Relative offset of beads. .. component points: embedded in a curve. Bead is the point on curve Bead a snake. in frame Rela tive PomI is locatedrelativeto polnlat in frame coordinates. Iframe name FrameAbsPf FrameRelPt located at x. starting The Offset Point is Absolute Frame The . dz j.390 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Point is located along the The Tangent startingat Synthesis name OffsetPt of location the bead. bead. at the signed ring are a a ring serve . Re/Bead name parameter point point embeddedin a subclass are also embedded is logically The a single constructs name / bead/\321\201\320\270 rve ds. /curvet... in the snake's host surface. ArcRe/Bead The difference is that surface.

The Intersection Ring. point the surface parallel to by implicit cutting is mirror/surface which a head. The followingthreering AbsRing name Ret to the corresponding heads. It' bead/curve passes through as the starting value for the iterative if it is a curve. If either ring/snake value is used as the is a ring. . is the point on surfaceat parametervalues /magnet du is the dv u. IntRing name /ring/snake mirror/surfacepoint. / ring/snake] name JmRingl parallel /snaket. The IntersectionBeadis a on the curve designated by bead/curve. of two snakes on the is the snake designatedby same surface(or of a snake Its host itself). name IntBead point on a curve When ds.Entities Relational The Bead is a Relative Arclcngth signed arclength offset is from the bead... /surface \320\270 \316\275. its parameter point. offset the at the of bead.5. v. the search at t for the otherwise starts search. name Ring arc entities ring/snake2. The Intersection Magnet magnet/surface where a point constructs it is intersected is on the surface designated by the curve designated by bead/curve. by a point If mag\302\267 . where it intersected is at starts search i. / ringdt. 1. at dv. rather than a t = 0.secondkind. name /magnet/surface bead/curve. curve host is direclly \342\226\240 391 specified. its t parameter ring/snake . the location / is used search.5. IntMagnet embedded in a surface. /bead/curve mirror/surface point. point on the host surfaceofmagnel. starting position is the intersection with Magnets Each magnet class entity AbsMagnet name The The Absolute Magnet Ret Magnet name Rclalive Magnet parameter offsets du.

unless the evaluationresultsin zero (possible with NURBCurvc). as a curve. curves al any parameter [0.which performs Specifying the default relabel. radius the and resulting pitch. poinll is the and semiminor axes. The Line Arc Arc The /relabel name type point] poind default points. The first of any support of range can and is Line name /relabel point] an reparameterization. If line curve is a . value. is used is a magnet. of sixways(lype is acirculararcconstructedinone standard helix. generalized helix permittingvariable is uniformly parameterized and mirror is constant.The is uniform parameterization /relabel Conic name type point] and poinl2 starting point3 and ending Helix is a depending semimajor conic parametervalues / relabel point linegraph Helix name The establish with points point2 The Conicis a conicsectionor catenary. otherwise = . angle. graph | to arc respect three from \321\216\320\261) length. is the straight linefrom poinll to poinl2. is a nominal However.denotedby natural parameterization. values for the for starting is used \316\275 position starts search the Pro/Magnet its u. the or point2.5. curve's default optional accepts *.5. sO si. otherwisethe at starts search = . search. magnet. The default Besides parameterizationis uniform.5. search. by magnet/surface u.1]- be evaluated division curve with a curve x-x(t) a parametric do extend beyond the nominalrange. \317\201\316\277'\316\271\316\267\316\262. \320\270 If the = .5.392 m Geometric Relational Synthesis is a \316\267 el/surface name /point \320\270 at . its \316\275 for position starting values for Magnet formed magnet/surface.s8 and to t = 0 and corresponding si t - are I. \316\275 Curves curve class entity An RG parametric a by Relabel object. center. on lype. The Projected is a point on the surface designated by the projection of poinl along a radiant of mirror/surface. a linecan serve as a qualifying or as a rotation axis in some entity constructions. \316\275 magnet/surface mirror/surface.

symmetric five be full foil..bead/ring/graph Nj. of a Si. wt2 poind wtN J. four a foil. using the B-Splinebasisfunctions is an Curve C-Spline with (cubic) point2 pointN}. reparameterized PolyCurve name where that portion f(t). stretched and rotated to = x. weights w.B.a-knot end conditions. name RelCurve /relabel The RelativeCurve fit new between default of its endpointsxo. / relabel name CCurve The /relabel type (point] name BCurve a Entities Relational FoilCurvename type \\. graph SubCurve positions a copy point] graph. curveN ]. knots \\{t) \316\243\316\275.\316\222\316\247\316\256. The number N of control poinlscan selects lype four or five. curves. spline of type 2 (quadratic) or 3 and not.(f) + (l -\320\224\320\236) [\321\205\320\276-\320\245\320\271(\320\236)] +/(\316\257) [\317\207\316\271 graph supplies the blending function * signifies a linear blend. the airfoil family. is ihe Bezier curve order \320\272 and lype + \316\212. \320\272 order with \320\222-Spline with lype + 1. . j.- and N object. interpolating /relabel \316\243 pointN}.\317\207\316\262^\316\231\316\243\316\267.The real in bead! bead2.(t)..\320\224()= t.. reparameterized with each curve specifies space of the PolyCurve.The with B-Spline Curve uniform knots. cambered full name NURBCurve pointN a 393 / relabel type knoilisi[ poind wil .. The is curvepointO is SubCurve sn and / relabel name the The PolyCurve to the interval curve ProcCurvename /relabel [curve! t! curve!t2 in the the context.) + isi\\. Three points create half of a symmetric three..1]:x(i) =\321\205\321\214[(1 -t)s. The Xi(l)]. (bead/ring/graph! . type f point! poim2 parameterization chord-length x(r) = N vertices: [point! pointN point! j The Foil Curve implementsseveralfamilies of standard NACA airfoil sections..1].. The NURBS Curve is the supplied by a KnotList rational control poinls x.xi:x(() basis curve \321\205\321\214((). value l- more or associated [0.) is the concatenationof two ends this basis curve \\b(s)betweentwo to the [0..1] parameter / relabel'point at beads interval [0. profile.

..v) space. .... name .1].and substituted in order at t supports as supporting interval parameter each value parameter in poinl... magnetN wl2 wtlma^>net2 /magnetI snake magnet]magnet2 . .The Procedural are beads. and the followingsnakesare highly parallel no further explanation: entities..394 m Geometric Relational Synthesis is any point object.... Snakes class object is a of 1].J relabel name SubSnake name PolySnake name type j' magnet1 magnet2 .and that coordinates of points on the snakeare obtained by definition a snake that with a nominal It needs to be curve parametric a absolute dimensional ope ration: The snake is evaluatedto a location the is evaluated surface's parameter space.... /relabel ring] ring2 graphN} The magnet i nuignet2 .. snakes Pro/Snake ... Any graphs included (...and/or poinl which the is locus over the in unison varied graphs bead and ring of point as the the has generally Curve as supportsareevaluated for any real parameters [0.... from w2. ancestors... RelSnake ProcSnake . magnet the parameter (u... snakeNtN (snakel tl &nake2 / relabel magnet f bead/ring/graphl have /relabel The Projected Snakeis the using graph ..magnetN j .../relabel name LineSnake line is constructedin A straight magnel2: = w(f) - (1 () + t W[ J magnei2.. . j ./relabel name magnell to no direct curve projection minor/surface j\\ bead/ring/ counterpart among RGCurves: magnet/surface of curve for the mirror/surface. (2 ../relabel FoilSnake . surface identified by . [0. .v) in the location at this through the surfaceequations.. magnet3 ..../relabel type knotUst NURBSNakename magnetN wtNJ type j relabel .... . parametric emphasized lies precisely on the host surface.. requiring The LineSnake curve corresponding ArcSnake name .../ relabel liSnake name name CSnake . embeddedin range An RGSnake surface object... / to the I magne\\2 ( magnet type I magnei2 magnet type .. then surface three- composition a by w = (u. magnetN j ../relabel name following magnel/surface.... onto the projection.rings.

GeoSnake name The Geodesic arc from a geodesic is Snake magnell to magnel2. Like a division which a \321\205 be can in results evaluation parametric surface patch \317\207 x(\302\253. of v. type surface.constant parametric line \320\270 or = constant.Relational Entities . by *.t] beyond the nominal range and unless the surfacesis Relabel object. .. used to constructa lofting curve is evaluatedat parametervalue name surfaces evaluated type. end magnel. appropriate 3. in the v-direction. . purposes: to identify the host surfacefor the IntSnake. Surfaces class RGSurface An nominal parametric is a range of [0. . parameterization.. accepts the to a subclass of lofted surfaces.1]. the Specifying surface's default or natural surface 1. entities belong set of curves called surface Several [0.v) object curve of . is closest end the selected intersection curve is to be the /relabel UVSnakename is a UVSnake The host surfaceof magnelwith and passing through poinl. The curve master Each points resulting a wilh extend at any parameter value.. ordered an by at (u..' = at parameter value 1.JVare ! curveI curve!. /relabel magnel]magnet2. according to lype. /relabel EdgeSnuke name The of the four edges of is one EdgeSnake surface.Evaluation three-stage process: is evaluated xf... \316\275 according to lype. is an Snake Intersection The \342\226\240 395 type / = 0 and lo identify which end of the IntSnake. which of multiple intersection curves for the is to be used InlSnakc (the onewhose of intersection of the to mirror/surface three serves magnel magnet mirror/surfacepoint. a lofted u. /relabel name IntSnake the surface implicit to parallel identify to magnel). The lofting TranSurf curves.v) is a a position 2. The first support of some by an optional reparameterization performs denoted default relabel.supported master curves. zero.

v) + 1 -\320\270) (l-g)(l-fc)X|(0^^14(l-fl)fc^3f^ supply graphs sequence: boundary x(h. -\316\264).v)-\\i(u) The x2(v) curvel / relabel name The Ruled Surface is generatedby curvel and curve2 with straight lines: The DevelopableSurfaceis alsoa the but solves curve about line. is generated Surface Revolution - /relabel curve lineangle!angle!.v). copy by revolving anglel to angle2. b(u)\\ the default curves do meet at boundary functions \320\270. (2.v) + bx2(v) X=(]-b)X4(\\-v) The graphsare four curve4. where: W(m. from curve!. curvel between surface ruled + \316\275 x2(u rulings x(w. If the at \320\270 supply a starting value for \316\264 between to select helps possible multiple solutions. b(u)- interpalates all a(v). where 6(\320\270) \320\236 iteration. name RevSurf + say).v) - . W = the curve3 the identities the corners. If the four of them. (\321\213 \316\264) x2(u 6) = ensures on points corresponding are skewed: | which swept I bead/curve2.v) - v) + xj(u) \316\264)] xj(w This developability. RuledSurf translated a x2(0).v) = (I . the BlendSurf blending optional a(v)- \316\275. / bead/curve name DevSurf of curve2. .v) xt(u + \316\264) the tangency condition (scalar triple product). = U(h. connecting = (1 x(u. + + \316\264) [\317\207. BlendSurfname /graph!graph! curve! curve! BlendSurf is a Coons patch formedfrom which nominally join end-to-end in the given The \\(u.396 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis Surface is generated by The Translation a\\ongcurvehx(u. (il + ruling\342\200\224which first 12\342\200\224a suggested xz(\" for solution supports are beads (at il and (!) \316\275 \317\207\316\212(\316\272). they I \316\264 requires and curve2.a) Xi(w)+ a x3( U-(l the curves.

the trailing edge.^\316\222^\316\231\316\243\316\243^\316\275. arcs (see Arc) of the with circular is lofted Surface Are-lofted type. If RelSurfname and first Foil- graph3. type citrvel / relabel name ALoftSurf by offsetting in the normal result is a corners.\316\222^\316\222^. / relabel Foil-lofted = \316\243 \317\207(\316\271\316\271. cnrve2 curve3. .v) weights front a made surface B-Spline with x(J knotlist2 \320\277\321\201\320\270 11 will { point \342\226\240 397 \316\243 \316\243 w.(n) is \"attracted\" to its other mastercurves is attracted to its controlpoints.(v). with by fifth are fourth and along the host the graphs.t x(J \316\222.Relational Entities name NURBSurf v-type knotlistl /u-type The NURBSurfis the nonuniform of control rectangular array rational poinls wtNM j. the [ point2 poim3point4jj . type (curve] FLoftSurfname curves: B-Spline /relabel name surface with . are /surface given ( point for I only the shape) (the is generatedfromthe basesurface direction by a signed variable amount. the third is the leadingedge. pointNM = w.If offsels bilinearly blended.and the second control in sequence. scaling supplied by curvel sweeping optional offset3 offset2 parallelsurface. offset4} 1 is given. the normal offset is offset four } .\316\275) x.j: x(u. curve! curves (see CCurve)that curvel curve2 and thickness SweepSurf curveof bead / bead curve] curve2 is generated (the path). curveNj x|V and and X] curve2 (curve] lofted way a B-Spline curve same the Specified 6. The 1 to / relabel type lofted surface is The B-Spline It interpolates \320\241 Loft The Surf C-lofted pola te all the The is lofted with C-Spline master curvesin type ( is lofted surface curveN j . name The SweepSurf - inter . j sections airfoil standard with curveN or five master curves. There can be three. grciph2 graph] OffsetSurfname /surface( offsetl( The OffsetSurf (see camber.). BLoftSurfname B. four. The Curve).

the result is are corner to pointl. and ring supportsas locus of curveas the graphs arc varied in unisonover the t graphs included as supports arc evaluatedat each in order for any real parameters substituted in curve. is a portion of the hostsurface of the snakes. parameters supporting in p. value / curve kind rings.v) PolySurf rotated of surface. associated with the surface ends in [0.1)] I ul surface! it2 or \320\270 (1 translation parallel j j } .0)] is the concatenation of two interval the - \316\275) [\317\207. which generally has the magnels as as the magnels of Procedural Surface is the locusof poinl unison over their (u. Any i.1]. and/or 5olids = \317\207 class objectisa parametricsolidhyperpatch with a x(u. bead/ring/graphN has the bead Surface is the j .(ii) + \316\275 w2(\302\253). xft(l.1] [0. in the but are a version of MultiSurf in implemented product.398 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational surface is a The Relative corner new Synthesis poinls. second The parameter magnetN }. ProcSurf] name poinl is any ancestors.l)] / /surface name The PolySurf in . to reparamctrized = x w Denote the the surface of by \\p.0) bringing a bilinear displacement is = x(u.1].q space.0)] \316\275 [\317\207*-xft(0.1]. and j which object.v) spaces. copy If only surface the PolySurf. reparameterized each [0.v) = (1 .q them If only two snakes are used.1] \317\207 [0. . supporting I magne(2 kind ProcSurfename curve is any magnet point object.. [0.v) w. Eire The viiricd in parameter beads. The real value u. kind first /point { bead/ring/graphl generally of Procedural .q].(0. interval [0. if Coons blending between them in p.u) (1 - span four and stretched to pointl is given.w) \317\207 nominal are not currently Solids parametric range of [0.v) + (1 it \316\275 [x3- + \320\270 to that specifics where a (!-\302\253) + v) [x2 - - uN surfaceN more surfaces. development An RGSolid .1] [0. the space: w(u . xft(1. to SubSurf is a bilinear analogous The SubSurf theBlendSurf. the (0. If all four corners blend of the corner displacements: xb(u. the SubSurf is a ruling between all four snakes are given.v..1] if-parameter space of name SubSurf + x.1].. of curve ancestors. snake2 ( snakeSsnake4 /{ snake! the given.

.w)xl{u. planes.w) . name RevSolid parallel surface2. XContoursname YContours name ZContours name /first XO /first YO /first last name last Xint last Yint ( surfaces Zint { surfaces ZO The cutting surfacesare planes the X = X8 + \320\263 Xlnl. which volume.v) + w x2(u. type (surfacel surfacel /relabel BLoftSolidname The to / relabel surfacelineangle]angle2. }. cylinders.from is generated ang!e2.. planes CvContours one or more surfacesby cut through of contours implicit surfaces: planes.Relational Entities RGKernel. by revolving surface about line. surfacel . example. for coordinate lasl.\316\275) B{w). . blend of its six supportingsurfaces.. at signed qinl. j .w) - \316\243 \317\207..v). lasl. surfaces parallel to mirror.surfaceo. surface corresponding surface2 and The Solid Revolution to anglel by connecting correspondingpoints on lines: \\{u..v.. surfacel is generated with straight Solid Ruled surfacel methods are highly entities.. hexahedral a topologically surround nominally trilinear is a BlendSolid The graph! graphs /graphl Contours Each Contourobjectisa a family of parallel Contours The distances cutting q set or name /first last qO qint mirror ( surfaces surfaces are implicit qS + i spheres. parallel = firsl. B-Spline lofted BlendSolid name solid surfaceNj. tint ( surfaces j.i -firsl.(\316\272.(1 . \320\263 j surfaces to / curve first last tO the j .. j ..v. / relabel RuledSolid name The construction supported Currently \342\226\240 399 with \320\252 lofted curves: B-Spline x(u..

1J. = with BGraph special .i. fN} is a univariate function specified as a linear with uniform knots. example.400 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis surfaces are planesnormalto curve.v surfaces.1 ] t2 i. . or more graphs. and values. The cutting i =firs( (tint. f.0} . meaning graph * is f(t) \320\224\321\201) /(f) to the entity in which it is used.(\316\257)...1.. an infinite support / pointlpoint!. Plane2name The cannot through normal to the line from pointl and is poin(2 \317\201\316\277'\316\271\316\267\316\262.reparameterized associated parameter with each space of the graph specifies PolyGraph. Graphs function/(i) over the parameterrange [0.1]..tbe default can always be used graph the linear graph to accept some appropriatedefault for behavior. {ti (2 curves reparametcrizing f. order \320\272 lype + 1. and nondecreasing The parameter function before beingusedin the relabel through \316\243/\316\262. Wherever a graph is required. = fit) name Relabel \316\262 basis functions B-Splinc vertices: W type ( fi Graph B-Spline combination of univariate is a object Graph the t or \316\275 is put or surface curve definition. at t- values parameter + tB lasl. point2. but are used to enrich the of other flexibility Graphs * entities. Planes are not magnets and snakes.or a constant = 1 or = the The of default 0. 0. specific A name/ BGraph The the and used for a tN j . . graphN1. are not visible objects. of two concatenation The real value where thai graph ends in the Each defines [0. Planes Plane class object so parameterized. / type The Relabelis . they plane passes implicit plane. name P/\320\260\320\277\320\265\320\227 /point! poinll to . PolyGraph The to is PolyGraph interval the il graph! name/(graphl the [0.

Detailed object is the plane determinedby The P|ane3 name XPIane points.1 is Table design. YPIane name \316\226 Plane the * 401 Example coordinate planes. /Y. The parameter lines (XContours bull is a MCC. as objects definedand outlined All of the surface connections are exactand previously 12.deckalsohas three three B-Spline master MCB. /uilerFrame followed local system. a copy of frame to poinl. each surfaces all have visibility . x. which causes curves MCA.The example hull. used coordinate in the of the plane The Euler Frame by frame constructed in * is the global of point2. name /Z. at the specified X. sailing-yacht The blended surface. deck. Eleven transverse sections the model are also displayed for purposes of the shapes. Frames Frame Each system. EXAMPLE DETAILED the model file for an example modelutilizing a variety of point. or \316\226 positions. representation of the resultingabsolute Figure model.z coordinate orthogonal right-handed /point] pomt2point3. the direction anglel angle2 by translating three through \317\207 axis three points. / point is rotations with its at pointl. surfaces. as points supports. types. and cabin surfaces for a 30-foot comprises 12. mas- . Euler angles. frame its \321\203 axis of location for Frame3 name This is a class object and angteS. is a model example having surface are C-Iolted and cabin_top only the to be displayed. with four absolute 1. and six connected snake and of various surfaces curve. Y. is located name 12.constant \320\270 through stations) visualizing has six surface objects:bull and and cabin afl are ruled cabinside cablnfwd.3 is a wireframe durable.y.6 frame The default FramePoints. planes parallelto the These are three /X. C-lofted deck surfaces.

0.65000 SubSnakenl 14lSx4/*K)r| AbsRingr2 3. cabin for GM example \320\243 0.600 : clofl hull.0O0 -1.50000: : 0.0OO 0.750 3.451 0.220 .900-1.220 .0 . EdgeSnake RelRingrl I 3.000 -0.540 .42600. 0.08 MulIiSurf Units: none 50. // 3x4 deck. II | /n| 0.25500 /r0 3 ( Al deckjieam deck .000 0.SO00.000 AhsPointdeck_mid 141/ 15.700 6.000 BCurve.173 0.760 : AbsPoint C214 1 3.900 : AhsPointA4 14 BCurveMCA jAl A2A3A41: / 15. *2 | 8x4/ AbsPoint CI 14 1/ 30.450. | MCA MCB 0 / * 3 10x3 8x2 MCC]. 14 W 15. * 30.MCBII 1 . Bl B2 \320\222\320\227 B4 ] . / * 2 CI Iransoml 10x1 I [ IiansomO ] : AbsPojnl deck_clr 14 | / 15.000 3.000 -0. | Bl deck_mid j .410 : 2. 0. I J 3.00 10.SO0 BCurve I / 10 lransom_rop 1.0003.000 -1.000 AbsPoinlB4l4l \320\233 5.450 .000 0.440 . .37000 r0 -0.5001.700 BCurve 10 deckjieam deck_clr) .700 AbsPoinlC414 I \320\243 BCurve MCC 111 8x4 / 10 hull CLoftSurf I 0.0(X): AbsPoint transoml 14 29. dm2 12 I / RelMagnet dm3 12 1 / RelMagncI r0 41.410.402 \342\226\240 Relational Geometric Synthesis Example of relational modelfile Table 12. 141 AbsPoinfAl . 0. CLoftSurf deck 7 1 4x3 transomjop / * 2 10x1 10x3 0 / * nO 13 1 1/ AbsRingrOll 11 I 8x4 / * 2 nO 0.5002.0003.1 1.500 1.200 I \316\257 15.0005.8402.03000 .000 AbsPointA214 I \320\233 AbsPoint A3 14 \\ J 2.000 Extents: View: \320\236 3 Places: BeginModel.900 AbsPojnl C3 14 I \320\243 31.840 .0002.700 31.000 0. 0.640 . AbsPoinl liansomt) 14 1/ 29.000 11 I8x4/i2 14 | AbsPoint Bl AbsPojnl B2 AbsPoinlB3l4 3.0000. *2 | CI C2 \320\241\320\227 \320\2414 ] . .000 \342\226\240.0235.00 31.500 0.0006.

rl : dm5 / dm3 rop_fwd RelCurve ( \342\226\240 403 deck RuledSurf topside siaiions 14 I 4x2 top_afl 12 1/0 top_all. cabin_fwd.and the other two are three-vertex curves deck beamand transom.Detailed Example Table 12.1)00 1. T he between bull and deck is B-Spline join exact and durable becausethe C-Splines at the adjoining edges on each surface use therefore the same data points. magnets top_fwd.100: / dm5 -0. 0. fp_side rop_side : RuledSiiifcabiii_aft 11 1 10x1]xl 0 fp_afl CCurve lop. / * 11 I l()x| * . identicalcurves. and are ler curves. CI.000 * | K) | dm3 ] : dm2 dm3 dm4 dm5 1. rop_side rp5 * * . cabin_side.000 0.0. . \316\225 lid Model. fp_fwd rpl rp3 * * 11 I 2()x| / fp_side \320\263\321\200\320\227 . (upper) deck join eachotherexactly because share and common enddurably they The relative curves dm3 and dm5.fwd II I RiiledSurf II I 20x1 c. and a relative curve providing an exact and durablejoin to the deck surface.300 | / r2 0.0000.9492.ibin_side 10x1 1x10/* Ixl 0 / * fp_fwd top_fwd . 0.200 -0.000 2. Bl. -0.1 (Continued) BSnaki: fp_sidt LineSnake 11 | 2()x| 11 fp_afl l| | RelPoinlrpI RelPoint rp3 11 1 11 1 RdPuint rp5 RelPoint rp6 11 | RelPoinr rp7 11 RelCurve -0. Al. namely. Iransom 3 1 8x2 lx| 0/* transomjop MCC.namely. The in three a similar adjoining ruled surfaces to one fashion surfaces.ikc * 2 / / 10x1 1 /1()2.800OOO. 10 1.650. arc the cabinside joins the other two surfaces exactlybecauseitsend rulings \342\226\240 which and lines dm3 \342\226\240 dm5 are identical to end rulings on the \320\263\321\200\320\227 rp5.0001. the first is the single point Al. rop_afr 11 I 10x1 / fp_afl rp5 rpo RelCurve RLiledSiirfcabin. r2 -0. using points \320\263\321\200\320\227 rp5. rl |0xl / * 2 11 | fp_fwd 0.500 / rl 1.800 . because also join each other exactly and durably are they top_side. top_aft and constructed common relative namely.clr 11 | |0xl / *2 | rpl rp7 rp6 / * BlendSurf cabin_lop (lop_hvd XContours hull ] .000 | .300 .800IX) RelMagnel dm4 12 I / RelMagneidm5 121 / BSn. three points.733 cabin_fwd cabinside cabin_afl cabin_lop ] . 5x2 0 / * * lopctr ] . cabin_aft are constructed another: Each usesa snakeon deck as one edge. The three snakes on dependent on that snake as the second edge. j .400. endpoints.0 .

comprising conjoined blended it uses a ecu six rate Jy objects.404 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis Figure 12.3 Example of model of Table t2-t. surface cabm_top joins the The because three surfaces ruled accurately as data. example to coordinate of AbsPoinl Bl. Its fourth side is a three-point C-Spline top_ctr.6 servesas a basis for illustrating the of RG lor constructingparametrically models. cabin__side to deck. \321\203 and Exact relational 1.7 Parametric APPLICATIONS Variations model of Section 12. 2.for example. surface joins are accomplishedin this model by three techniques: transfinjte Two durable cabin_side surfaces to cabinet a common sharing curve as edges. The example the offsetsof relative points. of of alternative coordinates the absolute variety by changing shapes points.the conthey the An incvease . 3t Two identically ruled or lofted surfaceswith curves that share master common endpoints.and and offsets of parameter parameters which alfectsall six surfaces is modification rings and magnets. in the center plane becauseeachof a zero vertices has exactly interpolating its lies which surface coordinate. cabin_side example. top_aft each of them. for example. top_side. \316\257\316\277\317\204 or to to deck cabinlwd. with an wide of its into extremely preservation topology.hull 12. Followingthis change. op. A transfinite surfaceconnectedto a snake embedded in another surface. their upper edge curvestopjwd. model variable This potential can be transformed.

and aerodynamic hydrodynamic electrostaticand electromagnetic problems.5). Because RelRing rl is relativeto rB. Relabeling quadrilateral or triangular panelsalongits parametric of curves and surfaces provides a facility control of mesh size for parametric for a be When surface solution distribution's may accuracy. acoustics. modification is to drag AbsRing r0 to a new position of belongs to an EdgeSnakealong the centerline edge deck. Also.4 Example model following of point coordinate a change in the \321\203 B1. Discretization RG is very well adapted to creatingsurface and discretizations volume Tor both boundary integral and finite-elementanalysis methods. and the several dm magnets are relative to these two rings. and are especially by linear for domains which are unbounded in some directions. the entire cabin structure transports intact to a new locationwhereit continueslo jointhe deck precisely. parametric respect methods are widely used for problems Boundary integral (panel) governed field equations and boundary conditions. The panels of consists representation tessellating the an assemblage exposed of small discretized flows. itissimple to partition it into When a surface patchis completely exposed.as in the visible points data of the preceding components of handles are examples. Discretizations can be constructed invariant with in such a way that they are topological^ to of the variations underlying geometry. r8 of the cabin. dragged to changethe length The parametric handles tend lo be the floating-point that various kinds of points. rl can be (see Figure 12.\342\226\240 405 Applications ncctivity A and relative the absolute as preserved further example positioning of the several surfacesis automatically model is updated (see Figure12.Thishas the advantage most which can be selected and dragged.4). . mesh lines. and geometric triangular or quadrilateral surfaces. required patch Figure 12.for advantageous irrotational example.

blade is aBLoftexplicitly portion (Vs) Surf with seven master curves: a snake on the shaft plus six FoilSnakes lying on concentric cylinders.Useof common a SubSurf entity quadrilateral curves edge mesh or snakes that for surface and SubSurfconstructiontypically exact conforming joins provides between the panels on adjoiningsurfaces.5 Example model followinga changein the t parameter of ring r0.6 for Pa nelized model potential flow of a analysis. is partially covered by provides a way one adheres to the or more the exposed to panelize other patches.406 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis Figure 12. 12. the portion with underlying surface.6 a propeller model panelized for potential flow analysis.A Fillet surface blends between a snake on the blade Figure propeller 12. shows Figure The model has five-fold global symmetry. so only one and a helical blade of mode T he the shaft and hub arc led. .

Simulation 8. course 6. SubSurfs variations in Many rake. were of the 1995 America's Cup. Tor example. equations.000hull and variations appendage simulated and evaluated in a systematicsearchfor the optimum competitive The ability to discretizations invariant configuration. for the entire race series. the to rather than simulate any particular subsystem design completesystem.the complete four Fi|let. The discretized representationconsists heat conduction. Over 2.and on the shaft/hub complete the panellation. possible of the panelization the being completely conserved. for the series is of course the single objective for . of New Zealand's AC class sailingyacht Black winner development Magic. ofa partition of the problem domain into subdomains (finite elements). designs in the Model Program). yielding fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Equilibrium Prediction and Program wind Race 7. and camber are with chord. for coefficients yielding moments. pitch. sail allowable speeds wind speeds. In this casethe simulationconsisted of geometric 1. Parametric solids are easily typically into hexahedra] cells along parametric mesh surfaces. tetrahedral or hcxahedral divided cells. topology used for problems governed by Finite elementmethods are widely nonlinear field or in bounded domains. of Generation model parameters. distributions thickness. One SubSurfon the blade. yielding speeds predicted wind win/loss probabilitiesfor pairs Simulation oi scoring system probability areas. yielding (Race of yacbts. it is in yacht important Asinany simulation-based optimal designprocess. and stress analysis.a conforming hcxahedralcell can be further divided into five tctrahedra. speeds. yielding win/loss scries. viscousflows. yielding elapsed timesversus of two-yacht races versus othercandidate of distribution for the The win probability optimization.Applications 407 \342\226\240 shaft. 4. Computational 3. Choice 2. skew. performance analysis for the completeyacht (Velocity for different headings [VPp]). and traversal. of the following steps: (Oliver [1987]). Simulation hydrodynamic 5. drag. predicted lift. Optimal on the one and Design generate parametricallyvariable modelswith topologically opens the way to automated ana lysis and of One the most advanced applications of RG to date was the optimization cycles. discretized model. of AC classrule measurement.

arbitrary motions. builders. bending alone. that metal construction of such large complex airplanes requires high precision in metal Fabrication is greatly simplified when the flat sheet material is. dependent are surfaces example Compound of this developable. taking the America's Cup away of the event. rather degree that can MultiSurf provides several surfaceentities construct cylinders and cones. capability. top-level intense technical eight countries. plus the DevSurf that entity generates explicitly developable two supporting curves. they can be formedfrom by than with of in-plane any stretching.The programmed with outvariations to produce the swimming action. constructionof nondevelopable (compound-curved) can benefit from the structures features and greatly modeling precisionof RG.like control programs course.S. sweeping a spine snakeon the hodyalonga two are handles path.8is an magnets. Figure12. won She 35 out of 36 sides.7 shows a relational shark model which is able Figure offsets of two control the first (half-cycle) and RelPoints) parameters (y modes of the spine curve. and contours intact. to \"swim. The integration of physics unrealistic powerful of parametric a number with the handles versus time.408 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational In a Synthesis yacht designers. eliminationraces. animated them to deform in basis for creating cause which a potentially may and produce physiology unphysical with a or relational models to produce realisticanimationswould be an interesting fruitful very topic.with these methods their snakes. development on all was a Black success. Of robot. The body second is a SweepSurf (full-cycle) shape as Eachof the the five fins is a also using path.\" Two 12. Developable surfaces made by any of surfaces spanning can be accurately flattened (developed)onto the plane. SweepSurf. swept from the United States for only defender. Magic spectacular the final contest with and 5 decisive victories over the U. the second time in the 144-year history competition the involving and sailors from world's and Animation Relational models mechanically realistic parameters having are ways be controlled can it handles. . Plate Layout shell Similarly. is developed by programming a model Once scenes. sinusoidal of-phase geometry and possibly DevelopableSurfaces shell as structures cutting and or riveted welded efficient The forming ships and processes.

12. a single fair surface surface of a vessel. . geometry which for flat compounding (Letcher [1993b]).9 shows an exampleof this application. The three-dimensional of each SubSurf simulates the auxiliary program forming process in reverse.Applications 12. yielding a flattened outline accurate of the blank from material. is designed for the complete(nondevelopable) hull Snakes are used to representweld seams surface the dividing up into 12 Figure plates.7 Figure A relational potentialof RG \342\226\240 409 shark model for demonstrating for animation studies. plus cutting which can of tools strain the maps guide application assembly. First.eachof will which be individual ly formed from a flat blank by some Each is covered with a Subcompounding process before plate is exported to an Surf.

and buttocks marked.B (a) MultiSurf developable surface with model for panels. waterlines. .410 \342\226\240 Relational Geometric Synthesis lb] Figure 12. (b) MSDEV positions of stations. hard-chine expanded sailboat panels for made up of 9 hard-chine sailboat.

8 Logical OPEN ISSUESIN RELATIONAL GEOMETRY Completeness the number of years of developmentof RG (1991to 1992). a long list of entities grew rapidly. as surfaces communicate must in the NURBS. of accuracy.9 Subdivision Figure in Relational Issues \342\226\240 411 Geometry of compound-curvedsurfaceinto individual for expansion plates and fabrication. description geometry generating could well come into use the fundamental standard for toolgeometry NURBS transmitted IGES files are path generation.10shows This is a CNC marine part derived fro ma MultiSurf model. through the most commonform of part description.The part is a custom for a production item (a bow chock) designed by Peter Smith hardware Co. RG surfaces NURBS-based CAM be exported machining paths. Figure 12. Maine. power yacht built by the Hinckley machined 12. mesh. and there was always implemented During the first entities . Southwest Harbor.Open 12. CNC Machining of a precise Numerical-controlled requires sculptured parts of for In the RG the tool future. form of Sincemost RG in most done by surfaces cases approximation least-squares fitting are in fact not exactly is required.. In order to with and other applications. to a tabulated with some representable loss by NURBS.Today.

Model for NC milling Rendering made Hydro).This is addressed by the trend to modularity in programming problems model digraph the to structure of objects is potentially .about 100in number.). much difficult more than linearly) more to comprehend.that came to few our is.412 Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis Chock designed in Figure 12. modeling problems which attention be accomplished could not with some combination of the available entities.Although we also have a sense that somelevelof logical entities waiting. similar complex and hard to visualize. growth in entity every useful construction. of existingspecialized we still have a list of proposed entities.10 Co. Modularity in Relational Models The number (evidently. may completeness not be far away. of having the bases covered. in MultiSurf with POV-Ray by by inclusion.Sometimesit appearedthat population be exponential if we implemented Dickson George Ed Stanley clamoring for might Smith (The Hinckley by Peter dimensions two made the (Aero- (AeroHydro). the procedural entities covered a wholesetofoutstanding and could obviate a fair number problems.In the growth became much slower as we seemed a state later to approach years. In particular.As models become progressively relational increases.

of . a LISP. implemented version of RGKernel.Issues Open Relational in \302\253413 Geometry appear very beneficial to be able to encapsulate groups into modules.We have the dependency and represented of numeric of objects tentatively maintained variables. it should be expressions possible to add a quite and solution This has not been capability. Besidesa set as sine and cosine. point2) would beuseful. in the locations in different repeated by identical. attractive and Functions Expressions. the model that would representation encapsulate the constructionof oneor more and be called with objects. such Currently.000. objects well-defined interfaces to other modules. well a constants. but typical With of constraint-based numeric general explored. can be of an object on oneor more numeric variables within the usual dependency relation. have data fields filled by in not hard to see potential (floating-point) advantage be these fields to filled with numeric variables or as allowing expressions. as /expression. of of w ith minor variations. Float By adding entity Many entities.000-object level of complexityin the 1. C. duplication groups objects. definitely not all.The spars and sails of come to mind as a practicalexample. alternative. varying parameters. Subroutines models are Many constructions characterized having sometimes similar. seems to offer a useful a square-rigged ship constructions require and highly Variables. some numeric-valued functions such functions such as Distance( pointl. current product Constraint expressions. mode I. or Basic program that often. related of much 2. Equations RG accomplishes some. constraint variables and equation the parametric capabilities its modeling through geometric constructions. and functions in a development but user-interface issues preventedinclusion in the release.particularly name Float the in real It is numbers. point class.The representation and a new layer of structure appearspractically manipulation of such essential to moving It would languages. wc construct such models by writing The concept of a subroutine or procedurein generatesa modelfile fragment. using local intermediateobjectsand limited.to beyond relational models.

that can be surface this entity is subclassedfrom RGObjectinsteadof RGSurface. MultiSurfservesas a relational. name surface fitting other is the portion of the host surfaceofmagnet without crossing any of the snakes. and can support other is performed. This would greatly enrich the capability of solidmodelers . comprising models. It may also be advantageous to implement a classof implicit(nonparasurface the typical solid-modeling primitives. solid modeling should benefit from adopting the RG and native approachto surfacemodeling providing support for a significant set of RG entities.414 B-Rep Geometric \342\226\240 Relational Synthesis Solid Modeling The predominantmethodof solidmodeling today is a boundary topology combined with description of of trimmed faces. parts. to surface. Our current. will start at type+1 and be increased as to meet specified necessary on the of fit the control tolerance. On export. The fitted surface points used are available by interrogating The B-Spline can object be viewed. operating this approach be the of mechanical successful in to appears design quite to incorporate free-form. are two new entities: Boolean approach BFitSurfname /u-type nit Desirableadditionsto \316\275-type \316\267 \316\275 tolerance this facilitate surface. proceeds Modeling by Boo lean operations and analogsof primarily While on instances of a small set of primitive solids.so entities metrie) comprising thesecan be constructed in a relational fashion and positionedand viewed in MultiSurf before being exported to the solidmodeler. of course.no further TrimmedSurf The trimmed reached (unlike surface. geometries complex surfaces are a These as NURBS to solid modelerwhere. to and accuracy they can be united into shells subjected operations and so forth. machining operations. Statistics and number of specified quality the BFitSurf. geometry typically portions parametric or implicitsurfaces. / magnet ( snakesj. B-Spline types u-type v-type respectively. fitted surface is a least-squaresapproximation using \320\270 and \316\275 The and for the directions. In the longer range. nv for each direction can be specified.provided exported the is high enough. short-term approach to connectionwith solid b-rep modeling is via NURBS approximation. or if the as 0. it has not shown muchability sculptured solid in surfaces of edge-face a representation. interactive front end in which can be and surface modeled varied. number of control points nit.Since a SubSurf) does not possessa regular parametric the trimmed domain. like any geometry.

CNC . We propose quantitative elements of a CAD model. from approximation-based CONCLUSIONS Relational encouragesthe captureof the geometric a design is synthesis geometric and qualitative program.With effort as is required to createa framework beyond engineering being developed surface modeling. served topological geometric of freedomfor parametric geometry. RGS allows the creation and flexibility and accuracy far modeling.9 that free-form with arise solve many of the precision NURBS modeling. static and variation providing roughly that permits CAD of a relational model having many eoncombined with many degrees properties. and design animation arc and between amount of relationships the same in a conventional \"dead\" refinement\342\200\224\"live\" versus RGS as a new standardframeworkfor Promisingconnectionsto solid manufacturing. methods. NURBS-restrieted analysis. and explored.\342\226\240 415 Conclusions to deal problems 12. single. would and surfaces.

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lowercase letters. representing displacements in the the axes.uP\342\200\236Pz directions. basis vectorsneednot be mutually are vector \320\261\320\260\321\210 vectors orthogonal (see nor Figure of unit A.y. A vector with zero magnitudeis a null vector.2) alternatively.\320\272 where the i.l). A free vector is not necessarily with in any space. form is (A. (A. and we denote it by 0 We (no directionis The traditional for defined it).l) = is \316\241 \316\241 \316\241 \\\316\241\317\207 \321\203 \320\263] or.z x. and visualizethem as a directed arrows. components equivalent magnitude. line boldface. a vector is an ordered set of numbersfrom the vectors with or segments. x.y. j. 417 . where i.Equation (A. while \316\206 position point vector or radius vector has its initial point fixedat the origin so that its are to the coordinates of a point. components \320\272 oeeur associated In matrixform.k In general.l) \321\200=\321\200\320\220+\320\2404+\321\200. we which derive denote properties of direction and magnitude or length.j. The are mutually orthogonal unit p.A APPENDIX VECTORS In this text.z along respectively.

now matrix the superscript tensor form. or 3) on \317\207 where e. = \317\207 X \320\273'\320\265.6) . (A. as point coordinates. 2.where (\316\221. interpret In we o-mit form. (A.3) A To simplify the matrix P= is particularly This the component the i.I Traditional vectorform. or \321\203 z.5) or simply \317\207 re.4) we elements.418 A \342\226\240 Appendix P= p.j. identifies the (/= I. respectively. 4 J \316\241 [' (\316\221.so that [-r \320\243 \316\266] appropriate for the \316\277\316\271 position or radius vector.k. is the correspondingbasisvector. Figure A. the components. as x.

vector p ~[px pz] />v is the real Ipl. Vector Magnitude The or norm) lengih (also magnitude numher It is is. Gibbs form of vector century. aK .bs.Vectors \302\253419 The in tensor used equal. Fixed vectors radius or (or respective end pointscoincide. Multiplying a vector by a scalaF its magnitude. are vectors Free - ay az - by.Thus. cos a vector cos \316\262. \320\272 The \321\207 magnitude is. the present analysis. R. Ipl = 0. is given \316\263 (see Figure by its directioncosines(or direction A. where = Ipl that of a always the case that = 0 \317\201 [0 Ipl (A. changes Thus = kp-_\\ \320\272\321\200 [\320\272\321\200\321\217 kpt (A. magnitude transformations. 10) . and if and equal and only then bz. H.W. if their only made to coincideby a translation. Furthermore. if their respective components are a = b. of a vector is invariant under rigid-body is independent of direction. This is the Einstein index i indicates of the repetition convention can be if they mid-nineteenth the in analysis (1839-1903) made important to contributions and J. Grassman(1809-1877) and the developed (1805-1865) equal Hamilton of vector foundations analysis- and bare equalif Two vectors a summation.8) \\kp\\^kVpi+pj+pi fK and = If that Alpl of \317\201 is reversed. 0].7) Vp2+p2y+pl > 0. the null vector. positionvectors)are if W. Vector Direction The numbers): direction cos of a. if and only = if \317\201 0. cos a P* = \342\200\224 Ipl cosp--^- (A. the direction < 0.2).

then \317\201 denotes the direction of a vector in is vectorp having a \317\201 convention notation vector.420 A \342\226\240 Appendix A. is useful: If \317\201 is any vector.2 Vector Figure Since Ipl = + vpx+pl p\\. direction Unit Vector The its following unit magnitude equal to one. direction.\320\246) to the determine of a vector.\" so that cos2 that means This any two \316\261 + cos2 \316\262cos2 + 1 \316\263= direction cosines are sufficient (\320\220. then \316\241\316\233\\(\302\243\316\224\\(\316\241. The unit Ipl = Litis given by m\302\243 This means that (a\302\26712) .

\320\227\320\260) \317\201 Q The pz]andq-[qx pv \317\201 [px = that vector interpretation iPy + a + ip. their sum is the \320\220. 10) and substitutingappropriately produces Using Equation . \316\241\317\207 \342\226\240 421 \320\240\320\263 \320\240\321\203=\302\245' \320\240\320\263~\302\245 \317\201'\316\262\317\212\316\257' and |\317\201|= \\/# = +\317\201)+\317\201\\ \\ Obviously pl+Pi+pi-1 (A. is:To add two or more vectors(drawn of each succeedingvectorto the head of the preceding as \321\201 + b. components space in that of vectors set the space asa linear the general. The unit vectors i.cos \316\263 px that demonstrates This of a the components unit are vector also its direction cosines.Ifd means graphic the tail qy gj.) - (P( <7v) then \321\201 it is (A.j = [0 1 0]. - Pv . Basis vectors In a vector e. is a basis if can express every vector vectors and iftheerare In three-dimensional Cartesian vector space any three linearly independent. 14) -<?. arrows).andk= [0 linearly 1] of a vector depend on the basischosen. VectorAddition vector vectors two Given Figure (sec = + difference Order This A join of two - + qx) [(\317\201* vectors p-q=[(Pxis not important.and. \320\272 are 0 basis because i = [1 0 0]. one. form such a linearly independentvectorsform a basis. The .in The independent.3b) is (sec qx) (Pz + qj] 4.13) Figure A.Vectors . change components if the we basis the of combination basis changes.)) also true that d =a+ addition is commutative. j.cos \316\261 pt = cos \316\262 pz . b + (A.

3 Vector Figure resultant vectoris representedby the head of the last.422 A \342\226\240 Appendix A. \320\272 produce i-i=j-j=k-k =l i-j=j-k=k-i =0 the The various following: (\320\220. are perpendicular.17) p-q=p>q% where is \316\264.* the delta. and Kwnecker if j~k if j*k r\\ = \316\264.If \317\201qthey scalar products ofthe basisvectors and i.j. \316\241 (A.15) +p>>qy +Pt4z \342\226\240 \342\226\240 If \317\201 q. the tail arrowfrom of the first vector to Scalar Product The scalar product productsof their (or inner of two vectors \317\201 and product) q is the sum of the components: corresponding \342\226\240 Q =Pxq. an addition.20) . lplz.16) i-k-j-Uk-j-O The scalar product written is tensornotation in (A.1 0 The angle \316\270 between two vectors and \317\201 (A. then \317\201\317\201 \317\213.18) q satisfies \342\226\240 q= \317\201 Ipllql cosB so the following equation: (A.19) that -cos-'-P-^lpllql (A.

of the The expansion (P.Sin (A.p*qz) P-Sh) \317\201 q also determinant following \317\207= 0. this will point angular in the direction of the vector \320\263 the fingers of your q.4).21) pxq-r where \320\263 [iP. {p*qt. they Vector Product The vector vectors of two product and \317\201 q is vector r: another (A.23) of the vectorproduct: \316\270 that 1 . Furthermore.4z- Itis \317\207\317\201\317\201 that show to easy parallel.PA')] if 0. \317\201. intuitive sense of rotating into \317\201 an Think direction. 4x 4i \320\247\320\263 \320\272 a by-product sin -Ipllql (\316\221.q* . .22) q are and \317\201 the vector product: q- px The angle q is and \316\270 between \317\201 Ip so xql ' J Px p.24) Ipllql The right-hand rule gives resulting from right hand in hand pxq. direction of pxq Figure A. curling Then the extended thumb of your right r (sec Figure A.Vectors .4 Vector = of the r product.423 The scalar of product in which of the coordinatesystem is independent vectors two are expressed. then produces (A.

(. ry P. 4z \320\223.5 Area o\"f odd of permutation other a triangle in vector form. .The area product of the is useful in ABC triangle =k xk^O area the finding ol a triangle (see Figure is \320\220\320\263\320\265\320\260\320\224\320\233\320\222\320\241^-1\320\260\321\205\320\253 2 Triple (A.j.26) Product The triple \342\226\240 scalar product \317\201 r given qx of terms in a determinant is \320\257.5).^ where even ~ Si* if Figure i.424 A \342\226\240 Appendix Vector products of the i.k basisvectorsproduce ixj^k jxk-i (A.3.2.28) \317\201\302\2679\316\247\316\223^\316\276. \320\252 \316\241\317\207 pqxr it is and An easy to alternative Pr \320\257. 1.25) kxUj ixi = jxj vector The A.k is an A. form tensor is (A. (A.27) show that p-qxr-pxq-r.

then the linesthrough \302\273q Figure A.kt.6) (see Figure ' - q is Ipl cos (A.33) utt then (A\302\26734) p(\=pa") + \"(pi-po) Equation (A.34) defines a line segmentfrom p0 to p.9).32) + Utx + (A. VectorProjection scalar The s of projection q is onto \317\201 s ~P The vector of \316\275 projection \" TT \\\\q\\ onto \317\201 A. z(u)=z0 if (see Figure t is \320\270 e [0.Vectors The vector product triple yields = (p-r)q-(p-q)r px(qxr) the where of result \342\226\240 425 the plane of lies in \317\201 x(qxr) (A. + ut form is alternative where to vector form. X(l<) An parallel A.8) p(u)=p0 or.7) (A. and p\302\273 point + ws and s .1].31) Vector of Equation The vector Figure (see a Line equation of a line p(u) through in component -Xi. .30) \316\270 (see Figure A. If q(iv) = qt. A. (A. p0 and are q\302\273 parallel.29) q and r.6 Scalar projection.

426 \342\226\240 Appendix A *-q Vector projection.-Pol .P|u| Figure A. Figure A. Pi ^IP.9 Vector equation of a line segment.7 Figure A.B Vector equation of a line. .

vectors and is \316\231 independent (see Figure 0) = p(f/. .35) \320\270.w) with the condition s \317\210 kt. In + lis p\342\200\236 - ya + \321\203 unit normal \316\256 to the plane is the is + (A.p2 points to two (A. unit normal for are also (A.w) The p0..36) + wtz vector product ft-Sxi Thrcenoncollincar plane(see Figure A.p.Vectors \342\226\240 427 Vector of a Equation Plane The vector equation of a plane\317\201(\316\220\316\257.39) !(\316\241\316\271 -\316\241\316\277)\317\207(\316\2412-\316\241\316\271)\316\231 Figure A.\316\271\316\275) through p0 and s t \316\221. + Us.10 Vector equation of a plane.38) is (P)-Pfl)x(p2-Pi) (A.37) sufficient to uniquely definea 11).\321\207\321\203 wt.pi) (A. p(u. Thus. \316\266-\316\226\316\261 The + wt form this component parallel this = p0 + ff(pi formulation po) + w(p2 .

12 + dyy + Vector dzz .12). (A.428 A \342\226\240 Appendix Figure Vector Equation of a One way point A such on the \317\201 a plane is d is plane points.41) .40) (p-d)-<U0 Expanding this produces equation (x - ds)ds +iy- dy)dy + (z- d7)dz = 0 or dtx Figure A. Form Normal that noncolljnear three containing plane Plane: to define point on it any A.11 by to the perpendicular must satisfy d from a vector specifying the origin to a Then plane (see FigureA.(d\\ + d] + equation of a d\\) = \320\236 plane: normalform. (\320\220.

then and b yields similar (c Summary by \342\226\240 (b \317\207 c) (d + te) c) (b this t produces (b Continuing + Iez \317\207 \342\226\240 d + (b c) + tey follows: wc) - ub + (a dy and u.4l reduces Equation cos cos a.Vectors \342\226\240 42 9 - d1 Because + d\\ dj A. p (fb \317\207 \342\226\240 a (c of Vector isolating c. *(/p) - kip . \316\261 cos djd. c) is perpendicularto both (b Solving for + tex -dz \317\207 as \321\201) \342\226\240 + (bxc) - y + wcy dx /.d+ fe of three linear form these component equations it. (b d (b \317\207 \342\226\240 a e) \317\207 \342\226\240 \321\201 e) Properties + q^q each \317\207 \342\226\240 e (b 1. cos \316\262. cosines direction the -0 . cos = then \316\263 djd.d 7 Solution of VectorEquations The vector equations lib + wc a + equation in unknowns: three . In are as + wcx = + ubs \320\260 + ub \321\203 az + lib. to isolate i. and t. we apply We use (b x Because this equation \317\207 \342\226\240 a = for t method (b - c) +p + r) + \317\201 (q 3.cos \316\261 + \321\203 cos are \316\263 + cos \316\262\316\266 (A 42) of d. + wc7 their vectorformto solve (b example. For . then w: in turn. q. w.(p + q) \317\207 \342\226\240 e c) + r c) and expressions for \320\270 d e) \317\207 \317\207 \342\226\240 d c) - \342\226\240 \317\207 (c \317\207 \342\226\240 a e) \317\207 \342\226\240 b e) - \342\226\240 e) and Given vectors p. a system represents w. = and \316\262 djd. to \317\207 cos where - + d2?. r and scalars\320\272 2.

(\320\272\321\200) 17. pp-lplz kp + - kp + /p kq 7. 9. \321\200\321\205\320\263^-(\320\263\321\205\321\200) px(q + r)=pxq 16. to both and \317\201 q. \320\263 is perpendicular \320\272 x \320\263 \321\200\321\205 \317\201. \320\247\321\203 14. \317\204\317\201 cos Ipllrl = \342\226\240 + q) (\320\263 \317\201 (kp)-r^p-(kr)=k(p-r) 11. If \317\201 q \317\207 = they r. . \317\207^\320\263 0 \317\201\317\201 + pxr \317\207 \320\263 \317\207 \317\207 \320\263) \317\201 (\320\272\320\263) \320\272(\321\200 = \320\263 \321\200\321\2050. p-rrr-p 8. 15. = + Op (\320\272 5. 10. k(p + q) 6. \316\270 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \320\263 + \317\201 q \317\201 j - are perpendicular. \317\201 12. then ' 13. If \342\226\240 r-0.430 A \342\226\240 Appendix 4. they are parallel. If 18. \317\201\316\266 \317\201 \320\247\321\205 \320\257\320\263.

value nonzero is the means that A = \320\222 if /th the in is of largest \"23 \"21 a33 aiA row and /th column. and it governs operations was the mathematician Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) who developed English A matrix and refined is a the algebra of matrices. A [1 : m] and / e whose determinanthas a rank of the matrix. a21 \"21 \320\26431 a31 where aif is element matrix the The number of rows m rows of matrix [1: n]. A and matrices Two and of order The and alA an an \302\253\320\270 A^ elements mathematical \320\222 are - if corresponding equal \320\260\321\206 b.APPENDIX \320\222 MATRICES A is a matrix in m arranged rectangular array of numbersor other For example: rows and \316\267 columns. if \316\267 called vectors. square matrix if m = n.and a column = 1. matrix Single row or column matrices are often Matrices have a unique algebra that on them. Then square submatrix / e of a matrix. the order determines columns \316\267 columns the order m \317\207 \320\277. 431 . elements are equal. This /.j for all i. a row matrixtfm= 1.

is one whose elements are all zero. MatrixTranspose (he Interchanging For example. is a matrix diagonal fljj the diagonal then elements unit the on matrix is a scalar is a main diagonal matrix: 0 0 1 \"1 0 =% 0 1 0 0 delta. A or identity 0 0 0 0 has that 0 0 0 \321\217\321\202\320\260 0 the \320\264\320\263\320\263 are equal. so thai atj . I 0_ ati = 0. A= \"5 3 \316\212 3 1 4 about the main diagonal 4 -2_ or skew symmetricif \321\211 -a)V For example. 1 A matrix square is antisymmetric 0 -9 0 A= 9 -1 3 where = implies \321\211 ~\316\261\316\274 A null matrix. For example.ey/. matrix diagonal matrix unit */. . again.y is the Kronecker A square matrix whoseelementsare symmetrical is a symmetricmatrix. rows and of a columns 3 A^ 0 3 then matrix A if 1 2 -1 -2 0 4 produces its iranspose A'. For example. where. If all 0 0 \320\2607\320\263 0 = A Thus.432 Special \342\226\240 Appendix \320\222 Matrices A (he on except 0 \"\320\237 = 0 if / matrix.flfj has zero elementseverywhere square matrix that main diagonal. (hat denoted -3\" by 0.6.

and PM (where \316\234postmultiplies R \316\250 for the S. matrices All \342\226\240 433 is a its transpose symmetric matrix. A premultiplies \320\222 postmultiplies S = Given and matrices \316\241 M. with R .Matrices 0-3 3 A'- 0 -1 t 4 2-2 The productof any matrix and (AAT)r=AAT.MP (where \316\234 premultiplies P).in terms of the matrix elements. k\\ = B.r \320\222 must as the order same the The differenceof two are elements - A Thus equal the same of \320\241 whose ate elements + B= C. B.. il'and if the to the number of rows of B. conformable: A.\317\212c. d. two matrices A and \320\222 produces number of columns of A is equal a third matrix C. = or \320\273\320\263. \320\241 and \320\222 then is m xp. A A and order. \320\222 and the resulting Scalar and sum of the corresponding elements equal to the \320\222 of = ka. - \320\222 [\317\207\321\203\316\266].1) of their elements is . In this example. except P).that not just square ones.or. then in general Multiplying identity matrix. be of the same order. then /\342\226\240_ \320\222 Matrix Addition lwo matrices A Adding or of A and + \316\261. Thus. \316\260. must b. Multiplying order same Matrix produces be of matrix a third \320\222 of corresponding elements of A and B.r Again. Thus. in only x A and \320\222 \316\267 \320\222 is \317\200 case are If A is of order m \317\207 and which \317\201. A and \320\222 matrix is of the same order as the originalmatricesto the = D.r Multiplication = C. have a transpose. AB where = \316\231\316\221 \316\221\316\231 The product of two matrices defined in terms (\316\222.Thus. and the resultingmatrixis original matrices. matrices A and \320\222 is matrix another D whose difference Multiplication a matrix A by a scalar constant\320\272 a new matrix produces as A. if is.t the b.

2 + \320\220\320\263\320\267\320\222\320\260 . AB = are zero.2J \320\254\321\212\320\263 \321\214\321\217 \320\254\320\273 AB \342\226\240+ + \316\22112\316\22221 + Al2B22 \316\221.. \316\222 bu \320\254\320\277 \320\254\320\270 b2i \320\254-22\321\21423 bu \320\254\320\277 \320\254\321\205\320\222?| \320\23022 \320\222.. are conformable \320\222 23 conformable.434 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\222 \320\260>\320\272\320\254\320\272 \321\201\321\207=\316\243 where of A and thenumberof rows of columns number \320\273 is cqualtothe possible to construct matricesA A zero \317\213. or null matrix is one for which II is (\320\222. and M22).then A2I the example. It \321\201- where have necessarily \320\220\321\206 \320\220\320\277 \320\22013 A2i and C=A for have the same numberof rows B. \320\222]2 = \320\252* \321\214# \320\254\320\220\\ LB3i B.The before and after partitioning.B. and Mn and where similarly number of columns similarly (and A = + M21 must \320\234]2and matrices must Al.\316\271 \320\220\321\206\320\222\320\273 \320\220\320\237\320\22212 + \\ZZR2..\316\221\316\226(\316\222(( + AaB3J + \316\221\316\267\316\22232\" + \320\220\320\260\320\222\320\267\320\263 A. matrices. but of B. Matrices Partitioned It is often computationallyconvenient and to treat it a matrix into submatrices are themselves these submatrices.2) and \320\222 such all elements that \316\221 \316\222 \317\210 \317\210 \316\237. and an be (and the same if \316\2122 \"13 \320\222 B27 12\"23 Bnl B.\316\271\316\222.. of partitioned for multiplication flu au a\342\200\236 = + Bi3 A22 + B22 \316\221^+ of the multiplication example A + B2I Bl2 Au \302\2532i \302\25322 \"2j nlA \321\21715 \321\2172\320\220 \320\2602\321\212 \320\220\321\206 \316\22112 \316\221\316\267 \320\224\320\2674 \321\2173| \320\260\321\2121 \320\260\321\212\321\212 \320\260\321\212\321\212 '21 '22 \320\247\320\267 \"\316\256 \"\316\2125 \"\342\226\24011 \"\316\2122^\320\220\321\202. . b. 0. to partition elements whose a matrix as Thus \320\274\342\200\236 \320\2741\320\263 = M \316\234 22 M71 M/f and M(Z must necessarily for M2.b12b A22 A23 + \320\222\321\206 + \320\220\321\206 Ai2 Hereis For M22).

6) [PiP2P3] of components then a matrix the following antisymmetric and the vector product of \317\201 form to \317\201 represents multiplication 0 Pj -p3 Pi 0 -p. the indicatedsumscompletesthis and . \320\220\320\274\320\222\321\206. ~Pi Pi matrix. \316\227\316\223'\316\212\316\221.5) where PQT Using the = = \316\241\316\2714\316\273+\316\241\316\2714\316\271+\316\241\316\2574\316\271 (B..then and \317\201 product of the q where = \316\241 [pi pi vectors is p-q = PQr (B. p3]. and 0 pxq = Pi \320\247\\ -\320\240\321\212 \321\200\320\263 \320\270 -\316\241\\ '\320\240\320\263 \316\241.4) \321\211-=\316\231\316\221 I the determinant of IA.. then IAI the (n . Inversion of a square matrix A The inverse is and its matrix A\"1. q: \302\260 .1) x (n A (note i from column - derived 1) matrix the subscript order on *0.i denotes where from A by deleting row / and If A\"1 A.3) where <?ry. \320\270 \320\247\320\263 \320\257\320\272 (\320\222.. Ai2B2i.). so forth. Scalar and exists. Vector Products and If row matrices\316\241 = Q q2 [q.7) .'\316\231 (B. A inverse satisfy the conditions AA\"1 = The elementsof are A\"1 A-'A = I (B.435 Matrices the products Determining Matrix ..and Q the vectors represent scalar the <?3]. and performing computation.

and is collinearvector.9) and \316\231\316\221-\316\273\316\231\316\231=0 of Matrix Summary 1. (A + BC = \316\221(\316\273\316\222)=\316\273\316\221\316\222 (*\316\221)\316\222 + \320\222)\320\223=\320\220\320\223 + \320\222\320\223 (\320\220 = kAT (kA)T 12. 9. (AB)T 13. and A is the transformationmatrix. 11. A is nonsingular. A of A. 8) \316\273\317\201 of A. Determinants A determinant following isa squarearray a well-defined of procedure. its solutionsare eigenvalues Properties B = + equation? and characteristic is the This (\316\222. elements that Determinants reduces to a single value by facilitate many vector and . then A_1A = I.10) B) = (kl)A k(!A) + \320\241 \320\222) +/A = l(kA) 6. (AB)C=A(BC) 7. If AAr= I. A + (B + = (A + jfcA + kB C) = 3. and \316\273 is true is an eigenvector is the to A an Matrix sends eigenvector into a corresponding p. (A +/)A = AA 5. B+A 2.436 \342\226\240 \320\222 Appendix and Eigenvalues Eigenvectors p' = Ap The expression where transformed point it is possible to is the p' conditions certain (he represents transformation general of a point p. AB+AC + B)C = AC If AA\"1 = B7A7' = I and 14. magnitudes Every vector eigenvalue of for which this A Equation (B.Under = find a scalar X such that \317\201' or \316\273\317\201 Ap = (\316\222. then 15.8)is equivalent to (\316\221-\316\273\316\231)\317\201=0 This solutions if \317\201 *0 has non trivial equation (\316\222. the corresponding eigenvalue equal to the ratio of the of the two collinear vectors. then A is singular. A is orthogonal. A(B+ C) = 8. jfc(A + 4. If IA| = 0. IB.

If \302\25311 \302\25312 A^ <721 \302\25322 then |A| = flu \302\25312 = <7ll<722-\302\253l2ib fl22 If \302\25311 Ol2 A = fl2l <722 <73l \320\25732 then IA1 = The \321\201\320\276 factor \302\25312 \302\253\320\270 \302\253:: \302\253\320\270 \302\253\316\220\316\220 \302\253\320\270 + \320\260\320\277 \316\262\316\271. However. any two \320\222 by then |BI = clAI.Matrices \342\226\240 437 matrix a matrix must be squareto have matrix is associatedwith a determinant. Properties determinant of a squarematrix 1. to another row (or column) IBI A. every square not and a determinant. rows (or rows (or columns) multiplying columns) of A one are of row (or the sign A changes column) of A identical. a constant c. of a row (or column) is zero. Interchanging If we obtain 3. element is zero.JI the denotes = (-i)'\"+'iA. If A and \320\222 are the determinant matrices. If every determinant IAHBI. If we derive \320\222 = of then IAI. 0.i . operations. The transpose: IAI 2. then IAI = by of IAI. 4. islABI= 7. of A A by adding a multiple of one row (or column) from 5. \317\207 of their product both \316\267 \316\267 then 6.1) \317\207 (n of Ihe (n determinant from A by deleting row i and column/ Determinant IAI is determinant from ~ derived 1) matrix A. then the value of the .. ~\302\253I2 \302\25331 \320\247\321\212\321\212 a-si \302\25333 \302\25331 \302\25332 of element aif of cr/ where 1A. If two is to the equal determinant of its = 1A71.

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they are With given the of exception by linear the form x' = a. and requiring the addition of the constant terms\320\224\321\206.x + +<*\\?.x + aA2y + aA^z +aAA (with or the without constant terms). are transformations of refined be tedious. transformations. we reshape it to either becomepart simply meet to us to changethe position.Z \320\260\320\2632\321\203 y' \342\226\240= \320\273\320\273\316\261->\316\273\317\207 \316\261-\317\207\316\266 \320\260-\321\217\321\203 z' = ayix + a^y + al2Z A translation spoils the homogeneous of these character by equations The a^A. if not otherwise homogeneous more part of the modelingprocess.APPENDIX \320\241 TRANSFORMATIONS define we Once are transformations Geometric a curve. respectively alA. an integral the focus of this chapter. A transformation or shape of a model in ways that orientation. duplicate it. transformations property by the is one that invariancc does not 439 .to achieve.An invariant We can equations. of the three expressions on each projective ties require a rationalform. and model construction or move can complex design requirements. Introducing homogeneous coordinates restores the homogeneous character of these determine a hierarchyof linear of certain geometric properties. allows would impossible. surface. or solid.where the right is divided a fourth linear by expression aA. Linear and projective translations equations of a more it. .

point p(ur) on it. of Hermitc representations is somewhatdifferent from Transformation The Hermitebasis curves and of the Bezier and B-Splinerepresentations. metric isometries.area. Using representative of the modelingelementsdefined control we can by points. transformation is presentedfirst in terms of linear From these we develop their vector and matrix coordinates to compute the product of multiple homogeneous specie of equations.). compute\320\260 \321\200'(\320\270.). and group including symmetry (1995). in part these addressed We as well dilation. or isometries. are allowed and only the topologyof the modelis twisting lines restrictive brings and stretching. Only particular . parallellines.fromthe results. the linear transformations. and shear. angles Projective transformations.For and curve air given arbitrary example. angle. and volume. representations.consistingof are of the so-calledaffine the most restrictive rotations. preserves angles but or Nonuniform. at least. tangent defined by a The Bezier and B-Splinecurves set of controlpoints. dilation uniform (scaling) transformation.and \317\201'(\317\211. we can air affine on perform transformation the control points and then. trajectory. endpoints vectors. where bending. Chapter scaling we consider here are translation.) =\317\201(\". transformation. as shear transformations. active coordinate higher-order element and obvious transformation in an accomplishing functions. For a more complete discussion of these other geometric 'Die transformations symmetry.rotation. depending upon the will interpret transformations transformthe model think of transformationsas really just mappingsof within a fixed when we use space to produce a then it is Each Cartesian use act on and system. For when we subject the geometricmodel to a transformations. translations and transformations. some sort they are no path or transformation There is a transformation explicitly is. straight lines but not preserve us to nonlinear topological transformations. the other metric in 10.\320\276\320\263apply producing that the Bezier form as finding p(iir). surfaces are defined by a mix of boundary conditiontypes:namely. we to sweep air is the incorporate idea it into element of a the through its path necessary.all properties is preserved The rigid-body or An isotropic so on). we can the same transformation to \321\200(\320\272\320\263). and model. compare it to the forms are affinely this while invariant.We know already and surfaces that Bezier are that and simply and B-Spline is not true of the Hermiteform. transformations. a Bezier Hermite We form.reflection. linear another preserved. Although we might of movement. preserve but not and distance. anisotropic parallel least parallels. That sense. These the are invariant (distance.440 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 that one change. This not transformation. We we imposed. We also discuss how to find the of product transformations. are the linear transformations that preserve. sequential multiple and many Mortenson see theory. properties.

TRANSLATION of a point is given by The translation y' = y + z' = where and t\342\200\236 ty. of course. that Tlie rigid-body translationof a geometric every objectrequires point a distance in a direction (see Figure CI). these In purely matrix this as P' = P+T Expanding (C. therefore. we Cartesian In ordinary vector components. represent and shape of an (CI) ty translation.I the [x point from we use things mplify the earlier [x discussion \321\203\316\2661J' of to \321\203z\\r.Recall in /i-dimensional we represent a point \317\201 transformations sequential that + 1 vector of \316\267 represent a point the by coordinates homogeneous three-component by the four-component [x \321\203z]T. should be familiar rational curves and surfaces. hx hy hz These equations. preserves the size z + tz of the components f. Translation object and is. one of the rigid-body transformations. equally given given This meansthat we may specify a translation by a vector I so that on it moves p' The prime mark form we write denotes a = p+ t transformed vector or matrix.2) matrices produces (C3) . in and The \321\203\316\266h\\r.To si represent C.441 \342\226\240 Translation in coordinates homogeneous by a space that include translations and projections. vector [x coordinates are related by and homogeneous Cartesian coordinates.

6) = I then \320\275\320\260. we can mix have and surfaces. z If we vectors are careful with and convention matrices as we of treating (C4) + tz and its interpretation. curves the for already Adopting column we write as matrices.3) as p' = p + T (C. For equivalent geometry example. +l\342\200\236 + 2> i Vector to to p' transformations. and matrices certainly expeditetranslation vector equation of a line is p(u) = p0 + if the (C.442 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 of a Translation Figured x' \317\207 tx = \320\243 + \320\243 \316\266' \316\266 h tz curve. x + h y + 1.5) A succession of translations is another translation sum. p' is equivalent = p + li + l2+ =p its vector Thus. its . The order of the succession is not important. may points Equation notation our (C.

Thus. \321\200'(\321\213.w) =\316\243 i (l = + \316\243(\316\241* /\"= (1 ') B\302\253M Mw) (CIO) / = o /=o B-Spline curvesand surfacesin control points. [I I a bicubic 0 \320\222 + \316\244 (C.bju) i and = () for surfaces Vr(u.Translation = translation bylisp'(ti) = + wb.Thus.\320\270\320\236 pu + \302\253a + (p(l + l) + I. now but T = 110 0 1(00 0 0 0 0 0 The four corner points are translated. = \316\244 For a new generate must its transform geometric coefficients. general form = \316\222 \316\222' + \316\244.by translating the . For a for curves Bezier curve or surface we translate all the controlpointsby (.\320\270>)=\321\200(\320\270. 0 0 0 the and (C.if a plane = is p'(ii) (p0 + I) + \"a + wb.7) 0]r.9) = Xp. the again. = B' where we It is surface. its translation then \342\226\240 443 p(u) + 1. Similarly. is \321\200(\320\270. We translate the same way. To curve matrix of or to translate every point on a curve control points. Hermite patch we ha-ve.\320\270>) not necessary It is the translate to sufficient or surface. from which we can then translate a cubic Hermitecurve.8) tangent and twist vectors are unaffected. or = or p'(u) ua. we have \317\201'(\302\253)=\316\243(\316\241'+\316\277^(\ / = o (C.

2 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 IN THE ROTATION PLANE The geometry describingthe angle about \317\206 the rotationof circumference of a circlecenteredat in preserved find a rigid-body (or point vector) and Figure C. an through \317\201 trigonometry we that Furthermore. cos = cos cos + \317\206) (\317\211 sin + \317\206) (\317\211 = sin o = je/lpl and sin \317\211 cos + cos \317\206 \317\211 cos ro = .2 sin Rotating \321\204 +ycos about the a point \316\266 axis. \317\206 or vector . Because\317\201 is shown in origin a the and origin Ipl = p' lie on the Ip'l (distance is from elementary transformation).444 C.2.sin \317\206 \317\211 sin \317\206 \317\211 sin \317\206 j'/lpl.so that substitution yields \317\207 cos \317\204' \316\275 = ^\342\200\224 = \342\200\224-\321\201\320\276\321\217 + \317\206) (\317\211 -rrsin \317\206 Ipl sin -*-- simplifies Ipl \317\206 Ipl =-2\342\200\224=\342\200\224-sin + + \317\206) (\317\211 \317\206 Ipl which Ipl cos \317\206 Ipl to x' =jc cos \321\204-\321\203 sin \317\206 (\320\241\320\237) =x \321\203' Figure C.

R^ + \302\2732the origin is commutative. in the plane in space.This is not the case for rotations in which R^R0l about = where order is importantand different orders produce different . sin -t.The that -Sin^+\317\206.+ \317\206\342\200\236) (C.\316\227\317\206\316\271 cos R e. wc find identities simply add the anglesand use the easily generalize Equation (C..\342\226\240\342\226\240 + \317\206\342\200\236) + \317\2062 cos (\317\206! ' +\320\244.R (ij: cos cos \317\206\316\271 \317\206. and R We 445 \342\226\240 equation becomes p' = where plane in the Rotation The product of two rotations successive and of \317\206\316\271 \317\2062 about a point the origin is given by = p' We interpret this as a rotation by yields product \316\227\317\206. for = of a We conclude thai rotations sequence R^R*.+\321\204\320\263)COS^+\321\204\320\263) We about matrix order.. -sin + cos \317\206\316\271 cos sin \321\204\320\267 \317\2062 \317\206\316\271 the in plane in the sum resulting this to the \317\2062 the origin matrix rotation about product of we of \316\267 successive or \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 + + + \317\206\342\200\236) -sin (\317\206.12) Rp transformation matrix. \317\2062 cos + + \317\2062 (\317\206. the the Origin about Rotations Successive \317\206 -sin IRI = 1 is that Notice matrix.\320\263) sin \317\206] cos \317\2062 \317\206\316\271 (C.p ..15) successive rotations the origin.so that.) COS^+\321\204\320\263) Sin in \317\2062.form this matrix In the rotation R is cos sin the convention of will use \317\206 (C.sin sin \317\206] R^R^! which us that for tells followed \317\206\316\271 sin \317\206^ \317\2062 R (*1+\320\2442 + The order example.13). results.16) + \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 + \317\2062 + \317\206\342\200\236) (\317\206\316\271 we perform the product is not important. rotations by + sin \317\206\316\220| cos \321\2042 \321\204\320\263 trigonometric elementary Using (CM) RA.13) cos \317\206 \317\206 premultiplying the point matrixby a property of all isometries.cos -sin (\317\206. transformation (C. .

more completely p'(u) = For a Bezier curve. =-prthat and then p' The p(. \320\243\\ pa x'6 \320\243\320\247 \320\253 \316\241\316\252- a rotation some (C. we rotate UMRB the set of = UMB' conlrol points. p.19) *o pn coefficients (C. is one way to do this.We coordinates reduces this problem to a using homogeneous of matrix multiplications only.Next.23) and p'(\=Zp^m(\")") = 0 \320\263 (C24) .18) + wRb Rotating a planar cubicHermitecurve requires set up its \320\222 matrix.22) so that (C.21) or.17) pL of matrix multiplication and addition quickly we add more rotations and translations.446 Rotation \342\226\240 \320\241 Appendix an about Arbitrary A rotation R about an arbitrary combination as cumbersome the plane requires first a origin. sequence becomes see will that workable more Rotation of Curves and Surfaces the Given vector equations and plane.We Here Then rotate follows: origin as the curve (C20) yU by operatingon its matrixofgeometric follows: B' = RB (C. we of aline them about + iiRa = Line: \321\200'(\320\275) Rp0 p'(u.w) = Rp0 Plane: + iiRa the as transforms attention to how we let Pi X. in point the point pc to the brings the translation i2 = pc> reverse translation li rotation Point = we obtaining + R(p-pf) the execute (C. = rp( (C.

so Equation (Gil) to account for the \320\263 = \317\207 \317\207' cos in rotations and \321\203 point of in a fixed because simply it looks expand \317\206 \317\206 (C28) \316\266'=\316\266 and make appropriate changes to the cos R*=l rotation matrix.. that coordinate..3 ABOUT THE IN SPACE ROTATION in Rotations plane.so that \317\206 -sin sin sind> \317\206 0 0 The rotation matrices for the \317\207 and \317\206 \317\213 cosd>\317\2060Ol cos axes \321\203 are (G29) 1 simple extensions.) (-\321\204\321\201) sin \321\204\321\201 -sin \321\204\302\243 (C. \317\210.26) Rd We see also that = R^ R. We begin with a rotation about the \316\266 axis. are the / = \317\207 sin - sin \317\206\321\203 + \321\203 cos \317\206 the \316\266 axes. Remember. we are taking frame. much like a rotation about the origin in and the x. 13) coordinate but rotation results identical to that of an equivalent system produces directed a the rotation of in initial or vector fixed oppositely point To the coordinates compute coordinate coordinate R* so to leads and system. We let respectively. Equation (C. \321\203 plane.namely . = R[ C.27) about rotations denote \317\206 points and other objects geometric the x.25) \321\204\321\201 \321\201\320\276\321\214\321\204\321\201 that (C.. (C.Rotation in SpaceaboutthePrlnclpal Axes - Coordinate 447 Rotation 5ystem of a point or the components of a vector in a with the initial rotated to \321\204\321\201 by system and with a system respect = we use that a common with This asserts origin. where global PRINCIPALAXES challenging and complexthan are more and \316\270. cos -sin (-\321\204\321\201) sin cos (-\321\204\321\201) cos (-\317\206. of space a fixed view. \317\206-\317\206. active repositioned coordinate frame.

First. matrixalgebrato and caution: that rotation matrix computing these unavoidable that the determinant After show a of the resultant one.|\316\220\316\262\317\210: sin sin \317\210 - \317\206 cos A different We that three -cos \317\206 rotation matrices is \316\270 sin \317\206 \317\206sin sine sin \316\271-sin \316\270 sin \317\210 \316\270 cos \316\271cos co-s \317\210 sin \317\210 \316\270 cos \316\271sin sin \316\271 cos sin \316\270 \317\210 \321\201\320\276\320\267\321\204+ \317\210 sin \317\210 cos an entirely different yields we can use IRJ = |RVI = IRel = l. order is important. Here is the first convention that we will use: 1. sin 0 (C30) \317\210 cos \317\210 \317\210 and \316\2700 0 1 -sin it is Obviously. sine of it no deviation and course. if rotate \316\270 *0. by Ra rotate \317\206 *0. important we establish a convention for doing this.and = raises the following comment 1. a point we have (C32) The expanded of product cos\316\270 cos + sin cos \317\210 sin \317\206 R. Axes Principal rotations about each of the use successive can We sin cos Rf three to axes principal it is However. because it turns out that. of rotations sequence will IRI = 1 \302\261 e. This \316\231\316\232\316\275\316\270\317\206\316\231 kn0w order. place a geometric object into any orientation. if \317\210*0. The the errors. it will happen that accuracy of the algorithm cosine functions. for successive rotations in space. 3. still the case that SuccessiveRotationsaboutthe \316\270 1 (C31) \316\270 \317\213cos = IRJ IRVI \316\270 = IRJ = 1. round-off the number of individual rotation matricescontributprecisely will depend longer equal on the . . 2. axis. rotate Finally. this Using by Ry about to rotate convention the \317\207 axis. if Next. about the \316\266 by R0 about they axis. is cos \316\270 cos \317\210 \316\270 \317\210 (C33) product matrix. computational precision.448 \320\241 \342\226\240 Appendix 0 10 \317\210 -sin \317\213cos R. That is. and. say. ReR^R^.

the principal axes are fixed. has the \321\204\321\201 a coordinate axes leads system to their final coordinate axes when they when none of them is zero.\317\210\316\225 the x\" axis. axis coincident about and axes and x'\"axis fixedand the z\" to the /' /\" z\"'.3 shows Figure position. under but transformed and original C.and \317\210. \317\210\316\225..The \316\266 x' and next / axes. \317\206 Letting \316\232(\317\206\316\223. about \321\204\321\201 z' axis what happens to the and in that \321\204\321\201. of the are Space the remains \316\266 axis the displaces coincident the with \317\207 and axes \321\203 initial to the axis.. coincident with second rotation = the third as \316\232(\317\210(). R(6C). We denote the first as \320\232(\321\204\321\201). the y\" the y' axis. transformations and incorrectvalues \342\226\240 449 deviation for System There are situationsin or components to the initial of the coordinates of a point must determine coordinate system that is rotated with respect common rotating origin or pivot point. rotation. \316\270~\320\262\342\200\236 \317\210 -\317\210.3 Rolation of the coordinate system. effect as rotating the same = \317\206-\321\204\321\201.. while Ihe Principal aboul rotations. leaving displaces the as the x\" axis.in Rolalion will produce equivalent Rotation product. \316\230\316\225. The final rotation. When we which in a a vector system. with \316\230\316\225. but with a or vector. (C33) .) \320\235(\321\207\320\263\321\201)\320\235(\320\265\321\201)\320\2 0C about = = and we =-\317\206. a point rotation a succession of rotated by the Rotating coordinate point or vectorby Rotating the by system and order. find from Equation Figure C. In non-rigid-body to the final ing Coordinate Axes the absenceofcorrective this measures.displaces leaves the x' and z' axes to x\"and z\" and with the y' axis.

Thus.. \317\206) about It leaves the \316\266 frame but axis and of the local rotates the local\317\207 unchanged \321\203 axes with the is about an x'axis second that does rotationR(*'. The frame. axis applies. + cos \317\210. [R$ Re Euler Rv] \317\210 [R. R9 R$] Angle Rotations So far.) sin \317\206. \316\230) object.. \317\206\302\243 \317\210\302\243 cos \317\206.1 \316\270. This means that we must first global axes. Now we will define a local frame that is rigidly attached to an object. sin \321\204\320\263 sin \317\210^ might cos \316\270. \320\232(\321\204\321\201. (\317\206. global of the or R(z. axes. \317\210\316\225) matrix R^' = Ri' -sin sin \317\210\302\243 cos \316\270. algebra Rj RJ \320\251= suffices [R4 Re (C34) cos \316\230\316\223 \317\210\316\223 the transpose is neither \320\255\321\201. \317\210). inverse of R this assertion.\317\210\316\223) cos cos -cos sin sin \317\210. y'. where x'. = R.so rotate rotation object angles are the Euler angles. \317\206. cos \342\200\224sin \317\210. y\". and z\" indicate its position after the second the in in The first the notation: change argument element parenthesison rotation matrix indicates the axis of rotation.bringing the \317\207 and x' axes into .. it turns expect. \321\204\320\263 + cos \317\210\302\243 sin \316\230\316\223 cos sin \317\206. \316\230\316\223 cos + sin \317\210\316\223 sin sin \316\270. to demonstrate R\302\245]r and = \316\227\316\223(\317\206. Simple \316\270. position respect to the globalframeafter and x\".) The premultiplying conventionfor combining the \316\266 rotations The first rotation is in the global frame.(Notice not now coincide with rotate*' through any into coincidence about -\317\210 the global of with the one \316\266 axis. \317\206\302\243 out that \316\270. The rotation in sequence = \321\200' \320\232(\320\263*\320\233)\320\260\320\264\320\262)\302\253(\320\263.The local and global frames with rotations initially coincide.The is the local \317\207 convention for frame rotation. and the secondelement indicates the angle of rotation.We perform subsequent respect to this local that when an its frame we rotates with it. \316\232(\316\246\316\277 \317\210. so we choose to rotate -\317\206). \302\245) [R^ReR^l\"' in general However.. and z' indicatethe with the first rotation. cos \316\270.\316\270.\320\244)\321\200 Euler angle rotations. sin \321\204\320\263 As we nor the cos \321\204\320\263 + sin \317\210.cos \316\270. R( \320\263.or we have roiated the global frame.450 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 \316\262(\316\246<-\316\221.. we have rotated pointsand other with respect to a geometric objects fixed globalframe.

\317\206) rotation R(z\". The general guidelineis that be about the same axis. (C. \317\210 generates and we must choose conditionsthat limit the somewhat stated. We the that produced the arbitrary sequence R^ in Equation (C. we equate After proper rotation matrix R to R^ea \320\223\321\206 cos \320\223\\3 \320\223\320\263\320\263 \320\22323 \320\223\321\206 COS to obtain \316\270 cos the following relationship: \317\206 + \317\210\316\272\316\257\316\220\316\220\317\206 5\316\252\316\267\317\2105\316\257\316\220\316\220\316\270\316\270\316\237\317\212\317\206 \342\200\224 Sill \320\223\320\2672 \317\206 0\316\2375\317\2105\316\252\316\267\316\270\342\204\226\317\212\317\206 \320\223\321\2121 \320\263\321\212\321\212 \317\2105\316\23111 -cos cos cos \317\210 \316\270 sin ~ \317\206sill sin \317\206 sin \317\210 5\316\220\316\267\317\210\316\26005\317\206+ COS\\|!Sin0sil^ sin \316\270 \317\206-sin \316\270 cos \317\210 COS\\||COS0 \316\270 (C.we R(z\". \317\206) equation produces R(a-.37) . we often must the inverseproblem:Given matrix R. -\316\246) R(z. \317\206) to simplify the third wc perform R(z. first two R(z. of the R(Z.Rotation We now coincidence. The in \317\206) R(z. no and two Axes Principal a sequence of many rotations producinga net rotation R. proper position. \321\204) \321\211\321\205. \317\206) R(. \316\230) \317\207 convention -\317\206) produce R(z.v. \317\210) rotation Equivalent Rotationsaboutthe sequence Many \317\206). \316\270) the above = R(z.36) \317\210) this we conclude that a sequence of three Eulerangle in the rotations frame is equivalent to three rotationsthrough these in angles applied reverse order and with respect to the global frame. \316\230) procedure outlined above. an equivalent \316\270.33).35) \316\230) using (he simplify again that find = R(Zi \316\230) \317\206) R(z. to its perform R(j. \316\230) R(z. are possible. by is a there R(x. The details of this method From local and its generalization are The \317\207 convention and Koh(1995). The \321\203 convention's the is R(y'. This problem is rotationangles\317\206. (using pre multiplying convention) R(z\". \316\230) R(z. mechanics.\316\230) Using \316\230) rotations -\317\206)R(z. loosely first select a specific sequence of angles and corresponding axes. \317\206) =R(Zj = I R(x\\ When followed \316\230). \317\210) R(z.\317\210)and (C. RU-'. \316\246) Principal Axes x' returns which \316\246). \342\226\240 451 sequence of global frame R(*'.Using problem. find a set of solve rotation any proper that and matrix. molecular and solid-state physics. Lee by given used is frequently in applied other conventions successiverotations should kinematics. This tells us rotations to equivalent R(a'. that the about Space \316\230): = R(*'. R(z.

approach is to use tangent and premultiply both sidesof angles Equations (\302\261\317\200/2) functions. =cos rM =sin cos \316\270 sin \317\210 = cos = sin /-.41) Equations as \317\210 from Equations(C. \317\200 to produce by R.39) Equations For problems. undefined or sin then \317\200.43) example.42) and (C. A more conservative One way to do this is to '12 COS \320\2232.41) potential for serious an angle = 0. when (C.42) (C.41) (C.38) \317\206 \317\210 r12=-cos II equality.37) Equation (C. from function the if Furthermore.43) (C.43) are 0.452 \320\241 \342\226\240 Appendix matrix Because apply: ru = cos r2. arctangent Sill -\320\22321 + Sin \317\210 \316\2233| + \317\210 r31 \317\210 COS r22 COS Sill \317\210 -\316\22332 \316\270 cos sill The matrix element in row on the right COS \317\210 + \316\223\302\273 Sill \317\210 COS \317\210 T21l Sill \317\210 + \316\22333 COS -/\"\320\263\320\267 + \320\223\321\2122 COS \317\210 \317\210 -siii 2 and column to that on the left ambiguous. = 51110 = sin-1 \316\270 \\|l \317\206 \317\206-cos \317\210 sin \316\270 cos \317\206 sin \316\270 \317\206 cos -sin \317\206 \317\210 sin \316\270 sin \317\206 + cos \317\206 sin \317\210 sin \316\270 \317\206 (C.44) \316\270. \316\270 = because \316\270 \302\261\317\200/2.39) cos \317\210 COS\\|ICOS \316\270 \316\270 \320\223\320\2522 COS \316\270 / \320\237\\ -\316\271 = \321\204\320\24105 However.41) using the arcsine \316\270 and = cos (C. the elemenl-by-elemeiit implies equality also following relationships is \317\206 zero. '13 Sill \317\210+r32 cos \316\270 (C.38) and have the (C.40) from Equation i-l3 = COS \316\270 cos and these equations for \317\206. computing the between distinction = 0 \316\270 follows: (C.. produces \316\270 sill cos \317\206 \316\270 cos 3 \317\206-cos sin Equating \317\206sin \317\206 cos this \316\270 \317\213 \317\206 \316\270 sin \317\210 \317\210 (C. makes to (C. to solve is tempting sin cos \317\210 i-23=-sin = \317\210 \317\210 rl3 r3} + sin \317\206 sin \320\2372 (C.1 (C. element in the .40)and cose computational (C. \316\270.

unless AN ARBITRARY AXIS is ihe most general form of a that follows assumes that the axis of development a the it docs not.Thus sin = \316\270 \320\263. SPACE ABOUT Rotation about an arbitrary rotation The transformation. we can and (C.44) for value a compute It is 180\302\260 r23 Otherwise. rotationpasses through that ihere is no unique solution to the \"given R.\316\271 the With For and cosine sine we \317\206 defined. arbitrarily \316\270 and compute also possible = \317\210 0. we easily computea unique value for \316\230- have = sin cos \321\204\320\2633.4 ROTATION from conclude and \316\270. sin + cos \317\210 \320\263\321\215\320\267 \317\210.\320\267 = \316\270 sin + cos ~\320\263\320\263\321\212 \320\273 \317\210 \320\263 cos that \317\210 that so \320\223\321\206 = lair \316\270 . = r33 = 0.iS \317\210 Axis Arbitrary \342\226\240 453 = 0 sill \317\210 = \342\200\224\342\200\224 Ian \317\210 \316\2522\316\273 = tan\" \317\210 are solutions two These the angle is undefined. it requires because. we make a series of clarifying assumptions.about an in Space Rotation r2i cos + r. Ihen once we of ihe lefl side of Equation elements \317\206. IN all this \317\210\" problem. . hand rule a. set all the know we \317\210. \\~\316\257\317\2012.if only origin axis in space the We define simple translation transformation to produce the condition.and we apart. The axis by a unit vector a and the angleof rotation right by applies to the sign of a: If Ihe thumb of the right hand points in the direction sense of hand curl around a in the positive of a. cos \317\206rn = cos \317\206 +r3l \317\210+rn sin sin \317\206 \317\210 + = ^5\316\2311\316\2201\316\234 \317\206\316\2523\316\267-'\316\257^05\316\246 + \320\263\320\2521 cos \317\210 sili \317\210/ \\/23 We find C.4). then the fingers of Ihe right the angle (see FigureC. \317\206.

through Ihe angle a. and Ihen return a to ilsoriginal is expressed algebraically by the following process rotation This orientation.we an about arbitrary point \317\201 the axis a in the y.454 \320\241 \342\226\240 Appendix axis. Here is the strategy defining transformation: this the perform an arbitrary about Rotation C. Finally.vRaRvR+p (C. \316\266 plane..Then the angle \316\266 axis. Next. about the \317\207 a with the z.46). equations: p' = R= terms Reading rotation R.in -\317\210 .R( (C46) to left in Equation (C.with and that all of which order..4 Figure will we use to develop ihe rotation matrix R the the vector a into alignment wilh \316\266 Rotate axis. the ali gns angle the point by the axis \316\266 and R^. rotates first through the point execute the angle a \317\206.. we reverse the process.. This places axis through about R-y the and on from right R_. R.VR\342\200\236R.R.45) R^R. through rotating which \317\210. -\317\206. R\342\200\236 the point rotates a.

appropriately terms with their equivalents \317\210 using the unit vector a7. \317\210. cos \317\206-sin sin \317\206 R \316\246\317\213 * 0 0 cos (\316\223 -\316\270- cos -s \317\206sin \342\200\224 -sin 0 1 \317\206\317\213 \317\206cos \317\2060 1 \320\236 \" 0 1 R.47) . produce \317\201 Axis Arbitrary the matrix multiplicationindicatedin Equation to (C. terms of sine and cosine functions of the cos to replace the sin \317\206.Rotation in Space about an R$ its initial a to returns position. Performing is a R produce we use the matrices: following R. and cos = \317\210 aL = \317\210 VaJ we have a\\ of R in elements J = + + \320\251 a]. \317\206.any on points the matrix that see an arbitrary it invariant. the wefind Fivst R a is because and. \316\254\317\204 (1 a) ~ cos -a. 0 0 cos \317\210 - sin 0 sin cos \317\210 Ru R-v j \317\210 = cos \316\261 -sin sin \316\261 cos \317\213 -sin 0 \317\210 0 0 \"1 = \317\210 \317\210 sin cos \317\210 \317\210 \316\261 0 cos 0 \316\261\317\213 1 0 where = \320\24105\321\204 + Vax SHI cos sin angles sin \317\206. we obtain and \316\230.46) horrible task. sin cc + \316\262. Finally.. it must once. rotates point to \342\226\240 455 product R^R^SaRy p' and leaves a and. We appropriately of course. ay.To be done only proceed. <h \320\271\\ substitute a) cos a) cos a) ~at sin \316\261 + er cos ay (1 -cos \316\261+\316\254){\\ a. ax. sin a + ay az (1 . components a unit vector. Fortunately.cos a) a) ~ cos cc) ~ cos a sin cc + \316\261. + a] = 1. and cos a sin cc we al (1 -cos + ax az (1 + ax az (1 - a + sin \320\260\320\263 ~av Then \317\210. az (1 a) cos a + a\\(\\ -cos a) (C.

We will special operating as the formal sum a + r of a real number (scalar) and part scalar hypernumbers.The product indicates that the vector product of a commutative. without that we can describe of angle proof by the quaternion R = cos (a/2) + sin (a/2)a (C. Thus. then R simplifiesaccordingly. \316\221\316\222\317\210\316\222\316\221.r cases consists \317\207 s in the vector + s) (as + \342\226\240 + s) br + r x s) scalar part and a vectorpart. then These elements. of sequential with A a vector. If the axis represented by a coincides with for axes. = lfso \316\254\316\266 and and the of the any example. The conjugate of R is . We to the rotation transformation as follows:Let unit quaternions apply a define the axis of rotation through the origin. principal if a lies coordinate along the \316\266 that cos \316\261 -sm R often indicate this. that is.48) is not This is the normalized form of a quaternion.The formal derivation the of following in accessible texts. or regularities in correctnessof a complexexpression = 0 \316\254\317\207 ~\316\254.456 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 the Compare olher matrix r\342\200\236 patterns also the and elements. and rr. R. Rotation and Quaternions Quaternions. define a quaternion rotations rotation equivalent (one component)and part vector rules and interpretations. invented the computing product the extracting subsequently (three components). component prove to be usefulfor about arbitrary axesand are fourangle and axis. They in 1843. of terms as such axis.Hamilton byW. distribution the sm \316\261 cos \316\261 0 0 0 \316\261 1 0 as expected. many readily appears .b A = a + r and \320\222 The sum of two quaternions such +s is another quaternion that A+B and the productof two of the in both term r (ab +(r+s) (a+b) is B = (a+r)(b = The result = quaternions A + presence properties quaternion .and \316\261 define the vector let We assert this rotation rotation. \316\267.

R~[ -R* = inverse is found by simply reversing the sign of a. 1\320\252\320\265 quaternion components of this equivalent rotation from the resultant the and the defines Ihe scalar is one-half vector of 7\" cosineof axis.the inverseis equal lo the conjugate. Thus.if R and S through then describe two distinct rotations. followed origin ' = TPT (SR)P(SR)l has \320\242.its handedness may reason it is either. do not as in reflection mirror reflection.Itis not a topological the topology a because of an object is not preservedunder it is an not create a mirror of is. the sequence R the through is equivalent lo the rotations of about axes by any sequence an equivalent single rotation. REFLECTION Although the size and shapeof an transformation. thus. Because rotates R to \317\201 RPR'1 and . we \316\261 about the quaternion perform by given multiplication sin (a/2)a cos (a/2)- To rolale a point \317\201 through \342\226\240 457 . result to S(RPR~*)S~l. cos (a/2) . For a normalized quaternion.sin (a/2)a./\" is the rotatedquaternion and \316\241 is zero the p'.5 rotation angle.S1 takes this quaternion multiplicationis associative. It is easy to extract the quaternion \316\244 describes a that rotation S. we have S(RPR l)S-l = (SR)P(R-lS~l) and R-iS-l = (SR)~l If = SR. reflection. This process extends to and about arbitrary axes rotations greatly simplifies executinga sequenceof the origin.Reflection R*- P' is the \316\241 where a. object by possible to image not strictly transformation object . let T we then we find that Clearly. For example. that change.The It is easyto prove that ihe product of two normalized quaternions is another vector part normalized a quaternion. which from when characteristic necessary we extract dealing with rotations.RPR ' representing quaternion part of sea lar (the \317\201 isp). For this change a under a a rigid-body transformation. part part the C.

\321\203 FigureC. or more reflections can produceall the rigid.\317\201 the is normal to this axis.Yet combinations twisting. In fact. \321\203 plane.the reflection is accomplished transformation by of symmetry 10 -1 -11 4 It \316\270 0 -5.\321\215 -\316\233 -1 1 -5. Reflection transformations play an importantpart in constructing and bending. some of the ways to reflect a curve in the x.\320\255-12 -3. Of course. and its the aid to explore symmetry modeling requires relationship geometric of group theory. of two analyzing planes ihe symmetry of symmetry of models. Point a lies on the straight line joining \317\201 and p' at its intersection with \317\207 axis.5 0 0 -\320\255. . which is beyond the scope of this text.Forexample.5 4 0 in the x. when the planeof symmetry is any one of the three principal planes. Furthermore. the vector p' . symmetric an the other distance the but on side of from image equal p'located plane it. The a cubic Hermite curve coefficients of are shown for each of geometric four positions.body transformations. The procedurefor constructing a reflected of any image is the curve in the first lo reflect object in space simple. = 0 quadrant we transform each point \317\201 the \321\203 it to its on through plane.8 -13 0 12 0 Figure C.S Reflectionsof a curve \320\276 \320\260 13 0 -12 0 \320\267.458 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 and stretching without culling or piercing.\320\221 13 5.5illustrates plane. lines the and subject is much deeper than this statement To completely implies. The distancebetweenpoint a and is the distance to between point \317\201 equal a and p'. This transformation merely changesthe algebraic of tbe \321\203 signs components of the curve coefficients. and reflection lines and planesare of a model and its reflectedimage.

In the special form \316\275 \317\207. Inversion in the We can Origin consider inversions as a place througha point.7 more elaborate examples The determinantof reflection transformation of the reflection of Rf is equal lo-l: are a that us tells This transformation investigate (for a IR.. Although the same procedures Reflection the may lhe component corresponding to in Figure C.459 Reflection changing the sign of the curve the plane of symmetry. of Ihe coefficients analogous lo that throughspace. or through axis a look that like through a plane through a curve.6and C. transformations of (he origin. plane. principal axes or for reflection symmetry applies lo reflectionacross principal Figures C.5 is a plane curve.49) reversing We will a reflection also but are not orientation-reversing.6 Reflectinga curve principalplanes. inversion Figure C. a right hand becomesa left hand). through of reflection through the three they take the origin is given in that .l=-l reflection is an orientation (or handedness) example. pseudoreflections. example apply lo a curve that twists take place across any of the also A procedure origin. (C.

principal by x' = -x y' or. space is given by ~x = \320\243 -\320\243 \320\263'=-\320\263 (\320\241.50) -y matrix form (C. origin and this transformation in three-dimensional = \317\207 preserves orientation.53) .51) where R. in = (C.52) and -\316\271 R/ ~ \317\213 0 0 \317\213-\316\271 -1 \317\213 \317\213 (\320\241. -\316\271 \317\213 \317\213-\316\271 We notice that inversion in \\Rf\\ the = +1.7 Figure a curve Reflecting through the originand a axis.460 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 C.

through 180\302\260. 0 0 0 1 \320\236 \317\213\317\213 1 (\320\241.\342\200\236 2 \317\206 in Space or more reflectionscan produce It is in transformations. and 0] \317\2131 at an ang1 \320\265 with arbitrary line m through the origin. cident with -1 R. which is a rotation spaces. sin \317\206. \321\204\320\273\320\263 first execute a makesthe line coinwe rotation that requires = the \317\207 then we execute a reflection about the \317\207 axis axis. \317\206-\317\206. reflections in are to a rotation. initial -sin \320\236 \321\204\342\200\236. easy to show that two reflections It is also true that two parallel planes are equivalentto a translation. ~ sin \317\206\342\200\236 \317\206\342\200\236 cos -I -sin cos \320\274\320\277\321\204\321\202 \321\201\320\276\320\261\321\204\342\200\236|_0\317\206\342\200\236\317\206\342\200\236 cos 2 2 sin Reflection (C. that and.\342\200\236.Reflection in three that so \342\226\240 461 dimensions (C54) IR.1\320\2231 \316\265\316\277\316\264\317\206\342\200\236. Rf \320\243 =-)> in the Reflection is given axis \321\203 = \317\207 axis. the transformation producesa half-turn. transformations. We demonstrate intersecting planes equivalent both of these in a later section when we discussmultiplesequential now we merely list some very simple reflections. Reflections in the Plane Reflection in the is given \317\207 axis by x' = x and.57) . last.I=-1 A of study dimensions demonstrates in higher inversion that in inversion a point is a true reflectiononly in odd-dimension In even-dimension spaces.56) 2 \317\206.\342\200\236 -cos \317\206. reversethe R P\" Thus rotation.Inversion in a point is an isometry becausedistances are preserved.55) \317\213-\316\271 in an Reflection the \317\213 by x' = -x \320\243' \320\243 1 - (C. For Reflectionin the \317\207 0 plane is given by Earlier we found all of that a combination of two the rigid-body X' = -X = \320\243' \320\243 z' = z -I and R.

IsotropicDilation dilation as follows: If the distancebetweenany then a uniform dilation ihe distance between them after points the are The equations describing a uniform dilationfixing origin We define a uniform is d. about (he \321\203 may It is \317\207 axis. 0\" 0 1 \320\276\317\213 \317\207' -x is the same as a because here IRfl (C58) by \317\207' -x A transformation given 0 \317\2131 0 = \317\213 \316\266 plane the in \317\213\317\213 \317\213-1 least expansion and general affine are more shear parallel lines are or contraction in preserved. half-turns SHEAR AND DILATION (C. uniform the 0 (C.62) \317\213\320\272\317\213 0 \317\213\320\272 . Shearpreservesdistance shape and angle. angles but not distance. these equationsbecome ~k 0 \317\213 (\320\241.60) \317\213 0-1 0 about half-turn \317\213 -\316\271 really a pseudoreflection.59) -1 / = -y =1.= z' = z Reflection is given \316\212 \317\213 and y'=y Rf= 0 z'=-z by 1 R f~ and 0 \342\200\224 ~~z \316\266 C. along preserves parallel is shape and bul nol lines. and occur \316\266 axes. x' = kx y' = ky z' In matrix (C. pair of is kd.6 Similar Dilation (often calledscaling) at where transformations.462 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 in the Reflection = \321\2030 is given by plane 1 \317\207 =x and = \320\243' -\320\243 R.that all directions.61) = kz form. Isotropicdilation.

the is a reflection or inversion an transformation If \320\272 coupled where fc is the scale factor. If 0 < \320\272 = 1. then or contraction. Thus. If \320\272 > 1. to the .63) \320\272 \317\213 \317\213 We will consider dilation Figure C.B fixing an Scaling arbitrary point in the nextsection. a curve with respect origin.9. expansion a dilation of a Bezier or B-Splinecurve or surface by simply We scale a cubic the the dilation transformationto control points. If \320\272 identity transformation.8). il is the < 1. with < 0. applying = = kB Hermite curvevia its geometric B' coefficients. Ihen Ihe dilation is a contraction. kpt fcpii [fcpj of scaling on the tangent vectorsin kp\"]T (see Figure C.Dilation and Shear \342\226\240 463 Ihe dilation is an expansion. We see the effect execute We C. Figure The inverse of any dilation is \342\200\224 0 0 \320\272 D' 1 = 0 \317\213 (\320\241.

Anisotropic dilation is a nonuniform expansion there may be three independentscale factors an arbitrary fixing pojnt. dilations is not wc conclude \320\236 \320\236 0 ktk2 0 0 0 ktk2_ that DZD L = D|DZ and (C64) that the order of the important.65) .p ~ktk2 By inspection. and thus producing x' = kxx /=*.9 The dilations effect of scalingon tangent vectors.464 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 Figure The productof two C. a different we Specify the scale factor for each of these directions. Dilation Anisotropic In general. or contraction. DL and the \316\2142 fixing origin is p' = D2D.\320\243 z' = kzz (\320\241.fixing origin. For the simplest case. referred to as the three principal directions in space.

= 1. and before \321\200\320\263 Following is dilation an anisotropic dilation ratios with kx and ky. To situation the scale factor must vary in the dilation this. we find d' ^kl(x2-Xiy + ytf \320\251(\321\2032- and + \320\272\320\246\321\205. the distance is between \317\201\316\212 and \317\201\316\212 Substituting for x' and y'. (C.)2 (Xi-XtY + iyi-yd1 \320\243 k.66) \317\213 *v. we look at the simplercaseof anisotropic = and the dilation axes correspond to where plane.Dilation and In matrix form. \317\213 *. we Shear \342\226\240 465 write this as ** 0 0 0 \317\213 (C. after d\\ an anisotropic Clearly.-\321\203.67) .-\321\205^ \320\272\320\232\321\203. where x' = kxx and y' kyy We will let the in the the \317\207 and ratio direction axes. and \321\200\320\263 We compute k^asd'/d. in ihis demonstrate p. with direction.10 Anisotropic dilation.0 Figure C.5 ky=2. The distancebetween dilation. k0 denote \317\206 \321\203 (before to the \317\207 axis with dilation) respect (see Figure CIO) and compare the distance on a line through the origin before d and betweena pairof pointsp.

\321\203 parallel planes do the slipping. depending on their relative The of two sets of anisotropic dilationsalong axes product principal and fixing the origin is given and /\316\257\317\206 \317\206 ky magnitudes.466 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 This in this Because more becomes equation meaningful simple case k. .The equations in the plane fixing the \317\207 axis are x' =x three-dimensional describing this space. and ky are if we use y = x tan it is orthogonal. A interpret the maximum minimum with of versus an and the and minor kx graph generates major ellipse axes. transformation + kxy <\320\24170> or Figure \320\24111 Shear fixing the \320\273 axis. Here. Principal Axis or Plane induces transformation in Figure 0 \320\241\320\237. proportional lines a deformation in a geometric modellikethat axis to the \320\273: direction parallel slip in the \317\207 to their In coordinate. the by 0 ^A-rj 0 \317\213 \320\272\320\2431\320\272\320\2432 0 Shear in A shear shown an Fixing a Plane the amount \320\276 (C.69) \321\214*\320\232. that relatively easy to dilation and the effect of direction. so \317\206.

= \317\201 [hx hy . reflections. sequence and shear in their Cartesian for rotation.This approach rapidly becomesa nestedmessof (nonhomogeneous) matrix algebra.dilation. or planesin a similar way: translations and rotations before and by executing appropriate the after Whenever translations are part of the transformation. cases. MULTIPLE SEQUENTIALTRANSFORMATIONS Rotation that requires space coincides origin. equations and dilations. This requires the use of homogeneous hz = 1.7 \317\207 0 -and the 0 kt 1 k2 0 0 1 \"l k.72) y'=kxx+y or (C73) \316\232 \316\271 in three-dimensional transformation A shear 0 1 = \316\241 space fixing the \316\266 0 plane is given by x' = x + P' = or z' = z Similar fix equations C. fixing arbitrary points. It is in two to express a general lineartransformation or three as a square matrixo\302\243 Order two or three. respectively.74) planes. If \316\256 \316\256]7\". if it must not possible dimensions An extra include translationsor projections. then = \317\201 [\320\273\321\203 \316\2661]'and coordinates. form. lines. primary matrix addition is required if we write the transformations. 0 1 (C.= \316\241 Transformations Sequential Multiple 1 *. p'= [*' in both is necessary dimension / where \316\266' If. returns shears of reflection.0 \321\203 0 (C.71) define the shear transformationthat Similar equations x' = \342\226\240 467 the fixes axis: \321\203 x (C.. so that an about arbitrary we first with the origin We then perform the point or in the plane or an arbitrary axis in point translate the model so that the arbitrary point or so that the arbitrary axispassesthrough the the indicated rotations and translate axis to its the results We handle initial position.z = y + k2Z y' .

This sequenceof transformations is represented by the matrix product . T2. . so that.. for example.75) coordinates and homogeneous 1 0 0 T= 0 1 0 0 0 1 _o Because Equation (C. when h ~ tu we obtain we \320\223\320\273 ty (C.76) tz \316\277\316\277 \316\271 matrix the perform V\" X multiplication z' 1 Z of + tx y + h / A sequence as (C. T2 T.80) 1 the Rotation about an arbitrary point pt requiresthat we first translate model so that p.Then the rotation and we perform translatethe resultssothat pr returns to its initial position.75). TE=T.79) \316\212 important. (C. plane in the plane using a homogeneoustransformation the origin about matrixisexpressed as cos P' = \317\206 sin \317\206 -sin \317\206 \316\237 cos 0 0 \317\206\316\237 (C. (C.77) + tz 1 of translations is given by T2T.* + \342\226\240 + t.4\320\261\320\222 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 Translation We may the Cartesian translationp' = now write p + t in matrix form p' = Tp and where p' \317\201 are given in (C.coincideswith the origin. = T.1. !^ ooo Order + fi: f\342\200\236 ttl + t.78) -T\342\200\236 or Ty = 0 0 \"l 0 1 \320\236 0 0 1 Rotation in the Rotation is not + + f ' + r + !\320\2432 + \316\233.

position. 1 0 0 1 \317\213 ~xc cos \317\206~-xt sin \317\206 cos + sin \317\206 \316\275.\302\243-\317\207-. we obtain this matrix cos In terms of \317\206 Transformations \342\226\240 469 = sin \321\204-(\321\203 -.84) 0 apply to rotation about the the an arbitrary axis not through to derive.we execute the primary rotation and finish the of transformations by reversing the secondary rotation and sequence translation so that the arbitrary axis once again coincides with the pointwise initial it. easy equations.82) \317\206yc Cartesian coordinates.) )>' in \317\206 \317\206 0 0 \321\201\320\276&\321\204 0 0 Rotation -sin multiplication. of course.) cos (C. carrying the model along with The rotation of a point about the \316\266 followed axis.83) + \321\203. second.Next.\316\275] 0 \317\2131 0 0 1 tr 0 0 1 0 0 I 0 0 \317\213 \317\213 ty sin \316\246 cos \317\213 \317\207 0 \317\206\320\236 \316\275 0 \316\266 \317\2131 \316\231 (C. rotation 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 \317\206 \317\206 (C. rotate the model so that arbitrary origin with one of the principal axes.81) \316\271 + \317\206xc + (C.85) .- - \317\206yc cos 1 0 ~yr (C. by a translation ma as the of is trices. \316\275 origin requires translate the model so that some point on this axis coincides the with the axis aligns and. expressed product homogeneous that we first p' = TRp 1 0 0 \342\226\240sin \317\206 \316\257.this is cos *'=(.Multiple Sequential Carrying out 1 0 0 1 0 0 xc cos . \317\206 0 1 sin cos about .vf) - + sin \316\246(\320\243 (\320\243-\320\243\321\201) + xc \317\206 J'.vf sin 1 \317\206 sin \317\206 -sin 0 1 \317\213-\320\263.rand axes. \317\206 Space Rotation about the \316\266 axis as is expressed cos \317\206 -sin Similar Again.

order because we see that TRp*RTp Glide Rotation The glide screw rotation) consistsof the directionof to parallel to the rotation angle. where followingequation the translation describes a cos sin Reflection twist or the as an axis \317\206 \317\206 -sin cos \317\206 0 0 \317\206\317\213 0 (C.470 \342\226\240 Appendix \320\241 cos order the p' = 0 t. ty 1 Sin \317\206 COS \316\271 (C. \320\236 \317\213 1 0 \317\213 \317\213 is it that clear \317\206 -ty t+ sin \317\206 \317\213\316\257.87) 0 \317\213 1 0 0 \317\213 \320\243\321\201\321\204 1 in Space The homogeneous transformation matrixfor inversion in the origin is . \317\207 \317\2130 0 \317\2131 \317\213 ty \320\243 0 1 0 \317\2130 1 \317\213 0 1 \317\2130 0 tz 1 \316\266 0 cos \317\206 cos \317\206 sin results sin 0 sin these \317\206 \317\206 cos cos From sin \317\213 sin Reversing \317\206 \317\206 \317\206 \317\213 -sin \317\206 cos 0 COS \316\257. \317\207 \317\206 \317\213ty \320\243 0 1 \316\226 0 0 \317\213 1 of these transformations. we obtain tz \317\205_ RTp \317\206 \317\206 \317\213\316\277] 1 \316\223.86) 1 is important.The is proportional axis: glide rotation about the \316\266 rotation (otherwiseknown a translationand rotation about translation.

and computation \\Rf\\ = -1. principal axes. Because /y\302\253 0 0-1 0 0 0 0-10 = R. inversion.91) p'=TfDT-p where TVDT 1 0 0 xc \320\232 0 1 0 \320\243\321\201 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Zc 1_ . kz are have We (C.90) 1 in Space The anisotropic defining a geometric transformation matrices. 2y. 0-1 2zi 0 0 0 1 0 Z\\ 0-10 0 0 0 0 0-1 )>l -10 0 -10 X. that moves p.Thus. - ky)yt {\\-K)z( 1 (C. 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2x.88) 0 1 is unaffected.89) \321\200'^\320\242\320\233/\320\242\320\223'\321\200 where 0 1 TiR/T = 0 0 Dilation 0 0 -\320\273-. 0 0 (C. 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 \316\2231 0 (C. 0-10 0 0 1 -z.92) . Inversion (C. back to its original followed by a translation position. 0 1 0 -y. 0 0 0 0 k( 0 0 \320\276 \320\276 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 -X 0 1 0 -y k7 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 ~z 1 -k\342\200\236)x.471 Multiple Sequential Transformations \342\226\240 -10 0 the parity = +l. and we assume ky. 0 (1 (1 0 ky 0 0 0 k. of a geometric model relative to an arbitrary point pi requires a then the primary first translation that movesp. to the origin. relative to the dilation about an object Here point arbitrary pf of a set of points is expressed concisely using homogeneous that the scale factors k\342\200\236.

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Numerical Methods that Space Work.\" New York: Harper and Row. for ExploringMathematics. Acton.The many for this include limilalions of Spaceand changesof emphasis. and A. \"Automatic Bajaj. 473 .. Surveys Monographs 1990. Many bibliography of course. large works accessible subject. F. subsequent printings Abelson. Turtle Disessa. Abhyankar. significant development inlo a much more extensive of entry listing here. S. S.and nol all enlries of the first edition are repeatedhere.. Curves and SurfacesIV: Algebraic Graphics 8(4):325(1989). considerations as well as varying standards of documentation enlries are the second new included in this of edilion. Parameterization of Rational ACM Transactions on Curves. a Because and research points for a comprehensive are cited. and \320\241 L. American Mathematical Soeiely. Cambridge. S. S. for Scientists and Engineers\" Abhyankar. I apologizefor any omission and comments welcome on additions and correctionspending of this work. and reporting.1981. Geometry \"Algebraic and Mathematical 35.only not necessarilythe earliest. 1970.BIBLIOGRAPHY This provides bibliography loo literature. In somecases. access to these resultsis oflen difficult.on a particular part of geometric modeling comes out this is efforts of private industry (and most the of the still true due to proprietary in part today). The Computer Geometry: as a Medium Mass:MITPress. reasons Omission of works is not intended but is almost predictably inevitable important in a work of this size. H.

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M. \"Free-FormDeformationof SolidGeometric 20(4): 151 Graphics Aided Design Computer (1986). B.1987. J.and D L.Chang. Representations. Graphics27(2):86(1993).T. E. W. Aided Computer -. Aided R.. and S. Sederberg.\" /ICAi Transactions of Trimmed Surfaces in Hirsch.7 Graphics Computer Differencing. J. .\" to 22(4): 189 and \"Construction CSG with NURBS Trimmed 23(1): 4 Adaptive (1988). of the 7th D.- Meyers. and D. \"Geometric Complexity. A. and York: New M. New York: Shamos. Concerned Theorems \"Two Intersection Surface with and S. Shah.. N. Katz. and W.\" IEEE Graphics Computer and 6(6): 52-59 (1986). M.: Annual ACM ACM Press. S.Vossler. H..\" In KnowledgeBasedExpert Systems1 and Design. eds. Manly la.\" Computer Aided Design -.C. Sheng.\" Proceedings on Theory of Computing. \"Comparison of Three Curve Intersection Aided Design 18(1): 58-64 (1986). \"Dissertation Abstracts in Computer Graphics. \316\244 Farouki. \"Algebraic Geometry Computerand Applications Aided GeometricDesign..andR. V. 1. (1988).C.\" 634 (1991). Sederberg. Are Proven and Their Usefulness Design 21(8): 505 (1989).and Parametric Space. by \"Approximation Outlined. Meyers.\" Computer Shaffer.. Optimization of CSG (1991).. Aided Computer Sederberg. Shantz. 1975. ComputationalGeometry.-P \"Computing Computer Models. 1994. -. eds.T. Conversion.\"Triangulalion Aided Computer Design 24(8): 437 (1992). H. 23(9): A Prerequisite to \"Constraint Serano.\" Interval Bezier Curves. Sriramand R. and \316\244 W. United Kingdom: Planning Computational Mechanics Publications..\" IEEE ComputerGraphics Applications 87 (1992).\342\226\240 503 Bibliography SurfacePatch J. D. W. 12(5): \316\244 and R.T. X.Gossard.\" and R. Goldman.\" Points Control B-Spline Using Polar Forms. \"Loop Detection and SurfacePatch Geometric Design 5(2): 161-171 (1988). \"Separationfor Boundary on Graphics 12(1):35(1993). \"Loop Detection and Geometric Design 5(2): 161-171 Sederberg.W. N. Parry. Computer Algorithms.Washington.. Elsevier. for W..\" Computer Sederberg.Advances in Feature-BasedManufacturing. Management: in Engineering: Conceptual Design. J. Springer-Verlag. Adey. Symposium 1975. A. C. Intersections. Sederberg. Seidel. Christiansen..\316\244 Intersections.\"Rendering Forward Shapiro.. D.

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24(5): K. Barr.\" Requieha. A of . Stern..\" 3(6): 61-69 Applications .R.\"Technical Rochester. an Extended Cell Enumeration \"3D Modeling Using 13 Computer Graphics (1990). \"Line/Polygon of the Complexity Classification: Study Geometric and IEEE Applications 1(2): Computer Graphics Computation.L. Tiller.H. for Curves B-Splines IEEE and Graphics Computer Nonuniform Tutorial SlGGRAPH Techniques. -. Reentry \316\227.D.D Toennies.H. G. Models. A Unified Approach to Geometric on Computers C-29 (1980)...1. G. 1970. Tilove. . Informal Undated. 23: 329-349 SJCC the Tamminen. K.. Labeling. Geometric Entities. \"Analytical for Computation of Surface Intersections. \"Ablation Jr. ACM. Apr. '\"GeometricModelingUsing Mathematical and Surface Representation. Man-Machine A \316\225. Modeling. System.\"Exploiting and Spatial Structural Technical Memo no. March Bodies. Stokes of Global Geometric \"Computation Aided Objects.\" Proceedings of M. University of 1977. 30. B. Aided Computer Locality Automation Aircraft Company Technical Project. Nov.84(1981). 38. C.Arne. G. Representation.1986. M. Rochester. notes.\342\226\240 505 Bibliography 1. Timmer.NY.Aug.\" Cl-250-CAT-76-044.\" AFFDL-TR-70-27. ''Sketchpad: Communication Graphical (1963). 1976.\" Classification: -. and \316\227. \"Efficient Octree Conversion by Computer Graphics 18(3): 43 (1984).\"A Study of Geometric Set-Membership Tilove.\"ComputerGraphics21(4):205 Piatt. A. no.Production Rochester.80-82.\" Rational (1983).\" Computer Design 12(6) (1980).\" Background M emorandum Aircraft Technical C1-250-CAT-77-036. Douglas Company 1977. A. Timmer. and \320\222. H. Tang. B-Splines: Notes. .. 1981. -.:ACM Press.C. Fleishcher. NY. Memo Classification. Propertiesof Solid R.\" of University \"Closure of Boolean Operations on Design 12(5): 219-220 (1980).J. Washington. R.and Terzopoulos. \"Knot-Removal for Algorithms NURBS and Surfaces/' Curves Computer Aided Design24(8):445 (1992). A.\" 75-78.G \"Spline-Blended Interpolationofa Douglas in Geometric Memorandum Network of Curves. .\" Slender and J. Automation Production Project. ''Rational W. D.\" Connectivity \"Elastically Deformable (1987).T for Aerodynamics Timmer. Sutherland. \"Set-Membership Intersection Transactions IEEE Problems.

H. R. Warren.\" Voelcker. 1975. Mass. \320\232. Issue: Solid Modeling '93. the of University \"A \316\244 Aided Computer \"Geometric Modeling Researchat at the First Annual Conferenceof MIT.J. and Aided van Overveld. G. Cambridge. CAD/CAM in Graphics 1979. 21(4): Parametric Cubic Curve and Computer Aided Design 13(4):199-296(1981). M. Intersecting 103 (1987).T. \320\222.\" .and IEEE Surfaces..\" ACM Transactions on Graphics of the Rational Graphics Bezier 11 (2).\" Polygonal \"Re-tiling Turner.\"ComputerGraphics19(3): 171(1985).\" In The \"Family of Curve.\" Computer-Aided (1992). ed. D. Graphics Verroust. of Curves and Surfaces. 11(2): and Schonek.. Tokomasu....Y.\" 8(4):263(1989). von Herzen.and N. \"Spanning Nakajima.. Systems.\" and Graphics Computer \"Registration of 3D Objects and Applications 10(3):52-62 (1990).J. N.\" Syracuse thesis.Apr. NY. Martin. Aided \"Computer Applications Design PhD. \"Survey Mathematics \"Special 402 26(6): Rossignac. Rochester.\" Presented Computer Constructive Survey of Deformed. \"On D. Surfaces. Roller. R. Classification Cuhic Parametric \"Blending Curve. of Rochester.J.K. OxfordUniversity 1987. \320\241 \"Shape B-Spline J. \"Accurate Surfaces. Turk.506 \342\226\240 Bibliography Toennies. J. ACM \"Creating Transactions lions Triangula Algebraic Multisided on Objects Defined via no.\"Editorial. Wireframe. University Project. Use ParametricSurfaces.\" Graphics Computer Wang. Press..\" Automation for Procedures \"Boundary-Evaluation Solid of Blending Methods That Design 26(5): 341 (1994). Recursively Defined Curves.I. R. Bezier Cubic T. G.K. Using Base Points.Harashima. 26. and Varady. F. A.. Memo Technical Geometry. Design \320\241 W. Parametric Surfaces. Toth. Computer Graphics 26(2): 55 (1992).\"Computer Continuities II. Herman. Vida. L. Computer Varady. Syracuse.\" Computer Given 93 (1992). Vesprille. of Surfaces Veltkamp. \"Rule-Oriented Method for Aided Design 24(10): 531 Computer D. the over \320\241 \320\260 Surface Graphics Forum 12(4):211(1993).and A. Production Rochester. Surfaces 127 (1992). Design. . Parameterized of \320\241 \"Survey Forum (1994).\" Computer and New Results A.S.Relatedto Aided Design 22(9): 591(1990). G. 1980. \316\221. Ray Tracing J.. Udupa. Requicha. SplineApproximationForm. in rc-SidedPatch Generation. . of the Rational B- University. Martin. a R. Surfaces. B.

20(7): and S1GGRAPH'92.. Data. for Bezier Curves. in Geometric Modeling. A. Woodwark. Computer Differentially. R. \"Cross-sectional Graphics11(2):193 Design o/ B-Spline Surfaces.Martin. Intersection Curves: Shape and Aided Design 25(10): 633 (1993). Aided Computer Welch. Theory New York: Wil/. \316\221. Barr.\342\226\240 507 Bibliography A. Calif. 26(2): Proceedings of 157 (1992).: Morgan ofSlGGRAPH \"Quadric-Siirface Y. York: \"Blends R. \"Energy Constraints on Parameterized '87. Markowsky. A. 1984. Fleischer.\"In Mathemaiics of Oxford University Press. Plenum Press. F.. Graphics Computer G. Wesley. by W. \316\234. of Solid Models from Two- In Solid Modeling S. 1988.\" (1988). Yamaguchi.and Watkins.. Dimensional From Computers: Structure\" Witkin. Reduction ''Degree 398-405 Computer \316\232.\" Proceedings 1987. Curves and Springer-Verlag.. Boyse. Worsey. Models. Design A. .\" Proceedingsof Welch. Surfaces in Computer Aided GeometricDesign. and \316\221. Wilkin. Woodward. Surface Modeling.. 1989. R. New ed. \316\234. M. W. \320\241 D. Three-Dimensional and \"Manipulating Surfaces '91. Surfaces II. and W.\" \"Generation to Applications. and A. ACM 1991. and 1. J. Graphics \"Variational Witkin. Kallmann. Gleicher. Palo Alto.\" Computer (1987).\" eds.. Pickett and J. Manor.

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83. characteristics Addition.88 tension.45 matrix. 20 Area.45 41. Adjacency transformation(s). 421 Affine conversion 313 matrix. 83. 142 10 40. 34. 176 45 orthogonal. invariance under.142 cubic. triangle.421 Beads. 315.126 B-Spline.10 bias.INDEX Bezier. 90 Barsky. 6 APT language.A.88 partition-of-unity Beta splinecurves: properly. of.382 2 408 11 Approximation. 424 between symmetry Basis pairs of.83 113. Arc length. even-degree polynomials.390 Bernstein potynomiats: Bezier curve.45 Angle excess. A initio Ab 3 design.297 Auxiliary 82 85. vector. \320\222 Barsky.Bezier curve invariance under.B. transformation 48 vectors. Ancestor.4l7.A\342\200\236 Basis. 34. 287 Animation. Algebraic geometry.. 48 odd-degree polynomials.421 Basis function(s): Bernstein polynomials.B. 87 509 . 87 40 Algebraiccoefficients. 296.142 Beziercurve(s): affine Iransforma u'ons. curves. Atlas. 376. basis transformation Hermite matrix.42-47 Hermite.137 between.

342. 337 112 closed set.97 G2 continuity. set. 90 ellipse. model(s): Boolean convex hull.319 subdivision. algebra. 319 graph-based form.Bezier ciirve(s)(Continued): to geometric application modeling. curvature patch. surface: function sets.321 algebra. empty hyperbola.222 form. 82.7.215 11)5 points. 95 parabola. 82 circle.218 characteristic polyhedron. curve on.88 Bdzier-Hermite matrix rational Bezier 105 111 Binomial constructionof. 225 tensorproduct. 107 intersectionof.321) null 82 set.213. set-membership weights. 219 isoparametric 83 coefficient.81 basis functions. 319 operations transformations. control points. 319 341 .81 basis of a interior points on. closed 107 elevation. on. 2.321 cubic. Binary conic representations. of.88 Boolean Boolean endpoints. characteristic 223 elevation. 316.84 modifying. degree reduction.. 342-343 93 truncating. basis composite. degree 85 conversion. 319 open set.\320\2462 continuity. 319 constructive solid geometry. Blend surfaces.319 Bezier. 108 319 operators. sets. 218 222 subset. directed surface. matrix.112 matrix 84 recursive homogeneity. 321 boundary of closedset.93 transformation binomial 224 continuity.323 UNlSURF 81 332 classification. 82.342 107 higher-order. closed.350 tree. set.346. 84 Hermite.220 33. 323 dimensional properties 348 320 difference.319 unevaluated model.10. degree on. 90 at 83 coefficient.P. 341 97 procedural system. 321 intersection.97. polygon. 224 convertingbetweenBezierand 83.217.83. half-spaces. 310 half-space. 102 subdividing.217 composite.1D2 primitives. 81 Bezier model. boundary.89 control polygon. 110 sets. 319 model. 112 rational. regularized set operators. 328 valid. 217 points 93 control 217. bicubic patch. properties of.222 Bernstein polynomials.

113 functions.7.uniform. \320\241 continuity.320.33. nonperiodic. 348 124 closed. Closed 124 82 Circular arc.228 quadric. 134 control 232 Building-block geometiy. 141 shape open. 141 Cardinal conditions. 139 data structure. 332 Closedcurved surfaces.126 circle. Cayley. 128 functions. evaluator.363 10. points. 435 Circuit. polynomial.321 intersection. network parametric Circle. 136 control points. Cell decomposition.319. functions.321 points on.321 basis uniform (b-rcps). basis transformations.199 splines. recursive definition of basis. basis functions.. Characteristic basis 137 basis 227 deCasteljau. 126 functions. factor. nonuniform Boolean operators: region. basis conic 227 235 NURBS. nonuniform difference.P. equation. universal paths.227 matrix topology..305 knot vector.117 Class 313 384 evaluators.367 Cells. 139 228 form. 227 polyhedron. 127 dcBoor.363 358. 114 70. B-Spline curve(s): conies.C. of. 319 Venn 139 320 diagram. Classification of points. graph. 114 Closed matrix form.115 between functions. control 358 358. 363 valid. knot spacing.114 weights.360 characteristic 228 closed.A.141 115 115.511 Index union.88 points. 314 set. 128 degree of basis function spacing. knot basis quadratic representations boundary knot 121 polygon.227 tensor 113.multiple. NURBS. 196. 358 Boundary. 113 nonperiodic. path 282 theorem. validity. 356.10 Boundary 139 rational. 364 Boundary model(s): cubic 139 periodic. 114 conversion product. B-Spline surface: 362 generalizedconceptof a boundary.71) nonuniform... application to geometricmodeling.114 values. 320. 114 union. 113.130 continuity points on.431 Characteristicpolygon. 286 254 . summary.

351 \320\2565 192. 68 parabola.CNC machining. Curvature. composite (CAGD). models.of Combinatorial history. 20.16 net.. 64 Bezier B-Spline polygon. of. 31 64 tree. boundary surface.350 ordered. Requicha. 348 349 auxiliary.134 first manufacturing circle.275 70 surface. Compound plate layout. binary 399 adding.217. Connectivity branches. . implicit 74. equation order. Connectivity. Voelker.5.10 Continui 2 (CAD).74.A. total. S. Control factor.224 surfaces.M. 64 traditional. geome trie.220 of. 207 parametric. NURBS curve. 77.7. gluing 437 determinants. 2.439. Cubic curves.B.. model.G.81 Coons.10 root 350 node.10 Crain. representation 352 definition.39 Curvature (b-reps). ty: Bezier curves. Hermite approximations hyperhoi a. 69 of. 77 order. Constructive dependency.1. 90 441 296 Constructive solid geometry(CSG): cell decomposition. 32. 176 Beta-Spline. neighborhood Composite: curves.L. \316\221.139 Conjugate Contours.1. 288 Curve(s): tree.348 lea/ nodes. 411 74. logical. 320 Boolean operators. 77 1 graphics..A. 82. 411 Cofactors. design Computer-aided 6 Computer-aided geometricdesign Hermite curves. hull. Completeness..105 curves. 32.312 boundary 114 curve.6 conic 105 B-Splinecurves. B-Spline Connectivitymatrix.350 363 structure.11 28 Cross plots. 77 Coniccurve(s): 32 characteristics.. Bezier. 408 Computationalgeometry.2 Computer-aided Computer 355 348. 159 Convex Coordinates. Curvature. 252 primitives.81 142 108.107 points. 375 346.G.301 364 evaluator.77 Cone. 350 procedural representation. 312 Boolean 89 curve.M.319 Cox. 288 density. \320\22748 homogeneous. (CAM). 349 operation.89 Conventionsand notation. solids. 141 shape construction second Controlled deformation.H.binary 114 characteristic number.10. 89 Bezier surface.

40 rational Bezier. 276 cusps.277 Dilation (scaling).382 Directed graph.407 436 Difference 320 operator. 20 nets on surfaces. D Decomposition. 22 12 method difference forward for points on.223 Degree elevation. conic. 70 34 solution. 59 Einstein summation symmetriesof.275 28 of. Directed surface.77.108 segment. intrinsic equations of. surface and volume.97 Eigenvectors. net. 97 375 379 interobject. power basis.161 419 numbers. Ellipse.32.77 Discretization. topology Descendant. subdivision.39 Hermite. 375 \316\225 436 Eigenvalues.286 Durableproperties. 20.107 fitting.48 equation surfaces. 13. 77 continui implicit equation 22 of.419 Direction 159.39 parametric.64 conic Hermite.139 95. Degree reduction.471 of. 54.382 33 interpolation. 436 subdividing. quick.53 bivariate. 32.32 circulararc. Deformation(s): curvature.53 monomialbasis. topological. Dependency.105 composite. axial. point shapes. 367 cell. 68 Discretization. 20 torsion.440. 19 intrinsic properties. points on. 22 form. parametric continuity. surfaces.34 268 position-direction.97 truncating. continuity. Direct-point parabola. 160 on a isoparametric delormable. 53 31.513 B-Spline.464.9. parametric equations parameterization. 382 natural on of. 284 Determinants. 26 topological 405 Disk.462. 22 invariant. 36 geometric ty. surface.181 NURBS. 19 loops.40 405 . 32 convention. 25.206 64 74. direct 54. Designoptimization.105 implicit and between conversion parametric cubic. 315. Cylindricalsurface. Dependency.constructive.284 34 explicit equation of. 159 orthogonal 1\320\2631\321\203\320\260\320\2631\320\2601\320\265. 37 computing. 159. Cusps. 313. 277 decomposition controlled. of. 23 reversing. 279 Digraph. solution. 343 Direction cosines.74.Index .

265 preorder relational geometricsynthesis. 316 postorder 36 interpolation. Ellipsoid.. 7. 315 Euler characteristic. in degree. 312 matrix.A. 313 directed graph..456 Handles. Gordon. tree..313 F inorder Ferguson.313 294 formula.10. Frames. 305 Euler-Poincare \320\256 models. .R.514 \342\226\240 Index Embedded geometry. Group 263 technology. E.W.315 315 branches. 315 traversal. 401 root. 313 wireframe directed.382. 316 subgraph.. Geometric continuity. 315 out degree.3 3 318 model. 161.378 Entity classes 379 ancestor. J.306 Euler's matrix.265. Half-spaces. node. tree. 313 Graphs. 405 Forrest. 470 algebraic 40. binary Euler operators. 316 traversal. 316 2 6 polygonal 8 373 315 Hermite curves: Gibbs.J.419 algebraic Glide rotation. visualization. 313 traversal. Graph.W. Eshleman. 315 node.267 Geometric coefficients..376 Entity. circuit. 9 166 Hamilton.349 152 parametric. Extrinsic properties. history. 8. J. 40 matrix.313 traversal.l9 315 descendant.49 coefficients. 313 ancestor.l wireframe.C.417 spanning tree. \316\227 schemes. representation^ Hermite.61 Four-point 4. 313 formula. 16 General sweep surface.33 Hermite spheres with.7 Forward difference method. adjacency 7 450 angles. recursive. W..400 rendering. 376.295 connected. Euler Gluingoperation. form. connectivity Extruded sweep. C.proper. Graph-based and subclasses.jci.419. R. 289 basis transformation 48 Whatisit?. 41 77 Geometric modeling: ab initio design. Free vectors.313 G Gauss-Bonnet Gaussian 306 theorem. traversal. 313. 316 tree. quadrature.81 and model element Finite leaf analysis.A.3 geometric metaphor.

256 basis f unctions. 64 continuity. bicubic: surface.69 form. 257 higher-dimensional isoparametric curves in. 250 vectors. unit Hermite basis normals. 254 continuity.50-53 truncating. 182 patch. directionality. 74 composite. compositesolids. rule. 253 and surfaces elements.210 parametric continuity. trimmed boundaries. algebraic basis functions.237 285 .174 spline generalizednotation scheme.77 geometric form. 206 47 subdividing. geometric 186 60 interpolation.41 transformation basis twist matrix. 39.172.169. 192 curve parabola.70 conic.179 for.179 191 truncating. 173.170 orthogonalnet.48 Bezier-Hcrmite 85 conversion. approximation of.191 tangent vectors.39 253 regular. 441 241 form.61 matrix algebraic coefficients. 192 converting degeneratepatches. 241 transformation tensorproduct. 184 form. 41. nonisoparametric 169.Index.257 geometric notation sixteen-point 53 vector. algebraic 179 net.439. 203 of a patch. 6 Homogeneous 252 Homotopy. parameter spaceof. function basis cusps. 49 77 46 between algebraic geometric and 49 forms.169 auxiliary endpoints. boundaries.207 cells. coordinates.69 Hyperpatch.179 74. Horner's 253 curves in. History.252 curves form. 176 170 matrix. 34 Hyperbola. matrix. 68 relationship composite.180 vectors.l96 subdividing. Hermite circular arc. 180 241 form. three-point continuity. 108. matrix ruled surface. 250 33. twist 252 unit in. 39. 32. 180 reparameterization 54 tangent algebraic and plane 54 tangent vectors. approximation. 182 normal. form. 178. 254 parametric tangent vectors. transformation blend surfaces.515 to application geometric modeling. geometric continuity. solid: interpolation. cells.180 41 61 four-point interpolation. 169 curve. geometric forms. cylindrical surface. geometric 41 coefficients. hyperbola. 54 reparameterizing.77 cubic.53 quintic. 213 41 parametric.

436 Kinematic analysis. dependencies. matrix. S. Letcher.^ matrix. 435 group. 291 293 Knot spacing. curves. row summary of. 439 435 37 solution. Bezier Isome tries.432 matrix 48 algebra. 124 characteristicequation. 160 curves. geometric 12 basis transformation. Intrinsic of curves.7. equation 10. Logical Innerproduct. Line. 291 curve Jordan 286 theorem. 436 determinants. 379 Interobject Interpolation. of. 436 eigenvectors. eigenvalues. form. 53 and cusps in Loops 22.117 Knot values. transformation.422 Inorder 315 traversal. J 435 Joins between surfaces.xi. 432 application to modeling. vector. 422.. 432 diagonal \320\232 Kronecker delta. identity Knot Knot matrix. Bezier basis B-Spline transformation. Identity of parametric Implicitization transformations. Length. 114. equation Invariant property. Inverse-point 19 Magnets.291 114 delta. 419 J. vector 433 postmultiply.391 Magni antisymmetric Inversematrix.434 of.440 Isoparametric 376. matrix. 433 multiplication null matrix.376 Jordan. rank of. 4 300 Klein bottle.C. 434 L vector. 432. 431 124 . 431 order partitioned.3L5 433 premultiply. Hermite basis Knot. vector. 425 properties.I Linear 432 matrix. 84 84 curve.12 320 Intersection.v. 419 Matrices: addition. 437 cofactor. 431 column conformable. Leaf node.433 313 adjacency.144 382 model. 115.373 of. 459 Inversion. \316\234 260-261 Instances. B-Spline curve.432 Kronccker 432 inversion of. 436 421 matrix. 439 411 Logicalcompleteness. tude. 433 312 connectivity.

298 Norm. 84 Merging 20 curve. Model(s) and modeling: transformations. NURBS form.v. 228 14 Hermite curve.315 241 364 algorithm. Node. N 43L of. 47 roots.356 Numerical analysis. 124 B-Spline Tricubic 160 isoparametric. Model scalar multiplication. surface.386 evaluation. 407 .386 conic representation.341 Boolean.157 377.235 \320\236 367 space-partitioning.4 NURBS surface(s).373 solid. 139 355 neighborhood.404 procedural. 341.382 412 relational. 8.318 Model space. 369 Op timiza tion. boundary 315 Nonlinear Nonorientable 299 strip.. 384 Octrees.7.348 element. curve. 318. finite conic shape factor. 41 \316\257 parametric. 419 and Notation (b-rep). 13 NURBS curve: circle. Modularity MultiSurf. 433 scalar product as a matrix relational in product. logical. curve: as a matrix product product. 16 conventions.176 Model for finding method Newton-Raphson Hermitesurface. subtractive. D. 4.surface.160 form: Bezier curves.182. vector Natural equations of a 432 matrix.281. Meriwether. representation 281. Beziersurface. 383.xi. 378. 383. B-Spline surface.378 evaluation.351 relational geometry.378 \342\226\240 517 models. recursive. 13 Node.405 graph-based.159 covariant. 435 Matrix parametric. 435 matrix.6 unevaluated. 3. H. 432 transpose unit Nets.141 evaluation. deficiencies of. structure.28 Object 376. CSG. 159 Newton-Cotesquadratureformulas. model.217 Mobius conjugate. 355 Neighborhood 432 matrix. 310 equation of. 432 skew symmetric square matrix. 440 Normals. 341 wireframe. 160 orthogonal. 139 139 weights.170 solid. shape 139 140 modification. symmetric Object. leaf.Index scalar 432 matrix. design.

417 Rational forms. Parameterization.90 control. under 111 108 perspective 108 . Parameterization. advantages Parametric 271 curve.332 forward difference. modeling.108 classification. self-intersecting. of. Power basis.36 importanceof in on curves.341.for parameter space. 108. 456 flat surface.377. \316\241 Position-directioncurve. convex.268 nOnsimple. curves. 293 R 13 Radius 203.298 Outline surface. in 23.404 derivatives. equation 282 Quaternions. surface Path. 369 268 Perspective Plane.260. polynomial. Parameterized shapes.simp]e.268 392 default. solution.111 Piecewisepolynomials. Parameterization.16 Parametric variable. 34 homogeneous in variance transformation.427 vector. Partition of 301 Quadric unity.293 curves. Parametric 13 interpolation. Primitives.29 modeling. Projective of. on of. of revolution.295 293 regular. coordinates. 149 Patch. 316 traversal. quadrature 14 formulas. plane. 149 transformation.normalizing domain of. 316 Proceduralmodel. 261. star. 165.282 Piecewise surface(s): classification 90 Path. 282 Polyhedron: 298 Orientation-reversing.34 158 Bezier 225 surface. 377. effects of.300 computation equations. curve.Orientable.319 54 transformations. inverse-point surfaces. 39 Parametric 40 traversal. 27 Parametric Preorder Profile Parametric cubic curve.293. Parity. 159 net of Orthogonal 82. 24 modeling. PD Newton-Cotes 25 transition. 293 simple.153 Parameter 417 vector.351 77 continuity. Point(s): Bezier curves.4()4 of Q Quadrature: Gaussianquadrature.148 144-145 Quadtrees.28. Orientation-preserving. Polynomial 68 Parabola. Position Postorder 37 392 natural.298 Polygons: 298 Orientation.

5 sliding Ross.265. 446 .376.F.186 Riesenfeld. optimization.373 parameterization. polynomial: finding New ton-Rap hson method. model mode