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8/24/00

Engine Design and


Operating Parameters
Part 2

Module Objectives
Define and use in a
sentence the different rated
conditions
Calculate engine volume,
piston speed, and cylinder
surface area as a function
of crank angle
Draw a cylinder schematic
and identify the bore,
stroke, crank radius, TDC,
BDC, and crank angle

Calculate engine torque and


hp from dynamometer
tests
Define indicated, brake,
and friction quantities
Define net and gross
quantities
Calculate sfc, AF, vol. eff.
and engine efficiency
Correct performance data
for atmospheric conditions
2

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Definitions
Maximum Rated Power: the highest power an
engine is allowed to develop for short operational
periods
Normal Rated Power: highest continuous power is
engine is allowed to make
Rated Speed: crankshaft rpm at which rated
power is developed

Cylinder Geometry

rc =

TDC

Vt

Vc
B
L

Vd

Maximum Cylinder Volume Vd + Vc


=
Vc
Minimum Cylinder Volume

B 2
Vd =
L
4
0.8 12
. Small
0.5 Large, low rpm
3 4 Small
R = l /a 1
5 9 Large, low rpm
L = 2a
RBS = B / L

BDC

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Volume at any Crank Angle

bg

bg

V = Vc + V '
l 2 a 2 sin 2

OP
LM
MMb g PP
Q
N

B 2
V' =
l+a s
3
4 1424

bg

puts piston
at TDC

Note:
a cos

s BDC = l a V' BDC =

B 2
l+a la
144244
3
4

b g b g
2 a = L =Vd
5

Volume at any Crank Angle


(Cont.)

LM
OP
MMb g PP
N
Q

B 2
V = Vc + V ' , V ' =
l+a s
3
4 1424

bg

bg

bg

puts piston
at TDC

l 2 a 2 sin 2

bg
B
V b g = V +
bl + ag a cos l a sin
4
B
V b g = V +
l + ab1 cos g l a sin
4
s = a cos + l 2 a 2 sin 2
2

a sin
a cos

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

More Volume at any Crank


Angle

B 2
V = Vc +
l + a 1 cos l 2 a 2 sin 2
4
V
B 2 a l
2
= 1+
+ 1 cos l / a sin 2
Vc
4Vc a
Remember: R l / a

bg
bg

b
LM b
N

bg

g
g b g

OP
Q

V
B 2 a
= 1+
R + 1 cos R 2 sin 2
Vc
4Vc

Still More Volume vs. Crank


Angle

bg

V
B 2 a
= 1+
R + 1 cos R 2 sin 2
Vc
4Vc

b g

2
1
1 Vd
B 2 a B 2 2 a B 2a
=

=

=
4Vc
4
2 Vc
4
2Vc 2 Vc

B a 1 Vd
=
4Vc
2 Vc
2

LM
OP
FV V I 1 1 V +V V P
+G J = M
V
V
H V V K 2 2 M12
4 4
3 0P
MN
PQ
c

= rc

=1

B 2 a 1
= rc 1
4Vc
2
8

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Finally: Volume vs. Crank Angle

b g = 1 + 1 r 1 R + b1 cos g

V
Vc

R 2 sin 2

Where:
R=l/a
V + Vc
rc = d
Vc

Example: V() vs.


B = 14 in L = 14 in rc = 9 R = 6

b g
b g

14 in
B 2
Vd =
L=
14 in = 2,155 in 3
4
4
Vc rc = Vd + Vc Vc rc 1 = Vd
Vc =

Vd
2,155 in 3
=
= 269.4 in 3
rc 1
9 1

b g RST 21 r 1 R + b1 cos g R sin UVW


U
R 1
V b g = V S1 + 9 1 6 + b1 cos g 36 sin V
T 2
W
V = Vc 1 +

10

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Graph of V vs.
1500

Intak
e

V (in3)

900

600

300

ust
Exha

ion
press
Com

1200

Expa
nsion

Bottom Dead Center

Top Dead Center


-400

-300

-200

-100

-0

100

200

300

400

11

Cylinder Surface Area (Heat


Transfer)

bg

bg

A = Ach + A p + B l + a s

B 2
A p = Piston crown surface area =
4
Ach = Cylinder head surface area

bg

s = a cos + l 2 a 2 sin 2
Therefore:

bg

LM
N

A = A p + Ach + Ba l / a + 1 cos +

bl / ag

sin 2

OP
Q

12

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Surface Area (Cont.)

bg
Ab g = A

LM
N

A = A p + Ach + Ba l / a + 1 cos +
+ Ach +

bl / a g

OP
Q

sin 2

BL
R + 1 cos + R 2 sin 2
2 144444244444
3

L
2a

Same variation as the cylinder volume

13

Converting RPM to rad/sec ()

d 2 rad rev
min
=

dt 123
rev
min
sec
1
4
4260
44
3

Conversion

Therefore:

LM rad OP = N ML rev OP 2 rad min


N sec Q N min Q rev 60 sec
14

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Piston Speed
ds ds d
=

dt d dt
d 2 rad rev
=

dt degree min
Therefore:
ds
Sp =
N 2
d
Sp =

Need to differentiate
15

Piston Speed (Cont.)


ds
ds
d
N 2 ,
=
a cos + l 2 a 2 sin 2
d
d d
d sin 2
Note:
= 2 sin cos
d
Sp =

a 2 sin cos
ds
= a sin +
= a sin
d
l 2 a 2 sin 2
S p = LN sin

MNL

cos
R 2 sin 2

OP
Q

LM
N

cos
R 2 sin 2

OP
Q

16

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Piston Speed vs
L=14 in, R=6, N=330 RPM
1500

Piston Speed (ft/min)

1200
900
600
300
0
-300
-600
-900
-1200
-1500
-360

-270

-180

-90

90

180

270

360

17

Piston Speed vs. R


L=14 in, N=330 RPM
1500

Piston Speed (ft/min)

R=4
R=6

R=2

1200
900
600
300
0
-300
-600
-900
-1200
-1500

90

180

270

360

18

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

8/24/00

Mean Piston Speed


Better than using rotational speed (RPM)
Gas flow velocities in the intake manifold and
cylinder all scale with mean piston speed
Should be between 1,500 and 3,000 ft/min
Lower end is typical of large industrial engines
High end is typical of automotive engines

19

Calculating the Mean Piston


Speed
Sp =

360

180

bg

S p d =

360

180

2N

ds
d
d

b g b g
sb360g = a cosb360g + R sin b360g = a b1 + R g
sb180g = a cosb180g + R sin b180g = a b R 1g
Sp = 2N

360

ds
d = 2 N s 360 s 180
180 d

S p = 2 Na 1 + R R + 1

L
= 2 NL
2a
20

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

10

8/24/00

Example: Mean Piston Speed


An engine has a stroke of 12 in. What should be the maximum
engine speed?

2 12 in
14rev
24
3

S p = 2 NL =

ft
=
12 in

Distance piston travels


in one revolution

3,000 ft
min4
12
4
3

Max design piston speed

3,000 ft rev

min
2 ft
1,500 rev
=
min

N=

21

Torque and Horsepower

Horsepower is the rate of


doing work. Torque is the work.

Dynamometer:
Driven by Engine
Brake quantities
Stator

T = F b

Rotor

P = 2 N T

Force, F

b
Load
Cell

2N
b g 1000
b rev / sgT b N - m g
N b rpm gT b ft - lbf g
P b hp g =
5252

P kW =

22

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

11

8/24/00

Example Calculation
Vd=2.8 liters, B=89 mm, L=76 mm, rc=8.5
Peak Power@4,800 RPM=86 kW
Calculate the mean piston speed, the torque, and the specific power
4800 rev 76 mm 729.6 m 12.16 m

=
=
min
rev
min
sec
P
4
14,805 kW
Specific Power =
= 86 kW
=
2
Ap
m2
86 mm
S p = 2 NL = 2

T = 86 kW

N - m 60 sec I

gFGH 4800minrev IJK FGH 2revrad IJK FGH 1000


J = 171 N - m
kW - sec
min K
23

Mean Effective Pressure


The constant pressure that would have to exist to do the same
work over Vd as is done by the actual cycle.

A better measure of engine work than torque


Depends more on engine design than engine size
At maximum torque:
Naturally aspirated: 125 to 150 psi (850 to 1050 kPa)
Turbocharged: 180 to 250 psi (1250 to 1700 kPa)

These are about 10% lower at maximum power


24

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

12

8/24/00

Mean Effective Pressure

The cycle

cycle = 2nR , nR =
W=

P
P
cycle
d =
2N
2N
is different for a 4 - and 2 - stroke cycle.

W = Pt , d = 2Nt W =

RS2
T1

4 - stroke
2 - stroke

PnR
N

Relationship between
W and P(ower)
25

Mean Effective Pressure (Cont.)

p=mep

PnR
= pdV = mep Vd
N
Pn R
mep =
NVd

W=

26

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

13

8/24/00

Example Calculation -- mep


Vd=2.8 liters, B=89 mm, L=76 mm, rc=8.5
Peak Power@4,800 RPM=86 kW
Calculate the mean effective pressure in psi and kPa

mep =

FG
H

FG
H

IJ
K

PnR
86000 J
1
rev
=
2
NVd
s
2.8 liters cycle

IJ FG min IJ FG 60 sIJ
K H 4,800 rev K H min K

IJ FG kPa - m IJ = 767.9 kPa


K H 1000 N K
F 14.7 psi IJ = 1114. psi
mep = 767.9 kPa G
H 101.3 kPa K
FG
H

767.9 N - m
liter

mep =
liter
103 m3

27

Indicated Work per Cycle


Based on the p-V trace of the in-cylinder gases
Represents the work done on / by the gases
Does not represent the work done by the engine!
Pmax

Combustion

VBDC

Expansion

Pamb

Comp.
IVO Exhaust
EVC

VTDC

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

EVO
IVC

Intake
28

14

8/24/00

Indicated Work

Pmax

Combustion

VBDC

Wc ,i =

pdV

Wexpan Wcomp = Area A


Wexhaust Wintake = Area B
Wc ,ig = Area A

Expansion

Pamb

Comp. A
Exhaust
Intake

VTDC

Wc ,in = Area A Area B


Pi =

Wc ,i N
nR
29

Net and Gross Indicated Work

Gross indicated work

work delivered to the piston


over the compression and
expansion strokes only
(Area A only)

Net Indicated Work

work delivered to the piston


over the entire four-stroke
cycle (Area A - Area B)

30

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

15

8/24/00

Pumping Work--Emptying the


Cylinder

Wp =

pexh dV +

exhaust

pint dV

intake

g b
g = RST((+))

Wp = pexh VTDC VBDC + pint VBDC VTDC

Wp = Vd pint pexh

naturally aspirated
turbocharged

Exhaust
Pamb
Intake
VTDC

Naturally aspirated case

B
VBDC

31

Specific Fuel Consumption

sfc =

m& f
P

b g
b g
m& f bg / hg
sfcbg / kW - hr g =
= 608.3 sfcblbm / hp - hg
PbkWg
m& f blbm / hg
sfcblbm / hp - hg =
= 1644 sfcbg / kW - hr g
Pbhpg
b

sfc mg / J =

m& f g / s
P kW

Typical Values:
0.47 lbm/hp-h
0.32 lbm/hp-h

32

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

16

8/24/00

Indicated, Brake, and Friction


Applies to hp, torque, mep, and sfc
Brake
Delivered by the engine shaft
Measured with a dynamometer

Friction
Difference between Brake and Indicated
Due to engine losses (bearings, auxiliary systems, etc.)

Indicated
Delivered by the gas
Need to know the p-V trace in the cylinder

33

Mechanical Efficiency

Measures the mechanical ability of the engine to transfer


the work transferred from the gas to the output shaft.

Pig = Pb + Pf
m =

Pig Pf
Pf
Pb
=
= 1
Pig
Pig
Pig

Typical Values:
90% at 1,800 to 2,400 rpm
~75% at maximum rated speed
Reduces with engine throttling to zero at idle
34

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

17

8/24/00

Fuel Conversion Efficiency


Dimensionless
Wc
P
Relates power output to rate f = m Q = m& Q
f HV
f HV
of energy input
1
Fuel Conversion Effic.
f =
sfc QHV
Need to know the fuel
2545
heating value
=
QHV,Nat. Gas1,000 Btu/ft3
QGASOLINE 18,000 Btu/lbm

f =

sfc lbm / hp - h QHV Btu / lbm


3600
sfc g / kW - h QHV MJ / kg

35

Thermodynamic Efficiency
W
Wc
P
Similar to the f
t = c =
=
Qin m f QHV c m& f QHV c
Considers only the
fuel burned
f
t =
c
Can relate brake and
indicated thermal
Pb
t ,b =
efficiencies to
t ,b
m& f QHV c
m =
mechanical efficiency
Pi
t ,i
t ,i =

m& f QHV c

U|
|V
||
W

36

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

18

8/24/00

Air-to-Fuel Ratios
m& a
Air mass flow rate
=
Fuel mass flow rate
m& f

AF =

FA =

m& f

m& a

Fuel mass flow rate


Air mass flow rate

Typical Values:
12 AF 18 or 0.056 FA 0.083 (SI Engines)
18 AF 70 or 0.014 FA 0.056 (CI Engines)
37

Volumetric Efficiency
Measure of losses in the intake system

Air filter
Throttle plate
Ports
Valves
Ducts

v =

2 m& a
mass inducted
=
mass at inlet T and P a ,iVd N

v =

ma
, ma Air mass in cylinder
a ,iVd

Actually a mass ratio!


Can be greater than 100% for turbocharged engines. Normally
between 80% and 90% for NA engines
Only meaningful for a 4-stroke cycle (not used to describe 2stroke cycles)
38

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

19

8/24/00

Power and Vol. Eff. Correction


Factors
At a given engine speed, the air temperature,
pressure and relative humidity affect the engine
power and volumetric efficiency
Correction factors correct measured values to
standard atmospheric conditions
Correction factors are based on the compressible
flow equation.

39

Corrections--Compressible Flow
Eqn.

m& =

AE p0
RT0

R| 2 LF p I
S| 1 MMGH p JK
T N

p
p0
T0

AE

2 /

b
F
pI
G J
Hp K

1 + /

OPU|
PQV|W

0 .5

Pressure at restriction throat


Total pressure upstream of restriction
Total temperature upstream of restriction
Ratio of specific heats
Effective throat area

40

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

20

8/24/00

Correction Factors

m& =

AE p0
RT0

R| 2 LF p I
S| 1 MMGH p JK
T N
0

2 /

b
F
pI
G J
Hp K

1 + /

OPU|
PQV|W

0 .5

For a given engine, the pressure ratio is assumed constant


at wide open throttle:
m& a

RS p / p is constant
TGeometry is the same for a given engine

p0

T0

41

Correction Factors
If the proper amount of fuel is added to the air so that
complete combustion results, then:

Pi m& a

p0
T0

and:
Pi , s = C F Pi ,m
where:
Pi ,s Power at the standard atmosphere
Pi ,m Power at the measured conditions
42

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

21

8/24/00

Correction Factors
Pi m& a

p0

and Pi , s = C F Pi ,m

T0

p0 ,s
Ts

= CF

p0 , m
Tm

p0,s p s ,d = Standard dry - air absolute pressure


p 0 ,m = p m p v ,m
where:
pm
p v ,m
Tm
Ts

Measured ambient air absolute


Measured ambient water vapor pressure
Measured ambient air temperature
Standard ambient air temperature
43

Correction Factor
p0 ,s
Ts

= CF

p 0 ,m
Tm

CF =

p s ,d
pm pv ,m

Tm
Ts

where:
pm
p v ,m
p s ,d
Ts
Tm

Measured ambient air absolute


Measured ambient water vapor pressure
Standard dry - air ambient air pressure
Standard ambient air temperature
Measured ambient air temperature
44

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

22

8/24/00

Power Correction

Pb ,s = C F Pi ,m Pf ,m
Friction power is unaffected by ambient conditions

45

Volumetric Efficiency
Correction

V
C' F =

m& a
p T

T
a
T p
v ,s
v ,m

Ts
Tm

46

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

23

8/24/00

Parameter Relationships
P
P = f m& f QHV
m& f QHV

f =

n R m& a
ma
Nma
=
m& a =
a ,iVd N a ,iVd
nR

V =
FA =
P=

m& f

m& a

b g

Nma FA
nR

m& f = m& a FA

b g

f QHV ma N FA
nR

47

Torque, Power, & Other


Parameters
V =
P=

ma
ma = V a ,iVd
a ,iVd

b gP=

f QHV ma N FA
nR

b g

b g

Vd QHV N FA

a ,i

f V a ,iVd Q HV FA
P
=
2N
4
Pn R
mep =
= f V a ,i QHV FA
Vd N
T=

f V a ,i
P
=
Ap

b g
d A LiQ N b FAg =
p

HV

2 Ap

b g

a ,i

b g

LQHV N FA
2

f V a ,i S p Q HV FA
P
=
4
Ap

48

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

24

8/24/00

Example: Compression Ignition


Engine
A CI 4-stroke cycle engine is tested using an electric dynamometer.
The ambient conditions during the test are 60F, 14.7 psia. The load
cell on the dynamometer reads 80 lbf for the bhp and 58.2 lbf for
the fhp. Fuel (19,890 Btu/lbm) is consumed at a rate of 20.1 lb/hr
and the AF=20. The engine speed is 1,192 rpm, the bore is 4.75 in
and the stroke is 6.5 in. The conversion equation to convert the load
cell reading to hp is:
hp =

bLoad Cell - lbf g brpmg


3,000

Calculate the bhp, fhp, ihp, bsfc, bmep, torque, volumetric efficiency,
mechanical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and air consumption.
49

Horsepower & bsfc Calculations


80 1192
,
= 318
. hp
3,000
58.2 1192
,
fhp =
= 231
. hp
3,000
ihp = fhp + bhp = 318
. hp + 231
. hp
ihp = 54.9 hp
bhp =

bsfc =

m& f
bhp

FG 201. lbmIJ 1 = 0.632 lbm


H hr K 318. hp hp - hr
50

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

25

8/24/00

Torque and bmep Calculations


T=

FG
H

318
min
P
. hp
=
2N
1
1,192 rev

IJ FG rev IJ FG 550 ft - lbf IJ FG 60 sIJ


K H 2 rad K H hp - s K H min K

T = 140 ft - lbf

FG ft IJ = 0.0692 ft
H 12 in K
Pn
318
. hp F min I F 2 rev I
=
bmep =
G
JG J
V N 0.0692 ft H 1,192 rev K H cycle K
F 550 ft - lbf IJ FG 60 sIJ FG ft IJ = 177 psi
G
H hp - s K H min K H 12 in K

Vd =

4.75 in
B 2
L=
4
4

6.75 in

51

Air Consumption and


Volumetric Efficiency
AF = 20 =
v =

m& a
20.1 lbm 402 lbm
m& a = 20
=
hr
hr
m& f

2m& a
a ,i Vd N

IJ 1 144 in = 0.0764 lbm


K b460 + 60g R ft
ft
b4.75 ing
B
F ft IJ = 0.0692 ft
=
L=
6.75 inG
H 12 in K
4
4
IJ FG 1 IJ FG min IJ FG hr IJ
ft
2 rev F 402 lbm I F
=
G
J
G
cycle H hr K H 0.0764 lbm K H 0.0692 ft K H 1,192 rev K H 60 min K

a ,i =

FG
H

lbm- R
p
14.7 lbf
=
2
in
53.3 ft - lbf
RT
2

Vd
v

v =

402
= 213%
189
52

ME-620, Kirby S. Chapman, Rev. 082300

26