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Grammar Appendix

GETTING STARTED
Present Simple
FORM
Affirmative
I / You go
He / She / It goes
We / You / They go

Negative
I / You do not (dont) go
He / She / It does not (doesnt) go
We / You / They do not (dont) go

Uses

Interrogative
Do I / you go?
Does he / she / it go?
Do we / you / they go?

Examples

A regular habit or routine

I go to work by bus.

A general truth or scientific fact

The sun is a star.

Stative verbs

I dont feel well.

Adverbs of frequency / Time expressions


always, usually, generally, regularly, occasionally,
frequently, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, never
at 1 oclock, at night, in the morning, on Fridays,
every week, once a month, how often ...?

(Eu vou traballar en bus.)


(O sol unha estrela.)
(Non me sinto ben.)

Present Continuous
FORM
Affirmative
I am asking
You are asking
He / She / It is asking
We / You / They are asking
Uses

Negative
I am (Im) not asking
You are not (arent) asking
He / She / It is not (isnt) asking
We / You / They are not (arent) asking
Examples

Interrogative
Am I asking?
Are you asking?
Is he / she / it asking?
Are we / you / they asking?
Time expressions

An action which is happening now

She is listening to the radio right now.

now, right now, at the moment

A temporary action

Greg is installing new software today.

this year, at present, today, these days, this month

A definite plan for the near future

They are having fish and chips tonight.

this evening, tonight, tomorrow,


next Friday / week / year

(Ela est a escoitar a radio arestora.)

(Hoxe Greg est a instalar novo software.)


(Esta noite van tomar fish and chips.)

Stative Verbs
Indican un estado mis que unha accin e adoitan
empregarse en Present Simple. Estn relacionados con:
as emocins e os sentimentos (dislike, enjoy, hate, hope,
like, love, prefer, want),
o pensamento e a opinin (believe, forget, guess, know,
remember, think, understand),
a percepcin e os sentidos (feel, hear, see, smell, sound,
taste, touch),
os prezos e as medidas (cost, measure, weigh) e
a pertenza (belong, have, own).

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Algns indican tanto estado como actividade e poden


empregarse en Present Simple e en Present Continuous.
They think the basketball player is young.

(Eles cren que o xogador de baloncesto novo.) [estado]

Tim is thinking about buying a new car.

(Tim est a pensar en mercar un coche novo.) [actividade]

O verbo see en Present Continuous indica unha accin futura


fixada de antemn.

 e are seeing our grandparents tomorrow.
W
(Veremos / Imos ver aos nosos avs ma.) [Xa quedamos.]

Grammar Appendix

Past Simple
FORM
Affirmative
I / You worked
He / She / It worked
We / You / They worked

Negative
I / You did not (didnt) work
He / She / It did not (didnt) work
We / You / They did not (didnt) work

Uses

Interrogative
Did I / you work?
Did he / she / it work?
Did we / you / they work?

Examples

A completed action in the past

Last year, my uncle won the lottery.

A series of completed actions in


the past

I asked him a question and he answered quickly.

Time expressions
yesterday, last week / year,
two days ago, in 2007, in the 1980s,
in the 18th century, when, then

(O ano pasado o meu to gaou a lotara.)


(Fxenlle unha pregunta e contestou decontado.)

Past Continuous
FORM
Affirmative
I was running
You were running
He / She / It was running
We / You / They were running
Uses
An incomplete action in progress
at a specific time in the past
An incomplete action interrupted
by another action
Two incomplete actions in progress at
the same time in the past

Negative
I was not (wasnt) running
You were not (werent) running
He / She / It was not (wasnt) running
We / You / They were not (werent) running
Examples
At 10 oclock last night, he was watching a film.
(A pasada noite s dez, el estaba a ver unha pelcula.)

Interrogative
Was I running?
Were you running?
Was he / she / it running?
Were we / you / they running?
Time expressions
last night / week / year,
at 4 oclock

Sarah was reading a book when I phoned her.


(Sarah estaba a ler un libro cando a telefonei.)

when, while, as

They were talking quietly while the baby was sleeping.


(Estaban falando en baixo mentres o beb durma.)

Present Perfect Simple


FORM
Affirmative
I / You have eaten
He / She / It has eaten
We / You / They have eaten

Negative
I / You have not (havent) eaten
He / She / It has not (hasnt) eaten
We / You / They have not (havent) eaten

Uses

Interrogative
Have I / you eaten?
Has he / she / it eaten?
Have we / you / they eaten?

Examples

An action that began in the past and continues


until the present
An action that took place at an undetermined time
in the past, but is connected to the present

Time expressions

Peter has worked in this restaurant for two years.


(Peter leva a traballar neste restaurante dous anos.)

They have recently released their first album.

(Acaban de sacar o seu primeiro lbum recentemente.)

never, ever, already, just, yet,


recently, lately, how long ...?,
for, since, in recent years

Past Perfect Simple


FORM
Affirmative
I / You had fallen
He / She / It had fallen
We / You / They had fallen
Uses

Examples

A completed action which took place


before another action in the past
Contrast 2 Galician

Negative
I / You had not (hadnt) fallen
He / She / It had not (hadnt) fallen
We / You / They had not (hadnt) fallen

B Burlington Books

John had returned from his walk before I arrived.


(John tia volto do seu paseo cando eu cheguei.)

Interrogative
Had I / you fallen?
Had he / she / it fallen?
Had we / you / they fallen?
Time expressions
already, by the time, after,
before, until, never, just

Grammar Appendix
Future Simple
FORM
Affirmative
I / You will win
He / She / It will win
We / You / They will win
Uses

Negative
I / You will not (wont) win
He / She / It will not (wont) win
We / You / They will not (wont) win
Examples

A prediction

Tomorrow, it will snow in some regions.

A timetable

Our break will end at 3 oclock.

A spontaneous decision

I feel sleepy. I will go to bed.

Interrogative
Will I / you win?
Will he / she / it win?
Will we / you / they win?
Time expressions

(Ma nevar nalgunhas rexins.)

this evening, in an hour, at 2 oclock, later,


tomorrow, next month / year, soon, in a few
weeks, in the future, on 1st May

(O noso descanso rematar s tres.)


(Teo sono. Vou cama.)

Be going to
FORM
Affirmative
I am going to eat
You are going to eat
He / She / It is going to eat
We / You / They are going to eat

Negative
I am not going to eat
You are not (arent) going to eat
He / She / It is not (isnt) going to eat
We / You / They are not (arent) going to eat

Uses

Interrogative
Am I going to eat?
Are you going to eat?
Is he / she / it going to eat?
Are we / you / they going to eat?

Examples

A planned action for the future


An action that is about to happen

Time expressions
this evening, later, in an hour,
at 4 oclock, tomorrow, soon,
next month / year, in a few weeks,
on 8th May

Sandy is going to play tennis with her cousin later.


(Sandy vai xogar ao tenis co seu curmn mis tarde.)

Look! That boy is going to dance in the street!

(Olla! Ese rapaz vai bailar na ra!)

O Present Continuous con valor de futuro


Anuncia accins fixadas de antemn que ocorrern nun
futuro vindeiro. Adoita reservarse para plans persoais xa
concertados.
Non expresa unha intencin, como be going to, senn
algo que foi programado con adianto e que vai ocorrer con

certeza. Distnguese do Present Continuous normal porque a


expresin temporal que vai na frase indica un tempo futuro
e non presente.

She is getting married in July.

(Ela casa / casar en xullo.) [plan concertado]

Future Perfect Simple


FORM
Affirmative
I / You will have lost
He / She / It will have lost
We / You / They will have lost

Negative

I / You will not (wont) have lost
He / She / It will not (wont) have lost
We / You / They will not (wont) have lost

Uses

Examples

A completed action at a certain future time

Fred will have moved from his flat by the


end of March.
(Fred terase mudado do seu piso para finais
de marzo.)

Interrogative
Will I / you have lost?
Will he / she / it have lost?
Will we / you / they have lost?
Time expressions

by this time next week, by 3 oclock, by the


end of ..., by then, by August, in four months

Future Continuous
FORM
Affirmative
I / You will be swimming
He / She / It will be swimming
We / You / They will be swimming

Negative
I / You will not (wont) be swimming
He / She / It will not (wont) be swimming
We / You / They will not (wont) be swimming

Uses
An action in progress at a certain future time
Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Examples
At this time next Monday, they will be taking a
train to Paris.

(O vindeiro luns a estas horas, estarn collendo un


tren a Pars.)

Interrogative
Will I / you be swimming?
Will he / she / it be swimming?
Will we / you / they be swimming?
Time expressions
at this time tomorrow / next ... ,
on Thursday, in the next decade

Grammar Appendix

UNIT 1 A Way with Words


Present Perfect Simple
FORM
Affirmative
I / You have eaten
He / She / It has eaten
We / You / They have eaten

Negative
I / You have not (havent) eaten
He / She / It has not (hasnt) eaten
We / You / They have not (havent) eaten

Uses

Examples

An action that began in the past and continues


until the present
An action that took place at an undetermined time in the
past, but is connected to the present

(Ela leva a estudar ingls tres anos.)

I have downloaded the document.


(Baixei o documento.)

Afirmativa: suxeito + have / has + participio do verbo


principal.
Negativa: suxeito + have / has + not (ou nt) + participio do
verbo principal.
Interrogativa: Have / Has + suxeito + participio do verbo
principal.

Usos
 alar de accins que comezaron no pasado e anda
F
continan. Por iso, s veces tradcese o verbo en presente.
Con accins pasadas cuxos efectos son visbeis no
momento actual.
Expresar que unha accin vn de ocorrer. Daquela
engadimos just entre o auxiliar e mais o participio.

She has just joined the gym.

never, ever, already, just, yet,


recently, lately, how long ...?,
for, since, in recent years

En afirmativa empregamos just, never e already, en


negativa empregamos yet, e en interrogativa already, ever,
yet e just.

Ive already apologised to her.

(Xa me desculpei con ela.)

The lesson hasnt started yet.

Have you ever found a typo in a book?

(A clase non comezou anda.)


(Algunha vez atopaches unha errata nun libro?)

Con How long ...? preguntamos canto tempo pasou desde


que a accin, que anda contina, comezou.
How long have they lived abroad?

(Canto tempo hai que viven no estranxeiro?)

For sinala canto durou a accin e since cando comezou.


I have had this disease for two years / since 2010.

(Teo / Tiven esta doenza desde hai dous anos/desde 2010.)

Past Simple / Present Perfect Simple

(Ela vn de se apuntar ao ximnasio.)

Never, ever, already e just pense entre o auxiliar (have)


e o participio do verbo, mentres que yet sempre aparece ao
final da frase.

Time expressions

She has studied English for three years.

Forma

Interrogative
Have I / you eaten?
Has he / she / it eaten?
Have we / you / they eaten?

He has never studied a foreign language before.

(El nunca estudou unha lingua estranxeira antes.)

O Past Simple indica o que ocorreu nun momento concreto,


mentres que o Present Perfect Simple sita a accin nun
perodo de tempo.
I raised some questions, but they havent answered them yet.
(Formulei algunhas preguntas, mais non as responderon
anda.)

Have you written the essay yet?

(Escribiches xa o traballo?)

Present Perfect Continuous


FORM
Affirmative
I / You have been sleeping
He / She / It has been sleeping
We / You / They have been sleeping
Uses

Negative
I / You have not (havent) been sleeping
He / She / It has not (hasnt) been sleeping
We / You / They have not (havent) been sleeping

Interrogative
Have I / you been sleeping?
Has he / she / it been sleeping?
Have we / you / they been sleeping?

Examples

An action that started in the past and which still continues How long have you been staying at the hotel?
(Canto tempo levas aloxado no hotel?)
in the present
An action whose results are still apparent

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Im tired. I have been reading The Lord of the


Rings all night.
(Estou canso. Estiven a ler O Seor dos Aneis
toda a noite.)

Time expressions
for a year, since 2002,
how long ...?
all night / morning /
day / week

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix
Forma

Usos

Afirmativa: suxeito + have / has + been + verbo principal


rematado en -ing.
Negativa: suxeito + have / has + not (ou n't) + been + verbo
principal rematado en -ing.
Interrogativa: Have / Has + suxeito + been + verbo
principal rematado en -ing.

 xpresar accins que comezaron no pasado e que anda


E
continan. Como o Present Perfect Continuous salienta o
tempo que est a durar a accin, adoitamos traducilo por
levar en presente + un verbo en xerundio.
Expresar accins rematadas mais acabadas de facer cuxos
efectos son visbeis anda.
As expresins temporais empregadas con este tempo verbal
deben sinalar un perodo, non un intre concreto.

Future Perfect Simple


FORM
Affirmative
I / You will have lost
He / She / It will have lost
We / You / They will have lost

Negative

I / You will not (wont) have lost
He / She / It will not (wont) have lost
We / You / They will not (wont) have lost

Uses

Examples

A completed action at a certain future time

I will have lost six kilos by the end of the


year.

(Terei perdido seis quilos para finais de ano.)

Forma
Afirmativa: suxeito + will have + participio do verbo
principal.
Negativa: suxeito + will not (ou wont) have + participio do
verbo principal.

Interrogative
Will I / you have lost?
Will he / she / it have lost?
Will we / you / they have lost?
Time expressions

by this time next week, by 3 oclock, by the


end of ..., by then, by August, in four months

Interrogativa: Will + suxeito + have + participio do verbo


principal.

Usos

I ndicar que unha accin rematar nun momento concreto


do futuro.

Past Perfect Simple


FORM
Affirmative
I / You had fallen
He / She / It had fallen
We / You / They had fallen

Negative
I / You had not (hadnt) fallen
He / She / It had not (hadnt) fallen
We / You / They had not (hadnt) fallen

Uses

Interrogative
Had I / you fallen?
Had he / she / it fallen?
Had we / you / they fallen?

Examples

A completed action which took place


before another action in the past

Time expressions
already, by the time, after,
before, until, never, just

By the time I looked, the fox had already gone.


(Para cando mirei, o raposo xa fuxira.)

Forma

Usos

Afirmativa: suxeito + had + participio do verbo principal.


Negativa: suxeito + had not (o hadnt) + participio do verbo
principal.
Interrogativa: Had + suxeito + participio do verbo principal.

I ndicar que unha accin ocorreu antes que outra, a cal vai
en Past Simple.

Past Perfect Continuous


FORM
Affirmative
I / You had been studying
He / She / It had been studying
We / You / They had been studying

Negative
I / You had not (hadnt) been studying
He / She / It had not (hadnt) been studying
We / You / They had not (hadnt) been studying

Uses

Examples

An action which continued up to


another past action
Contrast 2 Galician

Interrogative
Had I / you been studying?
Had he / she / it been studying?
Had we / you / they been studying?

They had been studying for two hours before we arrived.

(Eles estiveran a estudar durante das horas antes de que chegaramos.)

B Burlington Books

Time expressions
for hours, since last April,
all morning, when, until, before

Grammar Appendix
Forma
Afirmativa: suxeito + had + been + verbo principal
rematado en -ing.
Negativa: suxeito + had not (o hadnt) + been + verbo
principal rematado en -ing.
Interrogativa: Had + suxeito + been + verbo principal
rematado en -ing.

Usos

 alar dunha accin prolongada que ocorreu no pasado


F
antes que outra accin breve tamn pasada. moi comn
traducilo por levar en pretrito imperfecto + un verbo en
xerundio.
She had been teaching English for 20 years when she retired.

(Levaba vinte anos ensinando ingls cando se xubilou.)

O habitual que esas das accins vaian unidas por unha


conxuncin, que pode ser temporal como as do cadro (when,
until, before), concesiva (although) ou causal (because).

 had been going to the doctor for weeks before they found out
He
what was wrong with him.
(Levaba semanas indo ao mdico antes de que averiguasen
que lle ocorra.)

be used to / get used to


Be used to significa estar afeito/a / acostumado/a a, mentres
que get used to se refire ao proceso de afacerse. En ambos os
dous casos vai seguido dun nome ou un xerundio detrs de to.
Estas das estruturas son moi diferentes da forma verbal
used to, pois nelas used non un verbo, senn un adxectivo.
Os verbos que acompaan a used son be e mais get, os cales
poden conxugarse.

I am used to communicating in sign language.

(Estou afeita a me comunicar na lingua de signos.)

She is getting used to her new job.

(Estase afacendo ao seu novo traballo.)

He got used to the accent as soon as he arrived.

(Afxose ao acento en canto chegou.)

We shouldnt get used to living in their house.

(Non deberiamos afacernos a vivir na sa casa.)

used to / would
Emprganse para falar de accins que eran comns no pasado
mais xa non o son. Adoitan acompaarse de adverbios e
expresins de tempo.

Every Sunday, he used to watch a film with his brother.

When

I lived in the countryside, I would always go everywhere
by car.

(Cada domingo, adoitaba ver unha pelcula co seu irmn.)


(Cando viva no campo, adoitaba ir sempre a todas as partes en
coche.)

Used to tamn se emprega para falar de estados e situacins


pasadas, e daquela traducimos o verbo principal en pretrito
perfecto simple ou en pretrito imperfecto. Would non pode
empregarse nestes casos.

Used to non ten forma de presente. En negativa e interrogativa


require o auxiliar did e en ambos os dous casos perde o d.

Did you use to study at the library when you were in college?
(Adoitabas estudar na biblioteca cando estabas
na universidade?)

Sufixos para formaren substantivos


Os sufixos son terminacins que engadimos a algunhas
palabras para formarmos outras novas.
Algns dos mis empregados para formarmos substantivos
son: -ment, -tion / -sion, -ness, -ship, -ity, -ence / -ance e
-er / -or. Estes son algns exemplos:
announce (anunciar)
punctuate (puntuar)
conclude (conclur)
happy (feliz)
champion (campin/oa)
personal (persoal)
indifferent (indiferente)
annoy (molestar)
run (correr)
sail (navegar)

announcement (anuncio)
punctuation (puntuacin)
conclusion (conclusin)
happiness (felicidade)
championship (campionato)
personality (personalidade)
indifference (indiferenza)
annoyance (molestia)
runner (corredor)
sailor (marieiro/a)

Sufixos para formaren adxectivos


Estes son algns dos sufixos que se unen a substantivos e
verbos para formaren adxectivos: -able / -ible, -al, -ful, -less,
-ive, -ous e -ate.
value (valor)
contempt (desprezo)
comic (cmic)
truth (verdade)
pain (dor)
attract (atraer)
mystery (misterio)
consider (considerar)

valuable (valioso/a)
contemptible (desprezbel)
comical (cmico/a)
truthful (veraz)
painless (indoloro/a)
attractive (atractivo/a)
mysterious (misterioso/a)
considerate (considerado/a)

Con algns substantivos poden empregarse varios destes


sufixos:

careful careless

harmful harmless

En cambio, outros s admiten un:


homeless *homeful

*peaceless peaceful

Outros sufixos que, engadidos a verbos, forman adxectivos


son -ed e -ing.


bore (aborrecer)

bored ([estar] aborrecido/a)


boring ([ser] aborrecido/a)

Cando o adxectivo remata en -ed significa que a persoa ou


cousa que se refire experimenta ou sofre un efecto concreto,
e cando remata en -ing significa que a persoa ou cousa que
se refire causa o devandito efecto.

Im bored when I go out with Sam because he is boring.

(Aborrezo sar con Sam pois aborrecido.)

I used to work in this bank. (Eu traballaba neste banco.)


*I would work in this bank. [Non correcto]

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix

UNIT 2 Advert Alert


O estilo indirecto
Tense

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Present Simple

He stays at a hotel, she said.

She said that he stayed at a hotel.

Present Continuous

He is staying at a hotel, she said.

She said that he was staying at a hotel.

Past Simple

He stayed at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had stayed at a hotel.

Past Continuous

He was staying at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had been staying at a hotel.

Present Perfect Simple

He has stayed at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had stayed at a hotel.

Present Perfect Continuous

He has been staying at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had been staying at a hotel.

Past Perfect Simple

He had stayed at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had stayed at a hotel.

Past Perfect Continuous

He had been staying at a hotel, she said.

She said that he had been staying at a hotel.

Future Simple

He will stay at a hotel, she said.

She said that he would stay at a hotel.

Cambios nos modais


Direct Speech
can
may
must / have to
will

Reported Speech
could
might
must / had to
would

Cambios noutras palabras e expresins


Direct Speech
now
today
tonight
yesterday
last week
a month ago
tomorrow
next week
here
this
these

Reported Speech
then
that day
that night
the previous day / the day before
the previous week / the week before
the previous month / the month before
the following day / the day after / the next day
the following week / the week after
there
that
those

O estilo indirecto emprgase para contarmos o que algun


dixo sen citar exactamente as sas palabras.

A oracin subordinada vai introducida pola conxuncin that,


malia que en ingls falado se adoita omitir.

Reported statements


Ill buy this car today, Martha said.
Martha said (that) she would buy that car that day.

Podemos contar en presente o que algun vn de dicir, para


o cal abonda con suprimir as comias e cambiar o pronome
suxeito e a persoa do verbo.

She is hungry.
He says that she is hungry.
(El di que ela ten fame.)

Mais o normal que o verbo que introduce a subordinada


en estilo indirecto (polo xeral say ou tell) vaia en pasado
e, daquela, a mudanza mis importante que o verbo da
subordinada d un salto atrs (de Present Simple a Past
Simple, deste a Past Perfect Simple, etc.).
Ademais de suprimir as comias e cambiar os tempos
verbais, tamn cmpre que fagamos algns cambios nos
pronomes e nas expresins de tempo e lugar.

(Martha dixo que mercara ese coche aquel da.)

Cando a frase enuncia unha verdade xeral non hai cambio


nos tempos verbais.

Major problems are hard to solve, she said.
She said that major problems are hard to solve.

(Dixo que os problemas serios son difciles de solucionar.)

Como xa sabes, os verbos mis comns para introducir o


estilo indirecto son say e tell. Tell sempre leva un obxecto
indirecto sen a preposicin to. Say pode levar obxecto
indirecto ou non, mais de levalo cmpre que vaia con esa
preposicin.



Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

The price of advertising has increased, he said.


He told us that the price of advertising had increased.
He said that the price of advertising had increased.
He said to us that the price of advertising had increased.
(El dxonos que o prezo da publicidade aumentara.)

Grammar Appendix

Reported questions

Reported suggestions

Hai dous tipos de preguntas en ingls:


A
 s Yes / No questions son as que se poden contestar
cun si ou un non. Para poelas en estilo indirecto
emprgase o verbo ask, e a continuacin if ou whether.
Daquela, como a pregunta deixa de selo e se converte
nunha afirmativa, non hai inversin do suxeito-verbo
nin sinal de interrogacin, e tampouco comias.

Primeiro ponse o suxeito e mais o verbo suggest ou


recommend en pasado e, a seguir, dicimos o que suxeriu
esa persoa. Tamn se poden empregar advise para darmos
consello e invite para facermos unha invitacin. As
suxestins pdense pasar ao estilo indirecto de das formas:
E
 mpregando unha oracin de obxecto directo introducida
por that, co seu suxeito e mais o verbo na forma base.

Do you owe him money? Paul asked her.


Paul asked if / whether she owed him money.

(Paul preguntou se ela lle deba cartos [a el].)

 s Wh- questions non se poden contestar cun si ou un


A
non. Son as que comezan cunha partcula interrogativa
(what, who, where, when, why, whose, how, how long,
etc.). Ao pasalas ao estilo indirecto poemos a devandita
partcula no canto de if ou whether. Logo van o suxeito e
mais o verbo, e prescndese do sinal de interrogacin e das
comias.
What is the budget for this project? Anne asked.
Anne asked what the budget for that project was.

(Anne preguntou cal era o orzamento para ese proxecto.)

Reported orders / requests


Para pasarmos unha orde a estilo indirecto cmpre cambiar
o imperativo polo infinitivo. Mais antes do infinitivo
emprgase un verbo que exprese mandato, como tell ou
order, seguido do obxecto indirecto. Hai outros verbos que
seguen esta estrutura malia non expresaren unha orde:
ask ou beg para expresarmos pedimentos, ou warn para
advertirmos a algun dalgunha cousa.


Be careful with the new bike.


My mother warned me to be careful with the new bike.

(Mia nai advertiume que tivese coidado coa bici nova.)

Ao se tratar dunha oracin negativa, ponse not diante de to.




Dont be so childish, please.


My father asked me not to be so childish.

(Meu pai pediume que non fose tan infantil.)

Turn left at the next intersection, he recommended.


He recommended turning left at the next intersection.

(El recomendou xirar esquerda no prximo cruzamento.)

Reporting verbs
Os verbos mis empregados para introducir o estilo indirecto
son say, tell e ask, que transmiten a mensaxe sen engadir
mis informacin. Mais se tamn queremos comunicar a
intencin do falante ou o ton que usou, podemos empregar
outros moitos reporting verbs:
Afirmacins: admit, announce, answer, apologise,
boast, claim, complain, declare, explain, inform, insist,
mention, offer, remind, reply, state
Preguntas: enquire, request, want to know, wonder
Ordes: demand, order, shout, warn
Rogos: beg
Suxestins: advise, invite, recommend, suggest

I broke Sues iPod.


He admitted that he had broken Sues iPod.
(Admitiu que rompera o iPod de Sue.)

Have you heard the good news? Mary asked.


Mary wanted to know if I had heard the good news.
(Mary quixo saber se eu ora a boa nova.)

Be quiet! the teacher said.


The teacher ordered us to be quiet.

Please, dont go away, the girl said.


The girl begged me not to go away.

B Burlington Books

(Sarah suxeriu que viramos o anuncio novo.)

E
 mpregando o xerundio, sen especificar ningn suxeito.

Contrast 2 Galician

Lets watch the new advert, Sarah suggested.


Sarah suggested that we watch the new advert.

(A profesora ordenounos que estiveramos calados.)

(A nena rogoume que non marchara.)

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix

UNIT 3 Face the Music


A voz pasiva
Tense

Active

Passive

Present Simple

Lady Gaga signs many autographs.

Many autographs are signed by Lady Gaga.

Present Continuous

Lady Gaga is signing many autographs.

Many autographs are being signed by Lady Gaga.

Past Simple

Lady Gaga signed many autographs.

Many autographs were signed by Lady Gaga.

Past Continuous

Lady Gaga was signing many autographs.

Many autographs were being signed by Lady Gaga.

Present Perfect Simple

Lady Gaga has signed many autographs.

Many autographs have been signed by Lady Gaga.

Past Perfect Simple

Lady Gaga had signed many autographs.

Many autographs had been signed by Lady Gaga.

Future Simple

Lady Gaga will sign many autographs.

Many autographs will be signed by Lady Gaga.

Modals

Lady Gaga should sign many autographs.

Many autographs should be signed by Lady Gaga.

Modal Perfects

Lady Gaga must have signed many autographs. Many autographs must have been signed by Lady Gaga.

have to

Lady Gaga has to sign many autographs.

Many autographs have to be signed by Lady Gaga.

be going to

Lady Gaga is going to sign many autographs.

Many autographs are going to be signed by Lady Gaga.

Forma
Afirmativa: suxeito + verbo to be + participio do verbo
principal.

Many artists are worshipped by their fans.

(Moitos artistas son idolatrados polos seus fans.)

Negativa: suxeito + verbo to be + not (ou nt) + participio


do verbo principal. Se a frase leva un modal, un verbo en
Future Simple ou un tempo composto, o que negamos o
modal, will ou have / has.

The Irish singer wasnt awarded the Grammy.

(O cantante irlands non foi premiado co Grammy.)

Interrogativa: to be + suxeito + participio do verbo


principal. Se na pregunta hai un modal, un verbo en Future
Simple ou un tempo composto, a frase pasiva comeza co
modal ou o auxiliar, o mesmo que na voz activa.

Can the concert be called off because of the rain?

(Pode ser cancelado / cancelarse o concerto por mor


da chuvia?)

Como pasarmos unha oracion a pasiva


Antes de sabermos cales son os pasos que cmpre seguir
para pasarmos unha oracin de activa a pasiva, importante
lembrar que a pasiva mis frecuente en ingls que en galego,
polo que se adoita traducir o verbo en activa ou na forma
impersoal.
Ponse como suxeito o obxecto que haxa detrs do verbo en
activa, ben sexa directo ou indirecto.

The audience cheered the band.


The band was cheered by the audience.
(O grupo foi aclamado polo pblico.)

Cando hai dous obxectos, existen das maneiras de


formarmos a voz pasiva, malia que o mis frecuente en
ingls sexa pr o obxecto indirecto como suxeito.

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Algns verbos que levan dous obxectos son: offer, give,


tell, show, send, lend e pay.
They had offered two front-row seats to the couple.

The couple had been offered two front-row seats.

Two front-row seats had been offered to the couple.

(Ofrecranlle parella dous asentos en primeira fila.)

Se o obxecto indirecto un pronome obxecto, cmbiase


forma de pronome suxeito.

T he paparazzi will photograph us at the concert.


We will be photographed at the concert by the paparazzi.
(Seremos fotografados no concerto polos paparazis.)

Ponse o verbo to be no mesmo tempo que tia o verbo

principal na voz activa, e o verbo principal en participio.

They gave an award to the young actor.


The young actor was given an award.
(Dronlle un premio ao actor mozo.)

Os modais e be going to non cambian, pois o verbo que


os segue o que se pon en pasiva.

The crowd shouldnt have booed the singer.


The singer shouldnt have been booed by the crowd.

The organisers are going to change the venue of the concert.


The venue of the concert is going to be changed by the organisers.

(O cantante non debera ser apupado polo pblico.)

(O escenario do concerto vai ser cambiado polos


organizadores.)

Colcase o suxeito da activa ao final, precedido de by.


Cmpre cambialo polo seu correspondente pronome
obxecto se un persoal.
My sister designed the costume for the party.
The costume for the party was designed by my sister.

(O traxe para a festa foi deseado pola mia irm.)

Grammar Appendix
Usos

S inalar que a accin mis importante que o suxeito que


a realiza, ben porque pouco relevante, descoecido ou
porque non se quere nomear. Ademais, deste xeito evtase
unha frase activa cuxo suxeito sera somebody, nobody,
etc.
Nobody could see her performance on the Internet.
Her performance couldnt be seen on the Internet.

(A sa actuacin non se puido ver en Internet.)

Os verbos causativos:
have / get + something + done
A estrutura have / get + obxecto directo + participio do
verbo principal expresa accins que encargamos a algun.

I had / got my guitar repaired.

(Fixen que me arranxaran / Arranxronme a guitarra.)

Esta estrutura pdese empregar coa maiora dos tempos


verbais.

Get into the car. Its snowing.

(Sube ao / Mtete no coche. Est a nevar.)

Algns verbos poden se combinar con diferentes partculas


para formaren distintos phrasal verbs.


talk back (contestar mal, retrucar)


talk over (rifar / falar (sobre))
talk down to (falar con aires de superioridade a)

Ademais moitos phrasal verbs teen mis de un significado:





fit in (encaixar; atopar tempo para)


put on (montar, (re)presentar; poer (roupa))
break up (esnaquizar; romper (unha relacin), separarse)
take off (despegar; comezar a ter xito)

Reparade na listaxe de phrasal verbs na pxina 27 para ver


mis casos.

Verbos seguidos de preposicion

(Lisa fixo que o cantante lle asinase unha fotografa.)

Hai moitos verbos en ingls que sempre van canda a mesma


preposicin.

I have to get my car washed tomorrow.

Lisa had the photograph signed by the singer.

(Teo que lavar / facer que me laven o coche ma.)

A estrutura ten un sentido pasivo, pois o obxecto directo que


vai en medio recibe a accin do verbo que vai en participio.
Mais aditase traducir na voz activa.

Porn, algns transitivos, todos os intransitivos e os


formados por das partculas son inseparables.

Many artists have their songs written by other musicians.

(A moitos artistas escrbenlles as cancins outros msicos.)

My friend had her wedding dress made by a designer.

(Un deseador fxolle o vestido de voda mia amiga.)

He is going to get the shoes delivered next week.

(Vanlles entregar os zapatos a semana que vn.)

Anda que ambos os dous se empregan indistintamente, get


mis informal e comn no ingls falado.

Im thinking about what songs to play for the concert.

(Estou a pensar que cancins tocar para o concerto.)

Algns deles poden levar diferentes preposicins detrs, e


daquela adoita variar o seu significado.

arrive at (chegar a (lugar))


arrive in (chegar a (cidade ou pas))
talk about (falar de / sobre (algo))
talk with / to (falar con (algun))
think about (opinar (sobre), parecer/semellar; pensar en)
think of (pensar en)

A continuacin podes ver algns exemplos:


He has already arrived at the Hard Rock Caf.

(Xa chegou ao Hard Rock Caf.)

The prestigious singer arrived in Paris yesterday.

Phrasal Verbs

We were talking about the scandal.

Son verbos seguidos de unha ou das partculas (preposicins,


adverbios ou unha combinacin de ambos os dous) cun
significado distinto do que cada palabra ten por separado.
Poden ser transitivos ou intransitivos.

The manager talked to the celebrities.

I got my hair cut yesterday.

(Cortei o pelo onte.)

(O prestixioso cantante chegou a Pars onte.)


(Estabamos a falar do / sobre o escndalo.)
(O mnager falou cos famosos.)

Repara na listaxe de verbos con preposicin que hai na


pxina 28 para ver mis casos.

Many people look up to celebrities.

(Moitas persoas admiran os famosos.)

My brother is always showing off in front of the girls.

(Meu irmn est sempre a brasonar diante das rapazas.)

A maiora dos transitivos permiten intercalar o obxecto


directo entre o verbo e a partcula: se un substantivo pode
ir en medio ou non, mais se pronome debe colocarse entre
ambos os dous:

Could you pick up my mother at the station?


Could you pick my mother up at the station?

Could you pick her up at the station?

(Poderas ir buscar mia nai estacin?)


(Poderas ir buscala estacin?)

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

10

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix

UNIT 4 Think Green


As oracions condicionais
Conditional clause

Result clause

Examples
ZERO CONDITIONAL
If you recycle materials, you help the environment.

if

(Se reciclas os materiais, axudas ao medio natural.)

Present Simple
+ Present Simple imperative
modal + base form

Call me immediately if you have a problem.


(Chmame decontado se tes algn problema.)

If you dont speak clearly, people can misunderstand you.


(Se non falas con claridade, a xente pode malinterpretarte.)

FIRST CONDITIONAL
if
unless + Present Simple Future Simple

If people pollute the oceans, many fish will die.

(Se a xente contamina os ocanos, morrern moitos peixes.)

SECOND CONDITIONAL
would
could / might

if
+ Past Simple
unless

My brother would buy an electric car if it were cheaper.

+ base form

(O meu irmn mercara un coche elctrico se fose mis barato.)

If governments banned hunting, we could protect wildlife.

(Se os gobernos prohibisen a caza, poderiamos protexer a vida salvaxe.)

THIRD CONDITIONAL
if

+ Past Perfect
Simple

would have
could / might
have

If activists hadnt taken action, the forest would have been destroyed.

+ past participle

(Se os activistas non tiveran feito accins, o bosque tera sido destrudo.)

If they had cut down the rainforest, many animals could / might have died.
(Se tiveran tallado a selva, moitos animais poderan ter morto.)

Son oracins compostas por unha proposicin subordinada


que expresa a condicin (conditional clause) e unha principal
que sinala o resultado (result clause). Non importa a orde
en que se coloquen as proposicins, mais se a condicin vai
primeiro, aditase pr unha vrgula entre ambas as das.

If your little brother misbehaves, he will not go to the party.

(Se o teu irmn pequeno se porta mal, non ir festa.)

Your little brother will not go to the party if he misbehaves.

(O teu irmn pequeno non ir festa se se porta mal.)

Unless we use renewable energy, we wont reduce global


warming.
If we dont use renewable energy, we wont reduce global
warming.

(A menos que empreguemos / Se non empregamos enerxas


renovbeis, non reduciremos o quecemento global.)

Repara que unless se emprega con bastante asiduidade


no primeiro condicional, anda as menos frecuente no
segundo condicional e nunca se emprega no terceiro.

O condicional cero

O segundo condicional

Empregamos if + Present Simple na condicin e Present Simple


no resultado. Expresa situacins que se repiten sempre que se
d unha determinada condicin. s veces podemos empregar
when no canto de if sen que o significado da frase vare.

Emprgase if + Past Simple na condicin e would + o verbo


na forma base no resultado. Expresa condicins hipotticas
referidas ao presente, dicir, que pouco probbel que
ocorran.

You care for the environment if / when you are an


environmentalist.

Ademais do Present Simple, no resultado tamn se poden


empregar os verbos modais ou o imperativo.

(Coidas do medio natural se / cando es un ecoloxista.)

If you are underpaid, look for another job.

(Se ests mal pago, procura outro traballo.)

O primeiro condicional
Empregamos if + Present Simple na condicin e Future
Simple no resultado. Expresa o que ocorrer de cumprirse a
condicin sinalada.

If you do something illegal, you will face the consequences.

(Se fas algo ilegal, enfrontaraste s consecuencias.)

Para expresar que algo ocorrer ou non se non se cumpre a


condicin, a proposicin introdcese pola conxuncin unless,
que equivale a if not (a non ser que, a menos que), ou
ngase o verbo en Present Simple.
Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

(Se cometeses un delito, estara conmocionada.)

Se o verbo da condicin to be, aditase empregar were en


todas as persoas do singular e do plural.

If you buy a new house, you can sell the old one.

(Se mercas unha casa nova, podes vender a vella.)

If you committed a crime, I would be shocked.

If hybrid cars werent so expensive, more people would buy them.

(Se os coches hbridos non fosen tan caros, mercaranos mis


persoas.)

Para dar consellos emprgase a frmula If I were.


If I were you, I would avoid getting into trouble.

(Eu de ti, evitara meterme en leas.)

No canto de would podemos empregar os modais could


ou might no resultado, mais ambos os dous sinalan que a
probabilidade de que se cumpra a hiptese anda menor.
Equivalen ao verbo poder en condicional ou s expresins
talvez / quizais + condicional.
They could rebuild the house if they had enough money.

(Poderan reconstrur a casa se tivesen cartos abondo.)

11

Grammar Appendix
O terceiro condicional

As oracions temporais

Frmase con if + Past Perfect Simple na condicin e would have


+ participio no resultado. Neste caso a condicin totalmente
imposbel, pois refrese ao pasado e xa non pode realizarse.

As referidas ao futuro frmanse como as oracins do


primeiro condicional: Present Simple na subordinada e Future
Simple na principal. O que cambian son as conxuncins, que
neste caso son as soon as, by the time, the moment (that),
as long as, until, when, before, after, etc.

If I had been informed earlier, I would have supported your cause.
(Se me tivesen informado antes, tera apoiado a ta causa.)

No canto de would have + participio, no resultado podemos


empregar could have ou might have + participio.


He will forgive you as long as you are honest.

(El perdoarache sempre que sexas sincero.)
The situation will not improve until the government decides
to act.

If Tom had studied harder, he could / might have got a better mark.
(Se Tom tivese estudado mis, podera ter sacado unha
cualificacin mellor.)

(A situacin non mellorar at que o goberno decida actuar.)

As oracions desiderativas
Form

Uses

Examples

Refers to a present situation that the


speaker is unhappy about

wish / if only
+ Past Simple

He wishes the power station were far from the city.


((El) Desexara que a central elctrica estivese lonxe da cidade.)

If only you were more outspoken.


(Oxal foses mis aberto.)

Sam wishes he had replaced his old computer.

wish / if only
+ Past Perfect Simple

Expresses regret about a past action or (Sam desexara ter cambiado o seu vello ordenador.)
situation
If only she had interviewed the politician.

wish / if only
+ could / would + base form

Expresses a desire for something to


happen in the future

(Oxal tivese entrevistado ao poltico.)

I wish I could live near the sea.


(Oxal puidese vivir preto do mar.)

If only Jen wouldnt be so underweight.

(Oxal Jen non estea por debaixo do seu peso.)

As oracins desiderativas expresan un desexo e poden


formarse co verbo wish ou coa expresin if only.
O verbo wish adoita levar como obxecto directo unha
oracin subordinada introducida pola conxuncin that (que
adoita omitirse). Equivale aos verbos desexar ou gustar
en condicional, ags na primeira persoa do singular que se
traduce por Oxal.
A expresin if only ten o mesmo significado: Oxal...,
Se polo / cando menos....

I wish / If only he hadnt kept it secret.

S e o verbo que vai en Past Simple to be, cmpre empregar


were en todas as persoas, includas a primeira e a terceira
do singular ( un resto do subxuntivo).
I wish the world werent overpopulated.

(Oxal o mundo non estivese superpoboado.)

I wish he hadnt been so impolite.

(Oxal non tivese sido tan maleducado.)

(Oxal non o tivese mantido en segredo.)

Tanto whish como if only poden empregarse con varios


tempos verbais, como se ve no cadro:
Co Past Simple refermonos a situacins presentes que
quixeramos mudar ou mellorar.
He wishes he knew more about the greenhouse effect.

(Desexara saber mis sobre o efecto invernadoiro.)

Os prefixos
Os prefixos un-, dis-, im-, in- e il- engdense a algns
adxectivos para darlles o significado oposto.
believable (crbel)
honest (honrado)

polite (educado/a)
active (activo/a)
legal (legal)

unbelievable (incrbel)
dishonest (pouco honrado/a)
impolite (maleducado/a)
inactive (inactivo/a)
illegal (ilegal)

 o Past Perfect Simple refermonos a feitos pasados,


C
lamentando o que ocorreu.
 o could ou would + un verbo na forma base expresamos
C
os nosos desexos sobre situacins futuras, indicando que
pouco probbel que ocorran.

I wish I could go with you to court.

(Oxal puidese ir contigo ao xulgado.)

S e o suxeito de wish e o do verbo na forma base son


diferentes, empregamos would.

I wish he would regret what he did.

(Oxal se arrepentise do que fixo.)

Lembra que o prefixo in- vara nos seguintes casos:


il- diante de adxectivos que comezan por l (illogical).
im- diante de adxectivos que comezan con m ou p
(immature, impersonal).
ir- diante de adxectivos que comezan con r (irrational).
s veces non son prefixos, senn parte da palabra: discussion,
illustration, impression, interesting, uncle, etc.

Outros prefixos que se engaden a distintas clases de palabras son inter-, over-, under-, re-, mis-, anti- e multi-.
national (nacional)
populated (poboado/a)
paid (pago/a)
build (construr)

Contrast 2 Galician

international (internacional)
overpopulated (superpoboado)
underpaid (mal pago/a)
rebuild (reconstrur)
B Burlington Books

behave (comportarse)
nuclear (nuclear)
cultural (cultural)

misbehave (portarse mal)


antinuclear (antinuclear)
multicultural (multicultural)

12

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix

UNIT 5 Nine to Five


As oracions de relativo
DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Uses

Examples

who and that refer to people

Anne is the person who / that showed me the ropes on my first day here.

which and that refer to objects

He runs a business which / that was inherited from his father.

when and that refer to a moment in time

I called my mother the day when / that I got the job.

where refers to a particular place

They have finally found a place where they can raise their kids.

whose refers to possession

Mark told me about the girl whose brother got the sack.

(Anne a persoa que me ensinou como funciona todo o meu primeiro da aqu.)
(El leva un negocio que herdou de seu pai.)

(Chamei a mia nai cando consegun o traballo.)

(Finalmente atoparon un lugar onde poden criar os seus fillos.)


(Mark faloume da rapaza cuxo irmn foi despedido.)

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


Uses
that cannot replace who or which

Examples
That hotel, which is very famous, is offering a part-time job as a waiter.

(Ese hotel, que moi famoso, est a ofrecer un posto de camareiro a media xornada.)

Eve, who often works overtime, is paid peanuts.

(A Eve, que decote traballa horas extra, pganlle unha miseria.)

Son oracins subordinadas adxectivas introducidas por un


pronome ou un adverbio relativo. Poden ser de dous tipos:
defining (especificativas) e non-defining (explicativas).

Defining Relative Clauses


Achegan informacin tan esencial sobre o seu antecedente
que sen elas a frase ficara incompleta.
Os pronomes who (persoas), which (cousas) e that
(persoas e cousas) poden omitirse sempre se non fan
de suxeito. Whose (pertenza) non se pode omitir nin
substitur.

That is the woman who / that is in charge of the shop.

I got the pay rise (which / that) my boss promised me.

(Esa a muller que est a cargo da tenda.)

(Consegun o aumento de soldo que me prometeu o meu xefe.)

Anne is the girl whose mother is an engineer.


(Anne a rapaza cuxa nai enxeeira.)

When (tempo) pdese omitir e substiturse por that.

Ill always remember the day (when / that) I got the sack.
(Sempre lembrarei o da en que me despediron)

 here (lugar) non se pode substitur por that e s se


W
omite nalgunhas ocasins.

This is the college where I can study history.

(Esta a universidade onde podo estudar Historia.)

Se o relativo leva preposicin, o mis comn omitilo e pr


a preposicin detrs do verbo.
The person (who / that) I work for has got common sense.
(A persoa para quen traballo ten sentido comn.)

Non-defining Relative Clauses


Engaden informacin extra sobre o seu antecedente e van
entre vrgulas. Frmanse con who, which, when, where e
whose, que non se poden omitir nin substitur por that.

Steve, who is a dedicated employee, was promoted yesterday.

(Steve, que un traballador entregado, foi ascendido onte.)

Estruturas formal e informal


Cando o relativo vai acompaado dunha preposicin, segue
a empregarse which se o antecedente unha cousa; mais se
unha persoa, no canto de who emprgase whom. Este un
emprego moi formal. O mis comn en ambos os dous casos
pr a preposicin ao final da oracin de relativo e omitir o
pronome.
T his is the house in which I lived. [Formal]
This is the house (which) I lived in. [Informal]
(Esta a casa na que vivn.)

T he student to whom I talked was very mature. [Formal]


The student (who) I talked to was very mature. [Informal]

(O alumno con quen falei era moi maduro.)

both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor

Both your mother and I agree on this matter.

(Tanto a ta nai coma min estamos de acordo neste asunto.)

 mpregamos both ... and para nos referir a das


E
posibilidades.
 mpregamos either ... or para falar de das alternativas
E
cando ningunha outra alternativa posbel.

 mpregamos neither ... nor para xuntar dous elementos


E
e amosar que ambos os dous estn excludos ou son
imposibles. O verbo sempre vai en afirmativa.
I am neither prepared nor willing.

(Non estou preparado nin disposto.)

Either I get a rise or I resign.

(Ou consigo un aumento ou dimito.)

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

13

Grammar Appendix

UNIT 6 On the Road


Os modais
Modals

can

be able to

cant

Uses

Examples

Ability

Jack can drive a car.

Request

Can you drop me off at work?

Possibility

I can go in two directions.

Ability

Jim is able to fix my washing machine.

Possibility

You will be able to find a place to park your car near the station.

Inability

She cant speak Chinese.

Prohibition

You cant drive so fast on this motorway. Look at the speed limit!

Disbelief, deduction
Past ability

(Jack sabe conducir un coche.)


(Podes deixarme no traballo?)
(Podo ir en das direccins.)

(Jim sabe arranxar a mia lavadora.)

(Poders atopar un sitio para estacionar o coche preto da estacin.)


(Ela non sabe falar / fala chins.)

(Non podes conducir tan rpido por esta autoestrada. Mira o lmite de velocidade!)

I heard Sharon had a fatal accident, but that cant be true. I just talked to her!

(On que Sharon tivo un accidente mortal, mais non pode ser verdade. Acabo de falar con ela!)

She could use this camera when she was five years old.
(Ela saba empregar esta cmara aos cinco anos.)

Polite request

Could you stop at the traffic light?

Polite suggestion

You could take Dad to the shop.

Possibility

He could break the habit of using the mobile phone in the car but he doesnt want to.

may / might

Possibility

I may / might be late because of the traffic during rush hour.

may

Polite request, permission

May I tell him the secret?

could

should / ought to Advice, opinion

(Poderas parar no semforo?)

(Poderas levar a pap tenda.)

(Podera perder o costume de usar o mbil no coche, mais non quere.)

(Poida que / Podera ser que chegue tarde debido ao trfico durante a hora punta.)
(Podo contarlle o segredo?)

You should / ought to respect road signs.


(Deberas respectar os sinais de trfico.)

need to

Necessity, obligation

I need to slow down on this road.

have to

Necessity, obligation

You have to learn to take control of the car.

Obligation, strong necessity

You must stop for at least two seconds at a stop sign.

Strong belief

Its late. Jane must be in a traffic jam.

mustnt

Prohibition

You mustnt text while driving.

dont have to

Lack of obligation / necessity

He doesnt have to pick me up. I can go alone.

neednt

Lack of obligation / necessity

You neednt order a pizza for dinner. I have some hamburgers in the fridge.

Formal request

Would you please turn right?

Offer

Would you like to come to my party?

must

would

(Preciso reducir a velocidade nesta estrada.)


(Tes que aprender a controlar o coche.)

(Debes parar cando menos dous segundos nun stop.)


( tarde. Jane debe estar nun atasco.)

(Non debes enviar mensaxes de texto mentres ests a conducir.)


(Non ten que me recoller. Podo ir soa.)

(Non tes que pedir unha pizza para cear. Teo unhas hamburguesas na neveira.)
(Poderas xirar dereita, por favor?)
(Gustarache vir mia festa?)

Os verbos modais:
Son invaribeis, polo que teen unha mesma forma para
todas as persoas e non se conxugan.
Non precisan do / does para formaren a negativa nin a
interrogativa.
Sempre van seguidos dun verbo na forma base.
Be able to e have to non comparten todos estes trazos, mais
si algns dos seus usos (habilidade, obriga, etc.).
Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Usos
can
Expresar habilidade ou capacidade.
Facer peticins, dar e pedir permiso.
Sinalar posibilidade.
Facer suxestins.

You can warn the driver with light and sound.


(Podes avisar ao condutor con luz e son.)

14

Grammar
Grammar Appendix
Appendix
be able to
Ten o mesmo significado que can, mais como can s pode
empregarse en Present Simple, no resto de tempos verbais
emprgase be able to.
cant
a forma negativa de can.
Expresar prohibicin, deducin negativa ou certeza de que
algo imposbel.
could
Expresar habilidade ou capacidade no pasado.
Facer peticins mis educadas que con can.
Sinalar posibilidade mis remota que con can.
Facer suxestins menos directas que con can.
may / might
Expresan posibilidade (mis remota cando se emprega
might) de que ocorra algo. May tamn se emprega para
dar, pedir ou rexeitar permiso, ou para facer peticins mis
formais que con can.
should / ought to
Os dous emprganse para facer recomendacins e dar
consello. Ought to case non se emprega en negativa nin en
interrogativa. Should o mis empregado dos dous.

need to
Pdese conxugar e, polo tanto, pode empregarse en todos os
tempos verbais. Expresa obriga ou necesidade.
have to
Expresa obriga ou necesidade o mesmo que must, mais
neste caso a obriga non tan forte. Como must s pode
empregarse en Present Simple, no resto de tempos verbais
empregamos have to.
must
Expresa obriga ou necesidade, especialmente cando a
impn a lei ou algun de autoridade. Ademais, expresa unha
conclusin lxica (deber de, ter que).
mustnt
Sinala prohibicin.
dont have to
Significa non ter que / non ter por qu, isto , ausencia
de obriga e de necesidade (como neednt).
neednt
Sinala que non hai obriga ou necesidade de facer algo (o
mesmo que dont have to).
would
Emprgase para pedir ou ofrecer algunha cousa de xeito
educado.

Os modais perfectos
Modal Perfects

Uses

Examples

could have

Ability to have done something It was silly to go over the speed limit. You could have had an accident.
(Foi unha parvada sobardar o lmite da velocidade. Poderas ter sufrido un accidente.)
but in fact did not

couldnt have

Certainty that something didnt


happen

My brother couldnt have caused a head-on collision because he was at work.

may / might have

A guess about a past action

She lost control of her car for a moment. Something may / might have
distracted her.

must have

Certainty or logical conclusion


about an event in the past

They must have been really scared when a car went into their lane.

should / ought to
have

Criticism or regret after an event Im on a diet.

shouldnt have

shouldnt have been so reckless while you were driving.


Criticism or regret after an event You
(Non deberas ter sido tan temerario mentres conducas.)

would have

Willingness to have done


something but in fact did not

(Meu irmn non puido ter provocado un choque frontal porque estaba no traballo.)

(Perdeu o control do coche por un momento. Algo pode / podera tela distrado.)
(Deberon de ter pasado moito medo cando un coche invadiu o seu carril.)

I should / ought to have resisted the urge to eat that chocolate cake because
(Debera ter reprimido as ganas de comer esa torta de chocolate porque estou a dieta.)

I would have taken you to the airport but my car broke down.
(Terache levado ao aeroporto mais avariuseme o coche.)

could have + participio


Sinala que se puido ter feito algo no pasado, mais que
finalmente non se fixo.
couldnt have + participio
Expresar a certeza de que algo non puido ter ocorrido.
may / might have + participio
Emprganse para facer unha suposicin dun feito pasado.
must have + participio
Expresa unha conclusin lxica dun feito pasado.
Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

should / ought to have + participio


Con ambos os dous podemos tanto nos queixar do que
ocorreu como nos laiar de que non se cumprise o que
agardabamos.
shouldnt have + participio
Expresa a nosa opinin crtica arredor dun feito pasado,
sinalando que non debera ter ocorrido.
would have + participio
Sinala que se quixo ter feito algo no pasado, mais que
non se puido debido a factores ou circunstancias externas.

15

Grammar Appendix

should / had better


Xa viches que should se emprega para dicir o que cremos
que se debera facer, dar un consello ou unha opinin. Pois
had better (ou a contraccin d better) outra forma moi
coloquial de expresar o mesmo.
Afirmativa: suxeito + had better + verbo principal na
forma base. Significa mellor que + un verbo en presente
de subxuntivo.

Y oud better turn at the junction.

( mellor que xires no cruzamento.)

Negativa: suxeito + had better + not + verbo na forma


base.

Y oud better not be late.

( mellor que non chegues tarde.)

Interrogativa: non se adoita empregar en interrogativa.


Por outra parte, ten un uso distinto de should pois tamn
se emprega para expresar unha advertencia, como avisando
ao onte de que algo malo ou desgradbel lle pode ocorrer
se non fai o que lle dicimos. Daquela significa algo as como
Ser mellor que, ou Mis vale que.

Y oud better slow down when its raining.

Y oud better not drink while driving!

(Ser mellor que reduzas a velocidade cando est a chover.)


(Mis vale que non bebas mentres conduces!)

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

16

Glossary
The Glossary includes vocabulary from the Students Book and the Vocabulary Builder (Workbook).

GETTING STARTED
annoying /L'mQBn/ molesto/a
anxious /'DnYiLg/ preocupado/a, inquedo/a
appreciate /L'UpAiiCBW/ apreciar; agradecer
attraction /L'WpYim/ atraccin
bargain /'VEZLm/ ganga
brand-new /VpDmX 'mqI/ enteiramente novo/a, por estrear
brave /VpMd/ valente, afouto/a
breakthrough /'VpMYepI/ avance significativo, adianto moi
importante
breathtaking /'VpCeWMYBn/ impresionante
cast /YEgW/ reparto
charity /'WiDpLWi/ beneficiencia, organizacin benfica;
caridade
come up with an idea /YJl JU rBf Dm O'XR/ propoer,
propor / ocorrrselle unha idea
conduct an experiment /YFmXJYW Dm BY'gUCpBlCmW/ dirixir un
experimento
couple /'YJUo/ parella
crime /YpOl/ delincuencia
criticise /'YpBWBgOh/ criticar
customer /'YJgWLlL/ cliente/a
deal with /'XAo rBf/ tratar; ocuparse / encargarse de
deserted /XB'hKWBX/ deserto/a
disadvantage /XBgLX'dEmWBb/ desvantaxe
doubt /XPW/ dubidar
drop out (of) /XpFU 'PW Ld/ deixar (unha actividade)
dull /XJo/ aborrecido/a, eslamiado/a
energetic /CmL'bCWBY/ enrxico/a
face /cMg/ afrontar, enfrontarse a
fake /cCBY/ falsificacin, imitacin
fall in love /cGo Bm 'oJd/ namorar(se)
fear /cR/ medo
fianc /ci'FmgM/ prometido
friendship /'cpCmXiBU/ amizade
gang /ZDn/ panda, banda da ra
go on strike /ZLH Fm 'gWpOY/ poerse / declararse en folga
hang out /kn 'PW/ pasar o tempo
helpful /'kCoUco/ servizal, ambel
hero /'kBLpN/ heroe
hilly /'kBoi/ accidentado/a
hunger /'kJnZL/ fame
ignorance /'BZmLpLmg/ ignorancia
ignore /BZ'mG/ ignorar
inequality /BmB'YrFoLWi/ desigualdade
innovate /'BmLdMW/ innovar
insulting /Bm'gJoWBn/ aldraxante, ofensivo/a
irritating /'BpBWMWBn/ irritante

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

keep in touch /YAU Bm 'WJWi/ manter o contacto


lead /oAX/ dirixir, liderar
lifestyle /'oOcgWOo/ estilo de vida
log in /oFZ 'Bm/ comezar a sesin
log out /oFZ 'PW/ pechar / sar da sesin
make an effort /lMY Dm 'CcLW/ facer un esforzo
make progress /lMY 'UpNZpCg/ avanzar, progresar
marriage /'lDpBXj/ matrimonio
moody /'lIXi/ temperamental, xenido/a, malhumorado/a
moped /'lNUCX/ ciclomotor
muscular /'lJgYqLoL/ musculoso/a
out-of-date /PWLd'XMW/ desactualizado/a, pasado/a de moda
outstanding /PW'gWDmXBn/ excepcional, extraordinario/a
overcome /NdL'YJl/ superar
overpriced /NdL'UpOgW/ caro/a de mis
play a role /UoM L 'pLHo/ desempear un papel
plot /UoFW/ argumento, trama
poverty /'UFdLWi/ pobreza
praise /UpMh/ gabar, eloxiar
prejudice /'UpLbIXBg/ prexuzo
productive /UpL'XJYWBd/ produtivo/a
reject /pB'bCYW/ rexeitar
reliable /pB'oOLVo/ fibel
relief /pB'oAc/ alivio, desafogo
run out of /pJm 'PW Ld/ quedar sen
rural /'pHLpLo/ rural
schoolyard /'gYIoqEX/ patio de recreo
sensible /'gCmgLVo/ asisado/a
set on fire /gCW Fm 'cOL/ prender lume
show up /iLH 'JU/ aparecer, chegar, presentarse (nun lugar)
sign a petition /gOm L UL'WBim/ asinar unha peticin
solve a problem /gFod L 'UpFVoLl/ solventar un problema
start up /gWEW 'JU/ acender, comezar
steep /gWAU/ costento/a
stereotype /'gWCpiLWOU/ estereotipo
store information /gWG BmcL'lMim/ almacenar informacin
strength /gWpCne/ forza
stubborn /'gWJVLm/ testn/ana
subtitle /'gJVWOWo/ subttulo
success /gLY'gCg/ xito
successful /gLY'gCgco/ exitoso/a (be ~: ter xito, sar ben)
support a cause /gLUGW L 'YGh/ apoiar unha causa
take after /WMY 'EcWL/ asemellarse / sar a
take your time /WMY qG 'WOl/ tomar o teu tempo
tie the knot /WO fC 'mFW/ casar
tolerant /'WFoLpLmW/ tolerante
treasure /'WpCjL/ gardar, atesourar
try on /WpO 'Fm/ probar(se)

17

Glossary
turn down /WKm 'XPm/ rexeitar; baixar (volume)
turn off /WKm 'Fc/ apagar, desenchufar (aparello)
turn on /WKm Fm/ prender, acender (aparello)
turn up /WKm JU/ subir (volume)
violence /'dOLoLmg/ violencia
waste of time /rMgW Ld 'WOl/ perda de tempo
well made /rCo 'lMX/ ben feito/a / confeccionado/a
wish well /rBi 'rCo/ desexar todo o mellor
yearbook /'qRVHY/ anuario

Functional Language
What did you do there?

Que fixeches al?

/rFW XBX qI 'XI fCL/


Did you meet anybody
interesting?

Coeciches a algun
interesante?

/XBX qI lAW CmiVFXi 'BmWpLgWBn/


Did you do anything special
this summer?

Fixeches algo especial


este vern?

/XBX qI XI CmieBn 'gUCio fBg


gJlL/
See you later.

Deica logo.

/gA qI 'oCBWL/
Was it boring?

Foi aborrecido/a?

/rLh BW 'VGpBn/
Whats up?

Que tal? / Como che vai?

/rFWg 'JU/
Long time no see!

Canto tempo sen te ver!

/oFn WOl mN 'gA/


I have to go.
/O 'kDd WL ZLH/

Teo que irme / marchar.

How was it?

Como foi?

/kP 'rLh BW/


And what about you?

E ti?

/LmX rFW LVPW 'qI/

include /Bm'YoIX/ inclur


indifference /Bm'XBcpLmg/ indiferenza

UNIT 1
accent /'DYgCmW/ acento
account /L'YPmW/ relato, historia
activity /DY'WBdLWi/ actividade
advertise /'DXdLWOh/ anunciar
alone /L'oNm/ s/soa
announcement /L'mPmglLmW/ anuncio, declaracin
annoyance /L'mQLmg/ enfado, amoladura
apologise /L'UFoLbOh/ desculparse, pedir perdn
bilingual /VO'oBnZrLo/ bilinge
blame /VoMl/ culpar a, botar a culpa a

Contrast 2 Galician

body language /'VFXi oDnZrBb/ linguaxe corporal


boost /VIgW/ estimular, aumentar
brain power /'VpMm UPL/ capacidade intelectual
call out /YGo 'PW/ anunciar; berrar
championship /'aDlUiLmiBU/ campionato
chat /aDW/ falar, charlar, parolar
clothes shop /'YoNfh iFU/ tenda de roupa
collect /YL'oCYW/ coleccionar
collection /YL'oCYim/ coleccin
comical /'YFlBYo/ cmico/a, divertido/a
convince /YLm'dBmg/ convencer
countless /'YPmWoLg/ incontbel, innumerbel; (unha)
infinidade / morea de
cure /YqHL/ curar
degree /XB'ZpA/ ttulo universitario
desert /'XChLW/ deserto
dessert /XB'hKW/ sobremesa
disease /XB'hAh/ enfermidade, doenza
doubtful /'XPWco/ dubidoso/a, incerto/a
equal /'AYrLo/ igual
equality /B'YrFoLWi/ igualdade
expect /BY'gUCYW/ agardar (anticipar); supoer, supor
fascinating /'cDgBmMWBn/ fascinante
fluent /'coILmW/ con fluidez
foreign language /cFpLm 'oDnZrBb/ lingua estranxeira
get (ones) message across /ZCW rJmh 'lCgBb LYpFg/
facerse entender
good-natured /ZHX'mMaLX/ ambel
gossip /'ZFgBU/ rexoubar, murmurar
graduate /'ZpDbHLBW/ graduarse
happiness /'kUBmLg/ felicidade
have a heart-to-heart talk /kLd L 'kEWWLkEW WGY/ ter unha
charla profunda / sincera
hope /kNU/ agardar, esperar (ter esperanza)
humorous /'kqIlLpLg/ humorstico/a, cmico/a, gracioso/a

B Burlington Books

interchangeable /BmWL'WiCBmXjLVo/ intercambibel


join /bQm/ unirse / xuntarse a; apuntarse a
leader /'oAXL/ lder
leadership /'oAXLiBU/ liderado, direccin
lonely /'oNmoi/ senlleiro/a, s/soa
marker /'lEYL/ rotulador
mass /lg/ masa, cantidade
massive /'lDgBd/ enorme, xigantesco/a
mother tongue /lJfL 'WJn/ lingua materna
mysterious /lB'gWBLpiLg/ misterioso/a
mystery /'lBgWpi/ misterio
native speaker /mCBWBd 'gUAYL/ falante nativo/a
notice (n) /'mNWBg/ letreiro, cartel

18

Glossary
notice (v) /'mNWBg/ ver, reparar en
place /UoMg/ lugar, sitio
pollution /UL'oIim/ polucin, contaminacin
pronounce /UpL'mPmg/ pronunciar
provide /UpL'dOX/ ofrecer, proporcionar, subministrar
punctuation /UJnYWiH'Mim/ puntuacin
quarrel /'YrFpLo/ rifar, pelexarse
raise questions /pMh 'YrCgWiLmh/ formular cuestins /
preguntas
react /pi'DYW/ reaccionar
reverse /pB'dKg/ revogar, anular, cancelar
rise /pOh/ subir, aumentar
sensible /'gCmgLVo/ asisado/a, prudente
sensitive /'gCmgLWBd/ sensbel
sign /gOm/ cartel
sign language /'gOm oDnZrBb/ lingua de signos
slang /goDn/ xerga, argot
space /gUMg/ espazo, sitio
state /gWMW/ afirmar, declarar
statement /'gWMWlLmW/ afirmacin, declaracin
suitable /'gIWLVo/ axeitado/a, acado/a
switch /grBWi/ cambiar, mudar
talk back /WGY 'VDY/ contestar mal, replicar, retrucar
talk down to (someone) /WGY 'XPm WL gJlrJm/ falar con aires
de superioridade / de maneira condescendente a (algun)
talk (someone) into /WGY gJlrJm 'BmWL/ convencer (a algun)
de que (faga algo)
talk (someone) out of /WGY gJlrJm 'PW Ld/ convencer
(a algun) de que non (faga algo)
talk (something) over /WGY gJleBn 'NdL/ falar / rifar (sobre
algo)
tell a joke /WCo L 'bNY/ contar un chiste
truth /WpIe/ verdade
truthful /'WpIeco/ sincero/a
upsetting /JU'gCWBn/ molesto/a, amolado/a, triste
valuable /'doqHLVo/ valioso/a, de valor
value /'doqI/ valor
whisper /'rBgUL/ moumear, falar en voz baixa
(be) worthwhile /VA rKe'rOo/ pagar a pena

... right-hand side ...

Talking About a Picture

account /L'YPmW/ informe; conta (bancaria)


actual /'DYWiHLo/ mesmo/a, propio/a
ad /DX/ anuncio
advert /'DXdKW/ anuncio
advertise /'DXdLWOh/ anunciar(se), facer publicidade (de)
advertisement /LX'dKWBglLmW/ anuncio
advertising /'DXdLWOhBn/ publicidade
allure /L'oHL/ atractivo, encanto
ambush /'DlVHi/ emboscada (~ marketing: marketing de
emboscada)

In the background ...

Ao fondo...

/Bm fL 'VYZpPmX/
In the middle ... /Bm fL 'lBXo/ No medio...
Perhaps ... /UL'kDUg/

Quizais... / Se cadra...

This seems to be ...

Seica...

/fBg 'gAlh WL VA/


... left-hand side ...

... parte esquerda...

/'oCcWkDmX gOX/

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

... parte dereita...

/'pOWkDmX gOX/
... maybe ... /'lMVi/

... quizais...

... probably ... /'UpFVLVoi/

... probabelmente...

At the front ... /LW fL 'cpJmW/

En primeiro plano...

At the back ... /LW fL 'VDY/

En derradeiro / ltimo plano...

I suppose ...

Supoo que...

/O gL'ULHh/
They look like ...

Eles parecen... / semellan...

/fM 'oHY oOY/


They seem to be ...

/fM 'gAl WL VA/

Seica eles estn... / Semellan


estar...

It looks like...

Semella que...

/BW 'oHYg oOY/


They could be ...

Poderan ser / estar...

/fM 'YLX VA/


I guess ... /O 'ZCg/

Supoo que...

You can tell that ...

Ntase / Vese que...

/qI Ym 'WCo fDW/

Useful Expressions
This language was invented
by ... /fBg 'oDnZrBb rLh

Este idioma inventouno...

BmdCmWBX VO/
He / She created it because ... El / Ela creouno porque...
/kA / iA Ypi'MWBX BW VBYFh/
It is spoken / used by ...

Flano / emprgano...

/BW Bh 'gULHYLm / 'qIgX VO/


It can / cant be used for ...

/BW 'Ym / 'YEmW VA qIgX cG/

Pode / Non pode empregarse


en / para...

This language is based on ...

Este idioma est baseado en...

/fBg 'oDnZrBb Bh VMgW Fm/


Its popular with ... /BWg

popular entre...

'UFUqLoL rBf/

UNIT 2

19

Glossary
appealing /L'UAoBn/ apetecbel; atractivo/a
billboard /'VBoVGX/ valado publicitario
boot /VIW/ maleteiro
borrow /'VFpLH/ coller / pedir prestado/a
brilliant /'VpBoiLmW/ brillante, xenial
budget /'VJbBW/ orzamento
childish /'WiOoXBi/ infantil
compete /YLl'UAW/ competir
contestant /YLm'WCgWLmW/ concursante
controversial /YFmWpL'dKio/ controvertido/a, polmico/a
cut back on /YJW 'VDY Fm/ recortar, reducir
decrease /XB'YpAg/ diminur, baixar
effective /B'cCYWBd/ efectivo/a, eficaz
eviction /B'dBYim/ desaloxo
expense /BY'gUCmg/ gasto
eye-catching /'OYaBn/ rechamante
get by /ZCW 'VO/ amaarse, arranxarse
glamorous /'ZoDlLpLg/ requintado/a, elegante
huge /kqIb/ enorme, gran, grande
improve /Bl'UpId/ mellorar
income /'BmYJl/ ingresos; soldo
increase /Bm'YpAg/ aumentar; subir
instead of /Bm'gWCX Ld/ no canto de
judge /bJb/ xuz/a
keep a promise /YAU L 'UpFlBg/ cumprir unha promesa
keep a secret /YAU L 'gAYpLW/ gardar un segredo
keep (someone) company /YAU gJlrJm 'YJlULmi/ facer
compaa (a algun)
keep (ones) eyes on /YAU rJmh 'Oh Fm/ reparar en, non
perder de vista
keep in mind /YAU Bm 'lOmX/ ter en conta, ter presente,
lembrar
keep track of /YAU 'WpDY Fd/ levar a conta de, anotar
lend /oCmX/ emprestar, deixar
major /'lMbL/ importante, relevante; serio/a, grave
match /lWi/ partido; combate; misto, fsforo
misleading /lBg'oAXBn/ enganoso/a
network /'mCWrKY/ cadea; rede
odd /FX/ raro/a, estrao/a
out of /'PW Ld/ (a partir) de
over the top /NdL fL 'WFU/ esaxerado/a
overcome /NdL'YJl/ superar
owe /N/ deber (cartos)
pay a visit /UM L 'dBhBW/ facer unha visita
pay attention /UM L'WCmim/ prestar atencin
pay back /UM 'VDY/ volver (cartos, dieiro), pagar
pay the price /UM fL 'UpOg/ pagar as consecuencias
pay your own way /UM qG Nm 'rM/ custear (algo), pagar o
que lle corresponde
persuasive /UL'grMgBd/ persuasivo/a

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

powerful /'UPLco/ impactante


prevent /UpB'dCmW/ evitar, impedir
product /'UpFXJYW/ produto (~ placement: colocacin /
emprazamento de produto)
profit /'UpFcBW/ beneficio, proveito
publicity stunt /UJV'oBgLWi gWJmW/ truco / engano publicitario
purchase /'UKWiLg/ mercar, comprar
record /pB'YGX/ gravar
shoot /iIW/ facer, sacar; disparar; rodar, filmar
sign /gOm/ letreiro, cartel; sinal
skip /gYBU/ deixar pasar, saltar
sophisticated /gL'cBgWBYMWBX/ sofisticado/a, requintado/a
spectator /gUCY'WMWL/ espectador/a
sponsor /'gUFmgL/ patrocinador/a
survey /'gKdM/ estudo, enquisa
tolerate /'WFoLpMW/ tolerar, aturar, soportar
trend /WpCmX/ tendencia; moda
unfair /Jm'cS/ inxusto/a
willing /'rBoBn/ disposto/a

Expressing Opinions
What do you think?

Que opinas / pensas?

/rFW XI qI 'eBnY/
Why do you think so?

Por que pensas iso?

/rO XI qI 'eBnY gN/


I have to admit that ...

/O kLd WL LX'lBW fDW/


I think that ...

Teo que admitir /


recoecer que...

/O 'eBnY fDW/

Teo para min / Coido /


Penso que...

Personally, ...

Persoalmente, ...

/'UKgLmLoi/
I suppose ...

Supoo que...

/O gL'ULHh/
In my opinion, ...

Na mia opinin, ...

/Bm lO L'UBmqLm/
But dont you think ...?

Mais, non cres (que)... ?

/VLW 'XLHmW qI eBnY/

Useful Expressions
First of all, ...

Antes de nada, ...

/'cKgW Fd Go/
I believe ... /O VB'oAd/

Penso / Coido que...

In my opinion, ... /Bm 'lO

Na mia opinin, ...

LUBmLm/
Its a fact that ... /BWg L 'cYW fDW/ O certo / certo que...

20

Glossary
For example, ... /cL BZ'hElUo/

Por exemplo, ...

For this reason, ... /cL fBg 'pAhm/

Por este motivo, ...

In conclusion, ... /Bm YLm'YoIjm/ En conclusin, ...


To sum up, ... /WL 'gJl JU/

En resumo, ...

UNIT 3
admire /LX'lOL/ admirar
appeal to /L'UAo WL/ gustar / atraer
atmosphere /'DWlLgcR/ atmosfera, ambiente
autograph (n) /'GWLZpDc/ autgrafo
autograph (v) /'GWLZpDc/ asinar, dedicar
award /L'rGX/ premio, galardn
awesome (Am. Eng.) /'GgLl/ incrbel, formidbel
be around /VA L'pPmX/ estar presente, existir, estar
bizarre /VB'hE/ estrafalario/a, estrao/a
boo /VI/ apupar, asubiar (desaprobacin)
book a ticket /VHY L 'WBYBW/ reservar unha entrada
branch /VpEma/ sucursal, filial
break up /VpMY 'JU/ quebrar, partir (en anacos); romper
(unha relacin), separarse
call off /YGo 'Fc/ cancelar, suspender
cheer /aR/ aclamar, vitorear
clap /YoDU/ aplaudir
come down on /YJl 'XPm Fm/ ser duro/a con, criticar
duramente
costume /'YFgWqIl/ traxe; disfrace
currently /'YJpLmWoi/ arestora, actualmente
dazzling /'XDhoBn/ escintilante
disapprove of /XBgL'UpId Ld/ non ter bo concepto de
display /XB'gUoM/ expor, expoer
disturbing /XB'gWKVBn/ inquedante, preocupante
encourage /Bm'YJpBb/ animar, alentar
enthusiastic /BmeqIhi'DgWBY/ entusiasmado/a
fad /cX/ moda
fit in /cBW 'Bm/ encaixar, adaptarse; atopar tempo para
for years to come /cG 'qRh WL YJl/ por / durante moitos anos
front-row seat /'cpJmWpN gAW/ asento en primeira fila
go wild /ZLH 'rOoX/ tolear, enlouquecer, poerse coma tolo/a
hairdo /'kCLXI/ peiteado
huge hit /'kqIb kBW/ grande xito
in the spotlight /Bm fL 'gUFWoOW/ o centro de atencin, no
punto de mira
interval /'BmWLdo/ intermedio, descanso
keep at /'YAU DW/ perserverar / teimar / insistir en
lighting /'oOWBn/ iluminacin
live up to /oBd 'JU WL/ estar altura de; cumprir
look up to /oHY 'JU WL/ admirar

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

lucky break /oJYi 'VpMY/ golpe de sorte


make a comeback /lMY L 'YJlVDY/ reaparecer; volver a
escena
make it /'lMY BW/ chegar lonxe (~ big: triunfar, ter xito)
media exposure /lAXiL BY'gUNjL/ publicidade meditica /
nos medios de comunicacin
onstage /Fm'gWMb/ no escenario
outrageous /PW'pMbLg/ extravagante; ofensivo/a
overnight /NdL'mOW/ da noite ma
packed /UDYW/ cheo/a, ateigado/a, acugulado/a
performance /UL'cGlLmg/ actuacin, funcin
prestigious /UpC'gWBbLg/ prestixioso/a
publicity /UJV'oBgLWi/ publicidade
put on /UHW 'Fm/ (re)presentar, montar; poerse (roupa)
rehearse /pB'kKg/ ensaiar
review /pB'dqI/ crtica, recensin
role model /'pLHo lFXo/ modelo de conduta / a imitar
rumour /'pIlL/ ruxerruxe, rumor
scandal /'gYDmXo/ escndalo
sell out /'gCo PW/ esgotarse (as existencias), venderse (todas
as entradas)
set /gCW/ escenario, decorado
show off /iLH 'Fc/ presumir
sixth-form student /gBYgecGl 'gWqIXmW/ alumno/a de
bacharelato
stand for /'gWmX cL/ significar
stand out /gWmX 'PW/ salientar, destacar
stand up for /gWmX 'JU cL/ defender(se)
support /gL'UGW/ apoiar
take off /WMY 'Fc/ despegar; comezar a ter xito
trendsetter /'WpCmXgCWL/ iniciador/a dunha moda, persoa que
marca tendencia
unique /qI'mAY/ nico/a, excepcional
unknown /Jm'mNm/ descoecido/a
venue /'dCmqI/ lugar de celebracin; escenario
waitress /'rMWpLg/ traballar de camareira
wealthy /'rCoei/ rico/a, adieirado/a
weird /rBLX/ raro/a, estrao/a
worship /'rKiBU/ adorar, idolatar

Comparing Pictures
Both pictures show ...

/'VLHe UBYaLh iLH/

Ambas as das
fotografas amosan...

In this picture ... , while in this


one, ...

Nesta fotografa, ...,


mentres que nestoutra, ...

/Bm 'fBg UBYaL ... rOo Bm 'fBg rJm/


The pictures are quite different ... As fotografas son ben
diferentes...
/fL UBYaLh E YrOW 'XBcpLmW/
One difference is that ....

Unha diferenza que...

/rJm 'XBcpLmg Bh fDW/

21

Glossary
The pictures are similar
because ... /fL UBYaLh E 'gBlLoL

As fotografas son
semellantes porque...

VBYFh/
Another similarity is ...

Outra semellanza ...

/LmJfL gBlL'oDpLWi Bh/

Useful Expressions
Last week, ... /oEgW 'rAY/

A semana pasada, ...

The atmosphere was ...

/fA 'DWlLgcR rLh/

A atmosfera / O
ambiente era / estaba...

At first, ... /LW 'cKgW/

Ao comezo, ...

Then ... /fCm/

Despois / Entn,
daquela,...

The crowd / audience ...


/fL 'YpPX / 'GXiLmg/

A multitude / O pblico...

It was a fantastic /
disappointing ...

Foi un/nha fantstico/a /


decepcionante...

/BW rLh L cm'WgWBY / XBgL'UQmWBn/


In the end, ...

Ao final, ...

/Bm fA 'CmX/
Suddenly, ... /'gJXLmoi/

De speto, ...

Luckily, ... /'oJYBoi/

Afortunadamente /
Por sorte, ...

Unfortunately, .../Jm'cGaLmLWoi/

Desafortunadamente /
Por desgraza, ...

cut down /YJW 'XPm/ talar, deforestar


damage /'XDlBXj/ danar, prexudicar
deforestation /XAcFpB'gWMim/ deforestacin, despoboacin
forestal
demonstrate /'XClLmgWpMW/ manifestarse
destroy /XB'gWpQ/ destrur
disapprove (of) /XBgL'UpId Ld/ estar en contra (de), desaprobar
dishonest /XBg'FmBgW/ pouco honrado/a, deshonesto/a
dispose of /XB'gUNh Ld/ tirar, desfacerse de
drilling /'XpBoBn/ perforacin
dump /XJlU/ verter, tirar
endangered /Bm'XMmbLX/ en perigo de extincin
exploit /BY'gUoQW/ explotar, aproveitar
face /cMg/ afrontar, arrostrar, enfrontarse a
face charges /cMg 'WiEbBh/ enfrontarse a cargos / unha
acusacin
face facts /cMg 'cYWg/ aceptar os feitos / a realidade
face the consequences /cMg fL 'YFmgBYrLmgBh/ facer fronte a /
afrontar as consecuencias
freedom /'cpAXLl/ liberdade
fuel /'cqILo/ combustbel, carburante
global warming /ZoNVo 'rGlBn/ quecemento global
greenhouse effect /'ZpAmkPg BcCYW/ efecto invernadoiro
guilty /'ZBoWi/ culpbel
honest /'FmBgW/ honrado/a, sincero/a
illegal /B'oAZo/ ilegal, ilcito/a
impolite /BlUL'oOW/ de mala educacin; maleducado/a
in shock /Bm 'iFY/ conmocionado/a, impactado/a
inactive /Bm'DYWBd/ inactivo/a

UNIT 4

incomplete /BmYLl'UoAW/ incompleto/a, sen rematar

active /'DYWBd/ activo/a


activist /'YWBdBgW/ activista
approach /L'UpNWi/ achegarse / aproximarse a; dirixirse a
approve (of) /L'UpId Ld/ estar de acordo (con), aprobar
auction /'GYim/ poxa
avoid /L'dQX/ evitar
ban /VDm/ prohibir
believable /VB'oAdLVo/ crbel, verosmil
bid (n) /VBX/ poxa
bid (v) /VBX/ poxar
cant face /'YEmW cMg/ non poder enfrontarse a
charged with /'WiEbX rBf/ acusado/a de
clerk /YoEY/ funcionario/a, empregado/a
complete /YLl'UoAW/ completo/a, enteiro/a, rematado/a
convicted /YLm'dBYWBX/ condenado/a (be ~ of: ser
condenado/a por)
cool /YIo/ arrefriar
court /YGW/ xulgado, tribunal
crime /YpOl/ delito

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

intercity /BmWL'gBWi/ interurbano/a


international /BmWL'mDimLo/ internacional
landfill /'oDmXcBo/ vertedoiro
leak /oAY/ verter(se)
legal /'oAZo/ legal, ilcito/a
litter /'oBWL/ lixo, refugallos
lobby /'oFVi/ vestbulo, sala de espera
misbehave /lBgVB'kCBd/ portarse mal
misunderstand /lBgJmXL'gWDmX/ malinterpretar, entender mal
outspoken /PW'gULHYLm/ declarado/a; franco/a, directo/a
overcrowded /NdL'YpPXBX/ superpoboado/a
overpopulated /NdL'UFUqIoMWBX/ superpoboado/a
petrol-burning /'UCWpLoVKmBn/ de gasolina
polite /UL'oOW/ de boa educacin; educado/a
pollutant /UL'oIWLmW/ (substancia) contaminante
pollute /UL'oIW/ contaminar
power station /'UPL gWMim/ central elctrica
pristine /'UpBgWAm/ prstino/a, virxe
rebuild /pA'VBoX/ reconstrur, volver construr

22

Glossary
reduce /pB'XqIg/ reducir
regret /pB'ZpCW/ laiarse, lamentar, arrepentirse de
renewable energy /pBmqILVo 'CmLbi/ enerxa(s) renovbel(beis)
replace /pB'UoMg/ substitur, reemprazar, cambiar
reuse /pA'qIh/ reutilizar, volver empregar/usar
smog /glFZ/ nboa txica (mesturada con fume)
solar power /gNoL 'UPL/ enerxa solar
source /gGg/ fonte; nacemento
spoilt /gUQoW/ estragado/a, arruinado/a
supply /gL'UoO/ subministrar, proporcionar
threaten /'epCWm/ ameazar
treasure /'WpCjL/ tesouro
trial /'WpOLo/ xuzo, proceso (stand ~: ser xulgado/a /
procesado/a)
unbelievable /JmVB'oAdLVo/ incrbel, inverosmil
underestimate /JmXL'CgWBlMW/ subestimar, infravalorar
underpaid /JmXL'UMX/ mal pago/a
underweight /JmXL'rMW/ por debaixo do peso normal
undeveloped /JmXB'dCoLUW/ sen explotar
unexpected /JmBY'gUCYWBX/ inesperado/a
unspoilt /Jm'gUQoW/ no seu estado natural
urbanisation /KVLmO'hMim/ urbanizacin, crecemento urbano
waste /rMgW/ refugallos; desperdicios
water shortage /'rGWL iGWBXj/ escaseza / falta de auga
wilderness /'rBoXLmLg/ terra / terreo agreste; parque
natural (Am. Eng.)
wildlife /'rOoXoOc/ fauna

Exchanging Information
What is it?

Que iso?

/rFW 'Bh BW/


What does it look like?
/rFW XJh BW 'oHY oOY/

Como ?

What is it made of?


/rFW Bh BW 'lMX Ld/

De que est feito/a?

How does it help the


environment?

Como axuda ao medio


natural?

/kP XJh BW kCoU fA


Bm'dOpLmlLmW/
What else can you tell me
about it?/rFW Cog YLm qI 'WCo

Que mis podes contarme


sobre iso?

lA LVPW BW/
What are the disadvantages?

Cales son as desvantaxes?

/rFW E fL XBgLX'dEmWBbBh/
Is it being used yet?

Est a usarse xa?

/Bh BW VABn 'qIgX qCW/

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Useful Expressions
As well as ...

Ademais de, ...

/Lh 'rCo Lh/


Moreover, ...

Ademais, ...

/lGp'NdL/
Apparently, ...

/L'UDpLmWoi/
Consequently, ...

/'YFmgBYrLmWoi/
If ...
/Bc/

En aparencia /
Aparentemente, ...
Xa que logo / Polo
tanto, ...
Se...

In short,

Resumindo, ...

/Bm 'iGW/
Obviously, ...

Obviamente, ...

/'FVdiLgoi/
Although ...

/Go'fN/

Anda que, Anque / Malia


que, A pesar de que...

UNIT 5
accomplished /L'YJlUoBiW/ formado/a
attack /L'WDY/ atacar, agredir
bound to /'VPmX WL/ seguro que
bread and butter /VpCX LmX 'VJWL/ sustento, medio de vida
bring home the bacon /VpBn kNl fL 'VMYLm/ gaar a vida
call the shots /YGo fL 'iFWg/ mandar, levar a voz cantante
challenge /'WiDoLmb/ supor un reto / desafo
college /'YFoBb/ universidade
confident /'YFmcBXLmW/ seguro/a, certo/a (de)
cooperative /YN'FULpLWBd/ servizal, disposto/a a axudar
daintily /'XMmWioi/ con delicadeza, delicadamente
dedicated /'XCXBYMWBX/ entregado/a
down payment /XPm 'UMlLmW/ entrada, desembolso inicial
enclose /Bm'YoNh/ inclur, conter
experienced /BY'gUBLpiLmgW/ con experiencia
fire /'cOL/ despedir / botar (do traballo)
flourish /'coJpBi/ prosperar, ir a mis, florecer
full-time job /cHoWOl 'bFV/ traballo a tempo completo
get the sack /ZCW fL 'gDY/ ser despedido/a
get training /ZCW 'WpMmBn/ prepararse, formarse, recibir
(unha) formacin
hard-working /kEX'rKYBn/ traballador/a
have got common sense /kLd ZFW YFlLm 'gCmg/ ter sentido
comn
hold down a job /kNoX XPm L 'bFV/ manterse nun posto,
conservar un emprego
in charge /Bm 'WiEb/ a cargo

23

Glossary
knowledge /'mFoBb/ coecemento(s)
make a living /lMY L 'oBdBn/ gaar a vida
mature /lL'aHL/ maduro/a
odd jobs /FX 'bFVh/ traballios, traballos espordicos
organised /'GZLmOhX/ organizado/a
overtime /'NdLWOl/ horas extra
(get) paid peanuts /ZCW UMX 'UAmJWg/ gaar / cobrar unha
miseria
part time /UEW'WOl/ media xornada, a tempo parcial
people skills /'UAUo gYBoh/ don de xentes, habilidades sociais
presume /UpB'hqIl/ supor, supoer, imaxinar
privilege /'UpBdLoBb/ privilexio, honra
promote /UpL'lNW/ ascender (be ~ed: ser ascendido/a)
propose /UpL'UNh/ propoer, propor, suxerir
punctual /'UJnYWiHLo/ puntual
pursuit /UL'gqIW/ procura, busca
raise /pMh/ criar
reliable /pB'oOLVo/ merecente de confianza, formal
resign /pB'hOm/ dimitir, renunciar
rise /pOh/ aumento, subida
run a business /pJm L 'VBhmLg/ levar / dirixir un negocio
run away /pJm L'rCB/ fuxir, escapar, marchar
see the point /gA fL 'UQmW/ atopar / ver (o) sentido, entender
o porqu
self-employed /gCocBl'UoQX/ autnomo/a
shifts /iBcWg/ quendas, turnos
show (someone) the ropes /iLH gJlrJm fL 'pNUg/ amosar /
ensinar como funciona todo (a algun)
skilled /gYBoX/ experto/a, cualificado/a
staff /gWEc/ cadro de persoal
steady job /gWCXi 'bFV/ traballo fixo
stuff /gWJc/ cousas, trebellos
substantial /gLV'gWDmio/ considerbel, importante
switch /grBWi/ cambiar / mudar de
team player /'WAl UoML/ que traballa ben en equipo
well paid /rCo 'UMX/ ben remunerado/a / pago/a
work (ones) way to the top /rKY rJmh rM WL fL 'WFU/ chegar
ao alto (por mritos propios), abrirse camio at o cume
work well under pressure /rKY rCo JmXL 'UpCiL/ traballar
ben baixo presin
zip line /'hBU oOm/ tirolesa (deporte), tirolina

A Job Interview
What are your plans for the
future?

Cales son os seus plans


para o futuro?

/rFW L qG UoDmh cG fL 'cqIaL/


Could you tell me about the job / Podera falarme do
traballo / da empresa?
company?

/YLX qI WCo lA LVPW fL 'bFV /


'YJlULmi/

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

What work experience have you Que experiencia laboral


ten?
got?

/rFW 'rKY BYgURpiLmg kDd qI ZFW/


Why do you think youd be good Por que cre que sera bo/a
para este traballo?
at this job?

/rO XI qI eBnY qIX VA 'ZHX LW


fBg bFV/
May I ask what the salary would Podo preguntar cal sera o
soldo?
be?

/lM O EgY rFW fL 'gDoLpi rHX


VA/
What are the working hours?

/rFW E fL 'rKYBn PLh/


When did you finish school?

/rCm XBX qI cBmBi 'gYIo/


What would you say are your
best characteristics?

/rFW rHX qI gM E qG VCgW


YpLYWL'pBgWBYg/

Cal o horario de
traballo?
Cando rematou o colexio /
os estudos?
Cales dira que son
as sas mellores
caractersticas /
cualidades?

Useful Expressions
Dear Sir / Madam,

Prezado/a Sr. / Sra.:

/XR 'gK / 'lDXLl/


I am writing in response to ...
/O Ll 'pOWBn Bm pBgUFmg WL/

Escribo en resposta a...

I would like to apply for ...


/O rHX oOY WL L'UoO cG/

Gustarame / Quixera
solicitar...

I feel I am well suited ...


/O cAo O Ll rCo 'gIWBX/

Coido que estou


capacitado/a...

I hope you will consider my


application favourably.
/O kNU qI rBo YLmgBXL lO

Agardo que tean en


conta a mia solicitude
favorabelmente.

DUoBYMim 'cMdLpLVoi/
I look forward to your reply.
/O oHY 'cGrLX WL qG pBUoO/

Agardo a sa resposta.

Yours faithfully, /qGh 'cCBecLoi/

Atentamente,

UNIT 6
admit /LX'lBW/ admitir, recoecer
alive /L'oOd/ vivo/a
ban /VDm/ prohibicin
bonnet /'VFmBW/ cap
boot /VIW/ maleteiro
break a habit /VpMY L 'kDVBW/ quitar / perder un hbito /
un costume
break down /VpMY 'XPm/ avariarse, derramarse
campaign /YDl'UMm/ campaa
cautious /'YGiLg/ prudente, cauteloso/a
contend /YLm'WCmX/ afirmar, soster

24

Glossary
dead end /XCX 'CmX/ ruela sen sada
delay /XB'oM/ retrasar(se)
develop /XB'dCoLU/ desenvolver, crear
distract /XB'gWpDYW/ distraer
drop off /XpFU 'Fc/ deixar (cun vehculo)
enforce /Bm'cGg/ facer cumprir
exit /'CYgBW/ sada
fancy /'cDmgi/ gustar, prestar
fatal /'cCBWo/ mortal
fine /cOm/ multa
head-on collision /kCXFm YL'oBjm/ colisin / choque frontal
hoot /kIW/ pitar, tocar o claxon
indicate /'BmXBYMW/ sinalar, indicar, sinalizar
inexperienced /BmBY'gUBLpiLmgW/ inexperto/a
jaywalk /'bMrGY/ cruzar a ra imprudentemente
junction /'bJnYim/ interseccin, cruzamento
lane /oCBm/ carril
lead to /'oAX WL/ levar / conducir a
motorist /'lNWLpBgW/ condutor/a, automobilista
motorway /'lNWLrM/ autoestrada
oncoming /'FmYJlBn/ que vn en sentido oposto / contrario
one-way /rJm'rM/ dun s sentido / sentido nico
overtake /NdL'WMY/ adiantar
pavement /'UMdlLmW/ beirarra
pedestrian /UL'XCgWpiLm/ pen/oa
pick up /UBY 'JU/ coller, recoller, ir buscar
pledge /UoCb/ compromiso, promesa
plough into /UoP 'BmWL/ estrelarse, esnafrarse / bater contra
poll /UNo/ enquisa, sondaxe
prove /UpId/ demostrar, probar
pull into /UHo 'BmWL/ deterse, parar en (vehculo)
pull over /UHo 'NdL/ facerse / parar a unha beira
put out /UHW 'PW/ difundir
reckless /'pCYoLg/ temerario/a
resist the urge /pB'hBgW fi Kb/ resistir o impulso, conter
as ganas
right of way /pOW Ld 'rM/ prioridade / preferencia (de paso)
roundabout /'pPmXLVPW/ rotonda
run over /pJm 'NdL/ atropelar
rush hour /'pJi PL/ hora punta
safe /gMc/ seguro/a, a salvo
seat belt /'gAW VCoW/ cinto de seguridade
slow down /goLH 'XPm/ reducir a velocidade, frear
slow-motion /goLH'lNim/ cmara lenta
speed limit /'gUAX oBlBW/ lmite de velocidade
speed up /gUAX 'JU/ acelerar, bulir
speeding /'gUAXBn/ exceso de velocidade
(be) stuck /VA 'gWJY/ (estar) atascado/a / parado/a
swerve /grKd/ xirar con brusquidade
tempt /WClUW/ tentar

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

tough /WJc/ duro/a, difcil


traffic jam /'WpDcBY bDl/ atasco
trapped /WpDUW/ atrapado/a
(be) unaware /VA JmL'rS/ non decatarse, ignorar
victim /'dBYWBl/ vtima
vividly /'dBdBXoi/ claramente, explicitamente
vulnerable /'dJomLpLVo/ vulnerbel
worldwide /'rKoXrOX/ mundial, universal; en todo o mundo
zebra crossing /hCVpL 'YpFgBn/ paso de pens

Reaching an Agreement
I disagree.
/O XBgL'ZpA/

Non estou de acordo.

Thats not how I see it.


/fDWg 'mFW kP O gA BW/

Non as como eu o vexo.

I suppose youre right, but ...


/O gL'UNh qHL pOW VJW/

Supoo que tes / levas


razn, mais...

No way!

De ningn xeito! Nin


pensalo / falar!

/mN 'rM/
I see your point.
/O gA qG 'UQmW/

Entndote.

Exactly! All right then, weve


agreed ...

Exacto! Daquela de acordo,


acordamos / estamos de
acordo en...

/BZ'hDYWoi Go pOW fCm, rAd


L'ZpAX/
I think youre wrong.
/O eBnY qHL 'pFn/

Creo que non tes razn / te


equivocas.

Not in my opinion.
/mFW Bm 'lO LUBmqLm/

Na mia opinin, non.

I see what you mean.


/O 'gA rFW qI lAm/

Vexo / Entendo o que


queres dicir.

I suppose thats true, but ...


/O gL'UNh fDWg WpI VLW/

Supoo que iso verdade,


mais...

Absolutely!

Abof! Por suposto! /


Xaora!

/DVgL'oIWoi/
OK, so weve decided ...

/N'YM gN rAd XBgOXBX/

Moi ben, as que decidimos...

Oh, come on!

Vea, xa!, Imos!

/N 'YJl Fm/

Useful Expressions
I (strongly) think / feel /
believe
/O (gWpFnoi) 'eBnY / 'cAo/ VB'oAd

Penso / Coido
(firmemente) que...

fDW/
In my opinion,
/Bm lO L'UBmqLm/

Na mia opinin, ...

As I see it, ...


/Lh O 'gA BW/

(Tal e) Como eu o vexo, ...

25

Glossary
Personally, ...

Persoalmente, ...

/'UKgLmLoi/
Theres no doubt that ...

Non hai dbida de que...

/fCLh mN 'XPW fDW/


For instance / example

Por exemplo...

/cG 'BmgWLmg / BZ'hElUo/


such as
/'gJWi Lh/

como...

To sum up

Para resumir...,
En resumidas contas

/WL 'gJl JU/


In conclusion

/Bm YLm'YoIjm/

Contrast 2 Galician

Para rematar / conclur...,


En conclusin...

B Burlington Books

26

Phrasal Verbs and Prepositions


Phrasal Verbs

break down:avariarse, derramarse


break up:partir (en anacos); romper (unha relacin), separarse
call off:cancelar, suspender
call out:anunciar; berrar
come back:regresar, voltar, volver
come down on:ser duro/a con, criticar duramente
come up with:propoer, propor, ocorrerse
cut back on:recortar, reducir
drop off:deixar (cun vehculo)
drop out (of):deixar (unha actividade)
end up:rematar, ir parar
feel like:apetecer, ter ganas de
fill in:cubrir (impreso ou documento)
find out:esculcar, descubrir
fit in:encaixar, adaptarse; atopar tempo para
get along:levarse ben
get back:volver, tornar, regresar; recuperar
get by:amaarse
get out:sar / baixarse de
get together:reunir(se), xuntar(se)
give up:darse por vencido/a, abandonar
go out (with):sar (con algun)
grow up:crecer, criarse
hand out:repartir, distribur
hang out:pasar o tempo
keep at:perseverar / teimar, insistir en
lie down:deitarse, tombarse
live up to:estar altura de; cumprir
log in:comezar a sesin
log out:pechar / sar da sesin
look after:coidar a / de; ter conta de
look for:buscar, procurar
look forward to:agardar con ansia, ter moitas ganas de,
devecer por
look out:ter coidado / conta
look out over:mirar desde/dende arriba
look up:procurar (informacin)
look up to:admirar
pass around:pasar de un/s (unha/s) a outros/as
pick up:coller, recoller, ir buscar
plough into:estrelarse, esnafrarse / bater contra
point out: sinalar
pull into:parar en (vehculo)
pull over:facerse / parar a unha beira
put off:aprazar, pospor, pospoer
put on:(re)presentar, montar; poer, pr (roupa)
run away:escapar(se), marchar, fuxir
run out of:quedar sen
run over:atropelar
set up:crear, construr
show off:presumir
show up:aparecer, chegar, presentarse (nun lugar)

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

sit down:sentar(se)
slow down:reducir a velocidade, frear
speed up:acelerar, bulir
stand for:significar
stand out:salientar, destacar
stand up for:defender(se)
start out with:comezar con
start up:acender, comezar
take after:asemellarse / sar a
take off:despegar; comezar a ter xito
take on:contratar
take part in:participar en
talk back:contestar mal, retrucar
talk down to:falar con aires de superioridade / de maneira
condescendente a
talk into:convencer de que (se faga algo)
talk out of:convencer de que non (se faga algo)
talk over:falar / rifar sobre
try on:probarse (roupa)
turn back:volver, voltar, regresar
turn down:rexeitar; baixar (o volume)
turn in:entregar
turn into:converter en
turn off:apagar, desenchufar (aparello)
turn on:acender (aparello)
turn out:resultar; asistir, acudir
turn to:acudir a (algun)
turn up:subir (volume)
watch out:ter coidado / conta de
work out:funcionar
write down:apuntar, anotar

27

Prepositions

Prepositions
Verbs + Prepositions
admit to:confesarse (culpbel de)
agree on:estar de acordo en
agree with:estar de acordo con
aim to:ter o obxectivo de
appeal to:gustar / atraer a
appear in:aparecer en
argue with:rifar con
arrive at:chegar a (un lugar)
arrive in:chegar a (unha cidade, un pas)
believe in:crer en
belong to:pertencer a
break up with:afastarse, separarse de, romper con
compete with:competir con
concentrate on:concentrarse en
connect to:asociar a, relacionar con
criticise for:criticar por
deal with:tratar; ocuparse / encargarse de
depend on:depender de
direct to:sinalar onde est, dirixir a
dream of:soar con; imaxinarse, ocorrerse
forget about:esquecerse de
hear about:saber de
identify with: identificarse con
lead to: levar / conducir a
listen to:escoitar (a)
participate in:practicar (un deporte); participar / tomar
parte en
pay for:pagar (por)
prepare for:preparar(se) para
provide for:proporcionar a / para
rely on:confiar en
remind of:lembrar, recordar
result in:ter como resultado
return to:volver / regresar a
search for:procurar, buscar
succeed in:ter xito / triunfar en
switch to:mudar / cambiar a
talk about:falar sobre
talk to / with:falar con
think about:opinar (sobre), parecer, semellar, pensar /
matinar en
think of:pensar en
wait for:agardar a
write about:escribir sobre

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

Nouns + Prepositions
account of:relato / historia de / sobre
chance of:oportunidade de
demand for:demanda / solicitude de
effect on:efecto / influencia sobre
end of:final de
example of:exemplo de
form of:forma / xeito de
group of:grupo de
increase in:aumento en / de
intention of:intencin de
need for:necesidade de
part of: parte de
reason for:motivo de / razn para
sense of: sensacin de
series of: serie / sucesin de
solution to:solucin a / de
source of:fonte de
team of:grupo de
way of:forma / xeito / maneira de

Adjectives + Prepositions
associated with:relacionado/a con, asociado/a a
based on:baseado/a en
charged with:acusado/a de
created by:creado/a por
destructive to:danio/a, negativo/a para
different from:diferente / desemellante / distinto de
evicted from:desaloxado/a de
exposed to:exposto/a a
good at:bo/a (en / para)
interested in:interesado/a en
invented by:inventado/a por
involved in:metido/a implicado/a involucrado/a en
mad about:entusiasmado/a por; encantado/a con
raised by:formulado/a por
relevant to:relevante / importante para
replaced by:reemprazado/a substitudo/a por
similar to:semellante / parecido/a a
tired of:canso/a de
upset with:enfadado/a molesto/a con (algun)
willing to:disposto/a a
worried about:preocupado/a por

28

Irregular Verbs
Base Form (V1)
be /VA/
beat /VAW/
become/VB'YJl/
begin /VB'ZBm/
bend /VCmX/
bet /VCW/
bite /VOW/
bleed /VoAX/
blow /VoLH/
break /VpMY/
bring /VpBn/
build /VBoX/
burn /VKm/
burst /VKgW/
buy /VO/
catch /Ya/
choose /aIh/
come /YJl/
cost /YFgW/
cut /YJW/
deal /XAo/
dig /XBZ/
do /XI/
draw /XpG/
dream /XpAl/
drink /XpBnY/
drive /XpOd/
eat /AW/
fall /cGo/
feed /cAX/
feel /cAo/
fight /cOW/
find /cOmX/
fly /coO/
forget /cL'ZCW/
forgive /cL'ZBd/
freeze /cpAh/
get /ZCW/
give /ZBd/
go /ZN/
grow /ZpN/
hang /kn/
have /kd/
hear /kBL/
hide /kOX/
hit /kBW/
hold /kNoX/
hurt /kKW/
keep /YAU/
know /mN/
lay /oCB/
lead /oAX/
learn /oKm/
leave /oAd/
lend /oCmX/

Contrast 2 Galician

Past Simple (V2)


was / were /rFh/rK/
beat /VAW/
became /VB'YMl/
began /VB'Zm/
bent /VCmW/
bet /VCW/
bit /VBW/
bled /VoCX/
blew /VoI/
broke /VpLHY/
brought /VpGW/
built /VBoW/
burnt / burned /VKmW/VKmX/
burst /VKgW/
bought /VGW/
caught /YGW/
chose /aLHh/
came /YMl/
cost /YFgW/
cut /YJW/
dealt /XCoW/
dug /XJZ/
did /XBX/
drew /XpI/
dreamt / dreamed /XpClW/XpAlX/
drank /XpnY/
drove /XpLHd/
ate /CBW/
fell /cCo/
fed /cCX/
felt /cCoW/
fought /cGW/
found /cPmX/
flew /coI/
forgot /cL'ZFW/
forgave /cL'ZMd/
froze /cpLHh/
got /ZFW/
gave /ZMd/
went /rCmW/
grew /ZpI/
hung / hanged /kJn/knX/
had /kX/
heard /kKX/
hid /kBX/
hit /kBW/
held /kCoX/
hurt /kKW/
kept /YCUW/
knew /mqI/
laid /oCBX/
led /oCX/
learnt / learned /oKmW/oKmX/
left /oCcW/
lent /oCmW/
B Burlington Books

Past Participle (V3)


been /VAm/
beaten /'VAWm/
become /VB'YJl/
begun /VB'ZJm/
bent /VCmW/
bet /VCW/
bitten /'VBWm/
bled /VoCX/
blown /VoLHm/
broken /'VpLHYm/
brought /VpGW/
built /VBoW/
burnt / burned /VKmW/VKmX/
burst /VKgW/
bought /VGW/
caught /YGW/
chosen /'aLHhm/
come /YJl/
cost /YFgW/
cut /YJW/
dealt /XCoW/
dug /XJZ/
done /XJm/
drawn /XpGm/
dreamt / dreamed /XpClW/XpAlX/
drunk /XpJnY/
driven /'XpBdm/
eaten /'AWm/
fallen /'cGom/
fed /cCX/
felt /cCoW/
fought /cGW/
found /cPmX/
flown /coLHm/
forgotten /cL'ZFWm/
forgiven /cL'ZBdm/
frozen /'cpLHhm/
got /ZFW/
given /'ZBdm/
gone /ZFm/
grown /ZpNm/
hung / hanged /kJn/knX/
had /kX/
heard /kKX/
hidden /'kBXm/
hit /kBW/
held /kCoX/
hurt /kKW/
kept /YCUW/
known /mNm/
laid /oCBX/
led /oCX/
learnt / learned /oKmW/oKmX/
left /oCcW/
lent /oCmW/

Galego
ser, estar
golpear, bater
chegar a ser, converterse
comezar, empezar
dobrar(se)
apostar
trabar
sangrar
soprar
crebar, romper, rachar
traer
construr
queimar
estoupar, estourar
mercar
coller, agarrar
elixir
vir
custar
cortar
comerciar, tratar
cavar, sachar
facer
debuxar
soar
beber
conducir
comer
caer
alimentar
sentir(se)
loitar, pelexar
atopar
voar
esquecer
perdoar
conxelar(se)
conseguir; chegar
dar
ir
crecer; cultivar
pendurar
ter
or, ouvir
agochar(se)
golpear, bater, pegar
suxeitar, soster, termar de
ferir, facer dano, mancar
gardar, manter
saber, coecer
poer, pr; estender
guiar, conducir
aprender
deixar; irse, sar
emprestar

29

Irregular Verbs
Base Form (V1)
let /oCW/
lie /oO/
lie /oO/ (regular verb)
light /oOW/
lose /oIh/
make /lCBY/
mean /lAm/
meet /lAW/
pay /UM/
put /UHW/
read /pAX/
ride /pOX/
ring /pBn/
rise /pOh/
run /pJm/
say /gM/
see /gA/
sell /gCo/
send /gCmX/
set /gCW/
sew /gN/
shake /iMY/
shine /iOm/
shoot /iIW/
show /iLH/
shut /iJW/
sing /gBn/
sink /gBnY/
sit /gBW/
sleep /goAU/
smell /glCo/
speak /gUAY/
spell /gUCo/
spend /gUCmX/
spill /gUBo/
spoil /gUQo/
spread /gUpCX/
spring /gUpBn/
stand /gWmX/
steal /gWAo/
stick /gWBY/
sting /gWBn/
swear /grCL/
sweep /grAU/
swim /grBl/
take /WMY/
teach /WAa/
tear /WCL/
tell /WCo/
think /eBnY/
throw /epN/
understand /JmXC'gWmX/
wake up /'rMY JU/
wear /rCL/
win /rBm/
write /pOW/

Contrast 2 Galician

Past Simple (V2)


let /oCW/
lay /oCB/
lied /oOX/
lit /oBW/
lost /oFgW/
made /lCBX/
meant /lCmW/
met /lCW/
paid /UMX/
put /UHW/
read /pCX/
rode /pLHX/
rang /pn/
rose /pLHh/
ran /pm/
said /gCX/
saw /gG/
sold /gLHoX/
sent /gCmW/
set /gCW/
sewed /gNX/
shook /iHY/
shone /iFm/
shot /iFW/
showed /iLHX/
shut /iJW/
sang /gn/
sank /gnY/
sat /gW/
slept /goCUW/
smelt / smelled /glCoW/glCoX/
spoke /gULHY/
spelt / spelled /gUCoW/gUCoX/
spent /gUCmW/
spilt / spilled /gUBoW/gUBoX/
spoilt / spoiled /gUQoW/gUQoX/
spread /gUpCX/
sprang /gUpn/
stood /gWHX/
stole /gWLHo/
stuck /gWJY/
stung /gWJn/
swore /grG/
swept /grCUW/
swam /grl/
took /WHY/
taught /WGW/
tore /WG/
told /WLHoX/
thought /eGW/
threw /epI/
understood /JmXC'gWHX/
woke up /'rLHY JU/
wore /rG/
won /rJm/
wrote /pLHW/

B Burlington Books

Past Participle (V3)


let /oCW/
lain /oCBm/
lied /oOX/
lit /oBW/
lost /oFgW/
made /lCBX/
meant /lCmW/
met /lCW/
paid /UMX/
put /UHW/
read /pCX/
ridden /'pBXm/
rung /pJn/
risen /'pBhm/
run /pJm/
said /gCX/
seen /gAm/
sold /gLHoX/
sent /gCmW/
set /gCW/
sewn /gNm/
shaken /'iMYm/
shone /iFm/
shot /iFW/
shown /iLHm/
shut /iJW/
sung /gJn/
sunk /gJnY/
sat /gW/
slept /goCUW/
smelt / smelled /glCoW/glCoX/
spoken /'gULHYm/
spelt / spelled /gUCoW/gUCoX/
spent /gUCmW/
spilt / spilled/gUBoW/gUBoX/
spoilt / spoiled /gUQoW/gUQoX/
spread /gUpCX/
sprung /gUpJn/
stood /gWHX/
stolen /'gWLHom/
stuck /gWJY/
stung /gWJn/
sworn /grGm/
swept /grCUW/
swum /grJl/
taken /'WMYm/
taught /WGW/
torn /WGm/
told /WLHoX/
thought /eGW/
thrown /epNm/
understood /JmXC'gWHX/
woken up /'rLHYm JU/
worn /rGm/
won /rJm/
written /'pBWm/

Galego
permitir, deixar
tombarse, deitarse
mentir
acender, prender
perder
facer, fabricar
significar, querer dicir
coecer a; quedar con
pagar
poer, pr
ler
montar
chamar (por telfono)
elevarse, erguerse
correr
dicir
ver
vender
enviar
colocar
coser
axitar
brillar, escintilar
disparar
amosar, ensinar
pechar
cantar
afundir
sentar
durmir
ulir, cheirar
falar
soletrear
gastar; pasar (tempo)
verter
arruinar, estragar
untar; espallar
choutar, brincar
estar a p
roubar
apegar
picar (un insecto)
xurar
varrer
nadar
coller; levar
aprender, ensinar
rachar, esgazar
dicir, contar
coidar, pensar
guindar, tirar
comprender, entender
espertar
levar posto, poerse
gaar
escribir

30

Cadros resumo
CADROS RESUMO DAS EQUIVALENCIAS DOS
TEMPOS VERBAIS ENTRE O INGLS E O GALEGO
LEMBRA: os tempos verbais do Subxuntivo galego tradcense en ingls polos seus correspondentes en indicativo.
As, o Presente de Subxuntivo, o Futuro de Subxuntivo e o Pretrito Imperfecto de Subxuntivo traduciranse igual ca o
Presente, o Futuro e o Pretrito Imperfecto de Indicativo, respectivamente.

Tempos verbais

Tenses

presente

present simple

Eu ando
Ti andas
El/Ela anda
Ns andamos
Vs andades
Eles/Elas andan

I walk
You walk
He/She walks
We walk
You walk
They walk
present continuous

I am walking
You are walking
He/She is walking
We are walking
You are walking
They are walking
pretrito imperfecto

Eu andaba
Ti andabas
El/Ela andaba
Ns andabamos
Vs andabades
Eles/Elas andaban

pretrito perfecto

Eu andei
Ti andaches
El/Ela andou
Ns andamos
Vs andastes
Eles/Elas andaron

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

past continuous

I was walking
You were walking
He/She was walking
We were walking
You were walking
They were walking

Outras
equivalencias

perfrase

Eu estou a andar / andando


Ti ests a andar / andando
El/Ela est a andar / andando
Ns estamos a andar / andando
Vs estades a andar / andando
Eles/Elas estn a andar / andando
perfrase

Eu estaba a andar / andando


Ti estabas a andar / andando
El/Ela estaba a andar / andando
Ns estabamos a andar / andando
Vs estabades a andar / andando
Eles/Elas estaban a andar / andando

past simple

I walked
You walked
He/She walked
We walked
You walked
They walked
present perfect

I have walked
You have walked
He/She has walked
We have walked
You have walked
They have walked

perfrase

Eu teo andado
Ti tes andado
El/Ela ten andado
Ns temos andado
Vs tedes andado
Eles/Elas teen andado

31

Cadros Resumo

Outras
equivalencias

Tempos verbais

Tenses

Pretrito
pluscuamperfecto

past perfect

perfrase

Eu andara
Ti andaras
El/Ela andara
Ns andaramos
Vs andarades
Eles/Elas andaran

I had walked
You had walked
He/She had walked
We had walked
You had walked
They had walked

Eu tia andado
Ti tias andado
El/Ela tia andado
Ns tiamos andado
Vs tiades andado
Eles/Elas tian andado

Futuro

will

Eu andarei
Ti andars
El/Ela andar
Ns andaremos
Vs andaredes
Eles/Elas andarn

I will walk
You will walk
He/She will walk
We will walk
You will walk
They will walk

Futuro do pretrito

conditional

Eu andara
Ti andaras
El/Ela andara
Ns andariamos
Vs andariades
Eles/Elas andaran

I would walk
You would walk
He/She would walk
We would walk
You would walk
They would walk

infinitivo conxugado

infinitive / gerund

Eu andar
Ti andares
El/Ela andar
Ns andarmos
Vs andardes
Eles/Elas andaren

(to) walk / walking

Para a traducin do Future Perfect e Future Continuous repasa os puntos correspondentes na seccin Getting
Started deste mesmo apndice gramatical.

Contrast 2 Galician

B Burlington Books

IH-009-654

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