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Grade 10 French Notes

Le Participe Pass
Avoir:
make agreements with avoir when a direct object precedes the verb
> a pronoun: Elle la mange.
> a question where the direct object is before the verb
> the pronoun que
no agreements with the object pronouns: lui, leur, y, en
Le Participe Pass Comme Adjectif:
sometimes we use the participe as an adjective, but you must make agreements with
what the adjective is describing
> les homards sont cuits la perfection
Imparfait Avec Avoir et tre:
past tense used for descriptions
avoir and tre are mainly used in this tense
Avoir Etre
avais tais
avais tais
avait tait
avions tions

aviez tiez
avaient taient
Imparfait:
translates to was or used to
to conjugate: take nous form of verb, drop the ons, and add:
-ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient
exceptions:
> verbs that end with ger: mangeais, mangeais, mangeait, mangions, mangiez,
mangeaient
> verbs that end with cer: commenais, commenais, commenait, commencions,
commenciez, commenaient
> verbs that end with ier: tudiais, tudiais, tudiait, tudiions, tudiiez, tudiaient
Usage de lImparfait:
les descriptions (physique, personnalit)
ltat motionnel et physique
les actions rptes ou habituelles
une action qui continue dans le pass et qui est interrompue (quand + pc)
deux actions simultanes (pendant que)
le temps
lheure
these verbs usually take imparfait: savoir, avoir, pouvoir, vouloir, tre

use pass instead of imparfait when an action is terminated in the past, its an
interruption or the actions are in chronological order
PassImparfait:
avoir: had, got, receivedhad
connaitre: metknew, was familiar with
devoir: must have, had towas supposed to (whether I did it or not)
pouvoir: could, was able tocould, was able to (whether I did to not)
savoir: learned, found outknew
vouloir: tried, decided towanted

Les Verbs Prominaux au Pass Compos:


reflexive verbs in pass use tre and make agreements
dont make agreements when:
> there is a direct object following that is a body part
> if the reflexive pronoun is indirect (lui, leur)
Verbs that Require Indirect Pronouns:
se dire, se demander, scrire, se montre, soffrir, se proposer, se servir, se faire mal, se
parler, se repondre, se tlphoner, se donner, senvoyer, se raconter, se vendre
Le Futur Simple:

infinitive + endings
ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont
with re verbs, drop the e
Irregular:
venirviendr, courircourr, voirverr, fairefer, allerir, devoirdevr, pouvoir
pourr, avoiraur, etreser, vouloirvoudr, savoirsaur, mourirmourr, recevoir
recevr, devenirdeviendr
Le Participe Prsent:
1st person plural (nous) is formed
take off ons, add ant
same rules for regular and irregular
> ger verbs, dont drop the e and cer verbs, change c to
always preceded by en (no je, tu, il, etc. but keep reflective pronouns)
3 irregular: tretant, avoirayant, savoirsachant
makes ing in English
can be two actions going on at the same time, and used to describe how we do
something
Les Pronoms Relatifs:
6 in total3 to combine ideas, 3 to introduce them
Combining:
Qui: (who/that)

used to combine two ideas when the second idea doesnt have a subject, is always
followed by a verb
never becomes qu
cest la publicit qui est intressant
Que: (that/whom)
used to combine two ideas when the second idea does have a subjectque is always
followed by a subject
cest le message publicitaire que jai vu
Dont:
used to combine idea/verb that ends in de (demander de)replaces the subject
jadore lmission dont tu mas parl (de)
Replacing:
Ce Qui: (what/which)
introduces idea without a subject
ce qui est intressant, cest la publicit
Ce Que: (what/which)
introduces an idea with a subject
ce que jai vu, ctait le mnage publicitaire
Ce Dont: (what/which)
introduces an idea that ends in de
ce dont tu mas parl (de) ctait lmission

* verbs followed by de: parler de, avoir peur de, avoir besoin de, avoir envie de, tre revi
de, tre content de, tre satisfait de, tre fier de, se souvenir de
Le Conditionnel:
translates to should or wouldexpresses a possibility
add imparfait endings to the infinitive
-ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient
irregular are the same as futur simple
regular: tu aimerais, nous chanterions
Les Pronoms:
Dobjet Direct: le, la, les
answers the questions what or whom
replaces a noun
Il mange la pomme. Il la mange.
with pass compos, make agreements (m.s. = nothing, f.s. = e, m.pl. = s, f.pl. = es)
Dobjet Indirect: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur
preceded by: , la, l, au, aux (must be to people)
answers to whom or for whome
Jean donne la pomme moi. Jean me donne la pomme.
Le Pronom Y:
replaces a place or ideo/noun

introduced by a preposition of place: , dans, sous, sur, au-dessus, avant, chez, devant
Je vais la fte. Jy vais.

Le Pronom En:
replaces a thing or idea
introduced by: du, de la, des, un, une, deux, or a quantity
part of an object or unspecified amount
Je mange dix pommes. Jen mange dix.
La Position:
with one verb = before verb
with two verbs = before infinitive
with pass compose = before avoir or tre (only with direct object pronouns make
agreements)
Lordre de Pronoms:
for two or more pronouns
1: me, te, nous, vouse
2: le, la, les
3: lui, leur
4: y
5: en

Il cherche le chat dans le parc. Il ly cherche.


Les Phrases Impersonnelles:
expresses an idea without a subject
in English means It is
in French, two kinds: one is followed by DE and one by QUEDE is followed by
infinitive
formula: Il est + adjective + de + infinitive
Il est important de parler avec un ami quand on est stress.
Impratif:
used to give commands, directions, advice, suggestions
make form of tu, nous and vous of the present tensepronoun is not used
in ER verbs in tu form, take off the s
three forms: one person = tu, including you = nous, people = vous
always followed by exclamation mark
parler = Parle! Parlons! Parlez!
finir = Finis! Finissons! Finissez!
attendre = Attends! Attendons! Attendez!
four irregular:
> tre: Sois! Soyons! Soyez!
> avoir: Aie! Ayons! Ayez!

> savoir: Sache! Sachons! Sachez!


> vouloir: Veuille! Nothing. Veuillez!
Impratif aves les Pronoms:
an order/command, given with tu, nous or vous forms
Postive Sentence:
the pronoun is after the verb
must have hyphen between the verb and pronoun (and all other pronouns)
new order:
1. le, la, les, l
2. lui, leur
3. moi, toi, nous, vous *if me or te are the only ones in sentence they become moi and toi
4. y
5. en
Apportez-les-la! Bring them there!
me and te change to m or t and then theres no hyphen

Negative Sentence:
the pronoun is before the verb
no hyphens
when y is the only pronoun, it stays as y, but when its the last in a series it becomes l

Offre-lui-en! becomes Ne lui en offre pas!


Les Phrases Conditionnelles:
indicates possibility and relies on conditions
two parts, si clause (if) and the result if the si clause happens
the tense of the result depends on the tense of the result
formula: si + the present (condition) = present, future or imperatif result
Si mes amis partent, je partirai aussi.
formula: si + imparfait (condition) = conditionnel (result)
Si javais faim, je mangerais une pomme.