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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
This chapter presents the purpose and background of the study,
theoretical and conceptual framework, statement of the problem,
scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, and
definition of terms.

Introduction
Todays business environment is a competitive market with
every organization aligning its resources towards achieving a niche
position in the marketplace, and in the minds of its customers. Elmers
Foods is a business entity involved in food production. The
highlighting of Food Production Management has opened numerous
avenues of profits realization.
Food processing is the most important part of any food
production business. It involves a lot of areas ranging from stock
inventory, food quality and sanitation, kitchen equipment and utensils
management, cost control and human resource management. As a
food production business owner, managing these areas consumes a
lot of attention in details not to mention the overall food production
management which includes payment processing, planning and
forecasting, customer service operations and physical plant security.

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

In a food processing plant setting, recipes contain all


information with regard to the preparation of the finished product. A
recipe card should contain a picture of the item on how it should be
prepared and served. It should provide in detail the exact ingredient in
the dish and the cooking instructions on how to prepare the food.
The card should also contain the total cost of the ingredients, sales
price of the product and the profit margin being made in the product.
Managing a food processing site that produces a wide variety
of products provides challenges in terms of processes, controls and
accountabilities. Making sure that each management decision will be
based on historical figures, current events, market trends, food quality
and profitability are the utmost priority that an entrepreneur must
need in able to survive in the hostile business environment.
Food

production

management

processes

need

to

be

standardized across all areas, so that business decisions can be


based on actual and accurate data. The need for control on all
aspects of food production management is the primary concern of this
study. The researcher would like to resolve key issues in managing
production cost, inventory, consignment, delivery and reducing
pilferage in food production business.

Background

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In todays food production industry, one must have creative
thinking and a positive mindset, that everything is possible. A
customer will always avail of a product which satisfies his/her needs.
Setup and timing are required, because revenue-driven organization
exists in the market to generate profit.
As a profit driven organization, one must move ahead and look
for actions, analyze strength and weaknesses; visualize the
opportunities ahead and always analyse the market; such as getting
customer preferences; improve products and manage product list. A
vital component of managing a food production business is to control
the product cost. In managing a profitable food production plant, food
cost control is the process used to control the cost of every single
item that the customers purchase as an ingredient. This also includes
the cost of every single item being sold as a finished product.
Elmers Foods was established as a single proprietary business
involved in restaurant and food production businesses. It started with
a single kitchen producing wide arrays of Filipino food such as beef
stews, Chinese oriented food products such as pork noodle soups,
Taiwanese style method of cooking such as sauted pork in leecum
kee sauce with pepper flavour. In a matter of four years, Elmers
Foods was able to open several branches providing wider variety of
dishes made from seafood, chicken, pork and beef. It now serves
appetizers, entrees, main dishes, desserts, cocktails and beverages.

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The enterprise is also involved in massive food production
engagements such as hotdog production, dried pork skin processing,
sausages production, preserved meat production. Elmers Foods
currently produces a total of 25 food products, namely:
1. Longanisa (Pork, Chicken, Beef)
2. Chicharon (Pork, Chicken, Tuna)
3. Tocino (Pork, Chicken, Beef)
4. Kikiam
5. SquidBall
6. FishBall
7. Ham
8. Skinless Longanisa (Pork, Chicken, Beef)
9. Tapa (Beef, Pork, Chicken)
10. Bacon
11. Hotdog
12. Frankfurters Sausage
13. ChickenBall
14. ShrimpBall
15. Chicken Basil Sausage
Elmer Foods also ventures into retail store selling offering
commission based product line and bulk meat importation and
reselling. At the current Elmer Foods food production physical facility,
food cost control process is manual and tedious as it involves manual

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processing from ordering of raw materials, receiving of raw materials,
processing of products, delivering of products and receiving
payments.
The researcher initiated the study with the hope that it would
be of great value in the field of food oriented business. The mixture of
manual and automation of food cost control processes such as
forecasting, ordering, receiving supplies and service would greatly
improve the accountability and traceability involved in food production
management.
Likewise it is aimed to improve efficiency in terms of removing
difficulty in inventory management, increase statistical output, remove
difficulty in supply tracking, and reduce staff time on manual
document processing.
Managing a medium enterprise which produces a wide variety
of food products, opens great opportunities in terms for profit growth
and expansion. But, it also brings potential problems in terms of
management in all aspects. This study focuses on managing
inventory and controlling food cost in food production to better aid the
stakeholders in making business decisions.
The proposed system would provide the need for implementing
controls in food processing inventory, controls on cost on food
production and provides the stakeholder the accurate information

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through report generation and forecasting mechanisms in the
proposed system.

Theoretical Framework
The framework of this study is anchored on the theory on the
acceptance of Information Systems by Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, &
Davis (2003). The authors mentioned that Information systems (IS)
research has long studied how and why individuals adopt new
information technologies. In the development of an information
system, the level of acceptability is important as to whether the
features and functionalities of the system provide solution to the
existing problem that it intends to resolve.
Within this broad area of inquiry, there have been multiple
streams of research. One stream of research focuses on individual
acceptance of technology (Compeau & Higgins, 1995; Davis et al.,
1989). Other streams have focused on the success of newly adopted
information technology at the organizational level (Leonard-Barton &
Deschamps, 1988). Each of these streams makes important and
unique contributions to the literature on user acceptance of
information technology.
Given the fact that Elmers Foods is an entity composed of an
organizational level, the level acceptance of the stakeholders on the
proposed system should be positive in order to conclude that the

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proposed system addresses the problems of Elmers Foods with
regards to the support of inventory, cost control, ordering and delivery
management processes.

Conceptual Framework
The main concern of this study is to develop, implement and
evaluate an automated food production management system. This
study will be using the Input-Process-Output Model for the conceptual
framework. In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of
boxes connected by inputs and outputs. Information of material object
flow through a series of tasks or activities are based on a set of rules
or decision points. Flow charts and process diagrams are often used
to represent the process (Harris and Taylor, 1997).
In food production business common problems includes
inventory and cost controls. An inventory comes in dual form when
applied to a production environment. First is the inventory of raw
materials that are needed in the production of food products. Second
is the inventory of finished products which is vital for the operation of
the business.
The processes of these two inventories make up the input.
Problems encountered on these two activities essentially leads to
cost control issues. Thus, there is a relative relationship between

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14

controlling the cost of production in contrast with managing the


inventories.
And to resolve these issues as what Harris and Taylor
mentioned, what goes in is the input; what causes the change is the
process; and what comes out is the output. A system in the form of an
automated food production management is proposed to resolved the
inventory, food cost control, ordering and delivery management
issues.

INPUT PROCESS
OUTPUT
Management
Analysisissues
& design of (food production
Developed
management
food production
system) management s
Food cost
Development
control procedures
& documentation Testing
Systemdeployment,
feature food training
cost controls
& support
and inte
Inventory flow
problems

Figure 1. Food production management system

Statement of the Problem

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The study intended to design, develop and evaluate an
Automated Food Production Management System for Elmers Food
Products. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. How do the features of proposed automated food production


management system satisfy the respondents in terms of
support/assistance in their inventory, ordering and delivery
management?

2. How do the respondents evaluate the food cost control system, in


terms of
2.1. Tracking frequency of order and delivery
2.2. Monitoring of raw ingredients

3. How do the respondents evaluate the proposed food production


system in terms of its ability to accommodate new products?

Scope and Limitation of the Study


The

study

was

limited

and

confined

to

the

design,

development, implementation and evaluation of Automated Food


Production Management System. It was conducted at Elmers Food
during the school year 2011-2012.

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Although there are various products in the market offering end
to end software applications of supplies and inventory in a food
oriented business which also includes food production management,
the uniqueness of this research deals with food production
management catering to a local business setup. This involves having
a tool in managing food production site, primarily focusing on cost
control, inventory, reporting and forecasting.
The proposed inventory management will only be composed of
stocks which includes raw ingredients and final food products.
Packaging materials, food processing equipments and kitchen
supplies such as fuel, etc, will not be included on this research. The
focal point of the designed application was at the Elmers Food
processing; therefore the developed application will largely benefit the
organization as well as the stakeholders connected with the
organization.
The proposed software will be limited to a browser based
application that can reside in a single physical machine that would
serve as a web and application server and at the same time can be
used by the users. Moreover, certain applications were needed to
realize the developed system for Automated Food Production
Management system; the software to be use are all open source
technologies to cut software cost such as Java for the programming

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17

language, Apache Tomcat for the web/application server and MySQL


for the database.
Due to time constraints, the proposed system will be
implemented for a given specific period of time and an evaluation will
commence afterwards to assess the proposed system. Any additional
requirements after the implementation phase will no longer be part of
the research. Furthermore, the proposed system will generate reports
that are in csv format to simplify data in its raw form which is
supported by almost all spreadsheets and databases for further data
processing.
The existing inventory procedure does not have bar coding
facilities, thus the propose system does not include the tracking of
materials in terms of individual criteria such as expiry dates, tags and
history. The system is only capturing the cost and quantity of the
items and the total costs will be reflected on the reports module of the
proposed system.

Significance of the Study


This study is deemed to benefit the following:

1.

Students and professors in information technology, business


and management, hospitality management degrees.

This

study will showcase the food production business, its

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processes and the solution to its problems which is the
proposed software system.

2. Food production industry practitioners. The result of the study


will provide valuable information to food production business
owners and practitioners who are faced with the challenges of
food production cost control management and inventory
management. It will provide clear insights in understanding the
role of information technology in the business. As they are able
to respond effectively to any business challenges, business
owners will be able to develop an easier, more relaxed and
more productive approach in managing and supervising people
as well as developing new products. It will further help to
improve satisfaction and to attain physical and mental wellbeing that could lead to the over-all quality of lives as they
come up better business decisions.

3. Finally, the results of the research may contribute to the


researchers

on

the

subject

of

information

technology.

especially in software development. The functionalities of the


proposed system is envisioned to be specific to a food
production processes which includes inventory and cost
control.

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Definition of Terms
During the course of this study the following terms were used
according to the definitions given below:
Accountability. An obligation or willingness to accept
responsibility or to account for one's actions.
Automation. Use of computers to control a particular process
in order to increase reliability, accountability and efficiency.
Browser-based application. An application that runs within
the Web browser.
Comma-separated values (CSV) file. A relatively simple file
format that is widely supported by consumer, business, and scientific
applications which stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain-text
form.
Consignment. An arrangement under which items are
delivered by a consignor to a consignee to be resold or used and paid
for by the consignee.
Data Mining. Process of discovering new patterns from large
data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence,
machine learning, statistics and database systems.
Food Processing. Set of methods and techniques used to
transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other
forms for consumption by humans.

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Forecasting. A planning tool that helps management in its
attempts to cope with the uncertainty of the future, relying mainly on
data from the past and present and analysis of trends.
Hibernate. An open source Java persistence framework
project which performs powerful object relational mapping and query
databases using HQL and SQL.
Inventory. Quantity or store of goods that is held for some
purpose or use.
Inventory Management. The overseeing and controlling of the
ordering, storage and use of components that a company will use in
the production of the items it will sell as well as the overseeing and
controlling of quantities of finished products for sale.
Just-in-Time. Is a production strategy that strives to improve
a business' return on investment by reducing in-process inventory
and associated carrying costs.
Likert Scale. A psychometric response scale primarily used in
questionnaires to obtain participants preferences or degree of
agreement with a statement or set of statements. Likert scales are a
noncomparative scaling technique and are unidimensional (only
measure a single trait) in nature.
Macromanagement. Is the act of leading decision makers or
managing the managers.

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Pilferage. The act or practice of stealing small quantities or
articles
Recipe. A set of instructions that describe how to prepare or
make something, especially a culinary dish.
Relational database management system (RDBMS). A
database management system (DBMS) in which data is stored in
tables and the relationships among the data are also stored in tables.
The data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways
without having to change the table forms.
Spring Framework. An open source application framework
and Inversion of Control container for the Java platform
Standard Deviation. Measures the spread of the data about
the mean value.
Software Architecture. A system is the set of structures
needed to reason about the system, which comprise software
elements, relations among them, and properties of both.
Software Development. Is a dynamic process of
developing a system in the implementation domain in order
to solve a problem in some application domain.
Traceability. Ability to trace the application, location,
and/or history of an activity or item by means of recorded
data.

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Web-based Application. A computer software application that
is hosted in a browser-controlled environment and is accessed over a
network such as the Internet or an intranet.
Weighted Mean. Is a mean where there is some variation in
the relative contribution of individual data values to the mean

Chapter 2
RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the local literature, local studies, foreign
literature and foreign studies along the present line of this study
considered pertinent or relevant by the researcher.
Foreign Literature
Food preparation business has been around for a long time,
such that complexities arise but the basics remains the same which is
preparing food to be served in a restaurant. According to Muller
(1999) which states that of all the needs and observable trends that
will go into the new economic structure of restaurants, there are
three, which will predominate. (1) Restaurant companies will identify
themselves as custom retailers, not as factories manufacturing meals.
(2) Competition in this retail environment is based on finding a point

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of

differentiation

for

the

consumer.

This

19

differentiation,

the

transformation of products from simple commodities into unique,


monopolistic

offerings,

management.

(3)

is

built

on

the

Knowledge-based

principles

system

of

whose

brand
primary

management function is to accumulate, secure and maximize vital


information is necessary for a restaurant business in able survive and
compete.
A paper presented by Ahrens and Chapman (2002) on a
longitudinal field study of accounting systems and their relationship to
accountability in a U.K. restaurant chain. It is based on interviews and
observations

involving

restaurant

managers,

the

operations

management hierarchy, and head office managers. It presents


evidence to suggest that local managers uses of central performance
reports may serve to disseminate head offices strategic vision to
operating units.
The percentage of total restaurant sales spent on food product,
should stay around 28-30% to be come profitable based on report by
Mealey (2009). Thus measure the financial data is one of a key role in
managing a kitchen.
Ahrens and Chapman (2002) also state that the contests of
accountability around performance measurement systems that have
previously been reported in connection with major organizational
transformations

are

feature

of

everyday

organizational

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management. This indicates the need for an accountability system
that can be also applied to food production business.
Based on the article written by Deveshwar, Modi (2010)
Inventory Management system provides information to efficiently
manage the flow of materials, effectively utilize people and
equipment, coordinate internal activities and communicate with
customers. Inventory Management does not make decisions or
manage operations but provides the information to managers who
make more accurate and timely decisions to manage their operations.
A successful business relies on many factors, one of which is a
reliable inventory management system. Inventory management
consists of everything from accurate record-keeping to shipping and
receiving of products on time. An Inventory management that is
properly maintained can keep a companys supply chain running
smoothly and efficiently.
The paper presented by Sharma, Hari(2004) idiscussed
Supply Chain (SC), which involves the configuration, coordination,
and improvement of sequentially related set of operations in
establishments, integrates technology and human resource capacity
for

optimal

management

of

operations

to

reduce

inventory

requirements and provide support to enterprises in pursuance of a


competitive advantage in the marketplace.

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In broader context, the paper examines the types of activities
involved in SCM decisions; the dynamics of the traditional SCM, the
complementarities of technology in achieving effective management
of operations through enablers of electronic data interchange (EDI)
and quick response (QR) disciplines to implement Just-in-Time (JIT)
management techniques; and integrated SC and inventory control as
it relates to capacity imbalances and transaction costs.
Implementing an inventory control system can be an
overwhelming task. Several factors can complicate the decision
making process based from Pawlowski (2011).
This study evaluates the functionality of a proposed system
and used the Likert Scale on its survey form. Based on Bertram
(2007) Likert scale is most commonly seen as a 5point scale
ranging from Strongly Disagree on one end to Strongly Agree on
the other with Neither Agree nor Disagree in the middle; however,
some practitioners advocate the use of 7 and 9point scales which
add additional granularity. Each level on the scale is assigned a
numeric value or coding, usually starting at 1 and incremented by one
for each level.
Another supporting article from Len-Pea (2008) e-Business
has focused on new information products and networks. e-Business
has emphasized the cost saving significance of the Internet and the
attendant technologies when doing business, this effects the costs of

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transactions, internal management, and marketing of products.
Reactions to the opportunities and challenges of the Internet have
embraced every detail of the business environment.

Local Literature
Food is a basic necessity. The industry which deals with
preparing food items/products refers to the food service industry. The
food service industry is and will always remain in high demand
because of its genre. These industries include restaurants, fast foods,
school and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, food carts and
food trucks etc. Restaurants and fast foods mainly contribute to the
food service industry.
Like every other country, the food industry has flourished very
well in Philippines. Filipinos love to eat and thats the reason why you
will see a lot of restaurants and fast foods restaurants scattered in the
cities according to Arboleda (2010)
In a Philippine setting, managing a restaurant always involves
variations in costing. Especially the location of the country in terms of
the weather conditions where prices of raw materials fluctuate more.
Another major issue is the supply chain, as materials need to ship
which will add more to the base cost of the items. Jader (2010) states
that supply chains have traditionally been managed via three distinct
functions: purchasing or procurement, manufacturing or production,

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and logistics (warehousing and distribution). No organization will
survive if it does not keep itself up to date with information technology
(IT). And supply chains must be integrated before the benefits of such
systems could be tapped.
A journal presented by Lato (2008) states that there is a need
to standardize the quality of the products served and the need to
observe strict quality standards. Its not just serve good food but also
good services, facilities and amenities.
Food business does not end in serving the customers; the
success of a food production business also came from the after-sales
service. Stakeholders often make the mistake of making the sale and
moving on to another client forgetting everything about the previous
one. The responsibility of a firm does not end after the payment; in
fact, it is only the beginning as mentioned by Collado (2010).
In the food production business one of the important aspect
aside from the actual product itself are inventory and cost control
management. As mentioned by Ong (2011) making sure that proper
internal controls are in place in the business. Without policies and
procedures, anyone working for the business can make a purchase
request at random whenever there is a need to reorder an item. Other
key struggles in a food production environment are excess inventory
because of overbuying, or having poor quality, and thus slow-moving,
items.

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24

These are common issues faced by many start-up retail


companies that have cash flow problems. When there is too much
inventory that is hardly moving, a substantial amount of cash for
working capital is tied up. As payables to suppliers become due and
without enough cash, businesses will have no choice but to unload
some of the merchandise at huge markdowns to raise the needed
cash. By starting to implement some controls in purchasing cycle
business will result in effective purchasing which is important in
sustaining profitable operation of any retail business.
As mentioned by Rothman (2010) there are circumstances by
which making sure receiving of inventory is very important. Such as
double count inventory before receiving, doing random spot checks
for belongings that can be used to steal goods.
Also

perform

random

check

of

bags,

having

suggestions/comments box, never letting guests, off-duty crews and


crews. More importantly, for preventing pilferage in the food retail
industry, take no prisoners. Super firm control should be implemented
and exempt nobody. It should always assume that employees are
never indispensable, and the owner knows that everyone is subject to
temptations.
A production system is made up of processes, based from an
article by Villafuerte (2009) from acquiring raw materials until the
delivery of goods. Make sure that each step is well-documented and

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carried out without any deviation nor modification. Quality standards
should also be in place to make sure that products remain consistent.
For food production, this means having quality control over
your ingredients, a detailed recipe with proper preparation and
cooking procedure, instructions for correct handling, packaging and
delivery of your finished goods. Likewise, there is a need for a clear
definition of the duties and responsibilities of each staff position. An
important part of a well-managed business is an efficient inventory
management system. However, not many start-up entrepreneurs
know how to begin or properly handle this business task. It often
receives less attention than activities like marketing, customer
relations or personnel management. In some cases, its altogether
ignored.
There are two other methods to consider when using an
inventory system. One is the FIFO, or First In First Out method, which
logically provides that old merchandise should be sold first, while
newer items should remain in inventory. The other one is the LIFO or
Last In First Out, which provides that newly purchased items should
be sold first, while the older stock should remain in inventory. The
consequence of using FIFO is that the ending inventory will reflect the
current costs of merchandise, while LIFO will reflect the old costs as
mentioned on the journal by Ong (2010).

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Canlas (2007) states that inventory management refers to how
to plan, monitor and control the materials used in various stages of
manufacturing a product. Definition of inventory includes raw
materials, WIP (works-in-process or partially assembled goods), the
finished goods themselves and MROs (maintenance/ repair/operating
supplies needed to keep machines working well). Managing inventory
makes sense in a business because it helps minimize costs like
warehousing and shelving costs, spoilage and obsolescence, delivery
and transportation, interest and cost of money.
Retail stores, groceries, restaurants, factories and delivery
services benefit greatly from inventory management. For example, a
food chain has perishable raw materials that need to be used up
quickly. Reaction times are substantially faster. Less manpower is
needed to manage the inventory. In short, a computerized inventory
system empowers a business to sift through vast quantities of
numbers and generate figures and charts that show patterns and
trends.
Inventory control management seeks to determine the
optimum levels of the investments in the inventory and maintain it at
desired levels always. Most successful companies have applied such
systems, whether they are simple or highly sophisticated inventory
models.

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In its simplest model, the personnel responsible is tasked with
overseeing the inventory, the availability of supplies, checking out
those items that are running out, and placing requisitions depending
on

standard

maintaining

inventory

levels.

With

small-scale

businesses, keeping records of various inventory levels are not a


necessary practice. This will likely lead to excessive purchasing that
can have major implications, like having significant inventories on
slow moving or worse, obsolete goods based on Viola (2011).

Foreign Studies
In the food production business, estimates of food production
cost are a stringent process. One of the cost productive measures
applied in restaurant nowadays are the use of technology to aid and
speed up the existing process of either food preparation, food service
and customer gratification. In practice, this term and a newer term,
eBusiness, are often used interchangeably mentioned by Rahman
(2007).
In a food production site environment, inventory among stocks
are the utmost important. The need to trace the raw materials in
preparing for a food product equals to the accuracy of the cost. If
costing is accurate, variance in profit discrepancies will be lower. In
inventory processes, on of the key areas would be automating the
record keeping of the inventory items.

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28

Thus, an enhanced automated system is helpful. Although


there are a lot of variations on inventory system, a kitchen inventory
system deals with all specific concerns involving ingredient supplies,
raw material supplies which are consumed within the kitchen area.
Many standalone POS (Point Of Sale) systems (mainly comprising of
the management application) already exist in the market based on
Deshmukh (2010)
The implementation of Just In Time, if it is not integrated into a
framework of lean management practices such as total quality
management and continuous improvement, it can be expensive and
counterproductive as it will not be able to achieve the efficiency gains
that are one of its major benefits based from Hollins &
Shinkins(2006).
On a paper of Chan & Qi (2003)According to the Global Supply
Chain Forum, SCM is the integration of key business processes from
end user through original suppliers that provide products, services,
and information that add value for customer and other stakeholder.
The transfer of information brings important advantages in
process costs and lead-times, while the resulting possibility of smaller
and more frequent orders means reduced inventory costs based from
Trkman and Groznik (2006).
Ahrens,

Chapman

(2010)

conducted

research

on

management control systems that can be used simultaneously to

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make organizations more efficient and more flexible. It was found out
that it is difficult to address this issue in the absence of a clear and
comprehensive typology for analyzing more process and uses of
management control systems.
The paper distinguishes between enabling and coercive (Adler
and Borys 1996) uses of management control systems. Coercive use
refers to the stereotypical top-down control approach that emphasizes
centralization and preplanning.
In the research paper conducted by Raab, Karl Mayer (2008)
they examine whether using menu engineering (ME) together with
activity-based costing (ABC) for menu analysis gives new insights
about true menu profitability. The traditional ME approach only uses
food cost to determine the contribution margin of individual menu
items.
This combined approach uses both food and traceable
operating costs to estimate contribution margins more accurately. The
paper suggests that ME can be improved upon by first assessing
variable costs using ABC methods.
According to Ansel, Dyer (1999) Some three decades after
computers first automated restaurants' back office systems and two
decades after point-of-sale systems made their appearance,
information

technology

(IT)

has

finally

become

sufficiently

29

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


sophisticated that it can be an integrated tool for management
decision making and control of restaurant operations. Such a
framework is presented in this article, with consideration given to the
following aspects of restaurant management: production systems
(including demand forecasting), scheduling (both in the kitchen and
dining room), process control (including managing meal duration and
kitchen production), and enterprise-resource planning (extended
back-office functions).
Kimes, (2008) Technology systems can support restaurant
managers' efforts to improve sales and profits through revenue
management. In adopting technology, managers must first conduct a
financial analysis to determine whether the technology's cost will be
more than offset by revenue improvements. Management must then
consider benefits to both employees and customers and must also
take into account employees perceptions of the technologies utility
and ease of use. Without those elements in place, the technology
faces dim prospects no matter what its prospective financial benefit.
On the dissertation by Ravichandar (2008) states that the
inherent complexity of software systems increases their susceptibility
to change when subjected to the vagaries of user needs, technology
advances, market demands and other change inducing factors.
In modernized society, enterprises in the food industry are
working in a very competitive environment, especially for the products

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of the traits of high perish-ability and fluctuation. It is very crucial for
the firms to attack the issues of products costs, on-time delivery and
flexibility. The appropriate production and inventory control policy is a
key

factor

for

modern

enterprises

success

in

competitive

environment. In the food industry, most of food manufacturers adopt


the make-to-order policy to improve their punctuality and flexibility,
while some scholars provided other different opinions.
The study by Claudio, Zhang (2007) provides a hybrid policy
combining a make-to-order push strategy with priority with a make-tostock pull strategy. In this policy, the pull strategy is considered for the
regular demands while customers who tell their demand needs in
advance are treated with a push strategy and are given a higher
priority than those who dont share information.

Local Studies
Based on Arboleda (2010) Food is a basic necessity. The
industry which deals with preparing food items/products refers to the
food service industry. The food service industry is and will always
remain in high demand because of its genre. These industries include
restaurants, fast foods, school and hospital cafeterias, catering
operations, food carts and food trucks etc.
And according to the Food and Agriculture Organization there
are 2.5 billion of people that eat street food every day, looking at that

31

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number this is a good opportunity for to start your food business as
emphasized by Kirkebo (2011).
Villafuerte (2011) explained that an important part of a wellmanaged business is an efficient inventory management system. The
primary advantage of having an efficient inventory management
system in place is that it helps increase business cash flow which
occurs on top of these other benefits: By tracking how fast each
stocks

move

during

specific

business

climates,

streamlining

production volumes and procurement schedules lessen overhead


costs.
An inventory system provides security over the movement of
goods and supplies, which lessens or even eliminates tampering and
theft by employees. Successful inventory management requires
teamwork. An inventory management system will help the business in
a lot of ways, by analyzing the information produced. While most of
these are easily deduced by just studying the raw data, some benefits
can only be realized after further tabulations, such as doing an
inventory-cost analysis.
Productivity increases comes from the more efficient delivery
of data gathering information to the right people. Many entities spend
a large amount of time aggregating data and getting it to a form that is
accessible to end-users and then delivering it to them Violono (2004).

32

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

33

On the research done by Lallana, Pascual and Andam (2002)


where ICT usage patterns show a progression from the use of the
Internet for communication (primarily e-mail) to the use of the same
for research and information search to the development of websites
and then to use for e-commerce.
Majority of the firms, which are Internet users, use the Internet
to communicate with suppliers and customers only as a channel for
maintaining business relationships. Once firms develop a certain level
of confidence on the benefits of e-mail in the conduct of business
transactions and the potential of creating sales from its use, they
usually consider the option of developing their own website.
Organization could get more value from their information
technology investment and that there is more operation and
transaction-based IT system. It also posed the challenge to firms to
train information and realize the power that it brings to their
survivability

and

profitability

from

the

research

based

on

Congjuico(2005).
Inventories of retail businesses include goods purchased in
final form with the intention of reselling them. The inventories of
manufacturing companies include raw materials, goods in process
and finished goods. The purchase prices of goods and raw materials
vary. Keeping up records of numerous purchases is tedious and

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


identifying the cost of specific product or goods sold is cumbersome if
not impossible for companies engaged in manufacturing or retailing.
The cost of the inventory at the end of an accounting period is
crucial because of its effect on the cost of goods sold and ultimately
on the computation of profits. The lower the cost of ending inventory,
the higher is the cost of goods sold, and vice versa. Higher cost of
goods sold will result in lower gross profit and vice versa. Therefore,
the choice of inventory costing method has a significant effect on
reported income based from Ibarra (2008).
According to the works of Dunbar (2012) Regardless of
business model, the food cost calculation is the same: Food Cost =
Beginning Inventory + Purchases - Ending Inventory. Looking closely
at the formula, cost is closely related to purchases. The purchase
cycle involves purchase orders, competitive bids, packing lists,
invoices, par stock levels, shopping lists, etc. Only invoices should
be included in the purchases each month.
As mentioned by King (2012), keeping and maintaining an
inventory is very significant procedure in the business, because
inventories are frequently the expense incurred from business
operations. The purpose of an inventory system is to track and
sustain the inventory itself; to increase effectiveness in the operations
as well. (1) Inventory orders this helps many businesses in their

34

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


accurate recording of consumer sales. Theres an electronic type of
ordering which is called Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).
This permits companies to retain the proper amount of stock
by controlling the costs. It also ensures that orders are placed
instantaneously. (2) Stock maintenance this allows businesses to
properly order and maintain various types of items/goods as with its
computerized features. (3) Price levels employing inventory system
would help the business find the lowest price on inventory items and
ensure the best deals are achieved upon purchasing of items.
Moreover, it tracks costs from purchased items and organize a report
indicating which suppliers have the lowest cost on goods. (4) Count
methods it is a cardinal for every company that all inventories must
be counted and arranged. Through the help of computerized systems,
the inventory procedure will be efficient. Inventories can be adjusted
after conducting a physical count. (5) Trend analysis one of the
functions in inventory management system is the trending analyses
that are produced for management check. The said trends are used
to verify which months have high inventory levels.
There are two methods when valuing inventory: the cost
method and the retail method. The cost method values merchandise
at cost, using either the physical count system or the book inventory
system. Under the physical count system, cost of the purchased
needs to be recorded, and at the end of the period, it needs to be

35

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


physically check each item at store and stock room to determine the
ending inventory.
The book inventory system compute what the ending inventory
should be, and to determine possible inventory shrinkage or overage,
comparing this with the ending inventory as computed using the
physical count system based on Ong (2011).
In managing a food production business, the owner should
conquer its own people by getting their loyalty, trust and confidence in
you. Here, the need to have the ability to inspire and influence
people. If the business will have a united and well-organized process,
the business will also earn an edge over bigger business competitors
whose people within their organizations are breaking apart according
to Abrugar (2011).

Synthesis and Relevance of the Review Literature and Studies


All of the foreign literature, local literature, foreign studies and
local studies were very important to the present study as they include
specific aspects in developing an effective multi-site kitchen
management system. They provided the ideas and overview on how
to approach key areas in his study.
These literatures and studies provide the researcher a much
wider perspective in terms of kitchen management as this also

36

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


interconnected with the restaurant management as a whole. It also
encourages the researcher to focus kitchen management which is
considered as a niche market for web applications.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methods of research used, population
frame and sample size, and description of the respondents,
instrumentation, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment
of data.

Method of Research to be Used


The researcher used both descriptive and developmental
methods to establish an automated food production management
system for Elmers Foods.
This method is suitable to this research as it involves
describing the data and characteristic of food production processes
and the development using fresh approaches to the process,
developing and implementing the proposed system and providing
recommendations.

37

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


In addition, the researcher benefited not only in the analysis,
but also in the document gathering and preparing. It gives the
research the opportunity to manage a full project life cycle in software
development.

Through immersion, the researcher engaged in

culinary class to better understand the process on food production


and preparation.

Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique

The respondents of the study are the owner and staff of


Elmers Foods. The respondents evaluated the usability of the food
production management system with regards to its efficiency and
effectiveness on the area of food production management.
The respondents were chosen based on their knowledge on
the existing process in their designated kitchens and they are known
to provide accurate data with regards to kitchen management.

Table 1
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents
Respondents

# of

Percentage of

Respondents(f)

Respondents (%)

34

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Owner
Office Staff
Production &

1
1
14

6.25%
6.25%
87.50 %

16

100 %

Delivery Crew
Total

Table 1 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the


respondents. The study used the total population as it is deemed to
be directly involved in the system.

Description of Respondents
The study used the respondents as they are directly involved
in the food production operation on day to day basis. Although they
are divided in different shifts, albeit the processes involve are
significantly similar.

Research Instrument
The researcher used a questionnaire checklist. This checklist
was prepared to determine if the proposed automated food
production management system is effective and usable. The typical
five level Likert scale is use in this study and all questions are
answerable by Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and
Strongly Disagree.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Data Gathering Procedure


The analysis of the existing process and the collection of forms
from Elmers Foods were done on the first phase of this research.
After which the planning and execution which involves database
designs through Entity Relationship Diagram and the actual
development of the system which involves coding and system testing.
Last phase include the acceptability of the proposed system
which includes the deployment to the site and user training.
In addition several steps were followed by the researcher, first
is the title proposal submission the Master of Science in the
Information Technology Chairperson. After the approval of the title,
the researcher started to conduct thorough investigation on the
subject particularly in food production management processes. The
researcher also made several interviews with restaurant stakeholders
and with the owner of Elmers Foods. After thoroughly assessing the
current processes, the researcher started writing chapters 1 to 3.

Statistical Treatment of Data


In order to come up with a precise result, the data that will be
gathered by the researcher will be analyzed and tabulated. The
following statistical tools will be used:

36

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


1.

37

The researcher will use the weighted mean to determine the


levels of agreement of the respondents towards the given statements.
The formula for weighted mean will be as follows:

X=fx
Where:
X

2.

computed value per weighted mean

frequency

value given

total number of respondents

The researcher also used frequency obtained in the


questionnaire.

3.

The researcher also used percentage as a means of


standardizing the size, which indicates the frequency of occurrences
of category per 100 instances.

4.

Standard deviation was also determined from the


questionnaire.

5.

The research used the Likert Scale on the survey and on


verbal interpretation and range shown on Table 2 below.

Table 2
Likert Scale
Rate
5
4

Verbal Interpretation
Strongly Agree
Agree

Range
4.6 5.0
3.6 4.5

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


3
2
1

Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

38
2.6 3.5
1.6 2.5
1.0 1.5

Research Paradigm
The experimental paradigm specifically the scientific method
was used in this research. Based on the work of Basili(2001) in the
area of software engineering this inductive paradigm might be best be
used when trying to understand the software process, product, people
and environment. It attempts to extract from the world some form of
model which tries to explain the underlying phenomenon being
observed. It is an approach to model building. An example might be
an attempt to understand the way software is being developed by an
organization to automate the process.
In the development of the proposed system, the research
assessed the current issues encountered by Elmers Foods in the
area of inventory and cost control processes. Analysis was done
before the construction of the proposed system to determine the key
problems that need to be resolved by means of automation.
According to Basili (2001) the scientific method has a variation, one of
this is the engineering method which was also used on this research
which includes observing existing solutions, propose better solutions,
build/develop, measure and analyse, and repeat the process until no

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


more improvements appear possible. In this case, the research will
be evaluated by the stakeholders after the implementation to identify
if the proposed system was able to resolve the current problems.

System Architecture
The system architecture represents the necessary strategic
design decisions required to form the Food Production Management
System. A stable architecture is crucial to every successful system as
it helps drive the highest risk out of the project and it provides the
basis upon which the proposed system may be continuously evolved
with minimal rework.
The proposed Food Production Management System is
implemented using the web application model which is constructed
upon the three-tier architecture consisting of (1) Presentation Tier
User Interface, (2) Business Tier Application Logic and (3) Data
Tier.
The presentation tier is the top most level of the proposed
system as it provides the visual gateway to the user to interact with
the proposed system. As indicated on Figure 2, the Apache Web
Server processes the request coming from the user through the
browser. It then sends the information to the Tomcat Application
Server wherein the application resides.

39

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 2 Automated Food Production Management System Logical


Architecture

As shown on Figure 2, the application server accepts the


requests and processes it in the Application Logic through the use of
Spring Framework which includes controllers, service interfaces and
data access objects. Finally the data tier will provide the data needed
by the application tier through an object relation mapping (ORM)

40

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Hibernate which then encapsulate the data and sends back to the
presentation tier and displayed using a presentation template
technology known as Velocity which is then processed by the
application server as a response to the web server which then sends
the response back to the browser.
Figure 3 to Figure 9 shows the Use Case diagrams which
defines interactions between the roles of the actors and the system.
As part of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) that represents the
goals of the stakeholders of the proposed Food Production
Management System.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 3 Use Case diagram for Product Module

Figure 4 Use Case diagram for Raw Materials Module

42

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 5 Use Case diagram for Vendor and Recipe Modules

Figure 6 Use Case diagram for Activity, User, Alert and Report
Modules

43

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 7 Use Case diagram for Customer and Returns Modules

Figure 8 Use Case diagram for Report and Archive Modules

44

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 9 Use Case diagram for Sales Order and Purchase Order
Modules

Another form of Structural Diagram of Unified Modelling


Language (UML) is the component diagram of the proposed Food
Production Management System as shown on Figure 10. The
diagram depicts how components of the proposed system are wired
together to form a system. Figure 10 also illustrates the connectors
between the modules.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 10 Automated Food Production Management System


Component Diagram
A real information system like in this case, the web application
requires persistent data. Persistent date can be stored using
database.

After

thorough

consideration

Relational

Database

Management System (RDMS) was chosen as the data storage


system. RDMS was chosen since it is well suited for the proposed
system because of the rigid schema provided by the relational model,
significantly less interpretation is required resulting in a better
performance. Figure 11
relationships.

shows the normalized tables and their

46

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47

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

48

Figure 11 Automated Food Production Management System Entity


Relationship Diagram
Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and
interpretation of the results of the study on the development and
implementation of an automated food production management
system. The research problems enumerated in Chapter 1 serve as
the guide for the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
The object of the food production survey was to determine
perception of 16 stakeholders at Elmers Food to determine how they
perceive the usability of the proposed automated food production
management system. The following tables show the questions asked
of the proposed automated food production management system.
The questions were designed to elicit responses from the users of the
proposed system.

1. How do the features of proposed automated food production


management

system

support/assistance
management?

in

satisfy
their

the

respondents

inventory,

ordering

in
and

terms

of

delivery

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

49

1.1 Users are able to use the system with varying access level.

Respondents were first asked if the proposed system provides


access levels (see Table 3). Half of the sixteen respondents (50%) or
eight respondents agree with the statement and seven respondents
(44%) strongly agreed in favor of the statement. Of the remaining
respondents three (6%) were undecided. The weighted mean for this
item was 4.38 and the standard deviation was .619.

Table 3
Users are able to use the system with varying access level.
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.38
Standard Deviation = .619
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
15
7
8
1
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
93.75
43.75
50.00
6.25
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

50

1.2. Users are able to create, update and search purchase orders.

This survey statement dealt with the respondents perception


of the functionality of the proposed system to manage purchase
orders. Study subjects overwhelmingly strongly agreed that the
proposed system provides functionality to manage purchase orders.
Table 4 shows that nine respondents (56%) strongly agreed with the
statement while seven respondents (44%) agreed. The Weighted
Mean for this item was 4.56 which the standard deviation was .512.

Table 4
Users are able to create, update and search purchase orders
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.56

Frequency
(n=16)
16
9
7
0
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
100
56.25
43.75
0
0
0
0

Standard Deviation = .512


Legend:
5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

51

1.3. The system generates daily, weekly and monthly reports.

Table 5 examines the respondents perception as to whether


the proposed system provides facility to generate reports on daily,
weekly and monthly basis. Of the sixteen respondents nine (56%)
strongly agreed with the statement while six respondents (38%)
agreed. Only one respondent (6%) was undecided. The weighted
mean for this statement was 4.50 while the standard deviation was .
632.
Table 5
The system generate daily, weekly and monthly reports
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.50
Standard Deviation = .632
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
15
9
6
1
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
93.75
56.25
37.50
6.25
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

1.4. Users are able to create, update and search vendor.

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

52

Table 6 reveals that half of the sixteen respondents (50%)


agreed with the survey statement. Of the sixteen respondents
seven( 44%) strongly agreed while the remaining respondent (6%)
was undecided. The weighted mean for this statement was 4.38 while
the standard deviation was .619.

Table 6
Users are able to create, update and search vendor
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.38
Standard Deviation = .619
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
15
7
8
1
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
93.75
43.75
50.00
6.25
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

1.5. The system provides/allow alert mechanism when finished


products are low.

As presented in Table 7, majority of the sixteen respondents


perceived that the propose system provides alert functionalities for

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

53

finished products. Seven out of sixteen respondents (44%) strongly


agreed with the statement while the number of agreed respondents
was also seven (44%). One respondent was undecided (6%) and the
remaining respondent (6%) disagreed. The weighted mean for this
statement was 4.25 and the standard deviation was .856.

Table 7
The system provides/allow alert mechanism when finished products
are low
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.25
Standard Deviation = .856
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
14
7
7
1
1
1
0

Percentage
(100)
87.50
43.75
43.75
6.25
6.25
6.25
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

1.6. Users are able to create, update and search sales order.

Table 8 showed the assessment of the respondents on the


proposed system with respect to managing sales order. Half (50%) of
the sixteen respondents strongly agreed with the statement while six

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

54

(38%) agreed. One respondent (6%) was undecided while the


remaining respondent (6%) disagreed with the statement. The
weighted mean for this statement is 4.31 white the standard deviation
was .873.

Table 8
Users are able to create, update and search sales order
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.31
Standard Deviation = .873
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
14
8
6
1
1
1
0

Percentage
(100)
87.50
50.00
37.50
6.25
6.25
6.25
0

1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree,3=Undecided,4=Agree,5=Strongly Agree

1.7. Users are able to create, update and search customer records.

The final statement for the first problem asks the respondents
assessment on whether the proposed system provides functionality
for managing customer records. In Table 9, the result of this
statement showed that seven respondents (44%) strongly agreed
while another seven (44%) agreed. Table 9 also identifies two

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

55

respondents (13%) were undecided. The weighted mean for this


statement was 4.31 and the standard deviation was .704

Table 9
Users are able to create, update and search customer records
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.31
Standard Deviation = .704
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
14
7
7
2
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
87.50
43.75
43.75
12.50
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree


2. How do the respondents evaluate the food cost control system, in
terms of

2.1. Tracking frequency of order and delivery

2.1.1. Users are able to track returned products.


The first statement on the perception of the respondents in
terms of food cost control system specifically on tracking frequency of
order and delivery. Table 10 reveals that eight respondents (50%)
strongly agreed with the statement. Only seven (44%) out of sixteen
respondents agreed with the statement while the remaining
respondent (6%) selected the disagree for a rating on this
statement. The weighted mean response for this statement was 4.38
while the standard deviation was .806.

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

56

Table 10
Users are able to track returned products
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.38
Standard Deviation = .806
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
15
8
7
0
1
1
0

Percentage
(100)
93.75
50.00
43.75
0
6.25
6.25
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

2.1.2. Users are able to count consigned products.


The second statement for the cost control functionality of the
proposed system asks the respondents to rate the ability of the
proposed system to count/identify consigned products. In Table 11 the
result of this statement showed that a substantial majority of sixteen
respondents, nine (56%) strongly agreed with the statement. Table 11
also identifies five of the respondents (31%) agreed, while the
remaining two respondents (13%) were undecided. The weighted
mean for this statement was 4.44 and the standard deviation stood
at .727.

Table 11
Users are able to count/identify consigned products

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.44
Standard Deviation = .727
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
14
9
5
2
0
0
0

57
Percentage
(100)
87.50
56.25
31.25
12.50
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

2. How do the respondents evaluate the food cost control system, in


terms of
2.2. Monitoring of raw ingredients
2.2.1. Users are able to track the cost of finished products
In the first statement in the food cost control functionality the
respondents were asked to rank reactions specifically on the
utilization of raw ingredients. In Table 12, seven out of sixteen
respondents (44%) strongly agreed with the statement while also
seven respondents (44%) agreed. Only one respondent (6%) was
undecided and the remaining respondent (6%) strongly disagreed.
The weighted mean for this statement was 4.19 while the standard
deviation was 1.047.
Table 12 Users are able to track the cost of finished products
Response scale

Frequency

Percentage

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.19
Standard Deviation = 1.047
Legend:

(n=16)
14
7
7
1
1
0
1

58
(100)
87.50
43.75
43.75
6.25
6.25
0
6.25

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree


2.2.2. Users are able to track raw materials stocks

The second to the last statement on the cost control segment


asked the respondents to rate the proposed system in terms of its
functionality to track raw materials stocks. Table 13 reveals that nine
out of sixteen respondents (56%) agreed with the statement while six
respondents (38%) strongly agreed. Table 13 also shows that only
one respondent (6%) was undecided. The weighted mean for this
section was 4.31 while the standard deviation was .602.

Table 13
Users are able to track raw materials stocks
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided

Frequency
(n=16)
15
6
9
1

Percentage
(100)
93.75
37.50
56.25
6.25

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.31
Standard Deviation = .602
Legend:

59

0
0
0

0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree


2.2.3. Provide alert mechanism when raw materials are low
The final statement for this section dealt with the respondents
rating perception on the functionality of the proposed system to
provide alerts on raw materials. Most respondents reported positive
responses to this statement as shown in Table 14. Six respondents
(38%) responded with the rating Strongly Agree to the statement
while seven respondents (44%) responded with Agree to the
statement. The remaining respondent (6%) was undecided. The
weighted mean was 4.13 and the standard deviation was .885.

Table 14
Provide alert mechanism when raw materials are low
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.13
Standard Deviation = .885
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
14
6
7
2
1
1
0

Percentage
(100)
81.25
37.50
43.75
12.50
6.25
6.25
0

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

60

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree


3. How do the respondents evaluate the proposed food production
system in terms of its ability to accommodate new products?

3.1. Users are able to create, update and search products


Table 15 reveals the responses reported for the statement that
asks the respondents to rate the perception about the functionality on
managing finished products. Half of the sixteen respondents, eight
(50%) strongly agreed to the statement, while seven respondents
(44%) agreed. Table 15 also shows that one respondent (6%) was
undecided. The weighted mean for this statement is 4.44 while the
standard deviation was .630.
Table 15
Users are able to create, update and search products
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.44
Standard Deviation = .630
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
15
8
7
1
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
93.75
50.00
43.75
6.25
0
0
0

5=Strongly Agree, 4=Agree, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagree, 1=Strongly Disagree

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

61

3.2. Users are able to create, update and search recipe


Last but not the least, Table 16 gauge the respondents
perception on the functionality of the proposed system to provide
recipe management. Table 16 reveals that seven respondents (44%)
agreed while six respondents (38%) strongly agreed to the statement.
Only three respondents (19%) were undecided. The weighted mean
for this item was 4.19 and the standard deviation was .75.

Table 16
Users are able to create, update and search recipe
Response scale
Top 2 /Positively Agree
Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Bottom 2/Not Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Weighted Mean = 4.19
Standard Deviation = .75
Legend:

Frequency
(n=16)
13
6
7
3
0
0
0

Percentage
(100)
81.25
37.50
43.75
18.75
0
0
0

1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree,3=Undecided,4=Agree,5=Strongly Agree

Table 17 shows the percentage of positively agree responses


between the staffs and owner of Elmers Foods. The owner rated a
positively agree responses in all of the items in the questionnaire. Of
the total positive agree responses (100%), the response of the owner

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

62

(6%) agreed with the functionalities of the proposed system while the
remaining positive responses (94%) came from the staffs.
Table 17
Positively Agree Summary Tabulation
Items

Tota
l
(%)

Owner
(%)

Inventory, ordering and delivery management features:


1.1. Users are able to use the system with varying access
100
6
level
1.2. Users are able to create, update and search
100
6
purchase orders
1.3. The system generate daily, weekly and monthly
100
6
reports
100
6
1.4. Users are able to create, update and search vendor
1.5. The system provides/allow alert mechanism when
100
6
finished products are low
1.6. Users are able to create, update and search sales
100
6
order
1.7. Users are able to create, update and search
100
6
customer records
Cost control thru tracking frequency of order and delivery:
100
6
2.1.1. Users are able to track returned products
100
6
2.1.2. Users are able to count consigned products
Cost control thru monitoring of raw ingredients:
6
2.2.1. Users are able to track the cost of finished products 100
100
6
2.2.2. Users are able to track raw materials stocks
2.2.3. Provide alert mechanism when raw materials are
100
6
low
Ability to accommodate new product changes:
6
3.1. Users are able to create, update and search products 100
100
6
3.2. Users are able to create, update and search recipe
The summary of all standard deviation of each statement in the
questionnaire shows the responses of the respondents on the
perception with regards to the functionalities of the proposed system

Staff
(%)

94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

63

as shown on Table 18. The table shows that the standard deviation
ranges between 1.04 and .512.
Table 18
Standard Deviation Summary Tabulation
Statements

Standard
Deviation

Inventory, ordering and delivery management features:


1.1. Users are able to use the system with varying access level
1.2. Users are able to create, update and search purchase orders
1.3. The system generate daily, weekly and monthly reports
1.4. Users are able to create, update and search vendor
1.5. The system provides/allow alert mechanism when finished
products are low
1.6. Users are able to create, update and search sales order
1.7. Users are able to create, update and search customer records
Cost control thru tracking frequency of order and delivery:
2.1.1. Users are able to track returned products
2.1.2. Users are able to count/identify consigned products
Cost control thru monitoring of raw ingredients:
2.2.1. Users are able to track the cost of finished products
2.2.2. Users are able to track raw materials stocks
2.2.3. Provide alert mechanism when raw materials are low
Ability to accommodate new product changes:
3.1. Users are able to create, update and search products
3.2. Users are able to create, update and search recipe

Chapter 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

.619
.512
.632
.619
.856
.873
.704
.806
.727
1.04
.602
.885
.629
.750

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

64

This chapter combines the highlights of the significant findings


of the study, conclusions, and the recommendations presented by the
researcher. This research work was undertaken to develop and
implement a food production system. Specifically, it sought to answer
the following questions:
1. How do the features of proposed automated food production
management

system

support/assistance

in

satisfy
their

the

respondents

inventory,

ordering

in

terms

and

of

delivery

management?
2. How do the respondents evaluate the food cost control system, in
terms of
2.1. Tracking frequency of order and delivery
2.2. Monitoring of raw ingredients
3. How do the respondents evaluate the proposed food production
system in terms of its ability to accommodate new products?
The data were gathered using standard questionnaire and data
were subjected to statistical treatment specifically frequency,
weighted mean and percentage.

Summary

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

65

The proposed automated food production management system


administered in Elmers Foods is very complex in nature. Staff are
required to comprehend large chunks of information starting from the
receiving of supplies up to the delivery of finished products to the
customers.

The purpose of this research was to develop an automated


food production management system and to evaluate the responses
of the users based on the perception of the proposed system. Upon
implementation and user training, an evaluation through survey form
that was used to collect data from the users and was then analyzed to
acquire

weighted

mean, standard

deviation,

percentage

and

frequency counts.

The researcher used the descriptive developmental design in


achieving the requirements in the investigation of the study. This is
beneficial for the researcher as it involves in-depth system analysis
and development using the latest technology in the industry.

Sixteen respondents composed of stakeholders within Elmers


Foods

were

the

respondents

throughout

the

study.

These

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


respondents have direct participation on the implementation of the
proposed system.

Statistical tool were used for analysis and interpretation of


data. Frequency, weighted mean and percentage were identified to
find out the evaluation of the respondents. The researcher underwent
several stages in conducting the study, this includes topical defence,
title presentation, pre-oral defence and oral defence. As part of the
data gathering the researcher interviewed the owner of Elmers Foods
to identify the problems. The researcher also gathered information
from previous published studies pertaining to the food production and
managing a food processing business.
Upon completion of the data gathering, the researcher started
the system development. An entity relation diagram was formulated
from the requirements gathered, scopes were identified and user
stories were formed. The research developed the system using the
latest technology used by the industry as of date. Consultations with
finance practitioners, academe and food industry experts were made
in parallel with the development of each user stories.
Test scripts were written and executed to validate the system.
Upon the defined checkpoint, the system was demonstrated to the
owner, to verify the requirements. Lastly implementation of the
system was done followed by thorough evaluation. Discussions with

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


advisers and interpolation with panels from the title presentation, preoral and oral defence were conducted.

Findings
Based on the analysis undertaken, the following findings were
hereby summarized:
1. On the features of proposed automated food production
management system satisfy the respondents in terms of
support/assistance in their inventory, ordering and delivery
management:

1.1. On respondents perception as to system users are able to use


the system with varying access level, the proposed system got an
average weighted mean of 4.38 and interpreted as Agree.

1.2. In terms of the ability to create, update and search purchase


orders, the respondents rates the functionality with a weighted mean
of 4.56 and interpreted as Agree.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


1.3. The perception of the respondents with regards to the system
generation of daily, weekly and monthly reports, respondents rated
the system weighted mean of 4.50 and interpreted as Agree.

1.4. In terms of the ability to create, update and search vendor the
user rated the system with a weighted mean of 4.38 and interpreted
as Agree.

1.5. With respect to the perception of the respondents, the system


provides/allow alert mechanism when finished products are low were
scored with a weighted mean of 4.25 and interpreted as Agree.

1.6. Findings on the ability of the proposed system to create, update


and search sales order as rated by the respondents garnered a
weighted mean of 4.31 and interpreted as Agree.

1.7. As assessed by the respondents on the functionality of the


proposed system to create, update and search customer records
obtained a weighted mean of 4.31 and interpreted as Agree.

2. On respondents evaluate the food cost control system, in terms of


2.1. Tracking frequency of order and delivery

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


2.1.1. Based on the respondents perception with regards to the
functionality of the users are able to track returned products were
rated weighted mean of 4.36 and interpreted as Agree.

2.1.2. Findings showed that the respondents evaluated the


functionality of the system for the user ability to count consigned
products as Agree with a weighted mean of 4.44.

2.2. Monitoring of raw ingredients


2.2.1. It was found out that the respondents rated the system
functionality with regards to the ability to monitor the cost of finished
products were rated a weighted mean of 4.19 and interpreted as
Agree.

2.2.2. Results on the perception of the respondents on the ability of


the system to monitor raw materials stocks obtained a weighted mean
of 4.31 and interpreted as Agree.

2.2.3. The respondents rated the functionality of the system to


provide alert mechanism when raw materials are low gained a
weighed mean of 4.13 and interpreted as Agree.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


3. On the respondents evaluate the proposed food production system
in terms of its ability to accommodate new products

3.1. With respect to the functionality of the system, the respondents


rated the ability to create, update and search products with weighted
mean of 4.44 and interpreted as Agree.

3.2. In terms of the ability to create, update and search recipe, the
respondents rated the system with a weighted mean of 4.19 and
interpreted as Agree.

With regards to the summary of positively agree responses


indicates that the perception of the owner of Elmers Food on the
functionalities of the proposed system sided along with the majority of
the staff. The business owner as a primary stakeholder and
contributor in general positively agreed with the functionalities. The
owners response is vital, as the owner knows every detail within the
business of Elmers Foods.
The standard deviation is important as it shows the variation of
the responses of each respondent. The findings revealed response of
the respondents are mostly the same with each other with low
standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close
to the mean. The response of all respondent shows that the range of

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


standard deviation across all statements was close to each other with
a range of 1.04 to .512. This indicates minimal variation on the
responses of the respondents with regards to the functionality of the
proposed system.

Conclusions
Based on the findings, the research was able to conclude the
following:

1. The implementation of the proposed system at the Elmers Foods


was readily accepted and received relatively high marks in all
areas.

2. The results shows that the respondents perceived that the


developed system provided support in the existing inventory
processes and will be of great value in tracking the cost.

3. Among the respondents was the owner of Elmers Food, and the
owner positively agreed on survey statements. This implies that,
as a major stakeholder of the business, the owner perceived that
the developed system will be of great help in the inventory and
cost control process of the business.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

4. The study shows that the features of the developed system would
provide support in the current inventory, ordering and delivery
management of the business as the respondents positively agreed
with the survey statements.

5. The respondents generally agreed that thru the developed


system, users can manage cost control by means of tracking the
frequency of order/delivery and monitoring raw materials.

6. As the ever changing industry trends and pattern, the respondents


positively agreed that the developed system provided the ability to
accommodate new product changes thus making the system
adaptable to food production industry changes.

Recommendations
Based on the results of this study, certain areas of automated
food production management system should be addressed to
enhance the process in the future. The researchers recommendation
based on this studies finding are as follows:

72

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

73

1. The evaluation findings were encouraging in that the scores


reported by the users were very high. All areas on the survey form
had weighted mean measurements over 4 and low standard
deviations. This shows two possibilities. The proposed system
was appropriate and right on target, or that the proposed system
may have been lacking other functionalities in the knowledge area
of food production business. The researcher recommends that the
system be reviewed by industry experts on food preparation, food
processing and food delivery services to determine if additional
functionalities should be added to the automated food production
management system.

2. The

development,

implementation

and

evaluation

of

the

automated food production management system was effective for


the requirements of this study; however some consideration
should be given to other areas of the software application such as
reliability,

user

friendliness,

acceptability,

accuracy.

The

researcher recommends further evaluation on these areas six


months after implementation to fully assess the proposed system.

3. The developed and evaluated system recommended to be


implemented in the organization. Furthermore, the stakeholders of

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Elmers Foods are encouraged to utilize the developed system for
better inventory and cost control management.

4. The developed system needs to be tested on other organizations


that were also engaged in food processing business to capture the
best practices in the industry.

5. The findings of the study revealed that there were respondents


(6%) who answered within Bottom 2 / Not Agree on some of the
survey statements. Although this number is minimal, the
researcher recommends further evaluation on these respondents
to determine the reasons behind their negative assessments.

6. The researcher developed the proposed system based on the


problems and requirements gathered on the duration of the
research.

Upon

implementation

and

evaluation,

additional

requirements were raised but were not incorporated in the initial


release of the proposed system due to limited time constraints.
The researcher recommends developing another development
phase to meet the additional requirements of the business.

7. In the event of future expansion, should the need arise, the


researcher recommends that the developed system be upgraded

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


in to a web based application from the current browser based
application. Technical specifications should be considered, as a
web based application can provide a helpful solution in terms in
terms of location and user flexibility.

8. The proposed system has an archiving facility to store relevant


historical information; the researcher recommends further studies
on this area as well. The historical information can be analyzed in
a form of data mining that can provide predictable trends and
buying patterns of the customers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. BOOKS

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Thompson, Theodor, Medieval Homes, Sampson Lowel House 1992
Julius A. Sharma, Dinesh K. Sharma, Hari P (2004) Supply
Chain (SC)
Spang, Rebecca L.: The Invention of the Restaurant: Paris and
Modern Gastronomic Culture", Harvard University Press, 2001

B. JOURNALS / MAGAZINES
Aarti Deveshwar and Dhawal Modi, 2010, Inventory
Management Delivering Profits through Stock Management
Carol Raab, Karl Mayer (2008) Menu engineering and activity-based
costing can they work together in a restaurant?
Christopher C Muller,1999 The business of restaurants: 2001 and
beyond
David Claudio,Jie Zhang,Ying Zhang, 2007 A hybrid inventory
control system approach applied to the food industry
Daryl Ansel, Chris Dyer 1999 A Framework for Restaurant Information
Technology
Dane Bertram, 2007, Likert Scales
Deshmukh, 2010, Computerized System for Resturants
Ibarra, Venus C. 03/01/2008 Choice of inventory costing method of
selected companies in the Philippines.
Fitz Villafuerte on Monday, January 17th, 2011 Starting a Business
Inventory Management System
Joe Dunbar, January 10, 2012, Food Cost Formula Questions
Jorge R. Len-Pea, July 2008, eBusiness and the supply chain
management

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Peter Trkman and Ale Groznik, 2006, Measurement of Supply Chain
Integration Benefits
Ruffy Collado , 2010, It's not about the sales volume. It's
about loyalty
Sheryl E. Kimes, 2008, The Role of Technology in Restaurant
Revenue Management
Victorino Abrugar, Jun 22, 2011, How to Make Your Small Business
More Competitive
C. THESIS / DISSERTATIONS
Emmanuel C. Lallana, PhD, Patricia Pascual, Zorayda Ruth Andam
2002 SMEs and e-COMMERCE In Three Philippine Cities
Peter Tu_insk, 2007, Restaurant Intranet System
Thomas Ahrens, Christopher Chapman, September 18, 2002 The
structuration of legitimate performance measures and management:
day-to-day contests of accountability in a U.K. restaurant chain
Marissa Ferrer, 2009, Relationship of personal characteristics,
leadership styles, and job satisfaction to adversity quotient of
academic heads of selected state colleges and universities in the
national capital region
Rahman, 2007 , Prototype Online Cafeteria System,
Ramya Ravichandar, 2008, Capabilities Engineering
Promoting Change-Reduction and Constructing Change-Tolerant
Systems
Richard Jaenke, 2003, Development and evaluation of a computerbased training module for utility xyz
Victor Basili (2001) The Experimental Paradigm in Software
Engineering
D. INTERNET

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Ivan Berger, April 5, 2007
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/05/technology/05smart.html?
ref=technology
Martin Veitch, Apr 06 2007,
http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/1025224/kitchen-computersmells-like-a-turkey
Cris Evert Lato, November 3, 2008, Quality food, service and
hukadhttp://globalnation.inquirer.net/cebudailynews/enterprise/view/2
0081103-169973/Quality-food-service-and-hukad
Tatin Yang, March 2011, Dads/Kamayan/Saisaki introduces open
kitchen for its buffets,
http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/food/food/view/20110317325837/DadsKamayanSaisaki-introduces-open-kitchen-for-its-buffets
Lorri Mealey, About.com Guide 2009
Henry Ong, Jul 04, 2011 http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/getstarted/article/how-do-i-manage-inventory
Henry Ong Oct 03, 2011, Learning to do inventory,
http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/get-started/article/learning-to-doinventory
Fitz Villafuerte, 2009,Planning A Business Production System Part 2
http://fitzvillafuerte.com/production-planning-business-productionsystem-2.html
Franchise King, February 25th, 2012, Why You Should Have a Sound
Inventory System,
http://foodcartfranchisephilippines.com/2012/02/why-you-shouldhave-a-sound-inventory-system/
Ginger Arboleda, July 13, 2010
http://manilareviews.com/2010/07/food-service-industryphilippines.html
Henry Ong, Oct 03, 2011, Learning to do inventory,
http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/get-started/article/learning-to-doinventory

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Jan Kirkebo, Feb 27, 2011, Small Food Business,
http://ifranchisephilippines.com/franchise-articles/small-foodbusiness/
Julita Julie Viola, 2011, How Successful Businesses Use Inventory
Control Management, http://jgvfinance.com/misc/?how-successfulbusinesses-use-inventory-control-management-1991
2011
Jovy J. Jader, 2010 How integrated is your supply chain
http://www.entreprenews.com.ph/inside.php?
url_link=1275362996&id=21&article_type=columns
Kashmir Hill, 2012 How Target Figured Out A Teen Girl Was Pregnant
Before Her Father Did
http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2012/02/16/how-targetfigured-out-a-teen-girl-was-pregnant-before-her-father-did/
Rothman, 2010 Avoiding Pilferage in Food Inventory,
http://foodcartfranchisephilippines.com/2010/07/avoiding-pilferage-infood-inventory/
Ronald Pawlowski (2011)
http://www.magarticles.com/article/40210/Implementing-an-InventoryControl-System.html
Ruben Canlas Jr., MBA, 2007, Inventory Management In A Nutshell
http://www.thefilipinoentrepreneur.com/2007/11/26/inventorymanagement-in-a-nutshell.htm
Ruffy Collado, 2010, It's not about the sales volume. It's about loyalty
http://vcdphils.com/articles/view/2/Its-not-about-the-sales-volume.-Itsabout-loyalty.html

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APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Sample Survey Questionnaire

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Sta. Mesa, Manila
Graduate School
Dear Respondents
The undersigned is conducting a study with a title of
DEVELOPMENT
AND
IMPLEMENTATION
OF
AN
AUTOMATED
FOOD
PRODUCTION
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree Master of Science in Information Technology.
Relative to this, you are chosen to be part of the endeavor
that will evaluate the proposed automated food production
management system applied at Elmers Foods.
Please read each item, answer it honestly and rest assured
that the information you will provide will be dealt with
utmost confidentiality and will be only used for the purpose
of the study.
Thank you.

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

81

Sincerely yours,

AVERY WILBERT A. PALAY


Researcher
Noted:
Prof. Flordeliz Garcia
Thesis Adviser

QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKLIST
Name:___________________________________Position:___________
______
Evaluation of the proposed automated food
production management system
Below is a list of questions that will determine the usability of
the proposed automated food production management
system at Elmers Foods. For each question in the list, put ()
beside the answer.
5
4
3
2
1

Strongly Agree
Agree
Undecided
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

Items
Inventory, ordering and delivery management features:
1.1. Users are able to use the system with varying access level
1.2. Users are able to create, update and search purchase orders
1.3. The system generate daily, weekly and monthly reports
1.4. Users are able to create, update and search vendor

5 4 3 2 1

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


1.5. The system provides/allow alert mechanism when finished products are
low
1.6. Users are able to create, update and search sales order
1.7. Users are able to create, update and search customer records

Cost control thru tracking frequency of order and delivery:


2.1.1. Users are able to track returned products
2.1.2. Users are able to count consigned products
Cost control thru monitoring of raw ingredients:
2.2.1. Users are able to track the cost of finished products
2.2.2. Users are able to track raw materials stocks
2.2.3. Provide alert mechanism when raw materials are low

Ability to accommodate new product changes:


3.1. Users are able to create, update and search products
3.2. Users are able to create, update and search recipe

Appendix 2 Automated Food Production Management


System Manual and Screenshots

Login Screen
1. Enter user

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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


2. Enter password
3. Click login button
Note: If the user is authorized the page will be redirected to search window
To reset
1. Click reset button
2. User field and password are now cleared
Note: When the user click the logout link, the page will be redirected to the login
screen. The system will automatically logout a user due to inactivity.

Search Screen
The search page allows the user to search on every module using search criteria.
A date ticker is available on the date criteria page for user convenience
Note: To clear fields click on the search tab
1.
2.
3.
4.

Search customer
Fill in the Search Customer-Company Name field
Click on Search Customer button
Page will redirect to customer page

Note: If the customer search does not match any records in the system, the item list
will not display any records
Search Product
1. Fill in the Search Product field with the desired product name

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2. Click on Search Product button
3. Page will redirect to product page
Note: If the product search does not match any records in the system, the item list
will not display any records
Search Raw Material
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Search Raw Material


field with the desired Raw Material name
Click on Search Raw Material button
Page will redirect to Raw Material page

Note: If the Raw Material search does not match any records in the system, the
item list will not display any records
Search Recipe
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Search Recipe


field with the desired Recipe name
Click on Search Recipe button
Page will redirect to Recipe page

Note: If the Recipe search does not match any records in the system, the item list
will not display any records
Search Vendor
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Search Vendor


field with the desired Vendor name
Click on Search Vendor button
Page will redirect to Vendor page

Note: If the Vendor search does not match any records in the system, the item list
will not display any records
Search Returns
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Search Customer-Company Name


field with the desired Customer-Company Name
Fill in the Search Returned date range
field with the desired starting from Returned date range and ending on
Returned date range
5. Select status from the status dropdown
Click on Search Returns button
Page will redirect to Returns page
Note: If the Returns search does not match any records in the system, the item list
will not display any records
Note: User can search on individual criteria either/or customer name, returned date
range and status

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Search Sales Order
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Customer-Company Name


field with the desired Customer-Company Name
Fill in the Search Sales Order date range
field with the desired starting from Sales Order date range and ending on
Sales Order date range
5. Select status from the status dropdown
6. Click on Search Sales Order button
7. Page will redirect to Sales Order page
Note: If the Sales Order search does not match any records in the system, the item
list will not display any records
Note: User can search on individual criteria either/or Customer-Company name,
sales order date range and status
Search Purchase Order
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Vendor


field with the desired Vendor Name
Fill in the Search Purchase date range
field with the desired starting from Purchase date range and ending on
Purchase date range
5. Select status from the status dropdown
6. Click on Search Purchase Order button
7. Page will redirect to Sales Order page
Note: If the Purchase Order search does not match any records in the system, the
item list will not display any records
Note: User can search on individual criteria either/or vendor name, purchase order
date range and status

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Product Screen
Select the Product tab to add, update, manufacture and delete a product
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add
Product mode.
Add Product
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Product field with desired product name


Leave the Available Quantity field blank for now
Fill in the Current Unit Price field
Click the Recipe List button and select the desired recipe from the recipe
popup
5. Leave the Manufactured Quantity blank for now
6. Click the Add Product button
7. When successful record is ready for update mode

Note: The update product button and delete product button will be disabled when in
the add mode. Once the product is successfully added it will be included in the item
list.
Update Product
1. On the item list, select the desired product that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Product button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode

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Note: The Add Product button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Product button will be enabled.
Manufacture Product
When production event of a product is already done, the system needs to be
updated with produced to be added in the inventory
1. On the item list, select the desired product that needs to be manufactured
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Manufacture Product button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
Note: The Add Product button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Product button will be enabled.
Note: Admin rights is needed to enable the Manufacture button
Delete Product
1. On the item list, select the desired product that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Product button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update product button and delete product button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Raw Material Screen


Select the Raw Material tab to add, update and delete a raw material
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add Raw
Material mode. Delete button will only be available with admin rights.
Add Raw Material
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fill in the Material field with desired material name


Leave the Available Quantity field blank for now
Fill in the Current Unit Price field
Select measurement from the dropdown field
Click the Add Raw Material button
When successful record is ready for update mode

Note: The update raw material button and delete raw material button will be
disabled when in the add mode. Once the raw material is successfully added it will
be included in the item list.
Update Raw Material
1. On the item list, select the desired raw material that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Raw Material button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode

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Note: The Add Raw Material button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once
the clear button is clicked the Add Raw Material button will be enabled.
Delete Raw Material
1. On the item list, select the desired raw material that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Raw Material button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update raw material button and delete product button will be disabled
when in the add mode.

Customer Screen
Select the customer tab to add, modify and delete customer.
Note:
Customer Type
Direct these are the customers involved in direct selling and/or direct consumption
of the product. Example hotels, households and individuals
Consignee these are the customers involved in consigned goods. Example such
as supermarkets, stalls and re-sellers
Customer Status
Active these are the active customers
Inactive these are the inactive customers

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Add Customer

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Fill in the Company field with desired company name


Fill in the Contact Person field with desired contact person
Fill in the Address field with desired address
Fill in the Area field with desiredare
Fill in the City field with desired city
Fill in the Province field with desired province
Fill in the Phone field with desired
phone
Select Type from the type dropdown list
Select Status from the status dropdown list
Click the Add Customer button
When successful record is ready for update mode

Note: The update customer button and delete customer button will be disabled
when in the add mode. Once the customer is successfully added it will be included
in the item list.
Update Customer

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Modify the Company field with desired company name


Modify the Contact Person with desired contact person
Modify the Address with desired address
Modify the Area with desired
are
Modify the City with desired
city
Modify the Province with desired province
Modify the Phone with desired phone
Select Type from the type dropdown list
Select Status from the status dropdown list
Click the Add Customer button
When successful record is ready for update mode

Note: The Add Customer button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once
the clear button is clicked the Add Customer button will be enabled.
Delete Customer
1. On the item list, select the desired customer that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Customer button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update vendor button and delete vendor button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Vendor Screen
Select the vendor tab to add, modify and delete vendor.
Vendor Status
Active these are the active vendor
Inactive these are the inactive customers
Add vendor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Fill in the Vendor field with desired


vendor name
Fill in the Address field with desired
address
Fill in the Area field with desired area
Fill in the City field with desired city
Fill in the Province field with desired province
Fill in the Phone field with desired phone
Click Add Vendor button

Note: The update vendor button and delete vendor button will be disabled when in
the add mode. Once the vendor is successfully added it will be included in the item
list.
Update vendor
1.
2.
3.
4.

Modify the Vendor field with desired


vendor name
Modify the Address field with desired
address
Modify the Area field with desired area
Modify the City field with desired city

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5. Modify the Province field with desired province
6. Modify the Phone field with desired phone
7. Click Update vendor button

Note: The Add Vendor button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Vendor button will be enabled.
Delete Vendor
1. On the item list, select the desired vendor that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Vendor button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update vendor button and delete vendor button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Recipe Screen
Select the Recipe tab to add, update and delete a recipe
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add Recipe
mode.
Add Recipe
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fill in the Recipe Name field with desired recipe name


Fill in the Quantity with desired quantity name
Fill in the Cost Price field
Fill in List Price Field
Click the Add Recipe button
When successful record is ready for update mode

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Click the Ingredients button to add ingredients


On the Ingredients screen click the Raw List
Select the desired raw material from the raw list popup window
Fill in the Quantity field with the desired quantity of the ingredient
Click Add Item button
Create as many ingredients as desired.
To update the ingredients select the Update Item
Click the Clear button to clear all fields
Click Back to Recipe link to go back to the Recipe screen

Note: The update recipe button and delete recipe button will be disabled when in
the add mode. Once the recipe is successfully added it will be included in the item
list.
Update Recipe

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1. On the item list, select the desired recipe that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Product button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

To update the ingredients click the ingredients button


Select the ingredients from the item list
Update the fields
Click the Update Item button
To delete ingredients, select the ingredients from the item list
Click the Delete Item button

12. Click Back to Recipe link to go back to the Recipe screen


Note: The Add Item button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Item button will be enabled.
Delete Recipe
1. On the item list, select the desired recipe that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Recipe button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update recipe button and delete recipe button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Returns Screen
Select the Returns tab to add, update and delete returns
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add
Returns mode.
Status:
TRANSIT when the returned product is still on the delivery vehicle
CLOSED when the returned product is back at the warehouse
Returns Items status:
DAMAGED this will be treated as scrap

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EXPIRED this will be discarded and treated as junk
PULLOUT this will be returned to inventory
Add Returns
1. Click the Customer List button
2. Select customer from the customer popup window
3. Fill in the Returned Date field using the date ticker with desired Returns
name
4. Select the status from the status dropdown
5. Click the Add Returns button
6. When successful record is ready for update mode
7. Click the Returned Product Items button to add items
8.
9.
10.
11.

On the Product Item list screen click the Product List button
Select the desired product from the product list popup window
Fill in the Quantity field with the desired quantity of the returned product
Select the status from the status dropdown field

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Click Add Item button


Create as many returned products as desired.
To update the returned product select the Update Item
Click the Clear button to clear all fields
Click Back to Returns link to go back to the Returns screen

Note: The update Returns button and delete Returns button will be disabled when in
the add mode. Once the Returns is successfully added it will be included in the item
list.
Update Returns
1. On the item list, select the desired Returns that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Product button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

To update the product items click the Returned Product Items button
Select the products from the item list
Update the fields
Click the Update Item button
To delete Returned Product Items, select the products from the item list
Click the Delete Item button

12. Click Back to Returns link to go back to the Returns screen


Note: The Add Item button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Item button will be enabled.

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Delete Returns
1. On the item list, select the desired Returns that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Returns button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update Returns button and delete Returns button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Sales Order Screen


Select the Sales Order tab to add, update and delete Sales Order
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add Sales
Order mode.
Sales Order status:
OPEN - available for record edits
CANCELLED cancel sales invoice
CLOSED completed sales invoice
DELIVERED finish products are received by the customer
TRANSIT finish products still on the delivery truck
Add Sales Order
1. Click the Customer List button
2. Select customer from the customer popup window
3. Fill in the Sales Order Date field using the date ticker with desired Sales
Order date
4. Fill in the Delivery Date field using the date ticker with desired Delivery date
5. Fill in the Discount field with the desired discount amount
6. Fill in the Total field with the desired Total amount
7. Select the status from the status dropdown
8. Click the Add Sales Order button
9. When successful record is ready for update mode
10. Click the Sales Order Items button to add items
11. On the Product Item list screen click the Product List button
12. Select the desired product from the product list popup window
13. Fill in the Quantity field with the desired quantity of the product

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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Click Add Item button


Create as many products as desired.
To update the product select the Update Item
Click the Clear button to clear all fields
Click Back to Sales Order link to go back to the Sales Order screen

Note: The update Sales Order button and delete Sales Order button will be disabled
when in the add mode. Once the Sales Order is successfully added it will be
included in the item list.
Update Sales Order
1. On the item list, select the desired Sales Order that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Sales Order button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

To update the product items click the Sales Order Items button
Select the products from the item list
Update the fields
Click the Update Item button
To delete Sales Order Items, select the products from the item list
Click the Delete Item button

12. Click Back to Sales Order link to go back to the Sales Order screen
Note: The Add Item button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Item button will be enabled.
Delete Sales Order
1. On the item list, select the desired Sales Order that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Sales Order button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update Sales Order button and delete Sales Order button will be disabled
when in the add mode.

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Activity Screen
Select the Activity tab to view system activities
Note: Activity screen will only be available to users with admin rights
Search Activity
1. Fill in the Activity Start Date field using the date ticker with desired Activity
start date range
2. Fill in the Activity End Date field using the date ticker with desired Activity
end date range
3. Click the Search Activity button
4. If there are results Item list will be populate by the activity list
5. Click the Clear button to clear all fields

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Alert Screen
Select the Alert tab to add, update and delete an Alert
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add Alert
mode. Delete button will only be available with admin rights.
Alert Type:
PRODUCT when selected this will alert for the finish products
RAW when selected this will alert for the raw materials
Add Alert
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Fill in the Alert name field with desired alert name


Select the Alert type from the alert type dropdown field
Fill in the Minimum Quantity field with the desired minimum quantity
Click the Add Alert button
When successful record is ready for update mode
When product is selected from the alert type
Click Product List button
Select product from the product list popup screen

9. When Raw is selected from the alert type


10. Click Raw List button
11. Select raw material from the raw list popup screen
12. Click Update Alert to save changes
Note: The update Alert button and delete Alert button will be disabled when in the
add mode. Once the Alert is successfully added it will be included in the item list.

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Update Alert
1. On the item list, select the desired Alert that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Alert button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
Note: The Add Alert button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Alert button will be enabled.
Delete Alert
1. On the item list, select the desired Alert that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Alert button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update Alert button and delete product button will be disabled when in the
add mode.

User Screen
Select the User tab to add, update and delete a User
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add User
mode. Delete button will only be available with admin rights.
User Type:

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ROLE_ADMIN admin privileges
ROLE_USER limited privileges
Add User
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fill in the Full Name field with the desired full name
Fill in the User name field with desired User name
Fill in the Password field with desired password
Select the User type from the User type dropdown field

Click the Add User button


When successful record is ready for update mode
Note: The update User button and delete User button will be disabled when in the
add mode. Once the User is successfully added it will be included in the item list.
Update User
1. On the item list, select the desired User that needs to be modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update User button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
Note: The Add User button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add User button will be enabled.
Delete User
1. On the item list, select the desired User that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete User button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update User button and delete product button will be disabled when in
the add mode.

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Purchase Order Screen


Select the Purchase Order tab to add, update and delete Purchase Order
Note: The clear button will clear all the input fields and set the page into Add
Purchase Order mode.
Purchase Order status:
OPEN - available for record edits
CANCELLED cancel Purchase order
CLOSED completed Purchase order
DELIVERED finish products are received by the customer

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TRANSIT finish products still on the delivery truck
Add Purchase Order
1. Click the Vendor List button
2. Select vendor from the vendor popup window
3. Fill in the Purchase Order Date field using the date ticker with desired
Purchase Order date
4. Fill in the Delivery Date field using the date ticker with desired Delivery date
5. Fill in the Discount field with the desired discount amount
6. Fill in the Total field with the desired Total amount
7. Select the status from the status dropdown
8. Click the Add Purchase Order button
9. When successful record is ready for update mode
10. Click the Purchase Order Items button to add items
11.
12.
13.
14.

On the Purchase Order Item list screen click the Raw List button
Select the desired raw material from the raw material list popup window
Fill in the Quantity field with the desired quantity of the raw material
Fill in the Unit Purchased Price field with the desired quantity of the raw
material

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Click Add Item button


Create as many purchase order items as desired.
To update the purchase order items select the Update Item
Click the Clear button to clear all fields
Click Back to Purchase link to go back to the Purchase Order screen

Note: The update Purchase Order button and delete Purchase Order button will be
disabled when in the add mode. Once the Purchase Order is successfully added it
will be included in the item list.
Update Purchase Order
1. On the item list, select the desired Purchase Order that needs to be
modified
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Edit input fields
4. Click on the Update Purchase Order button
5. When successful record is ready for update mode
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

To update the product items click the Purchase Order Items button
Select the products from the item list
Update the fields
Click the Update Item button
To delete Purchase Order Items, select the products from the item list
Click the Delete Item button

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12. Click Back to Purchase Order link to go back to the Purchase Order screen
Note: The Add Item button will be disabled when in the update mode. Once the
clear button is clicked the Add Item button will be enabled.
Delete Purchase Order
1. On the item list, select the desired Purchase Order that needs to be deleted
2. The system will populate the input fields with the record select from the item
list
3. Click on the Delete Purchase Order button
4. When successful record is ready for add mode
Note: The update Purchase Order button and delete Purchase Order button will be
disabled when in the add mode.

Reports Product & Raw Material

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Reports Sales Invoices, Product Delivered, Products in Transit

Reports Consigned Products, Totals for Products & Raw Material


Inventory

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Reports Product costing and returns

Reports Sales Invoice summary

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Appendix 3 Curriculum Vitae


Avery Wilbert A. Palay
Address: PARC Condominium, 15th Ave, Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines
Home Phone No.: +632- 911-2891
Mobile No.: +63-923-258-4760
E-mail: averypalay@gmail.com
Summary
With more than 6 yrs & 8 months in the software development, involvement in 22
Java web development projects, candidate for Masters of Science in Information
Technology, Brainbench Certified Java (1.4, 2 & 6) professional and strong
experience in Java/J2EE technologies
Working Experience
Junior Architect-Consultant
August 2011 to March 2012
P3opl4u Inc.
Lead Web Developer
September 2009 to August 2011
Financial Times Philippines
The Financial Times, one of the worlds top sources of business news and
information.
Roles:

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Assigned in London, UK from October November 2009

Lead delivery-focused agile team and provide technical mentoring.


Technologies used are Java 6, Eclipse, Hibernate 3, JQuery, Spring MVC 2,
Tomcat, Apache Web Server, MySQL, AHP Automated Deployment,
Jetnexus Web Accelerator, Quartz scheduler, Velocity, BMC Patrol
Monitoring, Sonar, JSON, Selenium, TestNG, Test Driven Environment and
Agile Methodology, JMeter for performance testing.

Software Engineer II
GXS Philippines Incorporated
March 2008 to September 2009
GXS is a US based company and a leading worldwide provider of business-tobusiness EDI and supply chain integration, synchronization and collaboration
solutions. The company operates a highly reliable, secure global network services
platform enabling more than 40,000 businesses, including 75 percent of the Fortune
500.
Client: General Motors Corporation

1 Year & 2 Months

Global Electronic Fund Transfer Payment and Remittance Advice


(GEPARA) System provide common web based application for the review
and approval of global payment service by Companys Treasurers Office.
Once approved, the payments instructions are encrypted and authenticated
are then transferred to the banks. Upon acknowledgement remittance
details is distributed to suppliers, customers and affiliated entities.
Technologies used are Java J2EE, Eclipse, Oracle 8, EJB, JSP, AJAX,
MVC Framework, Weblogic BEA, HP QuickTest Professional version 9.5.

Software Engineer III


October 2004 to March 2008
Pointwest Technologies Corporation, Makati City, Philippines
Pointwest Technologies Corporation is a global service company offering
outsourced IT engagements from the Philippines.
Client: Northwest Airlines
January 2008 March 2008
Developer for Rearchitectured Airport of Preference System.
R-AOP, is an airport system used by agents to handle passengers in the
airport. Agents used AOP to check-in passengers and their luggage, board
passengers to the aircraft, rebook passengers to other flights and many
other tasks. AOP handles both domestic and international flights.
Technologies used are Java J2EE, RAD 6.0, Ibatis, Struts, EJB, Sybase,
DB2.

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111

Technical Support Representative


ClientLogic Philippines, Inc
June 2004 October 2004

Provide phone technical support for North American clients.


Tasks includes troubleshooting of Sony VAIO Laptop, Desktop, Sony
softwares, Sony consumer electronics, utilization of KANA- an intranet
knowledge based resource, documentation of all customer transactions,
referrals and escalations.

HR Training Assistant
Asia Brewery Incorporated
February 2003 to July 2004

Tasks include assistance and facilitation in the Basic Sales and Field
Contact Training programs for managers, supervisors & salesmen
nationwide. Involved in the development of company sales presenter,
training manuals and visual presentations.

Educational Attainment
Masters of Science in Information Technology
Polytechnic University of the Philippines

June 2010 to March 2012

Bachelor of Science in Commerce Major in Computer Applications and Information


Science
San Beda College, Manila, Philippines
June 1998 to March 2002
Consecutive Deans Lister for school year 2000 to 2001
Top 10 Outstanding Bedan Computer Applications & Information Science Junior
Student Award SY 2000-2001

Appendix 5 Calendar of Activities


Activities

Oct
1-2

Title Defense
Preparation of Chap 1& 3
Submission of Chap 1 & 3
Proposal Presentation
Revision of Chap 1 & 3
Software development
Software implementation
Statistical evaluation

3-4

Nov
1-2

3-4

Dec
1-2

3-4

Jan
1-2

3-4

Feb
1-2

3-4

Mar
1-2

3-4

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


Submission Chapter 4 & 5
Pre-Oral Defense
Revision of chapters
Submission of manuscript
Oral Defense
Final Revision
Submission of final manuscript

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