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Annotated Bibliography for the Delaware Maritime School and Delaware Bay Oyster Project

Kamp D (2010, June). At the New York Harbor School, Growing Oysters for
Credit Retrieved July 7. 2016 from the New York Times
This article was written by David Kamp, a writer and journalist that was published in the
New York Times; therefore, the audience for this article is primarily New York residents as well
as people from across the US interested in what is taking place in New York City. The purpose of
this article is to inform readers about the endeavors of a high school in New York City, the New
York Harbor School working with biologists, and other professionals educating students on
oyster gardening that provides many advantages to New York City that includes reducing the
toxins in the estuary, and providing a defense against shoreline erosion caused by climate
change. .
The author acts as a third-person, who is informative while allowing expert sources express their
opinions in the article. David Kamp explains how oyster reefs can improve water quality of the
harbor through oyster tecturing, a technique that is the brainstorm of Kate Orff at Columbia
University which has been part of a 60 million dollar project the Governors office of New York
supports.
Kamp gives information on the development of the New York Harbor School which seeks to
provide vocational training in the maritime industry to high school level students who were
struggling to continue through high school and graduate, while at the same time improving New
York Citys water quality and the estuarys depleted oyster populations. The article ends with
explaining that one day future residents will be able to sit and order oysters harvested in New
York City from local businesses.

While Kamp is not an expert in biology, or education, he does utilize the information and
opinions of professionals like Mr. Malinowski, who not only is an aquaculture teacher at the
Urban Assembly New York Harbor School, he is a second-generation oysterman whose parents
operate the Fishers Island Oyster Farm. And, Murray Fisher, 35, the high schools program
director. Fisher was aised on an organic cattle farm outside Richmond, VA. Both educators have
viable expertise in preservation, and education. However, both of these men and the school are
located in New York. Therefore, it could be suggested the same facility is not feasible for
Delaware. In addition, even though the article references studies and data on toxins and water
quality very similar to the water quality of the Delaware River and Bay, it is done in a very
general and vague manner. The reader is unable to verify there is such a similar correlation of
information between both bodies of water, without more specific data. Finally, there is an
emotional appeal that verges on manipulation. The mere suggestion that children are involved
with preservation for a schools curriculum - working on building oyster reefs, creates an
emotional response for others who have school aged children.
Orff who is also responsible for the high school curriculum is not a biologist. However,
she uses scientific data that is accessible through other resources on the value of oysters to the
environment. The mere suggestion that in the future, people will be able to enjoy eating oysters
harvested from the New York Harbor, and sustainable water that is low on carcinogenic toxin
creates an emotional response for others to have an interest in the project and others like it.
Kamp D. (2010) New York Times At the New York Harbor School, Growing
Oysters for Credit
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/30/dining/30harbor.html?_r=0

Lecture by Kate Orff, (2010) at TEDWomen (2010)


The ten-minute lecture was given by Kate Orff, a professor at Columbias Graduate
School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Orff is a registered landscape architect, and
the founding principal of SCAPE, a landscape architecture and urban design office. Her lecture
was video tapped on TED TV, Therefore the audience is primarily subscribers of TED. That
reaches audiences worldwide. The purpose of her lecture was to bring awareness of a landscape
design currently taking place in New York City that involves incorporating oyster tecture with
human participation to rebuild the shorelines with oyster reefs that can be done in estuaries, not
only in New York, but Delawares estuary, and all estuaries globally, seeing oysters as the agent
of urban change, which slurp up pollution and make legendarily dirty waters clean.
Orff provides information as an expert in landscape design while providing scientific data
on the value of oysters to the balance of our nations waterways ecologically, using data readily
available from other sources in her lecture.
Orff (2010) explains how oyster reefs can improve water quality in the New York harbor through
oyster tecture a technique that is her brainstorm which today has become part of a 60 million
-dollar project that the Governors office of New York supports as with the Urban Assembly New
York Harbor School.
She gives information on the development of this innovative concept which provide
opportunities for high school level vocational training to students in a variety of vocations, from
architectural and landscaping design, to a plethora of vocations associated with the maritime and
fishing industry to high school students who are improving New York Citys water quality and
revitalizing the depleted oyster populations. The lecture ends with explaining that sometime

around 2050 the rewards of this working project will allow people to sit and order oysters
harvested from the Gowanus Canal from local businesses in New York City.
TEDWomen (2010) Kate Orff: Reviving New Yorks Riverswith oysters!

http://www.ted.com/talks/kate_orff_oysters_as_architecture#t-553796

Hargis, Wm J. Jr & Haven D.S . Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A synopsis and Synthesis
of Approaches School of Marine Science and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science of the
College of William and Mary in Virginia retrieved July 8, 2016
This report found in Chapter 23 of Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration: A synopsis and Synthesis of
Approaches was authored by the late Dr. William J. Hargis, Jr. and Dr. Dexter S. Haven, and
published in the Virginia Institute of marine Science Press (1999) therefore, the audience for this
article is primarily biologists and researchers, though it also has a certain appeal to anyone who
are involved in the history of the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay that includes residents as well
as people from across the US interested in marine science. The purpose of this article is to inform
readers about the importance of viable reefs to the past and future natural production of oysters
and the value to the ecology of the estuary and the advantages an abundant and healthy oyster
population provides to an estuary that includes providing habitats for other species of marine life,
as well as reduce the levels of the toxins in the estuary. And providing a defense against shoreline
erosion caused by climate change.
The authors are experts in marine science and biology providing extensive years of experience in
this topic
The late Dr. Hargis received his BS and MS from the University of Richmond. He went on to
obtain is PhD from Florida State. He was an Emeritus Professor of Marine Science at Virginia
Institute of Marine Science and served as Director of the Institutes (1959-1981). In the fifty years
at VIMS Dr. Hargis wrote more than 130 research publications, 22 essays and testimony
statements to the US Congress, and more than forty reports and education pieces on marine
science some of his honors include the 1971 Neptune Award from the American Oceanic
Organization the Mathias medal in 1997 recognizing his contributions in Marine Science for

policy and education. The Thomas Jefferson Medal in 2003 for outstanding contributions to
natural science, and many other awards for his life-long dedication in marine science.
The late Dexter S. Haven was a faculty member of the University of Virginia and College of
William and Mary (Ret. 1984). In addition to his teaching duties before retiring, he served in
several capacities at VIMS as senior Marine Scientist, and head of the Dept of Applied Biology;
and Professor of Marine Science of the School of Marine Science. He was a member of several
professional organizations Including the National Shellfisheries Association and the Atlantic
Estuaries Assoc. He also published several scientific books and papers on oysters and other
shellfish. He was the recipient for the David H. Wallace Memorial Award and Honored Life
Member Award from the National Shellfisheries Association
Both Haven and Hargis detail the history of the oyster populations of the Chesapeake Estuary in
the report, as with the destruction of the once abundant oyster population, and causes for the
depleted populations of the c. Virginica (Eastern oyster), and what can be done to restore a
healthy ecosystem to the Estuary.
The authors conclude Maryland should take strong efforts to improve oyster populations by
restoring their favored habitats.
Chesapeake Oyster Reefs, Their Importance, Destruction and Guidelines for Restoring Them
http://www.vims.edu/research/units/labgroups/molluscan_ecology/_docs/HargisHaven.P
DF

Oyster Industry Task Force report is a report published in 1999 to the


Governors Office of New Jersey published by Rutgers University and consisting of
consist of 13 members each having expertise in oyster culture, appointed by the
Governor, (NJ) as follows: two representatives from the Department of
Environmental Protection, two representatives from the Department of Agriculture,
one representative from the Delaware Bay Section of the Shell Fisheries Council,
three representatives from the Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, three
representatives from the oyster industry, including at least one member from the
New Jersey Oyster Planters and Packers Association, the marine science
representative of the Statewide Advisory Committee of the New Jersey Agricultural
Experiment Station Board of Managers, and one member from the New Jersey
Aquaculture Association. Therefore, the audience for this report are primarily to
provide New Jersey and Delaware coastal residents, businesses, and state policy
makers with a review of the science-based technical information used to support the
Delaware Bay shellfish resource management decision-making, and development
the shellfish aquaculture legislative initiative to establish an Oyster Industry
Revitalization Task Force through the passage of New Jersey State Senate Resolution
19

The majority of authors of this report are experts in marine science and biology providing
extensive years of experience in this topic
The report gives information on the history of the oyster industry of the Delaware Bay

and the cause for the decline in the industry, ultimately destroying an essential part of the
economy based on the fishing industry, which includes processing plants, commercial watermen
harvesting oysters, ship builders, as well as the ecological impacts of a healthy oyster

populations. The report discussed locations where Oysters grow in Delaware Bay. On the
Delaware side that was from its mouth to Bombay Hook, as well as outlining the
locations on the New Jersey side that were just below Artificial Island on the eastern
(New Jersey) side. And how oysters provided a sustainable food supply, contributed
to the local economy since the 18th Century
The report concluded there was a need for an oyster industry revitalization task
force.
Publisher New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Fish & Seafood Development Program. Rutgers
University Community Repository https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgerslib/34871/

Delaware Center for the Inland Bays http://darc.cms.udel.edu/ibsa/Inland%20Bays%20Shellfish


%20Aquaculture%20White%20Paper%202013.pdf
Haskins Shellfish Research Laboratory

http://hsrl.rutgers.edu/SAWreports/SAW2015.pdf