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ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline

Engineering

Lecture 05: Materials Selection

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.


Assistant Professor
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
Memorial University of Newfoundland
spkenny@engr.mun.ca
Course Project Update
„ Project Overview
¾ Due February 1st
• Discussions through to February 8th
¾ Project scope final on February 15th
• Latitude under special circumstances
on case-by-case basis

2 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Lecture 05 Objective
„ To provide an overview of material
selection for pipeline systems

3 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Selection – Philosophy
„ Materials Selection Function
¾ Feasibility and suitability assessment
• System compatibility
• Functional and technical requirements
„ Life-Cycle Assessment
¾ Design, procurement, fabrication, construction & operations
¾ Performance criteria and reliability targets
¾ Risk threshold (failure frequency & consequences)
¾ Cost evaluation (≈20-30% CAPEX)
„ Integrity Management
¾ Process operations
¾ Condition monitoring and inspection tools
¾ Interval frequency
¾ Maintenance, repair and intervention

4 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Selection – Project Context
„ Materials Selection Report
¾ Key materials document
¾ Design Basis
¾ Specifications
¾ Codes, standards and recommended practice
„ Management Issues
¾ Procurement
• Long lead items
¾ Contracting strategy
¾ QA/QC

5 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Technology Drivers
„ Prior to 1950’s
¾ Problem gas was flared
¾ Relatively low flow rate and pressure
requirements
¾ Small diameter pipelines

¾ Seamless linepipe production

6 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Technology Drivers (cont.)
„ 1960’s Expanded Role of Hydrocarbons
¾ Longer transmission pipelines
¾ ⇑ Throughput
• Flow rate
• Operating pressure
• Diameter
• Wall thickness
¾ Fabrication requirements
• Diameter
• Wall thickness

7 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Technology Drivers (cont.)
„ Present Day
¾ Demanding operational requirements
• HPHT (operating and shut-in conditions)
• Corrosive fluids
• Produced water (historically well shut-in)
¾ Linepipe fabrication
• Advanced techniques
• Material chemistry
• Thermo-mechanical processes

8 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Materials Selection Considerations
„ System Compatibility
„ Operational Parameters
„ Environmental Conditions
„ Corrosion Resistance
„ Linepipe Fabrication
„ Constructability

9 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
System Compatibility
„ Interface and Scope Break
¾ Process equipment
¾ Riser and landfall tie-in
„ Linepipe
¾ Material constituents
¾ Welding procedures
¾ Corrosion control systems
¾ Coatings
„ Components
¾ Bends, fittings, wye’s, tees
¾ Expansion loops
¾ Flanges, valves
¾ Anchor flanges, supports
¾ Pig traps
¾ Insulating joints

10 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Operational Parameters
„ Fluid Composition
¾ Product
constituents
¾ Time variation
„ Temperature
¾ Steady state
• Weld over- &
under-match
¾ Depressurization
• Low temperature
fracture
control
Ref: DNV (2007)

11 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Environmental Conditions
„ Ambient
Temperature
¾ Installation
¾ Riser tie-in

„ Soil Conditions

Ref: Lanan et al. (2001)

12 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Corrosion Resistance
„ Internal Corrosion – Factors
¾ Fluid Composition
• Sweet (CO2)
• Sour (H2S)
• Water (H2O, O2 and Cl)
• Bacteria

13 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
„ Internal Corrosion – Mechanisms
¾ Wall thickness reduction
• Uniform
• Pits
• Grooves
¾ Stress corrosion cracking
• Pressure and loads
„ Internal Corrosion – Significance
¾ Leak
¾ Rupture

14 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
„ Internal Corrosion – Mitigation Strategies
¾ Process operations
¾ Materials selection

¾ Corrosion allowance

¾ Internal coatings

¾ Chemical treatment and inhibition

15 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
„ External Corrosion
¾ Coatings
¾ Field Joints

¾ Cathodic Protection System

¾ Splash Zone

¾ Shore Approach
• Impressed current
• Telluric currents

16 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Linepipe Fabrication – Material Options
„ Conventional
¾ Carbon-Manganese (C-Mn)
„ Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
¾ Stainless
„ Clad or lined pipe
¾ C-Mn and CRA
¾ Clad ⇒ metallurgical bond
¾ Lined ⇒ mechanical bond
„ Composite
¾ Multiple components
¾ Carbon graphite

17 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Linepipe Fabrication – Process Options

„ Forming
¾ Rigid
• Seamless, UOE, Spiral
¾ Flexible
• Pultrusion, Winding
„ Configurations
¾ Single wall
¾ Pipe-in-pipe

¾ Open or closed bundles

18 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Linepipe Fabrication – Specification
„ Dimensions
¾ Variation, Fit-up, Structural integrity
„ Strength
¾ Elastic modulus, Yield strength, Variation
„ Ductility
¾ Ultimate to yield strength ratio, Elongation
„ Index Parameters
¾ Hardness, Fracture toughness
„ Constructability
¾ Coatings, Welding, Installation demand

19 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Joining Techniques
„ Flanged
„ Welded

Ref: Melesi (2005) Ref: McDermott (2005)

20 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
Reading List
1. Section 6 – DNV (2007). Submarine
Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard,
DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p.

21 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05
References
„ DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems.
Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October
2007, 240p.
„ Lanan, G., Ennis, J.O., Egger, P.S. and Yockey,
K.E. (2001). Northstar Offshore Arctic Pipeline
Design and Construction. Proc. OTC, OTC
13133, 8p.
„ McDermott (2005).
http://www.jraymcdermott.com
„ Melesi (2005). http://www.melesi.it

22 © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05