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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

100th Indian Science Congress


January 3-7, 2013, Kolkata

IV
ABSTRACTS OF ORAL/POSTER
PRESENTATIONS

57

PROCEEDINGS OF THE

CENTENARY SESSION OF THE

Indian Science Congress


January 3-7, 2013
Kolkata
Part IV
Abstracts of Oral and Poster Presentation

SECTION OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY SCIENCES


President : Prabir Kumar Ghosh
Subject Category
A. Plant Breeding and Genetics, Plant Genetic Resources
B . Seed Science and Technology
C. Plant Biotechnology, Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry
D. Economic and Systematic botany
E. Plant Protection (Agricultural Entomology, Plant Pathology
and Nematology)
F. Agronomy, Soil and Water Conservation, Agricultural
Meteorology and GIS
G. Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Soil Biology and
Microbiology, Agricultural Chemicals
H. Agricultural Engineering, Farm Machinery and PHT
I. Environmental Sciences and Agroforestry
J. Horticultural Sciences
K. Social Sciences (Agrl. Extension, Agrl. Economics,
Statistics) A. Plant Breeding and Genetics,
Plant Genetic Resources

Page No.
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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

ORAL PRESENTATION
Soil Carbon Sequestration in Dry Ecosystems of India: Opportunities and
Challenges Ahead
Ch. Srinivasa Rao
Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, 500 059,
Andhra Pradesh, India
Email: cherukumalli2011@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Rapid soil organic carbon depletion is a major concern in rain fed ecosystems in
India as it is directly influences soil quality and crop productivity and sustainability.
Water stress associated with intermittent droughts, high evapotranspiration, high soil
erosion, poor soil fertility and thus biomass productivity are other features in the rain fed
regions of India. Productivity levels of rain fed crops are far below compared to
irrigated areas. Thus, increasing productivity of rain fed crops is an urgent task to meet
the food demand of ever increasing population because 57% of the total arable land
area of 141 M ha is under rain fed farming. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize,
upland rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc are predominant crop
production system in rain fed regions. There is a little recycling of organic matter in
most of these crop production systems besides crop residue burning is rampant.
Generally, with the use of organics either alone or in combination with chemical
nutrients, MBC and POC improved irrespective of the cropping systems. Long-term
cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers caused
depletion of the SOC stock. The highest rate of depletion was observed in groundnutfinger millet system of 0.92 Mg C/ha/y in semiarid Alfisols followed by 0.67 Mg C/ha/
y in pearl millet based system in Entisols. Root zone SOC stock has direct influence the
crop yields of different rain fed crops. The critical level of C input requirements for
maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranged from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C ha-1y-1 and
differed among soil type and production system. The critical level of C input was higher
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

in soybean system and lower in winter sorghum system, and increased with increase in
mean annual temperature from humid to semi-arid to arid ecosystems. Horticulture and
agro forestry systems have also a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10
Mg/ha/y in short rotation Eucalyptus, Leucaena plantations. Large scale adoption of
interventions like site specific and integrated nutrient management, residue recycling,
conservation agriculture (CA) practices, soil application of biochar, tank silts, compost,
vermicompost, green manuring, green leaf manuring with gliricidia or leucaena, cover
cropping with short duration legumes are some of the strategies needed wider adoption
at farm level for effective C sequestration. Some suggested CA (and INM) practices
can accrue C credits equivalent to certified emission reduction (CER) and generate
income for farmers ranging from US$ 2.84 to 11.14 /ha. National level policy
interventions like campaign against residue burning, strengthening soil testing laboratories,
stopping shifting cultivation, deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems, clean
development mechanisms for generating more CER, payment for ecosystem services
need an urgent attention to improve soil health through better C sequestration and
increase the overall agronomic productivity of rainfed regions.

Developing Pulses for Extreme Weather Conditions


P. S. Basu*, Jagdish Singh and Sanjeev Gupta
Indian Institute of Pulses Research (ICAR), Kanpur208 024
*Corresponding Author
Email: psbasu@icar.org.in
Keywords : Extreme weather, Pulse production

ABSTRACT
Pulses are rated as most hardy and climate resilient group of species among all
major agriculturally important crops. This high tolerance is mainly driven by their unique
cellular properties of larger cell elasticity, high bulk modulus, high osmotic adjustment
and more water retention capacity. The present climatic change projections indicated
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consistent warming of India as well as erratic weather pattern particularly temperature


extremities affecting he crops adversely across the country. Considering the all climate
factors, the crisis of water is most important and almost inevitable by the end of this
century. Therefore, only those crops are likely to survive which are having inherent
drought tolerance mechanisms. With a genetic background of drought tolerance other
abiotic stresses become secondary or minimized to large extent. The adaptive mechanisms
of few pulses like chickpea, pigeonpea, greengram and blackgram are evaluated for
both thermotolerance and drought using photosynthetic ability at membrane level,
carboxylation reactions, photophosphorylation and anti-oxidant activities in addition to
carbohydrate metabolism of developing grains. It was observed that calcium induced
modification of membrane transport, and supplementary nitrogen enhanced both drought
and heat tolerance in pulses. Comparative studies also indicated that chickpea and
pigeonpea are more tolerant to heat being their inherent drought tolerance at cellular
level as compared to vigna group greengram and blackgram as they are lacking drought
tolerance. The study suggested that breeding heat tolerance is not adequate strategy to
develop climate resilient pulses but they should have strong inherent drought tolerance
base.

Alternate Extension Model through Post Offices for Dissemination of


Agricultural Technologies
R. Roy Burman1*, S. K. Dubey2, J. P. Sharma3, K. Vijayaragavan4, V. Sangeetha5, Ishwari
Singh6 and H. S. Gupta7
1,3,5,6,7Director, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi, 2CATAT, 4Joint Director (Extension).
*Corresponding Author
Email: burman_extn@hotmail.com
Keywords: Alternate extension model, Technology dissemination, Post Office linkages

ABSTRACT
Despite a wide range of reform initiatives in agricultural extension in India in
the past decades, the coverage and quality of technology information provided to
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

marginalized and poor farmers is inadequate. Government extension programs,


extension services of the national agricultural research system, cooperatives, and
nongovernmental extension programs have a very limited outreach. An alternate
extension approach has been envisaged involving the postal department staff to reach
the unreached. An Action research on establishing linkages with post office in
dissemination of agricultural technology was conducted covering 1014 farmers of 30
villages under seven post offices in two Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh. Capacity building of
farmers and post office personnel was done to enhance their level of agricultural
knowledge. It was observed that more than 90% of the farmers received the seed
of above crops sent through post office within 4 6 days of despatch. Farmers
as well as village post office personnel found this approach very effective for making
the improved agricultural technologies available in relatively lesser time and cost. The
economic viability of this approach was found superior for low volume-high value
crops than high volume crops.

Carbon Sequestration Potential under Different Land Use System in


Semiarid and Sub-Tropical Soils of India
M. C. Manna*, A. Mandal, A. Sahu and Jyoti Thakur
Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh,
Berasia Road, Bhopal 462 038 (M. P.) India.
*Corresponding Author
Email: mcm@iiss.ernet.in
Keywords : Carbon sequestration, Land use, Cropping system, Semiarid, Subtropical

ABSTRACT
Climate change is among the major global concern of the 21st century. The impact
of continuous crops cultivation with land use management practices on soil C-sequestration
rate, efficiency and grain yield increment in different soils of India were assessed. The
results indicate that imbalanced fertilization did not encourage C-sequestration in Inceptisol
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and Alfisol. However, treatment effect was prominently observed for C-sequestration
efficiency and rate in Vertisol under sorghum-wheat system. Maximum C sequestration
in Vertisol was observed in cotton/ green gram + pigeon pea cropping system (885 kg
ha-1y-1) compared to horticulture crop (citrus, 745 kg ha-1y-1). In Alfisol, soil Csequestration was found maximum in intercropping system (castor + pigeonpea, 936 kg
ha-1y-1) than monocropping finger millet (130 kg ha-1y-1). Addition of 613 kg ha-1y-1 C input
was required to maintain SOC storage equilibrium in sorghum-wheat system in Vertisol
whereas in rice-wheat-jute system it amounts to 5562 kgha-1 y-1 in Inceptisol and 4269 kg
ha-1y-1 for soybean-wheat system in Alfisol. The results suggest that under intensive
cropping system a set of management practices supports better crop productivity and Csequestration.

New Niches of Forage Intensification in Eastern India : A Rational


Sunil Kumar1, P. K. Ghosh2, B. K. Sahoo3 and C. K. Kundu4
Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 003 (UP),
3Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar (Orissa),
4Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani (West Bengal).
*Corresponding Author
Email: sktiwari98@gmail.com

1,2Indian

Keywords : Eastern region, Perennial forages, Problem soil, Non-competitive


land use, Rice fallow

ABSTRACT
In eastern region, there is hardly any scope for increase in the area under forages.
Owing to population pressure the land use practices are oriented towards food and
commercial crops. Cattle depend on grazing and fodder trees and majority of them
sustain on poor quality rice straw. Therefore now attempts are being made to utilize the
non-conventional areas as new niches of forage production. Nearly 5-7% of the total
rice acreage is occupied by field bunds, which make these as an alternative land for
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

accommodating forage species. Sesbania sesban, coppiced Leucaena, rice bean,


Patsan, fodder sun hemp and Setaria hold promise for growing on field bunds to
provide supplementary protein rich animal feed without significant reduction in rice
yield. In north eastern region, NB hybrid and setaria is being taken in rice field bunds
and around bamboo grooves for dairy cum goat farmers. Farmers with marginal and
small land holdings and livestock keepers with limited forage requirement can effectively
grow forages on bunds. Selected forage species can be grown in non-competitive lands
of irrigated farms and irrigation channels of diverse climate as well as broad bunds of
rainfed farms. Potential forages for these niches are Napier - bajra hybrid (irrigated
areas); Tri-specific hybrid, guinea grass and setaria (rainfed areas). In hilly areas,
potential non-competitive land uses for forages are terrace risers or bunds, steep
uncultivable slopes, thin natural forests near villages, intensive dairy or goat farming on
gentle hill slopes and terraced lands. Some of the forages like guinea grass, signal grass
and Congo signal grass are highly suitable to be grown under partial shade of coconut
plantations. In eastern coastal belt, forages can be taken under plantation crops and
backyard fodder production. Similarly in hilly areas (low lying terraces; non competitive
lands (terrace risers/farm bunds); fast growing perennials in back yard/near to animal
shed; forage production in goat farms has enough scope. Other promising niches could
be utilization of rice fallows by growing lathyrus, cowpea and sesbania, integration of
suitable cultivated forages in the problem soils particularly acidic soils, low lying areas,
promotion of forage based agroforestry and improvement of natural grasslands by
introduction of high yielding grasses and legumes. Small ruminants and small dairy based
entrepreneurship by group of farmers and self help group farmers can transform the
fate of agrarian society of eastern region. The livestock based production system will
not only ensure the regular income but restrict migration of rural youth to cities. This
approach needs to be linked with technological backup, policy support, credit facility and
marketing for making the system viable.

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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

Biofortification in Pulses for Nutritional security and Micronutrient


Malnutrition
Jagdish Singh*, M. S. Aski and P. S. Basu
Division of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Pulses Research,
Kalyanpur, Kanpur-208 024, UP, India. Corresponding Author
Email: jagdish1959@gmail.com; jsingh4@sify.com
Keywords : Biofortification, Micronutrient malnutrition, Pulses

ABSTRACT
Pulses are important source of protein, dietary fiber, iron, folate, zinc, and calcium.
Some of the lentil lines are very high in iron concentration and have been shown to contain
55-99 ppm of available iron, compared to one ppm for polished rice, 13 ppm for milled
wheat and 30 ppm for yellow corn. The refining operations of cereal grains further
degrade the nutritional values by removing the micronutrient rich germ and aleurone layers
of the grain. Another important micronutrient, folic acid, plays an important role in foetal
development and maintenance of health. Human beings are unable to synthesize folates.
A deficiency of this vitamin can cause a range of diseases including some birth defects
(such as spina bifida) and megaloblastic anemia. Adequate folate in the diets may reduce
a womans risk of having a child with a brain or spinal cord defect. Enrichment and
fortification has been an effective way to prevent such diseases in the past. Pulses
especially dried beans, pea and lentil are good source of folates. The total folate content
in pulse grains has also been shown to be higher, chickpea (5570 g/kg), mungbean (6250
g/kg), lentil (4330 g/kg) and filedpea (2730 g/kg) as compared to polished rice (78 g/
kg), wheat (295 g/kg) and maize (212 g/kg). The role of naturally biofortified pulse crops
high in available iron and folic acid to address the micronutrient malnutrition has been
discussed.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

Participatory Water Management in Canal Commands for


Improving Productivity
K. G. Mandal*, Ashwani Kumar, S. Ghosh, R. K. Mohanty, J. Padhi,
A. R. Biswal and M. Raychaudhury
Directorate of Water Management (ICAR), Bhubaneswar -751 023, Odisha.
*Corresponding Author
Email: mandal98kg@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Canal Command, Infrastructure, Water Users Association, Water productivity

ABSTRACT
The eastern region of India has one of the most favourable eco-system for
agriculture, yet the agricultural production from this area is much lower than its potential.
It is essential to develop reliable water supply system in the canal command through
conjunctive use of rain, canal and ground water. Therefore, a project work was initiated
in Kuanria Medium Irrigation project (KIP) in Nayagarh district of Odisha to study the
technical, operational, environmental and economic feasibility of a canal system augmented
with rainwater harvesting and well systems for supplementing canal waters and crop
diversification including fish, vegetables and flower production in canal command. The
irrigation project has two number of head regulators such as right and left distributaries,
which runs for a length of about 18.2 and 16.5 km having design discharges of 2.00 and
1.98 m3 s-1 respectively. There are 10 water users association (WUA) distributed over
the entire area of the KIP; WUA 1 and 6 are situated at head end, WUA 2, 3, 7 and
8 are in the mid end and WUA 4, 5, 9 and 10 at tail end. Cultivable command area (CCA)
under different WUAs ranges from 313.25 (WUA 7) to 501.70 ha (WUA 8). Average
farm size is 3.6 acre; 76.6% of total farmers belong to medium household and remaining
small (14.1%), large (6.3%) and very large (3.1%). Soils are sandy clay, 36.1 to 39.8%
clay, bulk density 1.46 to 1.53 Mg m-3 and organic carbon 0.23 to 0.48% in the 0-120 cm
soil depths. Total annual rainfall ranges from 993.5 to 1901.8 mm. It is studied that
monsoon rainfall can be predicted well with Log Pearson Type III and post-monsoon
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rainfall by Gumbel distribution with least Chi-square value. Cropping system is


predominantly rice-based. The carrying capacities (i.e. measured discharge) have reduced
in comparison to the original design discharge. Authorized and unauthorized outlets of
minors and sub minors for right and left distributaries are 187 and 93 in numbers of KIP.
In this study area, as runoff was more than 10% of the seasonal rainfall, construction of
rain/ run off water storage tanks are made in the command area for conservation of
rainfall, runoff and seepage water. Farmers could give supplemental irrigation to crops as
life saving irrigation during dry spells. The harvested water is used as multisource water
for irrigation, domestic use, fish (rohu, catla & mrigal) rearing, and on-dyke cultivation
of various crops like arhar, papaya, banana, bhindi, brinjal etc along the banks and
thus serves as an integrated farming system. By this intervention, water productivity, crop
productivity and livelihood would enhance in the canal command area.

Identification of SNP/In-Del Variation for Candidate Genes Conferring


Drought Tolerance in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)
Monika Dalal1, Sujay Rakshit2*, M. Karthikeyan, K. N. Ganapathy3, M. Swapna4,
G. Sunita 5 and J. V. Patil6
1NRC on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012,
2,3,4,5,6 Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030.
*Corresponding Author
Email: srakshit@ rediffmail.com
Keywords : SNPs, Drought tolerance, Sorghum

ABSTRACT
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important staple food for millions
of people in the semi-arid tropics of the world including India. It is the most favoured
crop under marginal situation as compared to other cereals due to its better adaptation
to various stresses, including drought, heat, salinity and flooding. Among two adaptive
types of sorghum in India, the post-rainy sorghum suffers extensively from post69

Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

flowering drought stress as it is cultivated under receding soil moisture. In order to


have an insight to the genetic architecture towards drought tolerance and to go for
candidate gene-based association mapping, we identified ten candidate genes, reported
to condition abiotic stress tolerance in different plant species. The promoter and genic
regions of the targeted genes have been targeted to be amplified from 6 genotypes.
Amplified regions from the target regions have been sequenced using Sanger method
and subjected to multi-sequence alignment using CLUSTALW. We have identified
187 SNPs and 65 in-del mutations distributed across over 30 kb regions. Gene-specific
distribution of the mutations and their potential use in sorghum breeding programme
has been discussed.

Taxonomic Investigations on Some Species of the Genus Anagrus


(Hymenoptera : Mymaridae) : The Egg Parasitoids of
Leafhoppers (Hemiptera)
Mohd. Kamil Usmani
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India.
Email: usmanikamil94@gmail.com
Keywords : Taxonomy, Anagrus, Hymenoptera, Egg parasitoids, Leafhoppers

ABSTRACT
Taxonomic investigations were carried out on entomophagous parasitoids of
leafhopper eggs. The hosts and parasitoids were reared in cages in greenhouse at the
temperature of 220C. Five closely related species found during investigation attacking
leafhopper eggs in Juncus stems are Anagrus ensifer Debauche, A. breviphragma
Sokya, A. inearnatus Haliday, Anagrus sp. A and Anagrus sp. B. The ratio of males
to females was 1 : 1. The characterization has been done for proportion of antennal
segments, hair distribution on fore wing, length of ovipositor in relation to gaster and
pigmented areas of median carina. Each species was restricted to the eggs of one host
species. Anagrus ensifer Debauche and A. breviphragma Sokya were found to be
gregarious, the remaining species as solitarious. Egg parasitoids attacked at early
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growth stages of the pests before they able were to damage. The relatively high rate
of reproduction, and the short period of development are the main reasons for the great
efficiency of these parasites.

An Appraisal of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Under Rice-Wheat Cropping


System (RWCS) in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP)-A Case Study Highlighting
SOC Sequestration under Zero Tillage in Different Cropping Systems,
Middle IGP, India
S. K. Singh and Dipak Sarkar*
National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (ICAR),
Regional Centre, Block-DK, Sector-II, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700091,
*NBSSLUP, Amravati Road, Nagpur700091.
Corresponding Author Email: skcssri@gmail.com
Keywords : IGP, MGP, Residue management, RWCS, RMCS, SOC sequestration, Zero tillage,

ABSTRACT
Base line database is very important in assessing SOC sequestration under the
different cropping systems. Such database on SOC and its density was developed in
0-20 cm, 20-40 cm depths based on 1248 samples on 114 sampling sites under RWCS
in IGP, occurring in four transects viz. Trans (TGP Punjab and Haryana), upper
(UGP), middle (MGP) and lower (LGP) Gangetic plains and nineteen zones on 9.63
million hectare land in India. Results revealed that mean SOC (0-20 cm) was
significantly higher in LGP (0.69%) and MGP (0.66%) than TGP Haryana (0.53%),
UGP (0.49%) and TGP Punjab (0.48%). Mean SOC density was the highest in LGP
(1.72 kgm-2) and lowest (1.39 kgm-2) in TGP Punjab. SOC density (1.67 kgm-2) in 2040 cm depth was also highest in LGP and lowest in TGP Punjab. Mean SOC (0.95%)
and its density (2.0 kgm-2) were the highest in coastal plain zone in LGP, northern plain
zone in MGP and central plain zone in UGP. SOC was at par in the different zones
of TGP Punjab and Haryana. Factors like altitude, rainfall, clay content governed the
variations across the IGP. Zero tillage with residues in RWCS and on the raised beds
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

in rice-maize cropping system (RMCS) modified such variations in MGP by adding 412% organic carbon over the initial SOC. It is estimated that SOC stock of 5.3 Tg
(1Tg=1012g) in MGP is expected to be 5.9 Tg in RWCS and 6.4 Tg in RMCS with
corresponding decrease of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stock by 6.7 and 2.1 Tg,
respectively. Zero tillage with residues has the potentiality to enhance yield, improve soil
health and protect environment. RMCS with zero tillage with residues has the great
potential to act as substitute of RWCS in MGP.

Effect of Biochar and Digestate on Pesticide Degradation and Leaching


S. Mukherjee*, W. Tappe, L. Weihermller, H. Vereecken, and P. Burauel
Agrosphere Institute (IBG-3) Forschungszentrum Jlich GmbH, Jlich, Germany.
*Corresponding Author
Email: s.mukherjee@fz-juelich.de
Keywords: Char, Digestate, Pesticides, Sorption-desorption, Retardation,
Degradation and biofilter

ABSTRACT
To overcome the problem of on farm point pollution originated from cleaning pesticide
spaying equippment, easy and cheap on farm biopurification systems are under development.
To optimize such systems the combination of soil amended with biochar and/or digestate
will be tested. Therefore, a sophisticated sceening procedure based on respiration,
degradation, sorption/desorption, and leaching studies will be performed to identify the
most appropriate mixture with respect to different pesticide classes (herbicides, fungicides,
and mixtures). In this presentation, we will mainly focus on the first sceening step
performed (respiration), which will already provide information about the microbial activity
within the different soil/amendment mixtures.

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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
A. Plant Breeding and Genetics, Plant Genetic Resources
A-1 Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induced Tall Mutants in Jute
(Corchorus olitorius l. variety-JRO-632)
A. Chatterjee1 and P. K. Ghosh2
1Centre

of Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany,


University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Calcutta-700047.West Bengal.
2CSB,

CSR&TI, Berhampore-742101, Murshidabad, W. B.

Keywords: Dimethy sulfoxide, Corchorus olitorius L., Tall mutant, chromosome,


concentration 2%.

ABSTRACT
Presoaked seeds of jute (Corchorus olitorius L. Variety JRO-632) were treated
with 2% Dimethyl sulfoxide for 6 hours. Tall mutants were screened in M3 in contrast
to the normal plants. Palmate leaf mutants otherwise looked normal except in the nature
of palmate leaf habit. A number of yield component growth parameters were recorded
like plant height, basal diameter, plant spread, root length, pods per plant, seeds per pod,
pod length/breadth ratio, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary
branches per plant, leaf angle, branching angle, first flowering date, 100% flowering date,
total duration, % of pollen sterility and weight of 100 seeds which were found to vary from
the control plant. Chromosome analysis revealed a number of aberrations like stickiness,
fragmentation, clumping, polyploidy, and laggard and bridge formation etc. at very low
frequency. This tall mutant plant gives more fiber yield than the control plants with
superior quality.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

A-2 Exploitation of Hybrid Vigour in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)


A. Vishnuvardhan Reddy and K. Parimala
Seed Research and Technology Centre, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad,
*Corresponding Author Email: pari_mala123@rediffmail.com
Keywords: GCA, SCA, Heterosis, Sesame

ABSTRACT
Nature and magnitude of gene action and extent of heterosis were studied in a set
of 7 x 7 diallel mating design. The parents and 21 F1s were grown in RBD with three
replications. The parent G.Til-3 was observed as best general combiner for seed yield
per plant. The parents G.Til-3, Patan-64 and KMR-74 were found have good gca effect
for number of capsules, number of seeds and number of branches per plant. Genetic
divergence among parents played a crucial role to produce crosses with significant SCA
effects on seed yield per plant. The crosses, KMR-74 x Patan-64, KMR-24 x G.Til3, KMR-74 x KMR-77 and

G.Til-3 x G.Til-10 were exhibited high sca effect and

showed highly significant positive standard heterosis for seed yield per plant. The cross
KMR-74 x Patan-64 was also found to be good specific combiner for, number of
capsules per plant, capsule length and number of seeds per capsule. The SCA variance
was more than GCA variance indicating the role of non-additive gene action for the
inheritance of traits. Hence, it is suggested that yield can be enhanced through
exploitation.

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A-3 Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistant Chickpea Genotype through


Marker Assisted Backcross Breeding
Aditya Pratap1*, S. K. Chaturvedi2, Neha Rajan3, Chaitali Sen4,
Rakhi Tomar5 and R. K. Varshney6
Crop Improvement Division, Indian Institute of Pulses Research,
Kanpur-208 024 (U.P.);
6 Centre of Excellence in Genomics, International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, A.P.
*Corresponding Author Email: adityapratapgarg@gmail.com
1,2,3,4,5

Keywords: MAS, Chickpea, Fusarium wilt resistance

ABSTRACT
Chickpea is one of the most important food legumes grown extensively throughout the
Indian subcontinent. India alone contributes to about 67% of the global chickpea
production. However, despite the development of several high yielding varieties, the
improvement in its productivity has not increased up to the desired level. One of the major
constraints in realization of the full yield potential of chickpea is Fusarium wilt caused by
soil borne fungus F. oxysporum. Among the eight prevalent races of this pathogen, race
2 (foc 2) is responsible for severe yield losses of this crop in central part of India. Pusa
256 which is one of the most popular and high yielding variety in central India has also
become susceptible to Fusarium wilt and its cultivation has been seriously affected over
the years. Therefore, there is an urgent need to introgress gene for resistance to foc2 in
this variety. Keeping this in view, a molecular marker assisted breeding project has been
initiated to deploy linked molecular markers for development of Fusarium wilt resistant
genotype. While Pusa 256 has been taken as recurrent parent, Vijay, another established
variety has been used as a donor in this programme. These were crossed during crop
season 2009-10 to generate F1s. Out of 5 F1s, 3 were confirmed as true hybrids using
polymorphic markers (NPS1 & NPS 14), which were further used for development of
first backcross (Pusa 256 x (Pusa 256 x Vijay) and 9BC1F1 seeds were harvested in
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

March 2011. For foreground selection two molecular markers namely TA 37 and TA110
closely associated with resistance to FW race 2 (foc 2) were used to confirm
introgression of resistance locus for this race. Similarly 45 SSR identified markers were
used for background selection to confirm the recovery of genetic background of the
recurrent parent. Based upon foreground and background selection, true BC1F1 plants
were backcrossed with Pusa 256 to generate 48 BC2F1 seeds. Marker assisted breeding
and selection will be continued in BC2F1 and advanced generations as well till the
recovery of maximum background of Pusa 256 is attained alongwith the resistant locus
from Vijay genotype. This will help in faster development of Fusarium wilt resistant
chickpea (Pusa 256) cultivar.

A-4 Studies of Correlation Coefficient and Path Analysis in Okra


Amitava Paul* and Nihar Ranjan Chakraborty
Palli Siksha Bhavana (Inst. of Agriculture), Vishva-Bharati,
Sriniketan-731236, Birbhum, West Bengal,
*Corresponding Author Email: amitava.paul@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Okra, Correlation coefficient, Path analysis

ABSTRACT
Among different vegetable crops, okra, also called bhindi, ladys finger is one of the
most popular and widely grown in the world. The experimental materials, twenty diverse
genotypes of okra, were grown in a randomized block design with three replications during
kharif season of 2010. Information regarding association of characters like growth,
earliness, quality, yield and its component characters is very useful for plant breeder in
developing commercial variety or hybrid. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present
investigation to study the association of different traits, direct and indirect effects of
characters on fruit yield. In the present investigation, positive and significant correlations
with fruit yield were found for almost all the characters under study, indicating the
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importance of these characters for yield improvement. In general, genotypic correlation


coefficients were higher than the phenotypic correlation coefficients indicating an inherent
association among characters. The results of path analysis, however, indicated that fruit
length, fruit diameter and number of fruiting nodes per plant are the important characters
determining fruit yield in the population of okra under study.

A-5 Genetic Divergence Analysis in Future Bio-Diesel Plant


(Jatropha curcas Linn.)
Anitha, V1., Prasanthi, L2 and Aparna, V3*
1S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati 517 502 (A.P),
2Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tirupati 517 502 (A.P).
3IARI, New Delhi, 110012.
*Corresponding Author Email: 5003aparna@gmail.com
Keywords: Jatropha, Genotypes, Genetic diversity

ABSTRACT
Twelve high yielding genotypes of Jatropha curcas selected from 40 genotypes
collected from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Orissa were evaluated for genetic
diversity using the 20 RAPD markers. A total of 118 amplified products were generated
out of which 66 amplicons were polymorphic. The similarity index values ranged from
0.276 to 0.726 indicating the presence of high genetic diversity at molecular level among
the 12 populations. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed the clustering of 12 populations of
Jatropha curcas in 2 clusters. First cluster consisted of six populations i.e. TJC-34, TJC35, TJC-36, TJC-38, TJC-39 and TJC-40. The second cluster consisted of six populations
i.e. TJC-4, TJC-5, TJC-6, TJC-7, TJC-52 and TJC-23. The populations of Jatropha
curcas showed high genetic diversity as evident by the wide range of the similarity
coefficients.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

A-6 Genetic Diversity and Heterosis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)


Arna Das1, Sarita K. Pandey2 and Tapash Dasgupta3*
1NIRJ&AF (ICAR), Kolkata, India,
2,3Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta,
51/2 Hazra Road, Kolkata, India-700019,
*Corresponding Author Email: tapashdg@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Sesame, Heterosis, Genetic Divergence, SSR

ABSTRACT
Parental diversity is generally considered essential to exploit heterosis through
hybridization. Aim of this research was to find correlation if any between mid and better
parent heterosis MPH (%), BPH (%) of 21 hybrids with genetic diversity of their 7
parents assessed through protein and DNA markers (EST-SSR and SSR). Clustering
differed with type of markers. MPH (%), BPH(%) though strongly correlated with
hybrids per se, had an inconspicuous relationship with estimated diversity from SDS
and SSR data for 7 characters. An encouraging relationship between these parameters
for capsule length and days to maturity highlighted the usefulness of SSR or SDS
analysis.

A-7 Screening of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes Using Different


Indices against Aluminium Toxicity
Bidhan Roy* and Sanjib Bhadra
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar 736 165, West Bengal, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: bcroy10@yahoo.com
Keywords: Rice, Aluminium toxicity, D2 Analysis

Abstract
It is one of the most abundant mineral in the soil, comprising approximately 7%.
At neutral or weakly acidic pH, Al exists in the form of insoluble aluminosilicate
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or oxide. In acid soil, Al is solubilized into a phytotoxic form. Al (H2O)63+ is known


as Al3+ is dominant in acid soil below pH 5.0. Al toxicity is the primary growthlimiting factor for plants in acid soils. Over 50% of the worlds potentially arable
lands are acidic. In India, 89.94 m ha of land is acidic, in West Bengal, 4.76 mha
and in Cooch Behar, 26.20% area is strongly acidic, and 44.30% is moderately acidic.
Increased concentrations of Al in nutrient solutions decreased germination. Which
Reduces root growth, shoot growth, seedling fresh weight and dry weight. Indices
to screen genotypes against Al toxicity, Relative Tolerance Index and Hematoxyline
staining were comparatively better. After screening Radhunipagal and UBKVR-16
were found to be the tolerant genotype against higher concentration of Al. For every
indices genotypes were grouped into one cluster, i.e. cluster II, then genotypes were
grouped into different cluters using D2 statistics to find out whether the tolerant
genotypes fall into one cluster.

A-8 Identifying Arsenic Tolerant Rice Genotypes and their Relationship


with other Trace Elements
Biswarup Mukherjee, Pritam Das and Tapash Dasgupta*
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta,
35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019.
*Corresponding Author Email: tapashda@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Rice, Arsenic, Trace elements

ABSTRACT
Among the crops, rice is very sensitive to rapid uptake of arsenic in its grain when
grown in arsenic contaminated areas. A set of 80 genotypes were grown and to
determine the effect on other rice grain elements, multi-element analysis using ICP-MS
was performed. The lowest grain arsenic was found in Azucena and Lemont, though
there was a wide range of variation. A negative correlation was found between Se and
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Ni with grain Arsenic at both contaminated fields of West Bengal. Experiment revealed
that genotypes with high grain arsenic have decreased concentration of Ni, Cu, and Se
within the grain.

A-9 Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Teasle Gourd (Momordica


subangulata ssp. renigera [(G. Don) W. J. De Wilde)] Accessions
Collected from Eastern and North Eastern India
Chakraborty, L* and Acharyya, P.
Institute of Agricultural science, University of Kolkata,
35, Ballygunge circular Road, Kolkata-19, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: pinakiacharyya@yahoo.co.in
Key words: Teasle gourd, D2 analysis, Genetic diversity

ABSTRACT
Eleven accessions of teasle gourd of Eastern and North-Eastern India were
evaluated to study the extent of variation and diversity for different traits. Significant
genotypic differences were found for all the traits studied. High GCV and PCV values
were observed for characters like primary branches per vine followed by total fruit yield
per vine, fruit weight and protein content. High heritability coupled with low genetic
advance was observed for almost all the quantitative and biochemical characters except
total fruit yield per vine. The accessions were subjected to D2 analysis and grouped in
three clusters. The D2 analysis revealed no relationship exists between genetic diversity
& geographical distribution

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A-10 Deciphering the Genetic Makeup of a Land Race Bread Wheat


Agra Local for Grain Colour
D. Datta, S. C. Bhardwaj, Sanjay Singh and S. P. Das
Directorate of Wheat Research, Regional Station,
Flowerdale, Shimla-171002.
*Corresponding Author Email: d221004@hotmail.com
Keywords: Agra local, Wheat, Grain colour

ABSTRACT
Wheat is one of the most important staple food grain crops of India. In addition to
the quality attributes of chapatti making, grain colour plays an important role in determining
the market value and acceptability to consumers. Agra local (AL), a red grain land race
of bread wheat, is mainly utilized as the susceptible parent in genetic studies. In the
present study genetic make-up of Agra Local for red grain colour was deciphered through
F3 family segregation and test of allelism conducted with genotypes with known genes for
red grain colour. Appearance of white families in the F3 explained that red colour alleles
of Agra local and Cappelle Desprez are different. Red grain colour in wheat is governed
by three dominant genes namely, R1, R2 and R3 located on chromosomes 3DL, 3AL and
3BL, respectively and white grains results whenever all the three loci carry recessive
genes. White progenies were observed in the cross of AL/CD because Cappelle Desprez
has recessive allele at the locus D1 whereas Agra local has dominant allele at this locus.
Therefore, the genotype of Agra local for grain colour is R-A1a R-B1a R-D1b [R1]. The
genetic analysis established that Agra local carries a single dominant gene for red grain
colour.

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A-11 Morphological Marker for Heat Tolerance in Lentil


(Lens culinaris Medik.)
D. Roy Choudhury1*, M. Das 2, S. Kundagrami3
University of Calcutta 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-19.
*Corresponding Author
Email:drc.gpb@gmail.com
Keywords: Morphological characterization, Heat tolerance, Seed yield,
Cell membrane Thermo-stability

ABSTRACT
In West Bengal where rabi season is short, introducing heat tolerant cultivars of lentil
would be beneficial for the farmers as it is not only a highly remunerative crop but also
increases soil fertility level. With this background, laboratory screening for heat tolerance
of forty eight genotypes of lentil was conducted following water culture method at 330C
in plant growth chamber. The germplasms were further tested for heat tolerance by cell
membrane thermostability test. Finally tolerant germplasms were screened by field
screening in normal and late sown condition. Howrah local, Purulia local, Midnapore local
2, Ranjan, Moitree, Sagardeep local, WBL 185, Ballia local, Krishna nagar local, 14-4-1,
Howrah local 2, IC 201646, IC 201710 and IC 248956 were showing some level of heat
tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. In quest for identification of morphological
marker linked with heat tolerance morphological characterization of forty eight germplasms
were done and it was observed that dense leaf pubescence corrected/linked with heat
tolerance in lentil.

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A-12 Correlation among Nutritional Quality Parameters of


Maize Genotypes
Dharam Paul Chaudhary, Sapna*, Shiwani Mandhania and Pallavi Srivastava
Directorate of Maize Research, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-12,
Corresponding Author Email: singh.sapna06@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Maize, Correlation, Nutritional quality, Oil, Starch, Carotenoids

ABSTRACT
The present study was planned to understand the correlation among various nutritional
components of maize kernel. For this purpose, twenty three elite maize genotypes
received from different centers of All India Coordinated Research Projects on Maize
were used. The samples were ground to powder and processed for the estimation of
various nutritional quality parameters such as protein quality, starch, oil and carotenoids
and the data was correlated to find the interrelationship between these components. The
results showed that the protein content exhibited a significant negative correlation with
two important essential amino acids such as tryptophan and lysine proving the age old
notion that quality and quantity are negatively correlated. An inverse correlation was
found between starch and oil indicating that breeding for high oil maize may leads to lower
grain yield as starch component primarily contributes towards grain filling. Contrary to it,
a significant positive correlation was observed between oil content and 100-kernel weight
postulating that although increase in oil down-regulate the starch content, the total grain
yield, however, would remain unaffected. Protein content showed a non-significant
negative correlation with 100-kernel weight. The most important finding of the present
study is the significant positive correlation between protein and starch. Both protein and
starch are primarily present in the endosperm and the positive correlation between these
two components implies that protein could effectively be increased without affecting
starch content and finally the total grain yield may increase. Another important finding of
this study is the positive correlation observed between oil and fat soluble total carotenoids.
Breeding for high oil, therefore, would have the added advantage of biofortification of
maize. It could be thus concluded that the present findings are utterly significant and could
immensely help in the development of nutritionally improved high yielding maize genotypes.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

A-13 Inheritance of Some Quantitative Characters in Vigna radiata (L.)


Dhirendra Kumar Singh*, M. N. Singh, A. Vaishampayan, S. K. Saroj,
Nidhi Pathak and Prakash Singh
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005.
Corresponding Author Email: dksinghgpb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Five populations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2 and F3 of twelve crosses involving ten parents
were evaluated following compact family block design during Kharif season in 2007-2009
to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its components in mung
bean generation mean analysis. The presence of epistasis was detected in few cases by
joint sealing test including inadequacy of additive-dominance model. Additive (d) and
dominance (h) gene effects along with one or more type of non-allelic interaction (i, j, l)
contributed significantly towards the inheritance of all the quantitative characters in
majority of the crosses. Duplicate type of epistasis was also prevalent in most of the cases
with few exceptions. Thus, biparental mating in each segregating generation may be
suggested for improvement of mung bean populations.

A-14 Promising Role of Drought Resistance Crops in the Changing


Scenario of Indian Monsoon
Dosi Jeetish K., Bhadalkar Anasuya A., Shaikh Javid B. and Yaseen Mohd. Shaikh
Gujarat State Biotechnology Mission, Department of Sci. & Tech., Govt. of Gujarat,
*Corresponding Author Email: jeetdosi@gmail.com
Keywords: Indian monsoon, Drought

ABSTRACT
India is a developing country, which is growing at a rapid pace. Indian agriculture
mainly depends upon monsoon. With a rapid growth in population and unpredicted climatic
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conditions we need to think seriously on this issue. For another successful green revolution
and to catch up with the growing demand of agricultural produce, state like Gujarat &
Rajasthan may contribute higher percentage, since Rajasthan has largest area in country
facing frequent drought and has largely arid agricultural condition. Gujarat stands to be the
second most arid state of the country. The failure of green revolution in South Africa is
also due to water deficiency. This result altering us to think towards the improvement of
crop for drought tolerance and other associated traits through biotechnology. So that
drought resistance crop can play an important role in bringing these two arid states in the
map of green revolution.

A-15 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)


Ekta Srivastava* and N. R. Rangare
Sam Higginbotom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Allahabad
*Corresponding Author Email: ekta.29nov@gmail.com
Keywords: Chickpea, D2 statistics, Genetic variability, Inter cluster distance,
Intra cluster distance.

ABSTRACT
An investigation was carried out among thirty six genotypes of chickpea to study the
nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using Mahalanobiss D2 Statistics. The data
was recorded on nine important quantitative traits from the genotypes raised in Randomized
Block Design having three replications. The thirty six chickpea genotypes were grouped
into seven clusters. The cluster I showed largest cluster with nine genotypes. Highest inter
cluster distance was observed between cluster II and cluster III, followed by cluster II
and V. Three characters viz. harvest index, number of pods per plant and seed yield per
plant contributed maximum in manifestation of genetic diversity. Number of pods per plant
had maximum Phenotypic and Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV and GCV),
followed by Biological yield per plant and 100 Seed weight. A moderate to high degree
of Heritability and Genetic Advance was observed for Number of pods per plant, Harvest
index and Biological yield.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

A-16 Selection of Dura Palms for Production of Hybrid Seeds


Goutam Mandal*, R. K. Mathur, P. Murugesan and K. Meena Kumari
Directorate of Oil Palm Research (ICAR), Pedavegi-534 450, Andhra Pradesh, India,
*Corresponding Author Email:gouta_2000@yahoo.com
Keywords: Oil palm, Elaeis dura, Selection, Seed production

ABSTRACT
Oil palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacq.), a native of West Africa, is cultivated in the
humid tropics and one of the most important sources of vegetable oil. The commercial
cultivar of oil palm is tenera, a hybrid of dura and pisifera, as female and male
parent, respectively. Therefore, the present study has been conducted during 2007-2012
with the objective of evaluation and selection of elite dura palms for production of
hybrid seed at Directorate of Oil Palm Research, Pedavegi. During 2000, a total of 989
numbers of dura seedlings were planted with 4 genotypes namely, Palode-1 (240Dx281D),
Palode-2 (80Dx281D), Costa Rica-1 (98Cx254D) and Costa Rica-2 (98Cx 208D). The
characteristics like annual height increment, bunch weight, number of bunches production
and FFB yield has been taken into consideration during selection of dura. The minimum
FFB yield of 150 kg/palm/year has been decided as criteria to select the dura palms.
Among these four genotypes, Palode-1 recorded highest average FFB yield (124.14 kg/
palm/year) followed by Palode-2 (116.69 kg/palm/year), Costa Rica-2 (75.44 kg/palm/
year) and Costa Rica-1 (72.56 kg/palm/year). Palode-2 palms, showed the lowest height
increment (42.33 cm/yr) and highest FFB yields (168.80 kg/yr) than the others. Based
on yield performance total 29 duras i.e. 10, 18 and 1 were selected from Palode 1,
Palode 2 and Costa Rica-1, respectively as elite mother palms. These selected elite
duras can be used in hybrid seed production programme and in future breeding
programme.

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A-17 Morpho-Physiological Variation on Grain Yield of Rabi-Sorghum


Genotypes under Receding Soil Moisture Situation
K. N. Pawar
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
*Email: kasu_pawar@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Sorghum, Dry matter production, Harvest index, Relative water content

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted in medium black soils at Regional Agricultural
Research Station, Bijapur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka)
during rabi season 2007-08. Among the total genotypes tested RSLG1119, RSLG871,
RSV423, and Maulee have given higher yields compared to other genotypes. The factors
that favoured the higher yields were leaf area index, chlorophyll content, relative water
content, and panicle dry weight. The production of dry matter alone does not help in
realizing the higher yield. In case of higher yielder there was an efficient dry matter
production as well as translocation from source to sink. Less number of factors in
moderate and only few factors have favoured the low yielders. It was observed in this
stand that the differential performance of genotypes were due to difference in dry matter
partitioning efficiency.

A-18 Development of Semi Dwarf Photoperiod Insensitive Cultivars for


Direct Seeded Wetland Conditions in Rice
K. Pande, S. K. Dash*, S. K. Pradhan, J. Meher, S. R. Dhua and O. N. Singh
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha.
*Corresponding Author Email: skdash139@gmail.com
Keywords: Rice, Direct seeded, Flood, Drought, Wide adaptation, Dry season

ABSTRACT
In eastern India, sudden flood, drought, and alternate flood and drought during
different growth phases of rice are common and affect yield drastically, even complete
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

crop failure in some situations. Breeding materials must be identified and programmes
must be judiciously formulated so that it will have consistency in performance along with
enhanced grain yield. Rice is grown in diverse ecologies. One of the constraints for
comparatively low yield in rice is temperature. In early growth stages, where cold stress
is severe, it suffers from cold injury and flowers very late even though short day
requirement is completed until temperature becomes optimum for flowering. Reproductive
growth stage often coincides with hot weather. Both low and high temperature at different
growth stages reduces yield drastically. Untimely rain at harvest cause drastic reduction
in yield and quality. Therefore, genotypes having semi dwarf sturdy plant type with shy
tillering, photoperiod insensitive, high yield/unit area/day (<100 g), good grain type and
quality, appropriate dormancy, tolerance to varying temperature, tolerance to insect pests
and diseases, weed competitive ability (early vigour, droopy, long broad leaves at early
growth phases to suppress weeds and erect leaves at later growth phases), good
germination ability, anaerobic germination and elongation of seedling under thin film of
water, high nutrients and fertilizer use efficiency, adaptive to low inherent nutrient reserve,
adaptive to mechanized pre and post-harvest farm operation and high biomass (>3 kg/
sqm) along with high harvest index (>0.5%). Genotypes of diverse origin Gayatri,
Shatabdi, Naveen, WITA12, MTU1010, Geetanjali, Chandan, Reeta, Phalguna, CR Dhan
300, Lalat, Khandagiri, Sahabhagi Dhan; and Anjali, Pusa 1121, and IR64, new plant type
and derivatives of tropical japonicas ; ADRON-111, ADRON-117, ADRON-125, ADRON128, ADRON-130 and ADRON-131 (Suriname cultivars) and of Indian origin-DL 81
(with low tillers, shorter duration, adadaptive to mechanized farming) are being used for
varietal development for the aforesaid situation.

A-19 Correlation Studies on Growth and Fruit Quality Parameters in


Guava (Psidium guajava L.)

1Pt.

Kiran Singh1, Rajeev Kumar2 and A. Kumar3


Deen Dayal Upadhayay Govt. Girls P.G. College, Rajajipuram, Lucknow,
2National Botanical Research Institute, Lcuknow,
3C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-2
Keywords: Correlation, Fruit quality, Guava
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ABSTRACT
The correlation coefficients revealed that fruit diameter showed positive associations
with size of the pollen, length of fruit, weight of fruit, and duration of maturity, during
both years of these investigations. In the environmental correlation, T.S.S. content
revealed positive and highly significant correlation with size of flower, acidity and
total sugar content. Reducing sugars showed its positive correlation with length of
fruit (0.0147, 0.1078), diameters of fruit (0.0198, 0.1542) and T.S.S. ((14845, 0.3076)
during 2003-04 and 2004-05, respectively. The characters like length of fruit (0.0294,
0.2437), diameter of fruit (0.1729, 0.3803) and total sugars, (0.1258, 0.3627) showed
its positive correlation with non-reducing sugars in respect of the fruit of guava
varieties.

A-20 Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Drought and Heat Tolerance under
Humid Regions of Sub-Himalayan Plains of West Bengal
Manmatha Hansda, V A Kale and Saikat Das
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari,
Coochbehar-736165, West Bengal
Keywords: Drought, Heat tolerance, Wheat, Yield

Abstract
Drought and heat stress are the two most important among environmental factors
influencing crop growth, development, and yield processes. 49 wheat genotypes were
used to identify genotypes for tolerance to moisture stress throughout the crop growth
period and high temperature both at early and terminal growth stages. The nursery was
sown both under drought and irrigated conditions with two replications in 7x7 lattice
design. The minimum days for 75% heading were considered for explaining intensity of
stress before and after heading. The average minimum temperature was 11.49C and
13.22C before and after heading respectively whereas it was 23.42C and 27.35C in
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

case of maximum temperature. Maximum RH was 98.86% and 96.33% whereas


minimum RH was 55.53% and 41.49% and the rainfall was 42 mm and 179mm before
and after heading respectively for the two growth regime. The lowest grain yield was
recorded for the genotype GW-09-270 (155g/plot) closely followed by RAJ4168 (165g/
plot) whereas the highest grain yield was recorded for AKAW 3717 (395g/plot) under
drought condition. HI1579 suffered badly by getting 40% yield reduction closely followed
by RAJ4254 (38.7% yield reduction). The genotypes AKAW 3717, AKAW 4705, KLP
1042 and NI 5439 were least affected having less than 10% yield reduction under stress
condition.

A-21 Studies on Heterosis of Quality Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)


N. Chamundeswari*, K. Raja Reddy, P. V. Satyanarayana, Y. Suryanarayana,
P. Jayarami Reddy and V. Srinivasa Rao
S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati.
*Corresponding Author Email: chamundeswari@ rediffmail.com
Keywords: Heterosis, Rice, Diallel

ABSTRACT
Twenty one crosses generated from seven parental diallel were used to study
heterosis and heterobeltiosis for 16 quality traits. The estimates of heterosis and
heterobeltiosis were variable among all crosses in desirable direction. The highly heterotic
cross combinations for milling traits were BPT 5204 / NLR 34449, MTU 1081 / JGL
13595 and JGL 3844 / NLR 34449; for kernel length and kernel L/B ratio MTU 1010 /
MTU 1081 were highly heterotic. The best heterotic hybrid for cooking characters was
BPT 5204 / JGL 3844. The crosses JGL 3844 / MTU 1081 and JGL 3844 / JGL 13595
were considered superior for chemical quality traits and BPT 5204 / MTU 1081, NLR
34449 / JGL 13595 for micronutrients.

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A-22 Estimation of Genetic Components for Micronutrients in


Rice Kernels
N. Chamundeswari*, P. V. Satyanarayana, Y. Suryanarayana, K. Raja Reddy,
P. Jayarami Reddy and V. Srinivasa Rao
S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati.
*Corresponding Author Email: chamundeswari @rediffmail.com
Keywords: Dominant gene effects, Epistasis, Generation mean analysis, Genetic components,
Iron and zinc content, Six parameter model.

ABSTRACT
Genetic components were estimated for two micro nutrients (iron and zinc) in three
crosses (BPT 5204 / MTU 1081, MTU 1010 / JGL 13595 and NLR 34449 / MTU 1075)
of rice by deploying 6 parameter model of generation mean analysis. Significance of
scaling tests indicated that additive dominance model was inadequate and suggested the
existence of epistasis in the inheritance of these characters. All the genetic components
were significant for micronutrients except additive effect (d) for iron content in BPT 5204
/ MTU 1081 and dominance effect (d) and additive x additive effect (i) in MTU 1010 /
JGL 13595. Predominant role of dominant type of gene effects ([h] and [l]) were
observed than additive type ([d] and [i]) in the control of both iron content and zinc
content. The opposite signs of [h] and [l] suggested the presence of duplicate dominance
epistasis for which biparental mating may be followed to isolate pure lines with high iron
and zinc contents in advanced generations.

A-23 Identification of Heat Tolerant Genotypes of Black Gram


Nupur Malviya, Ashutosh Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Debjyoti Sen Gupta* and Sanjeev Gupta
Indian Institute of Pulses research (IIPR), Kanpur-208024, U.P., India.
*Corresponding Author Email: debgpb@gmail.com
Keywords: Vigna mungo, Abiotic stress, Germplasm, Genetic variability
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
A set of hundred germplasm lines which were grown during summer-2011 and rainy2011 seasons at IIPR, Kanpur (26.28ON and 80.21OE), India, were tested with the
objective to screen the genotypes for thermo-tolerance. Sowing dates were planned so
that the late sown trials flowering stage would coincide with critical temperature (>400C)
limit, and in augmented design with three checks, namely IPU 94-1, IPU 02-43 and
Shekhar-2. The observations were taken in two seasons i.e., Summer-2011 and kharif2011 for 23 quantitative traits. Using SPSS software various variance estimates, viz.,
genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), heritability (broad sense) and genotypic correlation
were calculated for traits related to heat tolerance viz., days to trifoliate opening, days to
50% flowering, pod filling duration, days 75% maturity and grain yield. The best ten
germplasm, viz., PDU-3, IPU94-1, IC 106088, STY-2868, IPU 99-18, IPU 99-16,IPU 9032, UH99-144, UH 32-3 and PLU 557 were identified. The hundred genotypes were
grouped into nine clusters based on the 23 quantitative traits using hierarchical method of
clustering following UPGMA, using similarity matrix data. This will help further in
selecting for parents in crossing programme.

A-24 Hydrazine Hydrate Induced 8-Locular Fruit Mutant in Jute


(Corchorus olitorius, L., Variety JRO-632)
P. K. Ghosh1 and A. Chatterjee2
CSR&TI, Berhampore-742101, Murshidabad, W.B.
2 Centre of Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany,
University of Calcutta,35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700019.
E-mail: paritush.ghosh@rediffmail.com
1CSB,

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius L., Chromosome, 8-locular


Fruit, Hydrazine hydrate, 24 hours.

ABSTRACT
Presoaked seeds of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.Variety JRO-632) were treated
with 0.5% Hydrazine Hydrate (HH) for 24 hours. 8-locular fruit mutants were screened
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in M3 in contrast to the normal looking fruit plants. A number of yield component


parameters were recorded including plant height, basal diameter, plant spread, root length,
pod per plant, seeds per pod, pod length/breadth ratio, number of primary branches,
number of secondary branches, leaf angle, branching angle, first flowering date, 100%
flowering date, total duration, percentage of pollen sterility, and weight of 100 seeds which
were found to vary from the control plant. Chromosome analysis revealed aberrations like
stickiness, fragmentation, polyploidy, clumping, laggard and bridge formation.

A-25 Ethyl Amine Induced Early Maturing Mutant in Jute


(Corchorus olitorius l. Variety-JRO-632)
P. K. Ghosh1 and A. Chatterjee2
1CSB, CSR&TI, Berhampore-742101, Murshidabad, W.B.
2Centre of Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany,
University of Calcutta,35,Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta-700019.
E-mail: paritush.ghosh@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Corchorus olitorius L., chromosome, Early maturing mutants,
Ethyl amine, 24 hours.

ABSTRACT
Presoaked seeds of jute (Corchorus olitorius L. Variety JRO-632) were treated
with 0.5% Ethyl amine (EA) for 24 hours. Early maturing mutants were screened in M3
in contrast to the normal looking fruit plants. A number of yield component parameters
were recorded including plant height, basal diameter, plant spread, root length, pod per
plant, seeds per pod, pod length/breadth ratio, number of primary branches, number of
secondary branches, leaf angle, branching angle, first flowering date, 100% flowering
date, total duration, percentage of pollen sterility, and weight of 100 seeds which were
found to vary from the control plant. Chromosome analysis revealed aberrations like
stickiness, fragmentation, polyploidy, clumping, laggard and bridge formation.

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A-26 Genetics of Yield and Quality Traits in Cauliflower


(Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.)
Partha Saha and Pritam Kalia
Division of Vegetable Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi 110012, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: hortparth@yahoo.com
Keywords: Cauliflower, Yield, Quality

ABSTRACT
Curd yield and colour are most important character of cauliflower determining the
economics of the crops. Six generation of cauliflower (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2) raised
by crossing two popular varieties and two lines. Over-dominance had predominant role for
curd weight, curd diameter and curd depth. In curd weight, the presence of dominance
(h) and dominance x dominance (l) component of genetic variation along with duplicate
type of epistasis were present. Curd colour was determined by single gene with white
being recessive. So, heterosis breeding could be used in the improvement of yield and
quality parameters in cauliflower.

A-27 Screening of Rose (Rosa spp.) Male Donor Parents for


Pollen Efficiency
Prativa Lakhotia*, D. V. S. Raju and K. V. Prasad
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012.
*Corresponding Author Email: prativa.iari@gmail.com
Keywords: Pollen viability, In vitro pollen germination, Pollen diameter, Hip set, Rose

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to study the pollen viability, in vitro pollen germination,
pollen diameter and hip set in ten rose genotypes. Five treatments were used for in vitro
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pollen germination. Pollen viability varied from 6.45 (Folklore) to 78.07% (Africa Star).
In vitro pollen germination was highest in Dr. Bharat Ram. The treatment T2 (15%
sucrose) recorded the maximum pollen germination percent. Pollen diameter was highest
(51.22 m) in Africa Star. The pollen of genotypes Folklore and Pusa Ajay failed to
germinate in vitro and set hips. Maximum hip set was recorded with pollen of genotypes
Africa Star and Dr. Bharat Ram. Pollen viability, in vitro pollen germination and hip set
were positively correlated with pollen diameter. The genotypes Africa Star and Dr.
Bharat Ram were found to be the best pollen donors. Pollen diameter was found to be
the most effective parameter for ascertaining pollen fertility.

A-28 Investigations on Pollen Viability and Germination in


Canna Genotypes
R. Kumar1, S. Verma2, A. Singh3, A. Kumar4 and S. Arya5
1,2 N.B.R.I., Lucknow,
3H.S.S. Pawarkhera, Lucknow,
4C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-2,
5D.G. College, Civil Lines, Kanpur-2.
Keywords: Pollen viability, Germination, Canna

ABSTRACT
Present investigations gave important findings of pollen grains viability and their
germination information in different genotypes. Pollen viability was found higher than the
actual pollen germination in sucrose media. It was found more than 94.00 per cent viable.
Well-developed pollens exhibited maximum viability and germination. The pollen germination
was found to range from 10.25 to 37.75 in V7 and v17 genotypes, respectively. It was
also found that freshly dehised pollen grains taken at the time of anthesis showed
maximum viability and germination. The aceto-carmine test for pollen viability showed
highest percentage of germination.

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A-29 Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies for Grain Yield in


Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
R. Vinoth* and Shailesh Marker
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu,
Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad- 211007, Uttar Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: rvinothagri@gmail.com
Keywords: Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Correlation analysis

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to study the variability and association between
characters in rice hybrids. 36 genotypes of rice were evaluated and obtained information
on variability parameters and correlation analysis for 18 characters. Analysis of variance
revealed high significant differences for all the 18 characters studied. Phenotypic
coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotype coefficient of variation (GCV)
for all the characters indicating the little influence of environment on the characters.
Number of unfilled grains per panicle had maximum GCV followed by grain yield per
plant, harvest index, biological yield per plant, number of filled grains per panicle and grain
L/B ratio. All the qualitative characters depicted high estimates of heritability, which
indicates preponderance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters.
High to moderate degree of genetic advance was observed for number of filled grains per
panicle followed by biological yield per plant. Grain yield per plant showed positive and
significant correlation with number of filled grains per panicle followed by harvest index,
biological yield per plant and panicle length at phenotypic and genotypic level. Thus, these
characters may serve as effective selection parameters during breeding programme for
crop improvement.

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A-30 Effect of Physical and Chemical Mutagens in Groundnut


(Arachis hypogaea L.)
S. K. Burghate, M. N. Mishra, C. R. Tarpe3, U. A. Raut4 and S. A. Maity5
1,3,4,5 Shri Shivaji College of Horticulture, Amravati-444603,
2 R.B.S. College, Bichpuri, Agra (UP) India.
*Corresponding Author Email: sagar_311@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Mutagens, Groundnut, TAG-24, Gamma rays, EMS

ABSTRACT
In M1 generation, the germination percentage was reduced due to various mutagenic
treatments under field as well as laboratory conditions. Reduction in germination was
found maximum in higher dose and/or concentration of the mutagens. The progressive
decrease in seedling growth viz. root and shoot length with corresponding increase in dose
or concentration of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and their combinations were
observed in M1 generation. The pollen sterility was estimated during M1 generation and
it was found increased significantly with an increased in doses and/or concentrations. Day
1 to 50 percent flowering and mortality were also found increased with an increased in
doses and/or concentrations of the gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and their
combinations.

A-31 Frequency and Spectrum of Induced Mutations in


Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
S. K. Burghate, M. N. Mishra, C. R. Tarpe3, U. A. Raut4 and S. A. Maity5
1,3,4,5 Shri Shivaji College of Horticulture, Amravati-444603,
2 R.B.S. College, Bichpuri, Agra (UP) India.
*Corresponding Author Email: sagar_311@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Tag-24, Spectrum, Frequency, Gamma rays, EMS

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ABSTRACT
Induced qualitative mutation in tag-24 groundnut cultivar consisted of chlorophyll and
viable mutants. The combination treatments exhibited wide spectrum and frequency on
both M1 family and M2 plant basis for both. Increased in doses and concentrations of
mutagens showed increased in spectrum and frequency. Chlorophyll mutants viz; albina,
albo-viridis, xantha, xantha- viridis and viridis and viable mutants viz; plant type, leaf,
growth habit, flowering, pod, kernel and economic mutation were observed. Desirable
mutants like bold poded, early maturing, high yielding were also isolated.

A-32 Screening and Development of High Productive Good Quality Paddy


Genotypes for Coastal Alluvial Zone of West Bengal
S. Kundu*, B. Pradhan and S. Kundagrami
Institute of Agricultural Science, Calcutta University,
35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019.
Corresponding Author Email: kundu.sritama@gmail.com
Keywords: Seed yield, GCV, PCV, Heritability, GA, Quality parameters, Mutation

ABSTRACT
In order to meet the fast growing demand for rice, development of high yielding
genotypes with desirable agronomic traits is a necessity. Study was undertaken to
investigate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of grain yield and yield
related traits in quest for breeding method as a basis for selection of high yielding rice
genotypes. Relatively high GCV, PCV, Heritability and GA for plant height, grains/panicle
and 1000 grain weight suggested these characters were controlled by additive genes and
selection on the basis of these characters would be effective. The genotypes Paluii,
Bakulpriya, Dhudarshar, Lakshmikajal, Bhuri, Nangalmuda, Pankaj, Moulow and SR-26B
were consistent for good seed yield/ plant at Baruipur and also have quite impressive
quality characters. Even some of the induced rice mutant lines hold great promise. The

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M3 lines gave seed yield performance which was graded 40-50% more than control. So
all the selected genotypes and mutant lines may be further tested in multi-location yield
trial and can be introduced as high yielding genotypes for coastal alluvial zone of West
Bengal.

A-33 Studies on Genetic Variability and Association for Yield and Yield
Attributing Components in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in
Coastal Saline Belts of Sundarbans
S. S. Lakshman1, A. Roy2 and D Halder3
1AICRP on Sunflower, RAKVK, Nimpith, P.O. Nimpith Ashram, 24-Parganas(S), PIN: 743338,
Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: lakshmanshyam_ss@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: Sunflower, Character association, Quantitative trait.

ABSTRACT
A study on genetic variability was made with different quantitative and yield
attributing characters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). One hundred and twenty
five inbred lines of sunflower were selected for studying the character association both
direct and indirect to assess the relationship among seed yield and its components. The
trial was conducted in the Instructional Farm of Ramakrishna Ashram Krishi Vigyan
Kendra, Nimpith, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal in rabi-summer season of 2011-12.
The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the
characters under study. Observations were recorded on twelve different quantitative and
yield attributing traits viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, no. of leaves per plant,
plant height (cm), head diameter (cm), 100-seed weight (g), no. of seeds per head, seed
filling %, hull content (%),volume weight per 100 ml (g), oil content (%) and seed yield
per plant (g). Hence simultaneous selection of these characters would contribute for the
improvement of seed yield and oil yield per plant. The maximum positive association in

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relation to seed yield per plant was found with no. of seed per head, 100seed weight, head
diameter and percentage of seed filling. The genotypic correlation was higher than
phenotypic ones for the above four characters with seed yield per plant. The genetic
influence of all the said four characters were more than 80% (genotypic correlation
coefficient r > 0.8) which signifies the importance of all these four characters in improving
the seed yield in case of both open pollinated population as well as hybrid varietal
development programme in sunflower.

A-34 A Study on Genotypic Evaluation of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.)


in Respect to Yield for the Coastal Saline Regions of Sundarbans,
West Bengal
S. S. Lakshman1, B. Mukherjee2 and R. Nath3
1AICRP-Sunflower, 2RAKVK, Nimpith, 24-Parganas(S)-743338, Sundarbans, West Bengal,
3BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: lakshmanshyam_ss@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: Green gram, Salinity, Seed yield, Sundarbans

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of sixty-six green
gram (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes in low to medium saline soil in coastal saline belts
of Sundarbans, West Bengal to find out suitable genotypes for growing in pre-kharif
season under rainfed situation. Almost all the sixty-six cultivars selected for the experiments,
took 5-6 days for 75% emergence of seedlings and took 27-36 days to achieve 50%
flowering. Final plant stand count was also good and it ranged from 70-80%. The salinity
range (EC) of soil before sowing was 0.2ds/m-1.2ds/m and total salt was 100ppm300ppm. After harvesting the crop, soil salinity (EC) ranged from 0.6ds/m-2.2ds/m and
total salt was 230ppm-960ppm. Among all the genotypes under study the significantly
higher value of seed yield per hectare was observed in PUSA-2031 (1398kg/ha) which
was 75.4% higher in comparison to the local check, i.e. Chaiti moong which seed yield
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was recorded (797kg/ha) only followed by KM-11-573 (1302kg; 63.3%), SM-11-41


(1286kg; 61.3%), KM-11-583 (1280kg; 60.6%), KM-11-578 (1211kg; 51.9%) respectively.
The significantly higher number of seed/pod, 100 seed weight (g), no. of pods/plants, LAI
were observed in genotypes. In case of root length the above genotypes were found
significantly lower against Chaiti moong (LC). From the above experiment it may be
concluded that in the similar situation as well as soil salinity condition the above
genotypes may prove to perform better than the local cultivar, Chaiti moong for cultivation
in the coastal saline regions of Sundarbans, West Bengal.

A-35 Performance of Wheat Genotypes under Late and Very Late Sown
Condition in Sub-Himalayan Plains of West Bengal
Saikat Das1* and Biplab Mitra2
1AICW&BIP, 2Coochbehar Krishi Vigyan Kendra, U.B.K.V.V,
Pundibari, Coochbehar-736165, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: saikat_breeder@yahoo.co.in
Key Words: Late and very late sowing condition, Wheat, Yield

ABSTRACT
The eastern parts of South Asian nations, including India, Nepal and Bangladesh, are
much more hot and humid and are lagging behind the north western parts in wheat
production. The terminal heat stress, caused by rise in mean daily temperatures above
17.5 C in the coolest month, is regarded as a major problem of wheat in the region. For
tackling heat stress, the strategy being undertaken is either to escape the heat without
yield penalty or to gradually enhance heat tolerance. A field experiment was carried out
with nine advanced genotypes of wheat under two different sowing dates viz. late
(December 23) and very late (January 05) to evaluate and select the genotypes having
tolerance towards heat stress. The experiment was carried out in the rabi season of
2009-10 in sub-Himalayan plains of West Bengal with split-plot design The study
revealed that all the genotypes exhibited higher biomass production under late sown
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condition than very late sown condition. All the genotypes taken in the experiment
matured within 100-105 days under very late sowing condition which reveals that the
genotypes took 5-13 days less time for maturity. Yield advantage was recorded up to
23.13% in late sowing over very late sowing. Delay in sowing from mid- December to
first week of January resulted in significant decrease in major yield attributing traits like
number of earhead per m2 as well as number of grains per spike. Amongst the
genotypes, maximum yield was achieved in DBW 14 (36.84 q/ha), closely followed by
HI 1563(34.98 q/ha) under very late sown condition. Both the varieties could be treated
as suitable genotypes having somewhat tolerance towards heat stress under this
condition.

A-36 Identification of Sources of Resistance in Sesame (Sesamum indicum


L.) Against Charcoal Rot Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

1,2

Sarita Kumari Pandey1, Arna Das2, and Tapash Dasgupta3*


Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India 700019,
3 NIRJ & AFT(ICAR), Kolkata, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: tapashdg@rediffmail.com

Keywords: Genetic variance, Correlation, Heritability, Macrophomina phaseolina, Sesamum

ABSTRACT
Thirty sesame genotypes originated from different states of India were screened
under both field and greenhouse condition for their response to charcoal rot caused by
Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi.) Goid., in Pre-Kharif seasons of three consecutive
years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results showed that genotype CUSC-11 (16.78%) and
VRI-1 (68.78%) exhibited consistently resistance and susceptibility respectively under
both trial conditions during all the season. Genotypes like Uma, and Rama showed
differential expression in their ability to disease resistance. They were recorded as MR
under field condition and susceptible under greenhouse condition. Negative correlation
observed between disease incidence (%) and seed yield under all conditions.
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A-37 Diversity studies in maize inbreds of Eastern Uttar Pradesh


Sayan Roy Choudhury*, Rajesh Singh and Padmanabh Dwivedi
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005,
*Corresponding Author Email: sayanvns@gmail.com
Keywords: Coefficient of variability, Genetic diversity, Maize.

ABSTRACT
This study had been carried out to investigate the genetic diversity, at morphological
level, among twenty two maize genotypes of eastern Uttar Pradesh. High estimate of
genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variability was recorded for grain yield per plot
and yield per plant, thereby indicating presence of sufficient inherent genetic variability.
The 20 inbred lines were categorized into five clusters using Mahalanobis D2 analysis,
where maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster II (HUZM 97-1-2,
KHI 209, KHI PC-8, HUZM 509, KHI 586, 323, KHI 164 (1-2) 4) and cluster V (KHI
536). The GCV and PCV revealed moderate to high variability for majority of characters
indicating presence of sufficient amount of inherent genetic variability which may be fully
exploited in selection program.

A-38 Association Studies in Dahlia Genotypes


Shankar Verma and Rajeev Kumar
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P. India,
Keywords: Dahlia, Association analysis

ABSTRACT
Twenty five genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design for its
13 economic characters to study phenotypic correlation coefficient in different traits,
contributing towards flower yield and association with each other. Trials were conducted
with three replications during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Plant height revealed positive and
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highly significant correlation with number of leaves per plant (0.43231), length of petal
(0.53392), number of tubers per plant (0.52452) and diameter of tuber (0.50565) during
2005-06. Number of flowers per plant exhibited positive correlation with length of petal,
number of tubers per plant and diameter of tuber during both the years of the
investigations.

A-39 Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity in Jharkhand


Sujit Adhikary
Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division,
Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata.
Email: drsujitadhikary@yahoo.com
Keywords: Biodiversity, Crops, Soil, Plants, Water, Traditional Cultivation Practices

ABSTRACT
Number of traditional crop varieties are maintained in diversified range of soils, agroforestry ecosystems, livelihood of poor and marginal mostly tribal farmers. Methodology
includes different cropping systems, cropping sequences, fertilizer and water management,
afforestation, collection and conservation of traditional varieties as well as maintining
traditional methods of cultivation. Findings show that due to less effect of Green
Revolution and WTO as well as contract farming in Jharkhand a sustainable biodiversity
is maintained in comparison to that of developed states of India. We have been able to
regenerate a vast tanr land (gravel soil) into fertile land and now sustained vegetation
achieved through 20 years back afforestation program. Collection and identification have
been done for a good no. of varieties of several crops practiced in Jharkhand and
maintaining them since long period. We identified some traditional upland rice cultivars as
drought tolerant through drought susceptibility index. 40 germplasms of horsegram
(Dolichos biflorus) were collected from different farmers age-old collections and tested
the genetic variation among these germplasms at the seed storage protein level. Our
results show that 40 different cultivars can be grouped only into five broad groups. Under
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the rainfed farming system a no. of cropping systems and cropping sequences had been
developed to maintain crop biodiversity, land use and climatic ecosystems as well as
production potential. No. of wild species of the cultivated crops are found those could be
used as genetic race in the breeding program.

A-40 Genetic Divergence and Amelioration of Yield, Oil Content and


Quality in Mutants of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Tamina Begum1*, Arna Das2, Sarita Kumari Pandey4, Udayan Bhattacharya5,
Nirmal Mandal6 and Tapash Dasgupta7
1CRIJA&F (ICAR), Kolkata-700120,
2,3,4,5,7 Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Kolkata,
51/2,Hazra Road, Kolkata-700019, India,
6 Faculty of Agriculture, BCKV, Nadia, W.B. India
*Corresponding Author Email: tamina@live.in
Keywords: EMS, Fatty acid, Gamma rays, Genetic divergence, Oil content, Sesame

ABSTRACT
Three widely adapted sesame genotypes viz. Rama, SI 1666 and IC 21706 were
induced individually by 200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy doses of -rays and 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%
and 2.0% concentrations of EMS. Mutant generations from M1 to M4 were raised. Effect
of mutagenic treatments on genotypes was assessed in M2 and subsequently in M4
generations to reveal the ramification of mutagens. The quantum of variability in the
mutant lines was judged by multivariate analysis following D2 and canonical techniques.
Mutant lines professing maximum genetic divergence were evaluated for oil quantity and
quality. Significant effect of mutagenic treatments and varied response of genotypes were
observed for all the characters in M2 generation. All the selected mutant lines (ten from
each genotype) in M4 generation evinced improved seed yield over their respective
controls. Highest yield was recorded in line no. 10 induced by 0.5% EMS which also
exhibited maximum genetic divergence. Based on divergence and mean value of seed
yield and yield components, selected 10 superior mutant lines out of 30, possessed high
oil percentage with relatively more PUFA content than the control.
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A-41 Hybrid Necrosis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Evolutionary


Significance or A Potential Barrier For Gene Flow
Vikas, V. K*., M. Sivasamy, Jagdish Kumar, P. Jayaprakash,
P. Nallathambi and C. Uma Maheshwari
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Station,
Wellington - 643 231, The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu.
*Corresponding Author Email: vkvikaswtn@gmail.com
Keywords: Hybrid necrosis, Ne1, Ne2, Triticum aestivum

ABSTRACT
One hundred and five released varieties of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) in India
were crossed to two T. aestivum testers, namely, C306 (Ne1Ne1 ne2ne2) and HD2329
(ne1ne1 Ne2Ne2) to determine the frequency and distribution of genes for hybrid
necrosis present in them. Sixty five varieties (62%) showed the presence of Ne2 gene
and only nine varieties (8.5%) had Ne1 gene in their background. Thirty one varieties
(29.5%) were non carrier (ne1ne1 ne2ne2) for both the genes. Most of the Ne1-carriers
are of Indian origin and their pedigree revealed the involvement of landraces and old
varieties as parents. Predominance of Ne2 gene in Indian varieties happened after the
introduction of semi-dwarf Mexican wheat varieties, which are mostly Ne2-carriers and
also due to the extensive and continuous use of germplasm from CIMMYT and
European origin in the hybridization programme. Widespread occurrence of dominant
genes for hybrid necrosis in Indian varieties is of great concern to wheat breeders as
it often interferes in the choice of elite parents and imposes restrictions on the
productivity of crosses.

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A-42 Correlation Studies for Seed Yield in Sunflower


(Helianthus annuus L.)
Vikrant Tyagi*, S. K. Dhillon, R. K. Bajaj and Jagmeet Kaur
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: vikranttyagi97@gmail.com
Keywords: Correlation, Seed yield, Yield components, Sunflower.

ABSTRACT
Nine CMS analogues of sunflower belonging to different sources viz: CMS-XA
(unknown), E002-91A, PKUZ-A (H. annuus), ARG-2A, ARG-3A, ARG-6A (H.
argophyllus), DV-10A (H. debilis spp. vestitus), PHIR-27A (H. praecox spp.
hirtus) and PRUN-29A (H. praecox spp. runyonic) along with their common
maintainer line (NC-41B) from commercial petiolaris source were grown in the
research field of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PAU, Ludhiana, during
the spring season 2010 and 2011 following a RBD. Variability among these genotypes
was assessed for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, no. of leaves per plant, plant
height (cm), head diameter (cm), chlorophyll content (%), relative leaf water content
(%), leaf dry weight (g.), leaf area (m2), leaf area index, specific leaf weight per plant
(g.), biological yield (g.), harvest index (H. I.), 100 seed weight (G.), oil content (%)
and fatty acid composition (%). The results revealed a strong and positive association
of seed yield with days to 50% flowering (r = +0.398), chlorophyll content (r = +0.753),
oil content (r = +0.449) and biological yield (r = 0.603) and significant negative
correlation with relative leaf water content (r = -0.406). It is indicated that simultaneous
improvement in these morphological and physiological characters could contribute for
the improvement of seed yield, oil content and ultimately oil yield in sunflower. The
findings of this study can be used in development of new high yielding hybrids based
on these CMS analogues.

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A-43 Genetic Evaluation of CMS Analogues in Sunflower


(Helianthus annuus L.)
Vikrant Tyagi*, S. K. Dhillon, R. K. Bajaj and Jagmeet Kaur
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: vikranttyagi97@gmail.com
Key Words: Genetic evaluation, CMS analogues, Heritability, GCV, PCV

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was planned to genetically evaluate nine CMS analogues of
sunflower from different sources developed at PAU, Ludhiana along with their common
maintainer line (NC-41B from commercial source H. petiolaris). The material was grown
during spring season 2011, in randomized block design with three replications. The data
was recorded for various traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences
among the genotypes for all the characters. Different genetic parameters i.e., heritability
(h), phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) and genotypic coefficients of variance
(GCV) and genetic advance (GA) were computed. The PCV and GCV were highest for
H. I. (83.9, 78.71) followed by leaf dry weight (65.95, 63.67) and biological yield (58.74,
56.49) respectively, coupled with high heritability (88.01, 93.21 and 92.48) and genetic
advance (18.21, 49.82 and 478.76) for these parameters, indicating effectiveness of direct
selection for these traits. The results indicate that selection for grain yield accompanied
with high H. I., large head size and biological yield can be effectively used for genetic
improvement in sunflower.

A-44 Improvement of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) through Heterosis Breeding


Yogesh Prasad Rajbhar*, Ankur Kumar and Gopal Singh
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture Technology, Meerut 250110 (U.P.).
*Corresponding Author Email: rajbhar.yogesh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out with ten parents (five lines and five testers)
in a line x tester mating design at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and
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Technology, Meerut (U.P.) during 2011-12. The analysis of variance revealed significant
differences among the genotypes and hybrids for all the characters. High heritability was
observed for plant height at flowering (98.9), fruit length (98.0), fruit weight (97.9), fruits
per plant (94.2), fruit girth (94.0), fruit yield/plant (91.2), petiole length (90.6), plant height
(89.1), central cavity (84.9), TSS (79.8), flower initiation (79.0), plant girth (77.2),
flowering (75.5) while low heritability were observed for number of leaves at flowering
(73.2) and pulp thickness (71.9). Under heterosis, the highest significant and positive
value in plant height at flowering (cm) was observed for cross Pusa Giant x Red Lady
(113.58) followed by Pusa Giant x Pink Fleshed Sweet (107.41), Pusa Giant x Surya
(93.83), Pusa Dwarf x Pusa Delicious (91.98) and Pusa Dwarf x Pusa Majesty (82.72).
For improvement in yield, emphasis may be given to the characters like central cavity,
plant girth, fruit girth, days at flowering, plant height, pulp thickness, fruit weight, fruit
length, fruit girth and TSS. So, Pusa Giant x Pink Fleshed Sweet, Papaya P S 1 x Surya
and Pant Papaya 1 x Red Lady were found promising for commercial cultivation.

A-45 Morphological and biochemical characterization of Tomato genotypes


and their reaction to Tomato leaf curl virus in Andhra Pradesh, India.
Mandali Rajasri, T. Rama Devi and K. Vijayalakshmi
Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
Corresponding Author Email: nihariraj@yahoo.co.in
Key words: Tomato leaf curl virus, Tomato, Phenol, Host plant Resistance, Diversity.

ABSTRACT
Field screening studies were conducted with 34 tomato genotypes against Tomato
leaf curl virus disease under natural epiphytotic conditions during summer 2008-09. All the
tomato genotypes were evaluated for their diversity with respect to morphological and
biochemical characters. A wild accession, EC-251672 exhibited highly resistant reaction
(0%) to ToLCV with no visual symptoms of disease incidence when screened under
natural field conditions. Nine hybrids viz., Akash-918, NS-539, NS-515, Siri-9005, STH803, STH-807, To-1827, US-1196, US-2175 and one variety i.e vybhav showed resistant
reaction (1-20% incidence) while all Arka series varieties, Pusa hybrid-1 and susceptible
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check Punjab chuhara (90%) were found highly susceptible to ToLCV .The wild genotype
EC-251672 possessed narrow hirsutum type of leaves, glabrous plant surface and high
phenol content was found to be highly resistant to ToLCV. Significant negative correlation
was obtained between Phenol content of tomato genotypes and the ToLCV disease
incidence. Hence this resistant source can be used in the development of future molecular
breeding programmes against ToLCV in tomato.

A-46 Physiological Basis of Terminal Stage Thermotolerance in Different


Genotypes Rapeseed- Mustard
Maharaj Singh, J. S. Chauhan and V. V. Singh
Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Sewar, Bharatpur - 321303 Rajasthan.
Corresponding Author Email: ms_drmr@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Photosynthesis, Stress intensity, Tolerance, Rapeseed-Mustard, Seed yield

ABSTRACT
Growing Indian mustard under late sown condition in northern India is getting
importance under multiple cropping systems. There is a need to develop terminal heat
tolerant genotype on the basis of desirable physiological traits. The experiment consisted
of 43 genotypes of B. juncea and two fillers which were sown in the field at two dates
of sowing i.e., 1st optimum, D1 (Oct. 26, 2010) and 2nd in the last week of November,
D2 (November, 2010) to allow the crop exposure to high temperature at terminal stage
viz., grain filling stage. Genotypes were sown in augmented block design with four checks.
The material was grown in 5 blocks having nine genotypes in each block. Late November
sown crop faced average maximum temperature of > 300C at grain filling stage. The data
were analysed using SPAD software developed by IASRI, New Delhi. Effects of heat
(high temperature) stress during terminal stage were investigated on plant height, primary
and secondary branches/plant, siliquae on different branches, seeds/siliqua, 1000-seed
weight, seed yield, harvest index, photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance,
stress intensity, mean productivity and geometric mean productivity. Late sown condition
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adversely affected photosynthesis and caused appreciable reduction from 9.8 (JS-29) to
48.3% (PBR-378). The genotypes JS-29, KM-26, RMM-09-02 and PBR-357 showed <
15% reduction in photosynthesis under high temperature stress. Analysis of variance
revealed significant differences among genotypes for primary branches, pods on primary
branches and main shoot, siliqua length, seed yield, plant dry weight, seed weight and
transpiration at timely sown and number of secondary branches, pods on primary,
secondary branches and on main shoot, main shoot length, seed yield, plant dry weight and
seed weight at terminal heat stress, indicating presence of adequate variability for these
traits. Variance due to check/ genotypes was found to be significant for pod on primary
branches, seed yield, harvest index, seed weight, transpiration and stomatal conductance
at timely sown condition and number of primary branches, pods on primary branches, main
shoot length, pods on main shoot length, siliquae length, plant dry weight, harvest index and
seed weight at terminal heat stress condition which indicate differences between checks
as a group and genotypes as another group. Seed yield was significantly correlated with
plant height, No. of primary branches and secondary branches/plant, pods on primary and
secondary branches, main shoot length, pods on main shoot, total dry matter and mean
productivity under timely and late sown condition while stress intensity and tolerance has
significant relationship with yield under timely sown condition. Therefore, it is suggested
to exercise selection on the basis of these traits for high temperature tolerance at terminal
stage. Genotypes, RGN 197, BPR 349-9, BPR 549-9, RH 8814, NRCDR 02, PLM 2, RH
0447 and RB 50 showed yield superiority over the best check under terminal heat stress
condition. Thus these genotypes can be used to breed for high temperature tolerance at
terminal stage.

A-47 Drought Tolerance Parameters in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)


V. V. Singh, Maharaj Singh, M. L. Meena, Braj Raj Singh and J. S. Chauhan
Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research Sewar, Bharatpur 321303 (Raj)
Corresponding Author Email: singhvijayveer71@gmail.com
Keywords: Indian mustard, Rainfed, Drought Tolerance Efficiency (DTE),
Drought Susceptibility Index (DSI)
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ABSTRACT
Drought is a major impediment to plant production and is a major problem in India.
Rapeseed- mustard is no exception in this regard and about 25% area under this crop is
rainfed which suffers from severe water stress at one or more phenological stages during
crop growth and reduces seed yield levels. This requires selection and development of
drought tolerant genotypes. Keeping these facts in view, an experiment was conducted
during 2011-12 at DRMR, Bharatpur (Rajasthan) to identify drought tolerant genotypes
using drought tolerance efficiency (DTE) and drought susceptibility index (DSI) as
selection criteria. Experimental material consisted of 77 advanced genotypes of Indian
mustard selected on the basis of yield performance under rainfed conditions. These
genotypes were grown in augmented block design having 07 blocks in two separate
experiments i.e. rainfed and irrigated. Three check varieties (RB 50, RH 819 and PBR
97) were repeated after every 10 genotypes in each block. Row to row and plant to plant
distance was maintained at 30 cm and 10 cm respectively. Observations were recorded
on 13 morphological characters. DSI values were calculated as per formula given by
Fischer and Maurer (1978) and DTE as per Fischer and Wood (1981). High variations
were observed for drought tolerance parameters both DTE and DSI in the study. While
DTE values ranged from 21.6% to 133%, DSI values ranged -1.24 to 2.92. The genotypes
with high DTE and low DSI were evaluated as drought tolerant and genotypes with low
DTE and high DSI were considered as drought susceptible. On the basis of these criteria,
genotypes BPR 686-3, BPR 694-5, BPR 606-31, BPR 156-42, BPR 181-44 BPR 587-51,
BPR 583-53 and BPR 606-54 were selected as drought tolerant and may be used as
donor in hybridization programme.

A-48 Genetic Variability for Folic Acid Content in Chickpea


(Cicer arietinum) Genotypes
Jagdish Singh*, M. S. Aski and P. S. Basu
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024,
*Corresponding Author Email: jagdish1959@gmail.com
Keywords: Folic Acid, Chickpea, Variability
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ABSTRACT
Folic acid, also called folate or folacinis a water-soluble B vitamin, which plays an
important role in foetal development and maintenance of health. Humans are unable to
synthesize folates. A deficiency of this vitamin can cause a range of diseases including
some birth defects (such as spina bifida), megaloblasticanemia, cardiovascular conditions,
and some cancers. Although folate deficiency is still a serious problem all over the
world, it has the highest impact in developing countries, causing 200,000 severe birth
defects every year. Fortification of foods for folic acid is mandatory in some of the
developed countries which help people get the recommended allowance. Unfortunately,
in developing countries this kind of fortification presents a series of challenges.
Furthermore, fortification may itself cause some health problems. Therefore, to achieve
safety and lower costs, consumption of foods including pulses with a high content of
natural tetrahydrofolate would be a better solution. Currently, data concerning the folic
acid content and its genetic variation in most of the pulse crops is scarce. The aim of
this study was to assess the genetic variability for folic acid in chickpea genotypes
including 36 Desi and 14 Kabuli types and 3 wild accessions. The total folic acid content
was estimated in 53 different chickpea accessions and it was observed that the folic
acid content showed narrow genetic variation. The mean folic acid content in Kabuli
types was lower (132.7 g/ 100g) as compared to the desi types (148.7 g/ 100g) on
dry weight basis. In the desi types the folic acid content ranged from 136.1 to 152.7
g/ 100g and in the kabuli types it ranged from 128.4 -148.6 g/ 100g, whereas, in the
wild accessions there was no significant variation for folic acid and the values ranged
from 119.5 to 120.7 g/ 100g. The availability of such information on narrow genetic
variability for folic acid in the chickpea genotypes suggests that a better strategy to
improve folate intake would be to genetically engineer the chickpea crop for improvement
of this trait.

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A-49 Path Coefficient Analysis Studies in Gladiolus


Anil kumar1, Rajeev kumar2 and L. singh3
1C.S.A. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur-2,
2N.B.R.I., Lucknow,
3D.A.V. College, Civil Lines, Kanpur
Keywords: Path analysis, Gladiolus, Variance

ABSTRACT
Genetical studies were conducted in twenty genotypes of Gladiolus at Chandra
Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur during 1999-2000 and
2000-2001. Promising genotypes of commercial importance were selected for the pathcoefficient relationship in floret aspects with other characters. Bulbs- sprouting was found
in positive and direct effect (0.004, 0.033) with positive correlation (0.011, 0.005) in 19992000 and 2000-2001, respectively. In path analysis length of leaf revealed a positive and
direct effect also with positive correlation which has been assessed for beneficial aspect
in future research achievements.

A-50 Performance of Rice Cultures under Coastal Saline Soils


of Andhra Pradesh
T. Anuradha and K. Nagendra Rao
Agricultural Research Station, Machilipatnam 521002, Andhara Pradesh,
*Corresponding Author Email: arsmtm@gmail.com
Keywords: Rice Cultures, Coastal Salinity.

ABSTRACT
Study of the performance of quality rice cultures under coastal saline eco system of
represented by Soil pH - 7.35, EC (dS m-1) - 14.21 and ESP % - 17.57 at Agricultural
Research Station, Machilipatnam revealed that the cultures AT 401, IR 71829-3R-10-3
and CSR 28 with yield superiority over the check MTU 1061 can be recommended for
the coastal saline soils.
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B. Seed Science and Technology


B-1 Effect of Moist Sand Priming on Seed Quality Parameters,
Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzyme Activity in Chickpea
(Cicer arietinum L.) Under Salt Stress
Arun Kumar, Pradeep K Shukla, Pragati Misra, H. P. Vijay,
Navodita Maurice and P. W. Ramteke
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences,
(Deemed-to-be-University), Naini, Allahabad-211007, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: sanghdeep007@gmail.com
Keywords: Chickpea, Priming, Salicylic acid, Salinity, Ascorbate peroxidase

ABSTRACT
Salt stress is a major adverse factor can lower leaf water potential, leading to
reduced turgor and some other responses, and ultimately lower crop productivity. An
experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid on ascorbate peroxidase
enzyme during germination under salt stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Solid matrix
priming with salicylic acid was applied by three different modes under salt stress: (0, 75
and 150 mM). All the moist sand priming treatments significantly enhanced the seed
germination percentage compared to unprimed control. However, APX activity in
cotyledon reduces from 75 mM to 150 mM salt stress.

B-2 Wet and Dry Dressing Treatments on Different Seed Size of


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for the Maintenance of Vigour,
Viability and Productivity
B. K. De*, P. Guha and A. K. Mandal
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: bkdcu2004@yahoo.co.uk
Keywords: Seed treatments, Seed size, Wheat, Germinability, Field performance.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Dry physiological treatments in freshly harvested wheat seed with pharmaceutical
formulations (aspirin @ 100 mg/ kg of seed), chemicals (Salicylic acid @50 mg / kg of
seed; common bleaching powder @ 2g/ kg of seed) and crude plant materials (finely
powdered dry red chilli fruit and Trigonella seed powder @ 1g/ kg of seed ) and
soaking-drying treatment showed significant improvement on post storage germinability
after subsequent storage and productivity than the untreated control. The invigoration
treatments were more or less equally effective in all the three sizes of seed over their
respective control. Use of large seed proved much better germinability, field performance
and productivity than the medium and small sized seed. Among the treatments, aspirin,
Trigonella seed powder and red chilli powder, in particular, showed better results in
improving storability, yield and other yield attributes. The interaction between treatment
and seed size was statistically not significant implying thereby that the treatment effect
was independent of seed size. The results clearly indicate that the suitability of large
sized wheat seed as a planting material and pre-storage aspirin and Trigonella seed
powder treatments are very effective for improvement of storability and productivity of
wheat.

B-3 Prolongation of Seed Vigour of an Ethno-Medicinal Horse-Gram Seeds


under Stressful Storage Environment using Selected Chemicals
Chandan Kumar Pati1* and Alok Bhattacharjee2
1Saldiha College, Saldiha-722 173, Bankura, West Bengal, India,
2 Burdwan University, Burdwan-713 104, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: cpbotany@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: Horse gram, Na-DK, Ascorbic acid, Plant vigour, Accelerated ageing.

ABSTRACT
Pretreatment of horse-gram (Dolichos biflorus L. cv BR-5) seeds with aqueous
solutions of sodium dikegulac (Na-DK) and ascorbic acid (100 g ml-1 of each) for
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6 hours before accelerated ageing treatment (99.1% RH and 3220C) for different
durations (0 to 30 days) slowed down the rapid loss of germination and reduced the
time (h) required for 50% seed germination (T50) in both the species. The chemicals
also significantly arrested profuse leakage of amino acids from seeds. Concomitantly,
the reduction of protein, insoluble carbohydrate, DNA and RNA levels as well as
activity of catalase enzyme of seed kernels during forced ageing period was ameliorated
to a significant extent in the chemical-pretreated seeds. Conversely, ageing-induced
stimulation of the activity of amylase enzyme was alleviated by the seed pretreating
agents. Again, potted plants raised from the pretreated seeds showed better
performance, measured in terms of some vital physiological and biochemical parameters.
The promising effects of the experimental chemicals on storage potentiation of the
seeds and enhancement of plant vigour are apparent in this investigation.

B-4 Seed Treatments for Improved Retention of Vigour, Viability and Yield

Potential of Low-Medium-Vigour Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds


D. Saha* and A. K. Mandal
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkala-700019, West Bengal, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: salia.debasi.s.1731@gmail,com
Keywords: Seed treatment, Sunflower, Storability, Yield

ABSTRACT
Hydration-dehydration treatment of four-month-old (low-medium-vigour) sunflower
(1-Ielianams annuity L.) seeds showed highly significant improvement in post-storage
germinability as well as the field performance of the resultant crop over untreated
control. The seeds were also treated with aspirin @ 50 mg/kg of seed; bleaching
powder @ 2 g/kg of seed; para-amino-benzoic acid @500 mg/kg of seed; red chilli
powder (a) l g/kg of seed and neem leaf powder @) 2g/kg of seed. Among the dry
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

treatments, only the bleaching powder and red chilli powder treated seeds showed
significant improvement in storability and productivity but not better than the hydrationdehydration treatment. Based on the above results, hydration-dehydration treatment
may be suggested for the improvement of germinability and yield potential of stored
low-medium-vigour sunflower seeds.

B-5 Mitigation of Phytotoxic Effects of HgCl2 by using Hydro and


Nitrate Salt Primed Seeds of Wheat
Mahesh Kumar1, Sananda Mondal2 and Bandana Bose3
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, (U.P.) India 221005.
*Corresponding Author Email: bbosebhu@gmail.com
Keywords: Seed Priming, Nitrate Salt, Phototoxic Effect

ABSTRACT
The present investigation explores the role of seed priming in mitigating the phytotoxic
effects of HgCl2 (0-1mM) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (var. HUW-468).
Increasing concentration of HgCl2 inhibited germination percentage, -amylase activity,
soluble sugar content, seedling emergence (%), shoot and root length, except insoluble
sugar, chlorophyll and proline content in seed/ endosperm/ seedling in respect to control.
Hydroprimed set performed better during preliminary hours of germination whereas in
later hours nitrate primed sets [Mg(NO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2] showed improvement in said
parameters. Seedling emergence at 6 days, root length at 10 days, proline and chlorophyll
(a and b) contents at 25 days were found maximum in Mg(NO3)2 and 1mM HgCl2 +
Mg(NO3)2 treated sets respectively.

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B-6 Desiccation and Chilling Sensitivity an Impediment for ex situ


Conservation of Recalcitrant Seeds: A Study on Tropical and
Temperate Recalcitrant Seeds
Manisha Thapliyal
Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, 48006, Uttarakhand,
*Corresponding Author Email: thapliyalm@icfre.org
Keywords: Diploknema butyracea, Quercus leucotrichophora, Chilling, Desiccation
sensitivity, Germination, Recalcitrant seeds

ABSTRACT
Sensitivity of recalcitrant seeds to desiccation and chilling was tested to develop
storage techniques. Seeds had initial germination of 86% and 36.31% moisture content
(MC), desiccated very fast upon extraction and registered a decline in germination.
Desiccation of seeds below 20% moisture led to drastic decline in germinability from
49.50 to 6.66%. They could not survive at temperatures below 200C owing to the high
moisture content. Quercus leucotrichophora is an ecologically important species of
sub-tropical and temperate forests. Its acorns (seeds) had high initial germination of
95% and MC of 43.15%, upon reduction of its moisture to 30.85% germination also
came down to 58.33% but below 30% mc, it steeply declined to 6.67%. The acorns
stored for longest duration (2.5 years) at 50C maintaining above 30% viability, whereas
acorns did not survive above a year at higher temperatures and suffered freezing injury
at zero and sub-zero temperatures due to high MC. Thus, seeds of D. butyracea are
tropical recalcitrant in storage physiology and are difficult to store safely above a month
due to their extreme sensitivity to desiccated and chilling whereas acorns of Q.
leucotrichophora were temperate recalcitrant as they could tolerate chilling but not
desiccation. They could safely be stored in non-desiccated state at low temperature for
above two years.

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B-7 Effect of Different Substrate for Production of Artificial Seed in


Stevia rebaudiana
Mohd. Kamran Khan, Pradeep K Shukla*, Pragati Misra, and P. W. Ramteke
Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture,
Technology & Sciences (Deemed-to-be-University), Naini, Allahabad-211007, India
*Corresponding Author Email: pradeepshuklak@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: Artificial seeds, Stevia rebaudiana, Substrate, Adenine sulphate, Encapsulation

ABSTRACT
Artificial seeds make a promising technique for propagation of transgenic plants and
plant lines with problems in seed production. An experiment was conducted to study the
role of different substrate for the production of artificial seeds in Stevia rebaudiana.
Artificial seed germination occurred within 7 days after inoculation primarily by breaking
open the calcium alginate matrix resulting in the emergence of shoots. The Best rooting
with the maximum lengths of roots were observed with NAA 1 mg/l. The plantlets were
successfully subjected to hardening media containing Soil + Solarite + Vermiculite (2:1:1)
showed the maximum survival percentage in the foam cups.

B-8 Seed Treatments for Extended Storability and Their Physiology on


Different Vigour Status of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)
P. Guha* and A. K. Mandal
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta,
35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: piyali.guha30@gmail.com
Keywords: Seed treatment, Vigour status, Okra, Storability, Biochemical changes.

ABSTRACT
Dry dressing of different vigour lots viz., high-vigour (HV) Medium-vigour (MV)and
low-vigour (LV) of okra seeds with pharmaceutical formulations (aspirin @ 50 mg/ kg of
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seed); crude plant materials viz., red chilli powder (Capsicum frutescence L. @ I g/ kg
of seed) and neem leaf powder (Azadirachta indica L. @ 2 g/ kg of seed); and wet
treatment (soaking-drying) showed significant post-storage germinability of okra over their
respective control. Most of the dry treatments has shown better results in improving
germinability over control, especially in case of HV seed. But in case of MV seed, dry
treatments showed a marginal LV improvement on germinability than the untreated ones.
In LV seeds, dry treatments did not show any significant improvement on vigour and
viability over untreated control. Soaking- drying treatment showed adverse effect on
Germinability in HV okra seeds, probably due to soaking injury. But, in case of MV 14wvigkir seeds, soaking-drying gave better results in improving storability over their respective
untreated control. The treatment effects are positively correlated with the different vigour
status in improving germinability of the okra seeds. Similar trends of results were observed
in physiological and biochemical studies in reducing the leakage of electrolytes and sugar;
lower volatile aldehyde production; and higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity by the
treated seed over their respective untreated control. The present study reveals that the
dry seed treatments with aspirin and red chilli powder in 141, 1.-1 LV seeds; and wet
treatment viz., soaking-drying in medium- and LV seeds may be suggested for the
retention of vigour and viability during storage of okra.

B-9 Saturation Mapping of QTL Region and Identification of Putative


Candidate Genes for Grain Nutritive Value in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Rakesh Kumar Verma*, G. Chandel and V. Premi
IGKV Raipur Chattisgarh 492006.
*Corresponding Author Email: rv_rakesh2007@ yahoo. com
Keywords: Saturation mapping, QTL, Rice, Candidate gene

ABSTRACT
Micronutrient deficiency also known as hidden hunger is a common malnutrition
problem in the present world. In this study Co-segregation of alleles and grain Fe, Zn,
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

Protein and tryptophan content were analyzed using F6 mapping population of cross
between Swarna (Low) and Moroberekan (High) rice genotypes. SSRs markers were
designed from 5 known QTLs for grain Fe/Zn and Protein content in rice and analyzed
using in-silico tools for metal transporter or membrane transporter genes and out of that
2 SSR markers were associated with Fe and Zn content, one with protein and rest three
with tryptophan content.

B-10 High Dilutions of Sodium Chloride Mitigates Salt Stress in


Germinating Cowpea Seeds
Sandhimita Mondal*, Soma Sukul (nee Chunari) and N. C. Sukul
Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India, *Corresponding Author
Email: sandhimita@gmail.com
Keywords : Salinity, Cowpea, Germination, Natrum mur, Growth, Chlorophyll, Rubisco.

ABSTRACT
High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops. The
purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could alleviate salt
stress in germinating cowpea seeds. Water-soaked seeds were kept over moist filter
paper in covered petridishes which were divided into 5 groups : (1) unstressed and
untreated control in sterile distilled water, (2) in 100mM sodium chloride solution, (3) seeds
pretreated with Natrum mur 200c and then kept in sterile distilled water, (4) seeds
pretreated with Natrum mur 200c and then transferred to 100mM NaCl solution and (5)
seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol. Both Natrum mur 200c and its diluent medium 90%
ethanol were diluted with distilled water 1 : 100 before use for treatment. Natrum mur
200c increased the rate of seed germination, seed water content and growth of seedlings.
Chlorophyll, soluble and insoluble sugar, rubisco and total protein content as compared to
the untreated salt stressed group. All the data were analyzed by ANOVA and the
significance level was not less than 1%. Natrum mur 200c reversed the effects of salt
stress in germinated seeds thereby providing evidence for Hahnemanns similia principle
in plants.

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B-11 Optimization of Seed Production Techniques in Single Cross Maize


Hybrid HEMA (NAH-1137)
Vinutha, K. S.*, S. Rajendra Prasad, Rame Gowda, P. Ravishakar, Parashivamurthy and
J. Shanthala
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, Karnataka, India, *Corresponding
Author Email: vinuthaks.mysore@gmail.com
Keywords : Single cross, Seed maize, NAH-1137

ABSTRACT
The field experiment was carried out in NSP in kharif 2011. Better synchronization
of flowering was observed in S2 with 50% female silking in 56.83 days and male tasseling
in 55.95 days followed by S3 (55.94 and respectively) with higher seed yield (130.86 g/
plant), seed yield (2.62 kg/plot) and seed yield (42.81 q/ha). Among the planting ratios,
higher seed yield (3.26 kg/plot), seed yield (34.51 q/ha) was recorded in P3 and lower in
P1 (1.49 kg/plot and 34.51 q/ha respectively). Clipping had no effect on seed yield or
quality parameters of single cross maize hybrid.

C. Plant Biotechnology, Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry


C-1 Effect of Coconut Milk on Chromosomes of Shoot Derived Callus
Tissues of Jute (Corchrous olitorius L. variety JRO-632)
A. Chatterjee1 and P. K. Ghosh2
of Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany,
University of Calcutta,35,Ballygunge Circular Road,Calcutta-700047.West Bengal. 2CSB,
CSR&TI, Berhampore-742101, Murshidabad, W.B.
1Centre

Keywords : Corchorus olitorius L., Shoot Explant, Chromosome, Coconut Milk.

ABSTRACT
Jute seeds (Corchorus olitorius L. Variety JRO-632) were grown in in vitro in
Whites medium. The root explants were collected from in vitro growing seedlings and
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were cultured aseptically in both Murashige and Skoogs (MS) and Schenk and Hildebrandts
(SH) media with different combinations and concentrations of auxins and cytokinins
whereas in other cases no auxins was utilized. Callus tissues were obtained from the
epicotyls explants in MS basal medium supplemented with Iodole Acetic Acid (IAA) and
coconut milk. When the concentration of coconut milk was gradually increased vigorous
growth of the callus tissues was observed. Coconut Milk also enhanced rapid growth of
the callus tissues. Cytological analysis revealed that the callus tissues are mixoploid,
diploid, polyploidy in nature. The present investigation indicates that coconut milk plays an
important role in in vitro culture of shoot derived callus tissues and its role in chromosomal
change during in vitro growth of callus tissues.

C-2 Mosquito Repellant Fabrics Using Microencapsulation Methods


A. Yashwant Kumar and V. Senthil Kumar
Govt. College of Technology, Thadagam Rd, Coimbatore,
Email: yashkumar1992 @gmail. com
Keywords : Microencapsulation, Enzymes

ABSTRACT
Almost all of the contagious diseases in the society are spread by vectors. These
vectors play a dominant role in a disease outback involving 7.038 billion people around the
globe. Mosquitoes are such vectors which spread disease rapidly by feeding on a diseased
person and then transmitting it to a normal person. This goes in chain manner. Many
dreadful diseases like dengue, chicken guinea and filarial are caused by mosquito. The
common chemical used against them DEET is harmful and creates lung disorder. Hence
natural elements which have a strong irritation power to mosquito by damaging their
receptors, thereby repelling them for a certain distance. Certain elements like catnip, tea
tree oil, garlic, neem tree, pythrium, citronella oil, eucalyptus oil, spearmint repel mosquitoes
to some extent, thereby preventing their contacts. Though the exact molecule causing this
property is unknown, they are carefully extracted from leaves and bark. They are
attached to the fabrics by microencapsulation methods involving enzymes (like cellulase)
of various layers. The main challenges of retaining these molecules on fabric are to be
sought by developing a triggering mechanism for release of these molecules. Further
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charging the encapsulation mixture to bind with the fabric bearing opposite charge is
experimented.

C-3 Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Certain Agricultural Botanicals


against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Strains
Aishwarya, Pradeep K Shukla, Pragati Misra*, Sanghdeep Gautam, Sasya Nagar, Yogendra
Singh and P. W. Ramteke
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Basic Sciences, Department of Tissue
Engineeering, Jacob School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sam Higginbottom
Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, (Deemed-to-be-University), Naini,
Allahabad-211007, India. *Corresponding Author Email: pragatimisra3@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Antibacterial efficacy, Multiple Drug Resistance, Agricultural botanicals, Leaf extract

ABSTRACT
Plants provide a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds, as plants derived
medicines have made large contributions to human health and wellbeing. The antimicrobial
activity of the leaf extracts of Emblica officinalis, Allium sativum, Withania somnifera
and Adathoda vasica against some multiple drug resistant bacteria (Staphylococcus
aureus MCCB0066, Escherichia coli MCCB0124, Klebsiella pneumoniae MCCB001
and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa MCCB0035) was evaluated using agar well diffusion
method. The results showed that all the bacterial strains were found to be sensitive to
aqueous and ethanol extracts. But, the organic extracts were comparatively more
effective than the aqueous extracts.

C-4 Expression of a Synthetic Bt gene in Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)


Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera L.)
Alok Das*, S. Datta, K. R. Soren, P. G. Patil, S. D. Mohapatra, S. K. Chaturvedi and
N. Nadarajan
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur 208024, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: alokbio@gmail.com
Keywords : Pigeon pea, Auxins, Cytokinins, Transformation, Bt-gene, Kanamycin, Gram pod borer
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ABSTRACT
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) is the second most important grain legume of India,
and constitutes an important component of protein intake in human diet. The gram pod
borer (Helicoverpa armigera L.) is the most destructive insect pest of pigeon pea,
accounting to 10-40% loss annually. Insecticidal gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis
(Bt) was shown to confer resistance against lepidopteran pests in many crop species. A
synthetic Bt gene (cry1Ac) under constitutive promoter (CaMV35S), mobilized into
Agrobacterium was used for genetic transformation of pigeon pea. Constitutive expression
of synthetic cry1Ac in pigeon pea exhibited high neonate mortality (95-100%). Elite lines
with stable expression can be used as donor in insect resistance breeding programme.

C-5 Study of Water Stress Induced Osmolytes Accumulation and Activity


and Gene Expression of Enzymes Involved in Osmolyte Biosynthesis in
Wheat Genotypes
Aradhna Kumari1*, Santosh Kumar Singh2 and R.K. Sairam3
1College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Ganj Basoda, M.P. 464221, 2RAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar
848125, 3 Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi 110012. *Corresponding Author
Email: merymitu@gmail.com
Keywords : Wheat, Osmolytes, Soluble sugars, Proline, Trehalose, Glycine betaine

ABSTRACT
Drought stress is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth
of plants in India. Osmotic adjustment (OA) is an important adaptive response to this
situation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The objectives of this study were to determine
the relationships between osmolyte accumulation and activity and gene expression of
enzymes involved in osmolyte synthesis under water stress in different wheat genotypes.
Role of osmolytes in imparting water stress tolerance was studied in five selected wheat
genotypes, two tolerant and three susceptible selected on the basis of physiological and
yield parameters. Accumulation of total soluble sugars, proline, glycine betaine and
trehalose takes place in all genotypes under water stress in comparison to control. But
tolerant genotypes like C306 and HD2987 maintained higher level of these osmolytes in
comparison to water stress susceptible varieties HD2733, PBW343 and HD2967 under
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water stress. Studies on osmolyte synthesizing enzymes activity and transcript abundance
showed that water stress induced transcription level changes resulted in increased activity
of various enzymes involved in osmolyte synthesis, which ultimately lead to increased
accumulation of various osmolytes.

C-6 Effects of Chemical Growth Retardants for Submergence Tolerance in


Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
B. Pradhan*, S. Kundu and S. Kundagrami
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkata-700019. *Corresponding Author Email: geneticsbisu@gmail.com
Keywords : Submergence, Paclobutrazol, Abscisic acid (ABA), Genetic variability

ABSTRACT
Two growth retardants namely paclobutrazol (5M/lt) and abscisic acid (5M/lt) at
pre vegetative stage were given as foliar spray of before two days of submergence with
resistant check IR64 sub1 and three susceptible varieties viz. IR42, Swarna and IR64
under drum & pot screening method. The growth retardant reduces the stem elongation
per day, elongation %, plant height after submergence but increases the survival %. The
important genetic variability parameters viz. CV, GCV, PCV, h%, GA and GA% of mean
were estimated for all characters after treatment effect. Less difference of G.C.V and
P.C.V and high heritability coupled with high genetic gain in all of the characters suggest
they are controlled by additive genes and selection based on the characters will be
effective for breeding to submergence tolerance.

C-7 Genetic Diversity Studies of Different Wild and Cultivated Rice Species
Using SSR Markers
D. Swain, S. Samanta Ray, Hemalata Kumari Das and H. N. Subudhi
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753006, Odisha, India. *Corresponding Author
Email:dr_dswain@yahoo.com
Keywords : Oryza, SSR, Genetic diversity, Species relationship
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ABSTRACT
In the present investigation, 41 microsatellite molecular markers were used to explore
the Phylogenetic relationships among closely related wild rice species, elite cultivars and
landraces of the genus Oryza, a pre-requisite for successful introgression of alien genes.
SSR derived dendrogram analysis; Jaccards similarity co-efficient and Principal Coordinate Analysis were completed successfully. There was a total of 209 bands generated
consisting 161 polymorphic (70.03%) and 48 unique. RM24260 produced maximum
number of 11 bands and the lowest number of one band was produced by RM13357 and
RM 17600. The species having AA genome (consisting cultivars, landraces and wild
species) were segregated in to six closely related clusters revealing wide genetic
variability. The wild species of the genus Oryza, belonging to different genomic groups
other than AA, were segregated in to five divergent groups and as expected, the species
having closely related genomes occupied the same group. The species having CC, CCDD
genome occupied the same group. The species having EE, FF, GG, HHJJ and HHKK
genome occupied different groups respectively. It was quite interesting to note that all four
different accessions of O. coarctata, having HHKK genome occupied the same group.
It thus proved that the SSR markers used in this study were quite efficient to decipher
the genetic diversity/closeness to a great extent among the different species of the genus
Oryza.

C-8 Cloning of Full Length cDNA of Annexin2 and Annexin4 from Pearl Millet
Deepa Dhatwalia 1, C. Tara Satyawathi 2 and Sharmistha Barthakur*
Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012, India,
2Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi 110012, India. *Corresponding
Author Email: sbthakur@yahoo.com

1National

Keywords : Pearl millet, Annexins, Drought, Expression profiling.

ABSTRACT
Annexins are multigene, multifunctional family of proteins with a broad taxonomic
distribution, characterized by their type II calcium binding motif. They are widely involved
in plant high temperature stress tolerance. Pennisetum glaucum is a very hardy crop and
produces grain and fodder under very hot and dry conditions including poor soils. Twelve
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Pearl millet cultivars were selected for analysis of annexins. After extensive transcript
expression analysis, two full length cDNAs were isolated, cloned and confirmed by
sequencing using RT PCR from D23 (tolerant) and PPMI69 (sensitive) cultivars utilizing
rice annexin primers. That may further be used in development of lines tolerant to heat.

C-9 Comparative Assessment of Growth Performance of Embryogenic


Suspension Culture of Pinus kesiya (Royle Ex. Gord.) in Shake Flask and
Self Designed Bubble Bioreactor and Regeneration of Plantlets from the
Culture Systems
Hiranjit Choudhury1* and Pramod Tandon2
1School

of Technology, 2School of Life Sciences, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong


793022, Meghalaya, India, *Corresponding Author Email: hiranjit_c@yahoo.com

Keywords : Pinus kesiya, Somatic embryogenesis, Suspension culture, Self designed bubble
bioreactor (SdBB), Shake flask (SF), Sedimented cell volume (SCV)

ABSTRACT
Embryogenic suspensions of Pinus kesiya (khasi pine) derived from embryogenic
cultures raised from immature zygotic embryos (intact megagametophytes) of Pk-04
genotype were grown in shake flasks and self-designed bubble bioreactors. Growth
characteristics viz., sedimented cell volume, and number of stage-I (early stage) and -III
(cotyledonary) embryo formation in suspensions were determined over a 21-day period.
Compared to shake flasks (349 ml l-1 SCV), proliferation in bioreactors resulted in
increased biomass (408 ml l-1 SCV). Number of stage-III (cotyledonary) embryos formed
(40 ml-1 suspension) in SdBB was significantly higher than SF cultures (16 ml-1
suspension). The result indicated that 1 lit of suspension culture in SdBB has the potential
to produce > 40 thousand stage-III embryos as compared to 16 thousand with SF
suspension culture system in P. kesiya. Maturation of somatic embryos was done on
gelled medium. Percent maturation frequency was found maximum (1.8) with SdBB
culture as against SF culture (1.1). The matured cotyledonary embryos germinated
successfully producing plantlets on germination medium. The percentage germination of
somatic embryos ranged from 71.97-70.15 and the percentage plantlet formation varied
between 83.79-80.52 in all culture systems showing no significant difference.
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C-10 Anatomical and Physiological Factors Determining Fibre Fineness in Jute


J. H. Meshram*, P. Palit and B. S. Mahapatra
Central Research Institute for Jute & Allied Fibres, (ICAR), Barrackpore, Kolkata-700120,
India. *Corresponding Author Email: j.h.meshram@gmail.com
Keywords : Jute, Lignin deficient mutant, Finer fibre

ABSTRACT
Jute (Corchorus capsularis L and C. olitorius L.) is a versatile crop of many
usages with added environmental benefit. From the anatomy of jute stem the quality of
fibre has been shown to have close relationship with structure of individual (ultimate) cells
and shape of fibre bundle. The fibre fineness is a significant determinant of the value of
raw jute fibre and of fundamental importance to spinners for fine yarn. The fineness (tex)
of fibre depends on the structural characteristics of the cell wall. The wall characteristics
are in turn regulated by genetic make-up and the signal(s) at different developmental
stages of the plant. Lignification of the fibre cell wall was found to be the central factor
to regulate fineness. The wall thickness (m) was found to be negatively related to the
fineness of a plant, indicating that the reduction of cell wall thickness would be an
important parameter for improving fibre fineness. The biochemical and hormonal control
of the cell wall development has been elucidated.

C-11 Genetic Diversity in Mediterranean and Its Derivative Materials


Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers and Phenotypic Traits
Jitendra Kumar* and Ekta Srivastva
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024 (UP).
*Corresponding Author Email: jitendra73@gmail.com
Keywords : Genetic diversity, SSR, PCA

ABSTRACT
Genetic diversity among 12 lentil genotypes comprising local and exotic germplasm,
elite breeding lines and improved cultivars released in India was analyzed using SSR
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markers. Out of 65 SSR markers, 43 SSR markers (66%) showed polymorphism and
generated a total of 242 alleles with an average of 5.6 alleles per SSR markers. Alleles
per marker were ranged from 2 to 7. The polymorphic information content was ranged
0.57 to 0.99 with an average of 0.95 suggesting that SSR markers are highly polymorphic
among the studied genotypes. A dendrogram based on genetic similarity grouped these
accessions into two main clusters. The genetic similarity among genotypes was ranged
42% to 64% suggesting high level of genetic diversity among the genotypes. First three
components of PCA explained 49.7% of total genetic variation suggesting further that
present genotypes are diverse. These genotypes also showed a range of variability for
phenotypic traits. Analysis of the pedigree of present genotypes revealed that most of
genotypes have genotypes in their pedigree originated from Mediterranean region. Thus
these results clearly demonstrated that use of germplasm of Mediterranean region have
diversified the genetic base of lentil germplasm at molecular and phenotypic level.

C-12 Role of Heat Shock Transcription Factors and Heat Shock Proteins in
High Temperature Tolerance of Wheat
Krishna Kumar G.*, R. K. Sairam and Lekshmy S.
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012. *Corresponding Author Email:
kkphysiologist@gmail.com
Keywords : Temperature stress, Wheat, HSP, HSF, Tolerance.

ABSTRACT
High temperature stress is a major constraint for wheat production in India. The
present study was conducted with genotypes viz. Halna, DBW 14 (Thermo-tolerant) and
HD 2687 (Susceptible), sown on 25th November, 15th December and 10th January of
2010-11. High temperature stress led to reduction in relative water content, membrane
stability index, pigments and photosynthesis. Halna and DBW 14 maintained better yield
stability index under high temperature. Expression profiling of heat shock factor, HSFA4a
and proteins, HSP16.9, HSP17.3, HSP80 and HSP101c revealed higher in tolerant
genotype. The study concluded that up-regulation of HSFs and HSPs played decisive role
in thermo-tolerance.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

C-13 Marker Free and Tissue Specific Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene
for Enhanced Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice
Kutubuddin Molla1, Subhasis Karmakar2, Palas K. Chanda3,
Swapan K. Datta4, Karabi Datta5*
1University of Calcutta, Cicular Road, Kolkata, W.B., India; 2CMTHIDR, TMHRI, Hauston,
Texus, USA; 3ICAR, New Delhi, India,
*Corresponding author E.mail address: krbdatta@yahoo.com
Keywords : Chitinase, Marker free transgenic, Co-transformation, Sheath blight, Enhanced
resistance, Rhizoctonia solani.

ABSTRACT
A rice chitinase (chi11) gene was cloned under the control of a rice green tissue
specific promoter PD540 generating the transformation cassette PCN. For marker free
transgenic, the made construct PCN was successfully cotransformed biolistically into rice
genome keeping the selectable marker gene in a separate vector background. The
integration of transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern blot analysis. Six T1 plants
were identified as marker free transgenics which were obtained by Mendelian segregation.
Bioassay of detached leaf using mycelial agar disc and isolated RS toxin from Rhizoctonia
solani showed enhanced resistance against the disease.

C-14 Herbal Seed Treatments and Application of Hoaglands Nutrient


Solution-Tools for Tolerating Salinity Stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
M. Das*, D. Roy Choudhury and S. Kundagrami
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of
Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019,
Corresponding Author Email: mou.19may@gmail.com
Keywords : Chickpea, Herbal seed treatment, Salinity tolerance, Hoaglands nutrient solution

Chickpea is an important pulse crop rich source of vegetable protein and play a vital
role in sustainable agriculture. Acreage and production of chickpea is very low compared
to national average in west bangal due to several constraints. A major portion of coastal
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area remains uncultivated in rabi season. Studies were conducted to make possible use
of waste saline land through improving field performance of chickpea by treating the
seeds with nineteen different herbal materials. Salinity tolerances of the treated seeds
were tested both in laboratory and in field condition. It was observed that some treatments
like coriander, turmeric, chilli, jeera, neem and betel vine were able to enhance salinity
tolerance and field performance of chickpea significantly. Besides, in another experiment
Hoaglands Solution was applied as exogenous nutrient which significantly alleviated
adverse effect of salinity by increasing survival percentage and seedling vigour of the
chickpea germplasm under salt stress condition.

C-15 Screening of Advanced Back Cross Lines for Drought Tolerance in


Rice (Oryza sativa L)
M. Girija Rani*, K. S. N Prasad, P. V. Satyanarayana and Y. Suryanarayana
Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Maruteru 534 122, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: girija_aprri@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Drought tolerance, Rice, SSRs, Yield

ABSTRACT
Drought is one of the serious abiotic stresses limiting productivity of rice under dry
spells in crop season. Hence, present study was aimed to estimate heritability of yield and
its components under low land stress for direct selection of yield in fifty advanced back
cross lines derived from drought susceptible Samba Mahsuri and tolerant Azucena besides
screening with yield QTL linked molecular markers. High heritability for broad sense was
observed in days to 50% flowering followed by spikelet fertility and grain yield per plant
indicating direct selection for yield under stress is practicable in evolving drought tolerant
rice varieties with yield potential. Thirty one advanced back cross lines (BC2F3) co
segregating for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) linked to yield QTLs under low land
stress viz., RM 520 linked to DTY 3.1 on chromosome 3 and RM 236 linked to DTY 2.1
on chromosome 2, exceeding yield of susceptible parent were advanced to BC2F4. These
results suggested that direct selection for yield under water stress coupled with marker
assisted screening would help in precise selection of genotypes for drought prone areas
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

C-16 Comparative Analyses of Structural Properties of Argonaute Proteins


in Two Important Crop Plants (Oryza sativa and Hordeum vulgare)
Moumita Adhikary, Sohini Gupta, Paushali Roy, Sayak Ganguli* and Abhijit Datta
DBT Centre for Bioinformatics,
Presidency University, Kolkata,
*Corresponding Author
Email: sayakbif@yahoo.com
Keywords : Argonaute, Oryza, Hordeum, Molecular modeling, Structural analyses.

ABSTRACT
The cultivated species of rice are Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. Oryza
sativa is grown all over the world while Oryza glaberrima has been cultivated in West
Africa for the last 3500 years. The exact origin of barley is debatable, possibly originating
in Egypt, Ethiopia, the Near East or Tibet. However, we are fairly certain that barley was
among the earliest cultivated grains, around the same time as domestication of wheat.
Barley was grown in the Middle East prior to 10,000 BC, but barleys cultivation in China
and India probably occurred later. Barley was grown on the Korean Peninsula by 1500850 BC along with millet, wheat, and legumes. Six- rowed barley did not come about until
after 6000 BC. In ancient Egypt (3200 BC to 30 BC) barley bread and beer (made from
barley) constituted a complete diet. This work mainly focuses on the analyses of
conserved structural features in argonautes belonging to both Oryza and Hordeum.
Argonaute proteins are the second most key player after Dicer in the small RNA
mediated silencing pathways. Their structure has been studied over the years and
important features such as domain organizations have been identified. However plant
argonautes have not been studied in great detail due to the lack of availability sequence
information and crystallographic structures. As RNA interference gradually occupies the
centre stage of plant modification and crop transformation experiments, it is important to
understand the structural conservedness and variations in argonautes so as to design
effective non coding RNAs with the potential to develop better selectable plants.
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C-17 Development of Salinity Tolerant Transgenic Rice Plant with Rab16A


Gene Driven by Stress Inducible Promoter
Moumita Ganguly1*, Swapan Kumar Datta2 and Karabi Datta3
of Botany, University of Kolkata, Kolkata, 2ICAR, New Delhi.
*Corresponding Author Email: moumita.pmbbl@gmail.com

1,3Department

Keywords : Abiotic stress, Salinity, Stress Inducible promoter, Transgenic Rice

ABSTRACT
Development of salinity tolerant transgenic rice plant was done with Rab16A gene
driven by stress inducible promoter. The functional characterization of this stress inducible
Rab promoter was studied by linked to gusA gene. The accumulation of gusA transcript
increased with increasing salt/ABA concentration with ABA being the better activator in
this case. Molecular analysis of the transgenic plant with Rab16A gene revealed stable
integration of the transgene. High level of expression was detectable under simulated
salinity stress (250 mM NaCl, 24 h). Enhanced tolerance to salinity was observed in the
plants transformed with Rab16A. This demonstrates the potentiality of Group 2 LEA
proteins i.e. Rab16A in crop biotechnology in conferring salinity tolerance through genetic
manipulation.

C-18 Enhancing Physiological Efficiency of Pulses for Improved Adaptation


to Changing Climate
Mudit Srivastava*, Shivangi Singh, Priyanka Porwal, Shweta Gupta and P. S. Basu
Indian Institute of Pulses Research (ICAR), Kanpur-208024 (UP).
*Corresponding Author Email: psbasu@icar.org.in
Keywords : Climate change, Pulse, Physiology

ABSTRACT
Pulses are major source of protein for majority of the Indians. Being rainfed crop and
with a projected rise in the temperature and water crisis by end of this century, the pulses
are considered to be the most threatened crop species in respect to climate change.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

Therefore a large number of germplasm of pigeon pea, chickpea, green gram and black
gram were screened for improved heat and drought tolerance. Photosynthesis sharply
decreased beyond 35C in all pulses under drought, however pigeon pea and chickpea
recovered fast to normal photosynthesis when temperature dropped below 35C but green
gram and black gram (Vigna sp.) could not revive. The improved adaptation of pigeon pea
and chickpea under drought was associated with high osmotic adjustment (1.4 MPa)
which also imparts tolerance to high temperature. The lack of osmotic adjustment in
Vigna sp. could be the possible factor of poor adaptation to drought and high temperature.
A large number of germplasm including wild species were screened for combined
tolerance to drought and heat based upon osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis.

C-19 Effect of Plant Derived Gelling Agents as Agar Substitute in


Micropropagation of Mulberry (Morus indica L. Cv. S-1635)
N. Lalitha*, L. M. Devi, R. Banerjee, S. Chattopadhyay,
A. K. Saha and B. B. Bindroo
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute,
Central Silk Board, Berhampore 742101, W.B. India.
*Corresponding Author Email: lalitha.csrti@gmail.com
Keywords : Mulberry, Micro-propagation media, Agar

ABSTRACT
Three putative gelling agents namely corn flour (Zea mays var. amylacea), Cassava
powder (Manihot esculenta) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinaceae) and their
combinations with agar have been tested in search of a cheap potential gelling agent for
mulberry (Morus indica L. cv. S-1635) micropropagation. Results revealed that corn
flour at 22 gl-1 in combination with 3.5 gl-1 agar produced significantly higher micro- shoots
of length (4.57 0.32 cm) among the treatments. The selected plant derived alternative
gelling agents are easily available in the market and can be added with ease thereby,
serving as inexpensive substitute of agar. The design and adoption of cost efficient tissue
culture protocols is a prerequisite in the adoption of the low cost tissue culture technology
in developing countries.

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C-20 Cloning, Characterization and Temporal Expression Profiling of Inositol


Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase (Ipk1) Gene in the Developing Seeds of
Glycine max L.
Nabaneeta Basak, Mansi Punjabi, Vanita Pandey and Archana Sachdev*
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India, *Corresponding Author
Email:arcs_bio@yahoo.com
Keywords : IPK1, Quantitative expression, Developing seeds, Inositol phosphates

ABSTRACT
Phytic acid, the most abundant myo-inositol form contributing mainly to phosphorus
storage in plant seeds, strongly chelates essential mineral cations and charged proteins
decreasing their bioavailabilty. Amongst the biosynthetic pathway enzymes, IPK1 (Inositol
pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of phytic acid. In the
present study, a coding sequence of soybean (Glycine max L. var. Pusa 9712) IPK1 was
amplified from developing seeds of soybean by RT-PCR using suitable primers. The
transcribed sequence had an open reading frame of 1371 bp encoding 456 amino acids.
Phylogenetic analysis indicated a high degree of similarity (99%) to the GmIPK1
nucleotide sequence available in the Genbank. Alignment of the deduced amino acids
carried out in various plant IPK1s showed the conserved regions. Computational analysis
predicted the occurrence of two trans-membrane helices and also revealed the presence
of a predominant ATP binding domain. Quantitative PCR revealed increased transcript
levels of IPK1 in the early stages of seed development reaching a maximum at 4-6 mm
sized seeds thus providing an insight into its expression profile.

C-21 Quantitative Study on Germination and Seedling Growth of


Abelmoschus esculentus Crop in Alkaline Soil Using Salicylic Acid
Pawar Shrikant H.* and Patil R. R.
School of Earth Science, Solapur University, Solapur. 413255. India, *Corresponding Author
Email: shri.pawar1@gmail.com
Keyword : Agriculture, Seed germination, Salicylic acid, Salinity.
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ABSTRACT
Saline alkaline-black cotton soil contains salts which may affect germination of seed
and seedling growth. In present study, the germination of Abelmoschus esculentus
(Ankur 41) under the salt stress and soil treated conditions with different salicylic acid
concentrations of (20ppm, 40ppm, 60ppm, 80ppm, and 100ppm) was studied under
carefully maintained laboratory conditions. Lowest germination (no seed germination) was
observed in soil with 40ppm concentration while highest (100%) germination was
observed in fertile soil with time gap of control after 48 hours. Seed germination (80%)
was observed in the treatment of salicylic acid with 60ppm concentration after 96 hours
while the least germination (10%) was observed in same condition applied to alkaline soil
without any treatment. After 10 days in control the lowest root length (1.1 cm) and shoot
length (0.7 cm) was observed while in 60ppm, highest root length up to 4.6 cm and shoot
length up to 2.7 cm was observed. After 21 days lowest root length 1.4 cm and shoot
length 1.3 cm was observed in saline soil without any treatment. Highest root length
observed was 4.9 cm and shoot length was 6.3 cm in 60ppm in the specific days.

C-22 Synthesis of Nanoparticles from Papaya and Ashwagandha: Forestry


Based Medicinal Plants
Pragati Misra, Pradeep K. Shukla, Sanghdeep Gautam* and George Thomas
School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sam Higginbottom Institute of
Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, *Corresponding Author
Email:sanghdeep007@gmail.com

1Jacob

Keywords : Nanoparticles, Synthesis, Silver, Ashwagandha, Papaya

ABSTRACT
Green fresh leaf extract of papaya, Ashwagandha, and root and fruit extract of
Ashwagandha were used to silver nanoparticle by green synthesis method. 1ml of
aqueous plant extract was added into 2ml aqueous solution of 1mM AgNO3 and 17ml
deionized water for reduction into Ag+ ions and kept at room temperature for 5hours. It
started to change the colour from watery to yellowish brown which indicated formation
of silver nanoparticles. The intensity of colour development was significantly higher in
Ashwagandha root followed by Ashwagandha leaves, papaya leaves, and least in
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Ashwagandha fruit. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by UV-Visible


spectroscopy.

C-23 Low Cost Mass Multiplication System in Anthurium andreanum (Hort)


Cultivars through Callus Mediated Organogenesis
Prakasha, D. P
College of Horticulture, Munirabad, Koppal-583 233.
*Corresponding Author Email: prakashdp@rediffmail.com
Keywords: Sun Glow, Chaco and Pistachio, Leaf lamina explants, Dark incubation

ABSTRACT
Anthurium is a cut flower species in the tropical and subtropical countries and mass
propagation of quality planting material through tissue culture techniques appears as a best
alternative to increase production. This study presents mass multiplication system through
callus mediated organogenesis in popular Anthurium andreanum cv. Sun Glow, Chaco
and Pistachio. Petiole with leaf showed highest callusing response (906.87) in cv. Sun
Glow and Leaf lamina with midrib explants in cv. Pistachio. Highest callus multiplication
ratio (4.35) was observed in cv. Pistachio and highest shoot buds per clump (26.29) in cv.
Sun Glow. After seventh subculture, the callus was incubated in dark for 45 days to shoot
bud elongation. Highest no. of shoot buds elongation was observed in cv. Sun Glow and
highest height of shoot was cv. Chaco (65.71 6.05). Then, shoots were separated,
inoculated in shoot multiplication/elongation medium and incubated in light. Remaining
callus was sub cultured in callus multiplication medium and incubated in dark. This
continued for 5-6 subculture callus, callus and shoot multiplication ratio was 2.43-2.60 and
1.55-2.56 in each cycle with highest callus multiplication ratio in cv. Chaco and shoot
multiplication ratio in Sun Glow. 13-24 shoots elongated from a bottle with highest shoot
height was observed in cv. Sun Glow and Shoots attained 5.1-6.4 cm and highest shoot
height was observed in cv. Chaco. 100 shoots were rooted on rooting medium. Rooted
shoots harden and transferred to beds for hardening. Then plants were transferred to poly
covers or pot with potting mixture, they appeared normal and flowered plants were
survived (73.5%- 93.6%) depends on cultivation.
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C-24 Purity Test of Three F1 Hybrids in Rice through Microsatellite Markers


Pritam Das1*, Biswarup Mukherjee 2, Chand Kumar Santra3, Sankar Mukhopadhyay4 and
Tapash Dasgupta5
1,2,5 Institute of Agricultural Science,
University of Calcutta, 51/2, Hazra Road, Kolkata 700019,
3,4Rice Research Station, Govt. of West Bengal, Chinsura, Hooghly- 712102,
*Corresponding Author Email: pritam.ag09@gmail.coni
Keywords : Hybrid rice, Seed purity, Microsatellite markers

ABSTRACT
Success and sustainability of hybrid rice technology solely depends on the purity of
F1 hybrid seeds. Microsatellite markers were used to analyze three hybrids in rice viz.,
KRH-2, CNRH103, CNRH-105* (*Under AICRP-IHR-2012) and their corresponding
parental lines were selected to analyze in 25 microsatellite SSR markers. Out of 25
primers, 18 primers amplified in all the samples. Among 18 successful primers having
amplified products, 5 primers namely RM 164, RM 206, RM 258, RM 276 and RM 12921
reproduced double bands in FIs also. This experiment had suggested that primers RM
164, RM 206 and RM 12921 can safely be used in DNA finger printing of the hybrid
KRH2, RM 276 for CNRH 103 and RM 258 for CNRH 105 respectively.

C-25 The Effect of Allelochemicals Released by Kalmegh (Andrographis


Paniculata L.) on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Food
Legumes
R. Chowdhury*, S. Bhattacharya and A. K. Mandal
Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkata-700019, West Bengal, India.
Corresponding Author Email: rchowdhury93@yahoo.com
Keywords : Kalmegh, Allelochemicals, Food Legumes, Germinability.

ABSTRACT
The extraction of leaf, stern and root of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata L.) at
different concentration showed significant reduction on seed germination and seedling
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vigour in four different food legumes such as black gram, green gram, bengal gram and
soybean. The allelochernicals in leaf, stem and root decrease the rate of germination and
seedling growth with the increase in concentration (maximum at 50%), probably due to
the presence of andrographolide. Leaf extract showed significant reduction in germination
percentage, root and shoot len 7th in all the crops due to highest amount of andrographolide.
Stern extract has also showed significant reduction on germinability in soybean and bengal
gram, where as root extraction showed a marginal inhibitory effect in all the four legumes.
The maximum inhibition on germination percentage and seedling length was noticed at
50% concentration of leaf extract of Kalmegh. The present study revealed that
allelochemicals (andrographolide) present in the different parts of Kalmegh inhibit seed
germination and seedling growth of four different food legumes.

C-26 Iron Deficiency Tolerance is Causally Related to the Phytosiderophore


Release Capacity of Root in Wheat
Rinki Khobra*, Sumedha Ahuja and Bhupinder Singh
Nuclear Research Laboratory,
Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi 110012,
*Corresponding Author Email: khobra.rinki@yahoo.in
Keywords : Phytosiderophore, Chelate, Retention Index

ABSTRACT
Soil micronutrient deficiency is a serious production constraint. Iron (Fe) and zinc
(Zn) deficiency in cultivable lands are rampant (in excess of 50% in India) and their
impact on human nutrition adverse. It is important to know that soil deficiency of most
of these micronutrients is not in terms of the content but in their availability for plant
uptake. Plants are not a completely passive player. Cereals have the ability to release
metal chelating non-proteinaceous amino acidsphytosiderophores- that can alter the
solubility, availability and uptake of metals. An experiment was conducted to ascertain the
role of phytosiderophore in iron deficiency tolerance of wheat. Iron deficiency tolerance
was determined from the shoot biomass production and greenness retention index of Fe
deficient in comparison to Fe sufficient plants. In the present study fifty genetically diverse

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

wheat lines were raised on Fe deficient (1mM) and Fe sufficient (100mM) nutrient
solution culture. Observations were recorded for the greenness retention, shoot and root
mass and root release of phytosiderophore at the 11 and 21 day stage. Genotypes that
were able to maintain a high mean greenness index (SPAD value) showed a higher Fe
uptake, its shoot partitioning and the phytosiderophores release under Fe deficiency. It is
concluded that the release of phytosiderophore causally determines the Fe deficiency
response of wheat.

C-27 Studies on the Effects of Heavy Metal Pollutants-Nickel & Cadmium;


Growth Substance-GA3 and Their Interaction on the Germination Responses
of the Seeds of Corchorus and Gossypium
Samir Chatterjee and Amrita Chatterjee
Institute of Sc. Edn.,
Burdwan University, W.B.
Keywords : Heavy metal, Nickel, Cadmium.

ABSTRACT
In the present investigation effects of heavy metal pollutants - Cadmium and Nickel
and the Growth substance GA3 on the germination response of the seeds of Corchorus
and Gossypium have been made. Both Cadmium and Nickel produced inhibition on
germination of the seeds of Corchorus and Gossypium and it was more pronounced with
higher concentration. Inhibition was more marked with Cadmium. GA3 induced higher rate
of germination of both species seed over control and more effective in lower concentration.
Effects of the interaction with GA3 on decreasing the germination inhibitory effect of
heavy metals Cadmium and Nickel were observed and this tendency was found to be
more significant on the seeds pre-treated with lower conc. of cadmium & Nickel and also
on the Cadmium pre-treated seed as compared to Nickel penetrated seeds, seeds of
Gossypium were found to be more responsive towards GA3 treatments, as compared to
the seeds of Corchous.

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C-28 Direct Somatic Embryogenesis from Cotyledon Explant in Jatropha curcas (Linn.)
Sanjay Biradar, Vishwanath Waghmare and *Narayan Pandhure
Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga, Dist. Osmanabad.-413606, (M.S.), India;
*Department of Botany, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,
Aurangabad-431001. (M.S.). India.
Email: sanjaybiradar2006@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Jatropha curcas. L, Somatic embryo, Cotyledon explants.

ABSTRACT
Present research works were initiated induction of embryogenic callus from cotyledon
explants on important biodiesel and medicinal plant Jatropha curcas. These explant
inoculated on MS medium with supplemented various concentration of growth hormone
like, BAP, IAA, GA3 with addition of proline and PEG. MS media containing 2, 4- D in
combination of BAP were able to initiation of callus. MS medium containing BAP at
various concentrations viz. 0.2, 04, 0.6, 0.8 mg/l with combination different concentrations
of GA3 like 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/l, IAA 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mg/l and proline observations
were also recorded. Induced callus from cotyledon explants were using Murashige and
Skoog (MS) medium with supplemented 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.6 mg/1 gibberellic acid (GA3),
and proline was able to produce direct somatic embryogenic callus. This method regeneration
of plant was more effective as compare to other methods because regeneration percentage
70% - 80% respectively. The percentage of embryo maturation was observed after three
weeks and the matured somatic embryos were subcultured on hormone free MS medium
for plant regeneration.

C-29 Studies on in-vitro Morphogenetic Response in Cowpea (Vigna


unguiculata L. Walp) Genotypes
Sarkar, A.
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Dt. Coochbehar, West Bengal - 736 165.
Email. : sarkarbn@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Cowpea, Callus, Epicotyl, Leaf disk
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ABSTRACT
The indirect organogenesis was studied in six genotypes of cowpea using three
explants in an experiment with two media for callus development and two other for
regeneration from calli. Morphogenetic response was judged for each explant as the
frequency of callus producing explants and subsequently as the frequency of callus culture
showing rhizogenesis and caulogenesis or remaining as unhealthy or healthy callus. For
epicotyl explant, the medium supplemented with 4mg/l had the minimum growth of callus
with the genotypes EC 309500 and EC 390219 and for hypocotyl segment the maximum
callusing was noticed in the genotype EC 390264 in all the media investigated. As far as
the plantlet recovery was concerned, in the medium containing 3mg/l BAP in MS basal
composition, the maximum recovery was noticed in genotypes IC 249585 and EC 390264
for epicotyl and hypocotyls derived calli masses respectively. For leaf disk some
responses was recorded in the second medium but no such plantlet recovery had been
noticed in other medium. In all the responses were found to be genotype specific as was
observed in other legume species.

C-30 Molecular Profiling of Maize Inbreds Using Microsatellite Markers


Sayan Roy Choudhury*, Rajesh Singh and Padmanabh Dwivedi
Institute of Agricultural Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005,
*Corresponding Author Email: sayanvns@gmail.com
Keywords : Inbred, Maize, Microsatellite, Molecular profile.

ABSTRACT
In this study a set of eight maize inbred lines were selected so as to analyze the
molecular diversity among them using SSR markers. Six out of ten SSR markers
employed revealed polymorphism among the genotypes. Polymorphism information content
(PIC) ranged from 0.34 to 0.75. The lowest PIC (0.34) was shown by the primer pair
bnlg1832 while highest PIC (0.75) was shown by the primer pair bnlg1019. The eight
cultivars of maize formed two major clusters in the dendrogram prepared using the dataset
generated by SSR profiles which can be selected for future plant breeding program.
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C-31 Characterization of Edible Bamboo Species: Potential and Prospects for


Utilization as Food Processing In North-Eastern India
Sayanika Devi Waikhom* and Talukdar Narayan Chandra
Microbial Resources Division, Institute of Bioresources Division, Imphal, Manipur,
*Corresponding Author Email: sayanikawaikhom@gmail.com
Keywords : AFLP, antioxidant property, bamboo, cyanide content, nutrient content

ABSTRACT
Bamboo shoots are popular local food delicacies in North-east India for its unique
taste and rich nutritive content. The North-east India has a rich diversity of bamboo
genetic resources, however, characterization of this vast gene pool are unsystematic and
scanty. Genetic characterization and evaluation of biochemical traits of these genetic
resources has become necessary for its sustainable use and bamboo shoots based
industries. Besides its rich nutritive properties, bamboo shoots also contain cyanogenic
glycoside which is a hindrance for bamboo shoots fermentation. Twelve edible bamboo
species from two districts of Manipur have been identified based on morphological
vegetative characters. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints
were developed for the 12 bamboo species. AFLP fingerprints separated into two clusters
consisting of the five Bambusa species and the four Dendrocalamus species based on
Jaccards coefficient. Total cyanide content, antioxidant activity and nutrient analysis of
12 edible bamboo species were evaluated in this investigation.

C-32 Identification, Classification and Expression Analysis of Wheat ClpB/


HSP100, ClpC and ClpD Genes
Senthilkumar K. Muthusamy1, Viswanathan Chinnusamy 2 and Kailash C. Bansal 3*
Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, 2Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi - 110012, India, 3NBPGR, New Delhi.
*Corresponding Author Email: kailashbansal@hotmail.com

1National

Keywords : Clp ATPases, ClpB/HSP 100, ClpC, ClpD, Wheat abiotic stress, Cell membrane
stability
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
High temperature stress drastically affects the wheat production. It is necessary to
identify high temperature stress responsive genes to develop thermotolerant wheat
genotypes. Caseinolytic protease (Clp) was first identified in E. coli as a heat shock
inducible, ATP-dependent protease complex able to hydrolyze casein. The role of these
proteases family under high temperature stress was well studied in rice and Arabidopsis.
These proteases are highly conserved among plants and function as molecular chaperones
by minimizing the protein aggregation. In addition, these also target the damaged proteins
for degradation. Through these processes it maintains the quality of cellular proteins during
high temperature stress conditions. To understand the role of Clp genes in high
temperature stress tolerance in wheat, we carried out homology search of Clp family
genes in wheat EST and cDNA databases. The structural and evolutionary relationships
of the wheat Clp genes with that of other plants such as Arabidopsis, Brachypodium,
rice, maize, sorghum and Setaria were also studied. The expression pattern of Clp family
genes was examined under heat, cold, salt and oxidative stress conditions in wheat by
qRT-PCR. The results showed a complex regulation pattern and identified heat stressinduced Clp genes in wheat. Progress on the systematic functional analysis of the Clp
gene family in wheat will be presented.

C-33 Seed Storage Protein Polymorphism in Elite Basmati Rice (Oryza


sativa L.) Genotypes of India
Shafina Haque*, Deepak Nayak, Saumya Barik, K. Pande, S. K. Dash,
S. K. Pradhan and O. N. Singh
Crop Improvement Division, CRRI, Cuttack-753006, *Corresponding Author Email:
haqueshafina786@gmail.com
Keywords : Seed storage proteins, Polymorphism, Oryza sativa, SDS-PAGE

Seed protein profiling


polymorphism and genetic
variations among 41 elite
investigation revealed that

ABSTRACT
is the most promising tool in determining the molecular
homology. This study was aimed at exploiting the genetic
basmati rice genotypes through SDS-PAGE. The present
the basmati genotypes showed highly polymorphism with
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respect to the total seed protein bands, intensity and thickness of protein bands and
relative mobility (Rf). The genotype IR58025A with IR 58025B and Taraori basmati with
HKR 98-476, 3A with pusa3B showed complete homology of 100% whereas genotype
UPRI 93-63-2 did not show any homology with UPR 2268-4-1 (0% homology).

C-34 Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Agronomically


Important Traits in Rice
Shanmugavadivel, P. S1*, Amitha Mithra2, Prasad Dokku3, N. K. Singh 4 and T. Mohapatra5
1Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-12, 2,3,4 NRC on Plant Biotechnology,
IARI, New Delhi-12, 5 Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Odisha. *Corresponding
Author Email: psshanmugavadivel@gmail.com
Keywords : QTLs, Rice, Plant Height, No. of Productive tillers, Panicle Length, Markers

Abstract
Increasing productivity of rice has been a major concern since long in order to
achieve food security. Yield depends upon no. of productive tillers/plants, panicle length,
no. of spikelet/panicle, grain size and grain weight, each controlled by multigene and
environment. QTLs for these traits were mapped using F7 recombinant inbred lines (RIL)
derived from a cross between Basmati 370 (traditional) and IRBB60 (non-aromatic
indica). A total of 113 polymorphic SSR markers were used to genotype 276 RILs. A
total of eight QTLs for plant height were mapped on 6 different chromosomes namely 1,
5, 6, 8, 10 and 11, each contributing to phenotypic variation in the range of 4.6% to
42.68%. The major QTL for plant height on chromosome 1 between marker intervals,
RGNMS200-Hv1c88 corresponds to the already cloned gene Sd1, the green revolution
gene responsible for plant height. Three QTLs for no. of productive tillers per plant were
identified on chromosome 1, 2 and 3 explaining phenotypic variation ranging from 5.9 to
8.2%. For panicle length, two QTLs on chromosome 1 and 6 explaining 18.4% and 15%
of phenotypic variation, respectively, were identified. Two novel QTLs were identified,
one each for panicle length on chromosome 6 between markers RM204-Hv6c22 and plant
height on chromosome 5 between markers Hv5c26-Hv5c28.

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C-35 Biochemical Marker for Screening Thermo-tolerance in Green gram


(Vigna radiata L.)
Shweta Gupta*, Priyanka Porwal, Mudit Srivastava, Shivangi Singh,
Rinki Devi and Sanjeev Gupta
Indian Institute of Pulses Research (ICAR),
Kanpur-208024 (UP),
*Corresponding Author Email: shwetagupta05@yahoo.corn
Keywords : Genetic diversity, SDS PAGE, Thermo-tolerance

ABSTRACT
A large genetic diversity has been observed in green gram in respect to seed size,
seed coat colour, number of clusters, and pod length etc. The major regulatory enzyme
for grain development, Sucrose synthase in green gram was found to be stable even at
high temperature 45C. However, transport of photosynthates from leaves to developing
seeds is adversely affected at temperature above 40C. Therefore, thermotolerance in
leaves of green gram is required to be improved genetically. Studies on photosynthetic
activity of stressed leaves through fluorescence imaging provided important information of
thermotolerance. Preliminary investigation showed that germinating seeds of green gram
at high temperature (45C) in heat tolerant variety Samrat (PDM 139) expressed few
additional protein bands in SDS-PAGE which was missing at temperature 25C. The
protein profiling studies suggested possible expression of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)
which needs further investigation.

C-36 Expression Profiling of Rice Annexin Gene Family during Drought


Stress in Various Developmental Stages
Sikha Deka and Sharmistha Barthakur*
National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology,
Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012,
*Corresponding Author Email: sbthakur@yahoo.com
Keywords : Rice, Annexin, Drought, Expression profiling

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ABSTRACT
Drought is the most important constraint to rice production. So, there is an urgent
need for developing stress tolerant varieties to maintain and enhance rice productivity.
Annexins are multigene, multifunctional family of proteins, implicated in various physiological
and cellular processes in growth and development of plants. The present study was
undertaken to analyze transcript expression profiling of 5 indica rice annexin genes from
drought tolerant (N-22) and sensitive (PB1) cultivars in 6 developmental stages under
normal and drought stress by RT-PCR. Differential expression patterns in different critical
stages of both cultivars implicate a role of annexins under drought stress, which can be
further used in screening of the drought tolerance line and use in molecular breeding.

C-37 Extraction of Phenolic Components from Cinnamon SpeciesOptimization Studies


Sree Satya Nandam and Meena Vangalapati*
Department of Chemical Engineering, AUCE (A),
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: meena_sekhar09@yahoo.co.in.
Keywords : Cinnamon, Cinnamaldehyde, Total Phenolic Content, Eugenol, Optimization.

ABSTRACT
Cinnamon is one of the oldest spices and it contains cinnamaldehyde, eugenol,
cinnamic acid and other compounds. In this study the extraction of phenolic compounds
like cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were carried out. Optimization of physico-chemical
parameters like effects of different solvents, soaking time, extraction time with hexane,
particle size, different solvent percentages, different volumes of hexane with methanol and
ethanol as solvents and pH for the extraction of cinnamaldehyde, total phenolic content
and eugenol were studied. For the extraction of Cinnamaldehyde, the optimum results
were 3 d, 2 h, 125 microns, 50% (v/v), 1 : 1 ratio and pH 5 respectively. The highest
Cinnamaldehyde concentration for optimized conditions was 44.6mg/L and for total
phenolic content it was 13.5mg/L. The highest eugenol concentration for optimized
conditions was 14.6 mg/L.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

C-38 Effective Techniques for Explant Sterilization to Reduce Contamination


in Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker f.)
Subhendu S. Gantait* and Koushik Dutta
Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: ssgflori@gmail.com
Keywords : Gerbera, Hairy growth, Contamination, Sterilization, In-vitro

ABSTRACT
The use of greenhouse grown gerbera explants for the production of contamination
free in vitro plantlets is a major challenge due to presence of surface hairy growth at the
emerging stage of flower bud and leaf. In the present experiment different sterilizing
agents with different concentration and time were used to treat the excised flower bud
and emerging leaf of gerbera. About 66% of flower buds explants remained free of
contamination and of which 30% retained callus while the survival percentage was 50%
in case of leaf explants showing no sign of callus after 28 days of inoculation when
cultured in MS media, each with different hormonal combination. Therefore, in the present
work different sterilization treatment and explants excised techniques were tried to
increase in the percentage of successfully established proliferating cultures.

C-39 Identification of DNA Based Molecular Markers for Apomixis in


Cenchrus ciliaris
Suresh Kumar*, M. G. Gupta, K. K. Dwivedi, A. Radhakrishna and P. Kaushal
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India. *Corresponding
Author Email: sureshkumar3_in@yahoo.co.uk
Keywords : Apomixis, Cenchrus ciliaris, Molecular marker, AFLP marker, SCAR marker, Forage
grass

ABSTRACT
Cenchrus ciliaris is an important forage grass. Being apomictic in mode of
reproduction it is utilized to understand molecular biology of apomixis for its utilization in
fixing or hybrid- vigour in crop plants. We have identified an obligate sexual C. ciliaris
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plant and have developed F2 mapping population segregating for the mode of reproduction
between apomictic and sexual plants. DNA- based molecular markers (AFLPs and
SCARs) linked to apomixis in C. ciliaris were developed using F2 mapping population.
The potential of these markers in screening for mode of reproduction, mapping gene(s)
for apomixes is discussed.

C-40 Molecular RAPD Analysis of Palas (Butea monosperma) Variants


Thamilarasi, K., Rinka Gin I and Vaibhav D Lohot
Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi,
*Corresponding Author Email: ktarasi@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Butea monosperma, Palas, Swadi palas, Kerria lacca, RAPD, SCAR

ABSTRACT
Butea monosperma (vern. Palas), a native tree of tropical and subtropical parts of
Southeast Asia is one of the important host trees for lac insect, Kerria lacca. K. lacca
is an economically important insect producing resin. Six flower colour variants namely,
scarlet, yellow, golden yellow, chrome yellow, white and mustard colour and a morphological
variant namely swadi palas were collected from difference part of Jharkhand. RAPD was
carried out in all these palas variants. Out of 20 RAPD primers used for studying genetic
divergence, 14 were polymorphic. The clustering analysis using Jaccards coefficient
showed that swadi palas forming an out group against flower colour variants. Swadi
palas specific bands were obtained from two RAPD markers which will be ultimately
used for developing SCAR markers for swadi palas.

C-41 Amelioration of Water Stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by


Bioregulators
Vineeth, T. V. and Pramod Kumar
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012.
*Corresponding Author Email: vinee2705@gmail.com
Keywords : Drought, Chickpea, Bioregulators, Tolerance
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Drought is a major constraint for chickpea production in India. Present study was
conducted using desi (Pusa 362) and kabuli (Pusa 1108) varieties. Prior to drought
treatment, plants were sprayed with bioregulators (thiourea 1000 ppm, benzyladenine 40
ppm and thidiazuron 10 ppm). Bioregulators, maintained higher values of relative water
content, membrane stability index, pigments, photosynthetic parameters, proline, sugars,
antioxidants, proteins, abscissic acid and yield parameters under water stress. Treated
plants maintained the integrity of leaf anatomy, chloroplast ultra structure, expression of
rubisco, glycolate oxidase and glycine decarboxylase and showed faster recovery. The
study concluded the beneficial role of bioregulators in drought tolerance.

C-42 Rice Blast Resistance Gene: An Evolutionary Outlook


Shallu Thakur and T. R. Sharma*
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology,
Pusa Campus,
New Delhi-110 012.
*Corresponding Author
Email: trsharma@nrcpb.org
Keywords : Rice blast, Magnaporthe oryzae, Resistance genes, Phylogenetic analysis

ABSTRACT
Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the important
diseases affecting rice production throughout the world which can be managed by
resistant varieties. Here, we report variants of three important blast disease resistance
genes, Pi-ta, Piz-t and Pi54, from forty rice land races, collected from different parts of
India. Comparative analysis among alleles of three resistance genes indicate conserved to
intermediate diversification with varying selection pressures acting on NBS-LRR domains
of these loci. Phylogenetic analysis of the alleles resulted in mixed and monolithic
clustering pattern, indicating the possibility of hitchhiking during evolution. Detailed
analysis of these three resistance loci provided better insight into evolutionary perspectives
and help selection of better alleles for future breeding programmes.

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C-43 Banana Fruit Respiratory Particles


Prikhshayat Singh
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi-110 012.
Email: psingh_bioc@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Musa cavendishii Lamb ex. Paxton, ADP/O, Cytochrome c oxidase, Mitochondria,
Peel and pulp, Phosphorylative oxidation, RC.

ABSTRACT
Mitochondria were isolated from banana fruit, peel and pulp (Musa cavendishii)
prior to climacteric. Employing cytochrome c oxidase as a handy criterion to evaluate
mitochondrial preparation, a mannitol grinding medium was selected at a slightly alkaline
pH and supplemented with EDTA, metabisulfite, BSA and soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone
(PVP). Peel required double (2%) the amount of PVP as compared with pulp (1%) in
the grinding medium. The rate of oxidation of citric acid cycle intermediates namely,
malate, succinate and NADH were comparable with similar preparations available in the
literature. The oxidation was accompanied by efficient coupling with phosphorylation. The
amount of protein recovered in the mitochondrial fraction from peel was comparable with
the reported recoveries from a number of plant tissues, though the protein recovered in
pulp mitochondrial fraction was 5.7-fold lower as compared to that in peel. The
biochemical integrity of mitochondria, purified by Percoll Step gradient centrifugation from
banana fruit, peel and pulp appeared possible from : (a) the absence of respiratory
response to added cytochrome c during the oxidation of citric acid cycle acids, (b)
tremendous stimulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity in the presence of digitonin, and
(c) the ability to satisfactorily couple phosphorylation to the oxidation of citric acid cycle
acids. Purification with Percoll gradient increased state 3 and state 4 respirations with
malate, succinate and NADH whereas RC and ADP/O values remained near about same
as for those particles isolated by differential centrifugation.

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C-44 Evaluation of Effect of Storage on in-vitro Anti oxidative Capacities of


Honeys Collected from Sundarban
Angira Das and Pubali Dhar
University of Calcutta, 20 B, Judges Court Road, Kolkata-700027, India.
Keywords : Sundarban honey, Melanoidin, Antioxidant activity, DPPH and FRAP.

ABSTRACT
Sundarbans are the worlds largest mangrove biomes exhibiting its highest biodiversity.
Three types of unifloral Sundarban honeys, Khalshi (Aegiceras corniculatum), Baen
(Avicennia officinalis) and Goran (Ceriops decandra) were supplied by West Bengal
Forest Department. In vitro anti-oxidative activities were evaluated before and after
storage. Prolonged storage of raw unheated honeys were seen to possess several
characteristic features of melanoidin - a strong radical scavenging activity (measured by
DPPH and FRAP value), absorbance of A450 nm (degree of browning) and a strong
absorbance of UV light. There has been a statistically significant increase in its polyphenol
and flavonoid content after storage.

D. Economic and Systematic botany


D-1 Medico-ethnobotany of Some Self-grown Plants in Kalyanpur Block of
Kanpur District, India

1Shri

Nikhil Agnihotri1 and Santosh Bhatnagar2*


Deendayal Kushwaha Mahavidyalaya, Sambhalpur, Kanpur, 2 Acharya Narendra Dev
Nagar Nigam Mahila Mahavidyalaya Kanpur, *Corresponding Author Email:
nikhil_fth_10@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Medicinal, Ethnomedicinal, Folk Medicine, Ethnobotany

ABSTRACT
Plants have been playing a key role in health care needs of human beings against
diseases. A number of medicinal plants occur which is having rich medicinal properties.
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Present study based on the role of naturally available medicinal plants in primary health
conservation as house hold or folk remedies in Kalyanpur Block of Kanpur, Uttar
Pradesh, India. In this study 33 plants are identified and analyzed with their local names,
botanical names, habit, habitats, medicinal utilities and method of utilization against
diseases. Most of the plants are easily available throughout the year and effective in more
than one disease. By conserving these valuable plants we can make treatment cheaper,
non-reactive safer and easily accessible to everyone.

E. Plant Protection (Agricultural Entomology, Plant Pathology and


Nematology)
E-1 Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Leaf Aqueous Extract of
Ampelocissus latifolia
A. Chaudhuri and S. Ray*
The University of Burdwan. Golapbag
Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: ray.sannbray@gmail.com
Keywords : A. latifolia, Lemno minor, Allium cepa test

ABSTRACT
Ampelocissus latifolia (Family: Vitiaceae) is used in traditional practices India. In the
present study antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of LAEAL (leaf aqueous extract
of A. latifolia) was evaluated. In vitro antioxidant assay using DPPH revealed distinct
antioxidant activity of LAEAL and its significant anti-proliferative activity was observed
in onion root tip cells. Data indicated dose dependent root growth retardation and
mitodepression in root apical meristem cells. Moreover, fluorescence microscopic study
with Lemna minor frond cells indicates significant cytotoxic effects. In summary, the
antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of LAEAL may be due to the presence of
bioactive components like flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and
alkaloids.

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E-2 Isolation and Antinemic Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites of


Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. ciceri
Aditi Kundu and Supradip Saha
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi-110012,
*Corresponding Author Email: chem.aditi@gmail.com
Keywords : Fusarium oxysporum sp. ciceri, Secondary metabolites, Antinemic activity,
Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis

ABSTRACT
Culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was extracted sequentially with
EtOAc and n-BuOH. Chromatographic separation of EtOAc concentrate has afforded
five compounds, fumoniscin B1, bikaverin, 5-O-methyl javaniscin , anhydrofusarubin and
methyl fusarubin . Structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed NMR and
LC-ESI-MS spectra. Antinemic activity of the concentrates was evaluated against rootknot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. EtOAc
concentrate was found to be strongly active against M. incognita (LC50 56.2 gmL-1)
followed by n-BuOH concentrate (LC50 97.4 gmL-1). However, these concentrates were
moderately effective on R. reniformis (LC50 134.5-189.2 gmL-1).

E-3 An Approach to Integrated Management of Fusarium solani, a Stem


Canker Pathogen of Poplars
Aruku Dazo Vadeo1, Kartik Uniyal2, Archana Bagwari3, Kavita4, Y. P. Singh5*, R. C.
Dhiman6 and J. N. Gandhi7
1Baba Farid Institute of Technology, Science and Research (B.F.IT.S. & R.),
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 2,3,4,5, Forest Research Institute,
Dehradun 248 006, Uttarakhand, India, 6,7WIMCO Seedlings Limited,
Kashipur Road, Rudrapur 263 153, Uttarakhand, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: singh_yp@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Agroforestry, Antagonist, Diseases, Fungicide.

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ABSTRACT
Poplars are widely planted tree in North West India. Their wood is in demand for
paper and pulp, ply and match and contribute $ 5000M to national exchequer. Poplars in
monocultures are prone to epidemics of pests. Isolates of Fusarium solani were collected
from Wimco-81 and 83 clones of P. deltoides. Their fungicidal and biogenic sensitivity
was quantified to find out effective Integrated Pest Management measures. Propiconazole
was effective in inhibiting fungal growth at lower concentration of 200 ppm. Trichoderma
harzianum could suppress isolates from 9.5 to 29.6% only. It calls for search of other
means like healthy, resistant cuttings.

E-4 Management of Helminthosporiosis of Wheat through Plant Extracts-A


Novel Approach
Arvind Kumar1*, Rita Kumari2 and Swati3
Plant pathology, Agricultural Research Institute,
Lohiya Nagar,
Bye pass Road, Patna-800020,
2A. N. College, Patna,
3T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur,
*Corresponding Author Email: arvind.headplpath@gmail.com
Keywords : Wheat Helminthosporiosis, Management, Plant extracts

ABSTRACT
In this study plant extracts of four plants, namely; Lawsonia inermis L.(Henna),
Azadirachta indica L.(Neem), Lantana camara L.(Lantana), Tagetes erecta L.(Marigold)
were evaluated for managing the Helminthosporiosis of wheat, caused by
Helminthosporium sativum and Helminthosporium tritici-repentis. The result revealed
that satisfactory management of the disease may be obtained by spraying of the leaves
extract of the plant Lawsonia inermis L.(10% concentration).The product obtained is not
having any harmful effect on ecological system, human health and it has not showed any
phytotoxic effect to the wheat plant.
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E-5 Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodispv. vesicatoria in Tomato by Multiplex PCR
Avinash, P* and Umesha, S.
University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: avinash1081988@gmail.com
Keywords : Multiplex PCR, Phytopathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum. Xanthomonas
axonopodis pv. vesicatoria

ABSTRACT
A reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool for testing seed health is essential, therefore
a multiplex PCR procedure was developed for simultaneous, specific and rapid detection
of R. solanacearum and X axonopodis pv. vesicatoria from different sources by
available primers (i) RS-F-759 and RS-R-760 for R. solanacearum (ii) RST2 and RST3
for X axonopodis pv. vesicatoria for identification of both the pathogens, amplified only
DNA belonging to these species producing fragments of expected size 281bp and 840bp,
respectively. Among 20 isolates of pathogens, used 17 isolates of R. solanacearum and
15 isolates of X axonopodis pv. vesicatoria showed multiple amplification in a single
PCR reaction. This multiplex PCR technique is rapid, less laborious, easy and sensitive
method to early detection.

E-6 Effect of Weather Parameters on Population Dynamics of Gram Pod Borer


(Helicoverpa armigera) in Gram in North West Plain Zone of Rajasthan
B. S. Meena*and K. N. Bhatia
Agricultural Research Station, S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Sriganganagar335001, *Corresponding Author Email:bsmeena1969@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Chickpea, Gram pod borer, Weather parameters.

ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted to find out the Helicoverpa armigera (gram pod
borer) occurrence in Chickpea and its association with different weather parameters. The
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observations were taken under Agromet Advisory Services in coordination with AICRP
on Chickpea at ARS, Sriganganagar (Rajasthan) during 2005-06 to 2009-10. Field trials
were conducted on gram crop and monitoring of Helicoverpa population was done
through pheromone traps. It was found that the most active period of Helicoverpa was
13th and 14th Standard Meteorological Weeks in all the five years. The incidence of
Helicoverpa in traps was started from first week of February in all the five years
covered under the study. The Helicoverpa population was correlated with selected
weather parameters prevailed during the study period. The population of Helicoverpa
showed significant positive correlation with maximum and minimum temperatures and
negative correlation with relative humidity (morning and evening). The association with
rainfall was positive but non-significant.

E-7 Survey and Surveillance of Rodent Pest Species in Godavari Delta


Region of Andhra Pradesh
Ch. V. Narasimha Rao*, D.Sudha Rani, M. Bharatha Lakshmi and Y. Suryanarayana
Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Maruteru-534122, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (ANGRAU, Hyderabad),
*Corresponding Author Email:chvnraoent@gmail.com
Keywords : Survey, Surveillance, Rodents, Fumigator

ABSTRACT
A regular survey and surveillance of rodents relating to their species composition,
damage potential, breeding biology and their population growth estimates was made during
Kharif and Rabi 2011-12, to analyze the rodent situation, forewarn farmers and to
suggest timely management operations to farmers. The study revealed that, the lesser
bandicoot, Bandicota bengalensis was the predominant species available in this region
followed by Mus booduga. The rodent infestation was more during the panicle initiation
stage of paddy crop, which was coinciding with breeding stage of the rodents. Hence, the
appropriate and critical stage for rodent management with rodenticides as mass campaign
was found to be Panicle Initiation stage of the paddy crop. Based on the surveys, farmers
were suggested integrated rodent management practices like trimming of bunds, reducing
bund number and size, setting up of basket traps, Sherman traps and wonder traps to
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prevent migratory population, burrow fumigation by using the device burrow fumigator
and placement of bromadiolone bait poison in rat burrows. The adoption of integrated
rodent management practices on community basis gave 75-80% control success.

E-8 Role of Phenolic Compounds in Plant Defence Mechanism for Chilli


Leaf Curl Complex
Chandan Kumar Mondal1, Pinaki Acharyya2*, Uttam Saha and Pranab Hazra3
1,2Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road,
Kolkata700019, 3Faculty of Horticulture, BCKVV, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal-741252.
*Corresponding Author Email: pinakiacharyya@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Chilli, Leaf curl complex, Phenols, Isozyme

ABSTRACT
Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the important vegetable and spice crop in
India. The major problem in chilli cultivation is the chilli leaf curl complex, usually caused
by thrips, yellow mite and virus. External application of pesticides does not always provide
good control of these causal factors of leaf curl disease. Developing elite genotype(s)
having inherent defence mechanism may be more practicable in protecting the interest of
chilli growing farmers. In the present experiment, thirty seven diverse chilli genotypes
were screened against leaf curl complex and the bio-chemical factors linked to disease
reaction, was studied. It emerged that higher the leaf phenol content, peroxidase activity
& poly-phenol oxidase activity, lower was the leaf curl disease incidence.

E-9 Biochemical Variation in the Termite Odontotermes feae infected with


Entomopathogenic Nematode, the Heterorhabditis sp.
D. Kanimozhi1, K. Sujatha2, P. Dhevagi3, S. D. Chandra Sekar4
1,2Dept. of Zoology, Coimbatore-8, Tamil Nadu, 3Dept. of Environment Science,
TNAU, Coimbatore -3, Tamil Nadu,
4Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR), Coimbatore-7, Tamil Nadu.
Keywords : Galleria mellonella, Heterorhabditis, Odontotermes feae, Entomopathogenic.
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ABSTRACT
The soil sample was collected from kangayam had Heterorhabditis sp. of
Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), which harboured the symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus
sp. This species of Heterorhabditis was used to control the termite Odontotermes feae.
Under lab condition the entomopathogenic nematode infected termite was taken to
quantify the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content. The entomopathogenic nematodes
Heterorhabditis sp. infected termite had low protein, carbohydrates and lipid content
when compared to non-infected termite. The lipid content was higher than carbohydrates
and protein. The carbohydrates content was higher than protein. The change in the
biochemical content may be due to metabolic depletion by the parasite could have caused
physiological imbalance in the host.

E-10 Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds and Sequencing of


Mangrove Endophytic Fungus, Fusarium moniliforme
Elavarasi. A*, G. Sathiya Rathna and M. Kalaiselvam
Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology,
Faculty of Marine Sciences,
Parangipettai-608 502,
Tamilnadu, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: kalaifms@gmail.com
Keyword : Mangrove, Endophytic fungi, F. moniliforme, Antimicrobial compounds.

ABSTRACT
Endophytic fungi were isolated from mangrove leaves of Rhizophora annamalayana
collected from Vellar estuary southeast coast of India. Isolated colonies were identified
and screened for antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi using
disc diffusion method. The ethyl acetate crude extracts of fungal strains exhibited strong
and moderate activity against tested pathogens. Results of screening assay showed
maximum zone of inhibition by Fusarium sp., followed by Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp.,
Nigrospora sp., Rhizopus sp. Crude extract of Fusarium sp. isolated from R.
annamalayana showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram ve bacteria and
dermatophytic fungus E. floccosum. In addition, crude extract was subjected to GC-MS
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analysis and two major volatile compounds were identified such as Eicosene (E) and 1Dodecanol, 2-methyl, from the peak value of mass spectrum. The rDNA sequence of 18S
ribosomal RNA gene of Fusarium sp. was amplified and the PCR product was
bidirectionally sequenced using forward (ITS4) and reverse (ITS5) primers. The sequenced
data was assembled and submitted to the NCBI Genbank (Accession number: JN681281).
Based on BLAST search of ribosomal RNA gene sequence, the fungus was found to be
closest homolog to Fusarium moniliforme.

E-11 Comparative Response of Rice Varieties to Bio Intensive Pest


Management (BIPM) Practices against Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas
(Walker)
G. Anitha1* and K. Parimala2
All India Coordinated Research Project on Biological Control,
ARI Campus, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad,
Seed Research and Technology Centre,
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030,
*Corresponding Author Email: anitha.gorthi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Bio-intensive pest management (BIPM) is an important management practices of
stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas in rice. Results of a two-year field study carried out
in kharif seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 in the research farms of Seed Research and
Technology Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh to know the impact of
BIPM practices on stem borer infestation on four varieties viz., MTU 1010, MTU 1001,
MTU 7029 and BPT 3291 in comparison with farmers practices (FP) revealed that
BIPM package recorded significantly lesser dead hearts at 30 and 50 days after
transplantation and white ears at pre- harvest in all the four varieties compared to FP
practices were adopted. Yield was significantly higher in BIPM plots compared to FP
plots. Study on the egg masses revealed that BIPM plots harboured higher per cent of
completely parasitized egg masses compared to FP plots and the predominant egg
parasitoids were Tetrastichus, Telenomus and Trichogramma.

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E-12 Male Genitalia in Indian Pyrgomorphidae


Hirdesh Kumar*, M. K. Usmani, Uzma Rafi and Reenu Kumari
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.
*Corresponding Author Email: entomologist1985 @gmail.com
Keywords : Pyrgomorphidae, Gaudy grasshoppers, Male genital, Phallic complex.

ABSTRACT
Pyrgomorphidae is a family of grasshoppers in the order Orthoptera and comes under
the suborder-Caelifera commonly known as the gaudy grasshoppers. Male genital
structures comprise phallic complex and epiphallus present at posterior segments of
abdomen concealed within supra-anal plate and sub-genital plate and constitute the
internal structures of male genitalia. Paraprocts are present under the epiproct in halfconcealed form. Paraproct represents the eleventh sternite. Cerci are tubular appendages
arising from the membrane between the joints of epiproct and paraproct. Supra anal plate
and cerci together are used to hold the female abdomen during the course of copulation.
The Subgenital plate of male is nineth sternite. It is usually longer than wide. It envelops
the phallic complex and generally conical in apical part. Male genitalia internally begins
with an enlargement of the ejaculatory duct called the ejaculatory sac; its cavity is
connected by a narrow gonopore with the spermatophore sac. The penis (aedeagus)
consists of wide basal valves, lying above the spermatophore sac and connected by the
flexure with the long curved apical lobes, which are normally concealed under the
membranous pallium. But are extruded during copulation. Above the basal valves lies the
cingulam, a strongly sclerotised structure consisting of a pair of apodemes. A pair of wide
rami and the long, curved valves of the cingulam adjoining the apical lobes of the penis.
The cingulam is derived from the ectophallic membrane, on which also lie the epiphallus,
a strongly sclerotised and somewhat complicated structure.

E-13 Persistence of Ready Mix Formulations on Chilli


Irani Mukherjkee *and Aman Kumar
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 12,
*Corresponding Author Email: mukri_irani@yahoo.com
Keywords: Organophosphate, Synthetic pyrethroid, Resistance, Insecticide.
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ABSTRACT
Persistence of two combination mix formulations of insecticides viz. profenofos +
cypermethrin (Roket 44 EC) and chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin, (Nacrai-505) was studied
in chilli fruits following spray application at recommended and double dose. Half-life
values were calculated from first order dissipation kinetics, in case of Roket 44EC,
residues of cypermethrin on fruits dissipated with half-life of 2.15-2.31 days, whereas
profenofos with 0.91-1.86 days. Profenofos residues persisted beyond days in soil,
whereas cypermethrin were below detection limit on 0-day itself. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos
residues in the combination mix with cypermethrin (Nacraj-505) followed first order
kinetics with the half-life values of 3.27-3.10 days. In soil, chlorpyrifos residues were
below detectable limit even on 0-day at recommended dose of application. More than 90%
dissipation was recorded on 7 day, although residues persisted beyond 15 days at double
the recommended dose. Half life of dissipation for cypermethrin calculated from first
order dissipation kinetics varied from 2.19 to 3.27 days. In soil, no residues of cypermethrin
were detected even on 0-day.

E-14 Screening Of Larvicidal Activities of Solanum xanthocarpum (Family :


Solanaceae) Leaves Extract Against Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella
(Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)
J. Subramaniam*, K. Murugan, K. Kovendan, P. Mahesh kumar
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046,
Tamil Nadu, India.*Corresponding Author Email:jayapalsubramaniam@gmail.com
Keywords : Solanum xanthocarpum, Plutella xylostella, Antifeedant, Larvicidal activitiy, Pest
control

ABSTRACT
Current control methods are frequently based on chemical insecticides or Bacillus
thuringiensis, but resistance often renders these methods inadequate. Biopesticides (plant
orgin) are suitable alternative for chemical insecticides. The leaf extract of Solanum
xanthocarpum with different solvents-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and
methanol were tested for antifeedant and larvicidal activities of Plutella xylostella at
various concentrations. The crude plant leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a
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rotary vacuum evaporator. The yield of extracts was hexane (8.94 g), chloroform (11.54
g), ethyl acetate (9.74 g), acetone (10.78 g), and methanol (12.04 g). Leaves were studied
using leaf disc no-choice method against fourth instar larvae of P. xylostella. Methanol
and chloroform extract showed maximum anti-feedant activity of 93.4 and 90.6% at 750
ppm; the LC50 values were 407.08, 310.71, 375.28, 343.45 and 291.59 ppm; the LC90
values were 950.43, 754.33, 912.61, 819.01 and 716.19 ppm against the fourth instar
larvae of P. xylostella. An extensive body of literature documents research on S.
xanthocarpum is most effective for pest control and its environmentally safe and low
cost for agricultural farmers.

E-15 To Study of Biotic and Abiotic Factors on Helicoverpa armigera


(Hubner) in Chickpea
Jagat Kaushik* and U. S. Gupta
Faculty of Agriculture,
Nehru P. G. College, Lalitpur (U.P.)
*Corresponding Author Email: drjagatkaushik@gmail.com
Keywords : Helicoverpa armigera, Biotic factors, Abiotic factors, Chickpea

ABTRACT
Investigation on Population Dynamics of Helicoverpaarmiga (Hubner) in Chickpea
The estimated model equation (w) that maximum temperature per se played a quite vital
and very significant role on larval abundance in chickpea crop, thereby computed model
equation w = 10.94 + 0.475X1 with resulted coefficient of determination (R2) 24.22 per
cent , which clearly explain that maximum temperature is responsible for larval development
and abundance by 24.22%. As regards minimum temperature (X2), its variability was
explained by 21.44%, the joint contribution by these two variable (X1 and X2 ) registered
45.66% in larval development of the pest. The third abiotic factors (morning Rh) (X3)
registered merely with 1.23% contribution in larval development. However, evening
relative humidity (X4) reflected 5.48% and wind velocity (X5) and evaporation rate (X6)
and rainfall (X7) registered with 0.06,0.80 and 0.18% of relative contribution on
Helicoverpa armigera larval activities.

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E-16 Visitation Time and Diverse Pollinator Assemblage of Solitary Bees in


Certain Oilseed Crops
K. Sreedevi* and L. Navatha
S. V. Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati-517 502, A. P.
*Corresponding Author Email: kolla.sreedevi@gmail.com
Keywords : Carpenter bees, Megachilid, Halictid, Pollinator, Oilseed crop

ABSTRACT
A study has been conducted to know the species diversity and visitation time of
solitary bees in four commonly grown oilseed crops at S. V. Agricultural College, A. N.
G. R. A. U, Tirupati during 2011-12. The four oilseed crops viz., Niger, Safflower, Mustard
and Linseed were grown in Department Farm and all agronomic practices were followed
and kept free of pesticidal sprays. Most of the bees visited constitute diverse assemblages
of carpenter bees, halictids and megachilids. The species diversity was high in Niger crop
with 10 species while it was low in Linseed (1 species). Three species viz., Ceratina sp.,
Halictu ssp. and Xylocopa fenestrata Fab was found in all the crop ecosystems,
however, the dominant being Halictus sp. (24.70%, 15.72%, 14.60% and 7.63% in
Linseed, Mustard, Safflower and Niger, respectively) among all the insect visitors. The
peak visitation time of different species was between 9.00 and 11.00 hr in four oilseed
crops.

E-17 Influence of Climatic Parameters on the Incidence of Grasshoppers


Fauna (Acrididae : Acridoidea : Orthoptera) : In Western Uttar Pradesh of
India
M. H. Akhtar*, M. K. Usmani, M. R. Nayeem and M. I. Khan
Department of Zoology,
Aligarh Muslim University,
Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India,
*Corresponding Author Email:humayoon1982@gmail.com
Keywords : Acridoidea, Grass hopper, Climatic parameters
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ABSTRACT
Western UP comprising three distinct seasons, winter (Oct. to Feb.), summer (Mar.
to mid-June), and rainy (June to Sept.). Temperature is fluctuating with extreme up to
47C in summer and 4C in the winter with annual mean rainfall of 650 mm. An
experiment was conducted on influence of climatic parameters on grasshopper incidence.
Weekly observations were taken on grass hoppers fauna during the period of Jan.2010
to Dec. 2011from different areas of Western Uttar Pradesh. Grass hoppers population
was compared with climatic parameters. 42 species representing 31 genera, 19 tribes and
12 subfamilies of family Acrididae and super family Acridoidea have been recorded from
the regions. Maximum number of species recorded in the month of Aug.to Oct. while
lowest in Dec. to Feb. in both the years. Acrida exaltata and Spathosternum prasiniferum
are recoded throughout the year even in the month of Dec. with lowest temperature 4C
and with highest temperature 47C in the month of June. Only minimum temperature has
significant correlation to the population of grasshoppers and maximum temperature,
humidity and rainfall were non-significant.

E-18 Influence of Environmental Factors on Viability of Sclerotia of


Sclerotium rolfsii in Soil
M. Saraswathi* and R. Jaya Madhuri
Department of Applied Microbiology, Sri Padmavati Mahila University, Tirupati-517 502
A.P. India. *Corresponding Author Email: saraswathiphdomail.com
Keywords : Scleiotium rolfsii, Temperature, Groundnut, Environmental factors

ABSTRACT
Sclerotium rolfsii is a devastating soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus with a wide
host range. This pathogen causes stem rot of groundnut and reported to result in over 25%
loss in production. It grows, survives, and attacks plants at or near the soil line. Before
the pathogen penetrates host tissue it produces mycelium on the plant surface when
conditions are warm and humid. This results in tissue decay, further production of
mycelium and the formation of sclerotia. The pathogen can survives in the absence of a
host inform of small black sclerotia. Hence, the present study was taken to study the
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effect of the temperature, storage periods and humidity on the survival of the sclerotia of
the S. rolfsii. The sclerotia stored for 15-30 days at 30-40C with 40-50% moisturecontent
are more favorable conditions for the viability of the sclerotia compared to other factors
provided.

E-19 Survey for the Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Few


Districts of Tamil Nadu
M. Tamilselvi* and K. Sujatha,
Department of Zoology, Government Arts College, Coimbatore - 641018. Tamil Nadu,
*Corresponding Author Email: mtamilselvigac@gmail.com
Keywords : Entomopathogenic, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus.

ABSTRACT
The soil samples from Coimbatore, Salem, Dharmapuri and Madurai districts were
surveyed for the presence of Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) which are exploited
as Biopesticides. Out of the 15 samples from Coimbatore district surveyed two samples
were found harbouring Steinernema species and two samples were harbouring
Heterorhabditis species whereas one out of each five samples from Madurai, Salem
and Dharmapuri districts were found to harbour Heterorhabditis species.

E-20 First Report of Acridoids as Pest of Zea illays in Agricultural Crop and
of Bihar : A Case Study
Md. Rashid Nayeem, Md. Kamil Usmani and Md. Humayoon Akhtar
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University. Aligarh 202002. *Corresponding
Author Email: rashidnavecm48@gmail.com
Keywords : Acridideae, nutrient cycling, Maize

ABSTRACT
Acridoidea is one of the Super families under Sub-order Caelifera that is better
termed as Short-homed grasshoppers. Locusts and grasshoppers, the most widely
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distributed economically important pests of grassland, crop field and forests. They play
vital role in nutrient cycling and serve as a critical food supply for members of higher
trophic levels, but they often reach outbreak densities that result in swarms causing famine
like conditions. Even in their solitary phase, these grasshoppers can negatively affect
productivity by defoliation and i n florescence feeding. Located between 21-58'-10" N27-3E-L5" N latitude and between 83-I9'-50" E-88"-I 7'-40" E longitude, Bihar lies in
eastern part of the country and is drained b) Ganga which flows eastwards and divide the
state in two halves. Maize growing areas were surveyed during 2010-11 and leaf hopper
affected samples were collected. Samples collected were identified as Phlacoha infitmata,
Gastrimurgas africanus africanus, Locusta migratoria migratoria. Diaboloca
iantopspinguis. Cyrtacanthacris tatarica tutorica. The insects were found feeding on
leaf-blades of upper half of plant, ears, tassel and follow no definitive feeding pattern,
even ripening kernels of grains were consumed. They also feed on the Ireen silk that
drastically affects fertilization resulting in less filling of ears.

E-21 Medicinal Plant Extracts and Their Valuable Effect on Various


Parameters of Silkworm Hybrid PM X CSR2
Md. Takhlique1* and Aftab Alam2
University, Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India. 2G.M.R.D. College, Mohanpur, Samastipur.
LNMU, Darbhanga, Bihar. *Corresponding Author Email: md.takhlique@gmail.com

1Magadh

Keywords : Plant extracts. Parameters, Larval weight, PM x CSR2, Mortality

ABSTRACT
Bombyx mori L. is principal silk producing insect of great commercial value. Nutritive
values of leaves are responsible for the development of larvae, pupa, adult and silk
production. The dietary nutritional management influences directly on quality and quantity
of silk production in B. mori. The strain of PM x CSR2 of Bombyx mori. L. fed with
different medicinal plant extracts on first, second and third instar larvae, administration of
Phyllanthus niruri on first instar larvae of PM x CSR2 hybrid resulted positive response
with respect to larval weight (0.064, and 30.58g110) of fifth and eight day of first instar
administered batch with reduced total larval mortality (11%). Whereas the minimum of the
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same was encountered in control lots (0.026, 29.99g/10 and 24.60%). Adathoda vasica
(0.060, 30.23 g /10 and 14.60%) and Terminalia bellinca (0.038, 30.09 g/10 and 21.80%)
were found next best in the order of merit. Similar trends were observed among second
and third instar administered batches.

E-22 The Genus Streblocera Westwood (Hymenoptera : Braconidae :


Euphorinae) from India, With Description of Nine New Species
Mohammad Shamim
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University,
Aligarh 202002 U. P., India,
Email:shamimento@gmail.com
Keywords : Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Streblocera, Subgenus, Eutanycerus, New Species,
India.

ABSTRACT
The genus Streblocera Westwood (1833) (Braconidae : Euphorinae) is cosmopolitan
in distribution, and presently contains 98 species worldwide (Yu et al., 2009). However,
except for a doubtful record of S. macroscapa (Ruthe) by Haider et al. (2003) which
belongs to the subgenus Eutanycerus, nothing is known so far from India of this genus.
It is a diverse genus and currently divided into four subgenera, on the basis of form of
the antenna. The hosts of Streblocera species are chrysomelid beetle (Coleoptera:
Chrysomelidae). (Shaw, 1985, 1988, 1997, Maeto & Nagai, 1985 and Chen & van
Achterberg 1997) though host records are unavailable for most species. Nine new species
of the subgenus Eutanycerus of the genus Streblocera Westwood are described. These
are: Streblocera (Eutanycerus) achterbergi sp. nov., S.(E.) aurrayyus sp. nov., S.(E.)
etawahiana sp. nov., S.(E.) hayati sp. nov., S.(E.) kanpurensis sp. nov., S.(E.)
levipleuron sp. nov., S.(E.) sharifi sp. nov., S.(E.) shawi sp. nov. and S.(E.) shujauddini
sp. nov. This genus was recorded from India by Haider et al. based on species identified
as S. macroscapa (Ruthe). However, the available specimens in the ZDAMU do not
permit a definite confirmation of the species. A key to the Indian species of Streblocera
(Eutanycerus) is given.

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E-23 Locusts and Grasshoppers (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) of North East India


Mohd. Imran Khan* and Mohd. Kamil Usmani
Department of Zoology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, *Corresponding Author
Email: usmanikamil94@gmail.com
Keywords : Locust, Grass hopper, Survey, Acridoidea, North-east.

ABSTRACT
The present study is based on the fresh material collected during the course of survey
(2008-2009) from various regions in north-eastern states of India. In the present work,
fifty three species of Acridoidea representing three families, twelve subfamilies, three
tribes and thirty six genera are reported from this region. This represents the first
systematic collection of Acridoidea from this area. Their habitat, economic importance,
differentiating characters, distribution and host plant were studied for different species.

E-24 Studies on Insecticide-Induced Resurgence of Brown Plant Hopper


Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) in Rice
N. Mallikharjuna Rao, K. Vasantabhanu, D. Sudha Rani, Y Suryanarayana and M. Bharatha
Lakshmi,
Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and Rars, Maruteru, A.P. *Corresponding Author
Email: mallik7@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Insecticide-induced resurgence, Nilaparvata lugens, Rice.

ABSTRACT
Field Experiments were conducted at Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute and
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Maruteru, during Kharif 2010-Rabi 2010-11 to
study the influence of certain insecticides on resurgence of brown plant hopper. Three
insecticides profenophos0.1%, lambda cyhalothrin 0.01% and chlorpyriphos 0.05%
were studied along with the check buprofezin against rice plant hopper, Nilaparvata
lugens (Stal). The results indicated that buprofezin 0.04% was found to be effective
against plant hoppers and does not cause the resurgence of plant hoppers. Whereas, single
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application of chlorpyriphos and lambda cyhalothrin caused resurgence of brown plant


hopper when climate is congenial for multiplication of BPH. The percent hopper burn was
more in profenophos (2-3 sprays) and chlorpyriphos (1-3 sprays) and lambda cyhalothrin
(1-3 sprays) sprayed compared to untreated control and buprofezin 0.04%. The mirid bug
population was also more in profenophos, lambda cyhalothrin and chlorpyriphos treated
plots due to density dependent factor. The grain yields were drastically declined in
profenophos, lambda cyhalothrin and chlorpyriphos sprayed plots compared to untreated
control and buprofezin 0.04% spray.

E-25 A Study on the Effect of Spiralling Whitefly Aleurodicus dipersus


Russel on Mulberry
N. Vijaya Kumari*, M. Beula Priyadarshini and M. Lakshmi Devi
Deptt. of Sericulture,
Sri Padmavati Mahila Visva vidyalayam,
Tirupati-517502. AP.
*Corresponding Author Email: vijji_nelaballe@yahoo.co.in
Keywords: Aleurodicus dispersus, Spiralling whitefly, Infestation, Mulberry

ABSTRACT
Mulberry, the sole food source of Silkworm Bombyx mori is infested with a number
of sap sucking as well as defoliating insects. Among the sap suckers Spiralling whitefly,
Aleurodicus dispersus has been identified as one of the major pests in recent years. In
this study an attempt was made to identify the biology of whitefly, infestation levels of the
pest on mulberry and its effect on qualitative parameters like moisture percentage, protein
content, total carbohydrate and total chlorophyll content. In this preliminary investigation
it was identified that the loss percentage due to white fly infestation on mulberry quality
was more than 40%. Hence, this study helps in assessing the loss due to whitefly on
mulberry which is the sole food plant in sericulture industry and also this study helps the
need to identify the white fly as a major pest on mulberry since it is being observed
every year since 2008 and also helps in formulating appropriate pest management
measures.

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E-26 Egg Cannibalism in the Phytophagous Ladybeetle, Epilachna


vigintioctopunctata Fabricius (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae)
Navodita G. Maurice*, P. W. Ramteke and P. K. Shukla
Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology &
Sciences (Deemed-To-Be-University), Naini, Allahabad-211007, India
*Corresponding Author Email:navoditageorge@gmail.com
Keywords : Epilachna vigintioctopunctata, Cannibalism, Oviposition, Adult Emergence.

ABSTRACT
Cannibalism generally considered adaptive has been reported from ten orders of
insects and is dependent on a number of factors counting hunger. A study was carried
out in the laboratory by taking the 28-spotted phytophagous ladybeetle, Epilachna
vigintioctopunctata, as the model organism which is a serious pest on the night shades
and cucurbits in order to trace out the incidences of cannibalism and subsequently the
oviposition pattern of the beetle was also studied. The results spotlight that cannibalism
is not of regular occurrence in this beetle as good proportion of eggs hatched resulting in
significant adult emergence. The age of the female casts a positive effect on the
oviposition as with increasing age egg laying capacity showed significant increase
declining later on as age increases further.

E-27 Morphometrics of Different Life Stages of Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips


dorsalis Hood
P. K. Behera
AICRP on Seed Technology Research, O.U.A.T., Bhubaneswar -751003. Email:
pradeepbehera2010@yahoo.com
Keywords : Morphometrics, Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

ABSTRACT
Laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the morphometrics of different
life-stages of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. Five important morphological
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parameters, viz., body length, width of thorax, width of abdomen length of antenna and
length of meta thorasic leg were determined by microscopic study. For the above
mentioned features the measurement was 0.30, 0.11, 0.09, 0.11 and 0.15 mm respectively
in case of just hatched first instar nymphand that of the full grown first instar nymph was
0.58, 0.19, 0.17, 0.14 and 0.20 mm respectively. Measurement to the tune of 0.42, 0.14,
0.16, 0.14 and 0.16 mm respectively was recorded in case of just moulted second instar
nymph and that of full grown second instar nymph was 0.84, 0.23, 0.26, 0.20 and 0.25
mm respectively. In case of pre-pupa, the measurement of first four parameters was 0.98,
0.23, 0.26 and 0.18 mm and that of the first three parameters of pupa was 1.00, 0.24 and
0.26 mm respectively. In case of female thrips, the measurement of all five parameters
was 1.00, 0.22, 0.26, 0.23 and 0.36 mm and in case of male thrips, the measurement was
0.78, 0.20, 0.16, 0.22 and 0.34 mm respectively. The ovipositor measured 0.18 mm in
length and 0.09 mm in breadth. The length and breadth of egg was 0.21 and 0.09 mm
respectively. The wings in females are longther (0.60 mm) than males (0.50 mm).

E-28 A Semi-Synthetic Diet Based Trap to Attract and Monitor the


Calliphorid pollinator, Chrysomya megacephala (F.)
P. V. Rami Reddy*, V. Varun Rajan and Abraham Verghese
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Hessaraghatta, Lake - 560089, Bangalore, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: pvreddy2011@gmail.com
Keywords : Chrysomya megacephala, Mango, Pollinator, Forensic, Trap

ABSTRACT
The blue bottle fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fab.) (Diptera : Calliphoridae) is an
important pollinator of mango and is also of forensic value. Though it is recorded as a
naturally occurring pollinator, in India, there have been no studies on its multiplication and
means to enhance population in the field. We devised a simple bottle trap containing a
semi-synthetic medium enriched with fish proteins to attract the adults of C. megacephala.
Pet bottles of 2L capacity were used with three cubes (2 x 2x 2cm) of medium placed
inside. A single trap could attract 10-15 adults, comprising about 80 per cent females, in
two hours. These traps can be used for multiplication as well as monitoring the population
dynamics. Details of trap preparation and utility are discussed.
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E-29 Study on Pest Complex of Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.)


in Meghalaya
Pukhram Bhumita1*, Kitdorlang Kharpran2, Sandip Patra3 and D. Kumar4
Nadia, W.B.-741252, 2Department of Agriculture, Meghalaya, 3,4ICAR-RC-NEH,
Umiam, Meghalaya-793103. *Corresponding Author Email: pbhumita@gmail.com

1BCKV,

Keywords : Brinjal, Pest complex, Meghalaya

ABSTRACT
The experiment was conducted during pre-kharif season, 2010 at ICAR Research
Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya to study the insect pest complex of brinjal.
A local variety of brinjal was transplanted and raised with recommended management
practices. The brinjal crop was found to be infested by eight insect pests belonging to five
orders viz. Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera and one noninsect such as red spider mite. Brinjal shoot and fruit borer was the major pest in pest
complex of brinjal. Spiders population was found to control small insect population as
natural regulators.

E-30 Mycotoxin Conmtamination and Induced Biochemical Changes in


Edible Tree Nuts
Punam Kumari Singh
Regional Director, Regional Centre, Saharsa, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New
Delhi, India, Email: punamksingh@ignou.ac.in
Keywords : Mycotoxins, Biochemical changes, Edible tree nuts

ABSTRACT
Natural occurrence of mycotoxins investigated in edible tree nuts namely Buchanania
lanzan, Juglans regia and, Prunus armeniaca collected from Uttrakhand region under field
and storage conditions. Out of 165 samples analyzed, 69 produced mycotoxins in varying
concentrations. Majority of samples are infected with aflatoxin B1 & B2 in the range
of 0.08-0.98 g/g. Toxigenicity of A. flavus isolates was 25.7, 26 and 12 respectively and
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concentration of aflatoxin in the range of 0.2 to 31g/ml. Results indicate significant


reduction in level of nutritive content like protein, starch and fat in nut samples due
to fungal infection & mycotoxin contamination.

E-31 Precaution in Plant Protection Strategy in Greenhouse for Good


Agricultural Practices (GAP) as per WHO and FAO Standard
Rajesh Kumar Pandey
Faculty of Agriculture, Nehru PG College, Lalitpur, UP, India.
Email: rkp_vam@rediffmail.com
Keywords : GAP, Green house, FAO standard

ABSTRACT
Increased concerns about food borne illness from fresh produce and to reduce, there
is a economic loss need to produce quality of agricultural produce. WHO and FAO
standards have motivated many growers to voluntarily adopt good agricultural practices
(GAPs). GAPs help reduce microbial contamination on their farms and improve food
safety systems. Third-party GAP certification offers a way for growers to let buyers
know that they follow appropriate food safety practices on their farms. GAP primarily
involve the application of good management practices to maintain the consumer confidence
in food quality and food safety To set standards for the certification of agricultural
products around the globe, Euro- Retailer Produce Working Group (EUUPGAP) was
initiated during 1997 and which later evolved into GLOBALGAP. In India, Bureau of
Indian Standards (B IS) has taken initiatives to develop its own standards to be followed
by institutions and companies, etc. BIS India GAP certification shall be as prescribed
under the provisions of Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 and Rules and Regulations
framed there under. The details of the conditions under which the license may be granted
to producers. Protected cultivation including greenhouse production systems require
adherence to GAP protocols because intensive cultivation in greenhouses often involves
excessive use of chemicals. Therefore, perennial production coupled with indiscriminate
chemical utilization leads to severe pest infestation and consequent high levels of pesticide
residues. Therefore, greenhouse production systems require even stricter adherence to
GAP protocols.
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E-32 Observation on Food Preference and Foraging of Camponotus


compressus Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Hymenoptera : Formicidae) During
Non-Breeding Season at Kolkata
S. Dey, N. Debnath and L. K. Ghosh
Vidyasagar College, Post Graduate Campus : Block-CL, Plot No. 3 to 8 & 45 to 50, SectorII, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700091. *Corresponding Author Email: sudiptadey8@gmail.com
Keywords : Camponotus compressus, Food preference, Acceptability.

ABSTRACT
Experiments were carried out to observe the preference of food viz. Carbohydrate
(Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose), Protein and Fat of Camponotus compressus Fab. Experiments
were conducted for a period of four months (Oct, 2011-Jan, 2012) and time period ranging
from 9:30 A.M. to 1:30 P.M. during non-breeding Season. The ants showed an increasing
preference of liquid food to solid food. The foraging workers were found to gather near
the liquid food more in number than the solid food. The ascending order of preference of
liquid items was Fat, Glucose, Fructose & Sucrose. In another set of experiments, it was
observed that the acceptability of ants to liquid food was up to concentration of about
30%.

E-33 Efficacy of New Combination Fungicides against Sheath Blight Caused


by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) in Rice
S. Krishnam Raju and V. Bhuvaneswari
Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute & Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Maruteru-534122, (A.N.G.R.A.U., Hyderabad), West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: rajupathol@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Picoxystrobin, Propiconazole, Picoxystrobin, Sheath blight, rice.

ABSTRACT
A new combination fungicide picoxystrobin + propiconazole 20% SC and picoxystrobin
25% SC along with standard fungicides were tested against rice sheath blight under field
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conditions. Picoxystrobin + propiconazole 20% SC @ 1.5 ml/l and picoxystrobin 25% SC


@ 0.6 ml and 1.2 ml/l were found effective against sheath blight showing least disease
incidence of 4.78, 6.93 and 6.60 and per cent, respectively. Similarly, disease severity of
8.97, 13.21 and 14.14 and per cent were recorded as against 41.25 per cent sheath blight
incidence and 49.76 per cent severity in control plot. Standard recommended fungicides,
hexaconazole 5% EC @ 2.0 ml/l and validamycin 3% L @ 2.0 ml/l have recorded disease
incidence (16.24%, 17.88%) and severity (26.22%, 26.93%), respectively.

E-34 Effect of Botanical Extracts against Mealy bug (Maconellicoccus


hirsutus (Green) Infested Mulberry on Protein Metabolism in Silkworm,
Bombyx mori L.
Samba Naik*, Angothu, Mohan Rao. G and Jagadishnaik Mude
Department of Zoology,
Acharya Nagarjuna University,
Nagarjuna Nagar,
Guntur Andhra Pradesh-522510. India
*Corresponding Author Email: naik.samba@gmail.com
Keywords : Plant extracts, PMxNB4D2 hybrid, Maconellicoccus hirsutus.

ABSTRACT
Mulberry leaves are the main food source for the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. An
attempt has been made to control tukra disease by using the plant extract and also carried
out the estimation of total protein content in tissues like haemolymph, and silkgland. The
herbal plant extract of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum Sanctum, Parthenium
hysterophorus were prepared by using soxlet apparatus with different solvents viz.,
Hexane, Ethyl acetate and Methanol. The plant extracts were sprayed on tukra affected
and compared with healthy (control) mulberry fed batch for 21 days to the silkworm of
PMxNB4D2 hybrid. The total protein content gradually increased in both the tissues from
day 4 to day 6, this increase however was significant (P>0.05). This can sturdily suggest
that aqueous extract sprayed to tukra infected leaves can be used for silkworm rearing
instead of using pesticides and insecticides in mulberry plantation.

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E-35 Sensitivity of Three Triazole Group Fungicides on the Control of


Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Associated with Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Sambit Datta1*, Priyanka Das2, Jayanta Tarafdar3, and Ashim Chowdhury4
of Calcutta, 35, B. C. Road Kolkata-700019. 2Vijoygarh Jyotish Ray College,
Kolkata-700032. 3B. C. K. V. V, Kalyani.
*Corresponding Author Email: sambitdatta81 @gmail.com

1,4University

Keywords : Sheath blight, Sclerotia, Cellulase, Triazoles, Chemical control

ABSTRACT
Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) of rice (Oryza sativa) is an important disease, in
all the rice producing countries of the world. In the present work three triazole fungicides
difenoconazole, propioconazole, and tebuconazole were tested for their efficacy on the
control of mycelial growth, sclerotial growth, biomass, and the ability to inhibit cellulase
enzyme. The EC50 values for the linear growth of the fungi was found in the order
Difenoconazole <Tebuconazole <Propioconazole, 0.648<0.799<1.354 g/ml. respectively.
For sclerotial growth the EC-50 values were Propioconazole <Tebuconazole <Difenoconazole
were, 0.220<0.230<0.347 g/ml. In all the cases sclerotial EC-50 was lower than mycelial
EC-50. Cellulolytic activity was reduced for the all the tested fungicides, in the order
Difenoconazole <Tebuconazole <Propioconazole.

E-36 Records and Distribution of Fairy flies (Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea :


Mymaridae) from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India
Shahid Bin Zeya* P. Tarique Anwar and Syeda Uzma Usman
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002,
*Corresponding Author Email:drsbz1966@grmail.com
Keywords : Survey, Mymaridae, India

ABSTRACT
An extensive survey was conducted during 2011-2012 in varied eco-climatic conditions
of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand to collect mymarid parasitoids. These parasitoids are
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an important group of chalcids which parasitized the first developmental stage (eggs) in
the ontogeny of pests species belonging to a wide range of insect orders, such as
Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptra, Diptera, Orthoptera and Psocoptera, of agricultural
and Horticultural crops. The study led to the distribution of 15 species in 7 genera in these
states and also recorded two genera from these states for the first time. In addition, an
identification key to the determined genera is provided.

E-37 Efficiency of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolates on the


Growth and Germination of Cicer arietinum L.
Shiv Rama Krishnan*, V. Krishnapriya and R. Vinoth
Department of Biological Sciences,
Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Allahabad.
*Corresponding Author Email: rshivram007@gmail.com
Keywords : Cicer arietinum L, IAA, PGPR, Copper

ABSTRACT
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize
plant roots and enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. Ten isolates of
bacteria designated as PGB1, PGB2, PGB3, PGB4, PGB5, PGA1, PGA2, PGA3, PGT1
and PGT2 were successfully isolated and characterized. Subsequently to investigate the
effect of PGPR isolates on the growth of Cicer arietinum, a pot culture experiment was
conducted. Prior to seeds grown in plastic pots, seeds were treated with PGPR isolates
and seedlings were harvested after 21 days of inoculation. Isolates PGB1, PGA1, PGA2,
PGA3, PGT1 and PGT2 induce the production of indole acetic acid, whereas only PGT2
isolate was able to solubilize phosphorus. Most of isolates resulted in a significant
increasing of shoot length, root length and dry matter production of shoot and root of
Cicer arietinum seedlings. Application of PGPR isolates significantly improves the
percentage of seed germination under heavy metal stressed conditions. The present study,
therefore suggest that the use of PGPR isolates PGB4, PGT2 and PGA3 as inoculants
biofertilizers might be beneficial for Cicer arietinum cultivation.
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E-38 Bruchidae Infestation on Seed of Albizia lebbek (L.) in Rajasthan


Shiwani Bhatnagar*, Desha Meena, Sangeeta Singh and S.I. Ahmed
Arid Forest Research Institute, New Pali Road, P.O Krishi Upaz Mandi, Jodhpur, Rajasthan.
*Corresponding Author Email: shiwani@icfre.org
Keywords : Albizia lebbeck, Bruchidius albizzeae

ABSTRACT
Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae) is a medicinally important multipurpose leguminous tree,
commonly known as shirish, is native to tropical southern Asia, and widely cultivated and
neutralized in other tropical and sub-tropical regions. The pods of Albizia lebbeck mature
in April-June and characteristically remain on the tree when ripe. Studies were conducted
on the seeds infestation of Albizia by insect pests. Most of the seeds were found to be
infested by Bruchid, Bruchidius albizzeae, with the embryos invariably damaged and
adult beetles dead inside most of the seeds (probably due to development of the hard seed
coat during seed maturation). Seed /fruit characteristics, pod size, number of seed per pod
and number of locules were studied. Damaged seeds were separated from the bulk seed
lot by water flotation method in which dried and cleaned seeds were put into water and
stirred for 2-3 min. The floaters (mostly damaged, infested seeds) and sinkers (good
seeds) were separated and tested for germination after scarifying with concentrated
sulfuric acid. The damaged seeds were lightest (13.6g/200 seeds) and did not germinate
at all, while the separated good seeds (sinkers) were the heaviest (17.2 g/200 seeds). It
was observed that seeds presoaked for 12 hours started germination 4-5 days after
soaking with germination percent of about 52%.

E-39 Preliminary Study: Role of Temperature & Humidity on Hymenopteran


Parasitoids
Shoeba Binte Anis
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh- 202002 (U.P.), *Corresponding
Author Email: shoeba2007@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Climate factors, Hymenopteran, Parasitoids
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ABSTRACT
Any change in environmental factors represents a challenge for parasitoid, as they
are not only important in ecosystem but also used as biological control agents which can
modify biological control programmes. A preliminary study was conducted to examine the
effect of temperature and relative humidity on population of hymenopteran parasitoids to
analyse their abundance, prominence value, relative and absolute frequencies. A total of
five parasitoid representing the families (viz: Trichogrammatidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae,
Braconidae, Ichneumonidae) were collected from a small area (100m2) with diverse
vegetation predominantly grasses, at temperature range 25-31.5 C and relative humidity
51-68.25%. The results were shown that none of the factor effects on parasitoid
populations by fluctuations in relative humidity except in a single family Braconidae
(negatively correlated).

E-40 Field Bio-Efficacy of Bio and Microbial Insecticides on Yellow Stem


Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker and Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis
medinalis Gueene in Rice during Dry Season
Sitesh Chatterjee1 and Palash Mondal2
Research Station, Government of West Bengal, P.O.-Chinsurah (R.S.)-712 102, Hooghly,
West Bengal, 2Visva-Bharati, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Department of Plant Protection, Birbhum,
Sriniketan, West Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: sitesh.chatt@gmail.com

1Rice

Keywords : Rice, Yellow stem borer, Rice Leaf folder, Bio-insecticide.

ABSTRACT
A field trial was conducted to examine the field bio-efficacy of different bio and
microbial insecticides against the incidence of yellow stem borer and rice leaf folder on
dry (Boro) rice at Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal during three
seasons, viz., Boro 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. The trial was laid out in randomized
block design with three replications. The observations of percentages of dead heart
(DH%), leaf folder (LF%), white ear head (WE%) and yield were taken. A significant
difference was found among the DH%, LF%, WE% and the yield on different
insecticides application on rice. It was evident from the data that the DH% and LF%
were increased day by day with the age of the plant. The lowest DH% was found with
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the application of Spinosad 45%SC followed by Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus


thuringiensis (Nodule Testing Lab., BCKV). Application with Spinosad 45% SC was
found the lowest LF% followed by Azadirachtin 10,000 ppm and Metarhizium anisopliae
(Nodule Testing Lab., BCKV) application. Minimum WE% was found with the application
of Spinosad 45% SC followed by Bacillus thuriengiensis (Panther BT) and Azadirachtin
10,000 ppm. Maximum yield was obtained from the treated plots of Spinosad 45% SC and
Azadirachtin 10,000 ppm.

E-41 Comparative Account of Germination of Gram Seeds in Different


Media by Application of Bacillus Sp#203 Isolated From Metaphire posthuma
Sreejata Biswas1*, Pulak Lahiri2 and Satadal Das3
1Bangabasi Morning College,19, Rajkumar Chakrabarty Sarani, Kolkata, 2Former Nilratan
Sircar Professor of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, 3Consultant Microbiologist,
Peerless Hospital and B.K. Roy Research Centre, Kolkata, *Corresponding Author Email:
sreejata26@vahoo.com
Keywords : Earthworm, Metaphire posthuma, Microorganisms, Bacillus sp#203, Germination,
Biofertiliser

ABSTRACT
Seed germination is an important event in plant life cycle. Earthworms provide
multiple benefits to plant growth and development. Earthworm casts may break seed
dormancy and increase germination and root initiation of plant seeds. Earthworm casts
and their gut contain a much higher count of microorganisms than their habitat soil.
Metaphire posthuma is a commonly occurring earthworm in Indian soil. But the direct
and indirect effect of this indigenous species of earthworm has not been studied much.
The present study was conducted to isolate the predominant gut bacteria from this
earthworm species and to see the effect of this microbe on germination of seeds. The
most frequently found microbe from M. posthuma was identified as Bacillus sp#203, a
close homologue of Bacillus cereus. Gram seeds were allowed to germinate at room
temperature in the laboratory in presence of Bacillus sp#203 in different medium
according to inclined glass plate-blotter method. Germination rates as well as shoot length
and root length of germinated gram seeds increased indicating the bio-fertilizer role of this
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microbe. The results also indicate that the bacterium may possess some enzymatic or
catalytic effect for efficient utilization of the endosperm.

E-42 Exploration of Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Potential of Some


Mosses Collected from Eastern Himalayan Forest floor
Subhra Talai Mukhopadhyay1*, Souvik Mitra2, Anashuya Biswas3, Manisha Shaw4, Nilansu
Das5 and Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar6
1,4Barasat Govt. College, Kolkata 700124,
2,3,6 University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019,
5Surendranath College, Kolkata 700009,
*Corresponding author: talaisubhra@yahoo.co.in.
Keywords : Mosses, Eastern Himalaya, Antimicrobial (Gm +ve & Gm -ve), Antioxidants, DPPH.

ABSTRACT
Bryophytes being the oldest known land plant in the Universe have milieu of
important bioactive compounds. We report the antibacterial and antioxidative potential of
seven Eastern Himalayan mosses [Octoblepharum albidum, Hyophila involuta, H.
perranulata, Campylopus introflexus, Syrrhopodon subconfertus, Erythrodontium
julaceum, and Sematophyllum subhumile] collected from different altitudes of Darjeeling
hill range. Samples were extracted in two solvent systems and assayed against two Gm
+ve [Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus] and two Gm ve bacteria [Escherichia
coli and Klebsiella pneumonae]. Among them, Syrrhopodon subconfertus shows the
highest percentage of inhibition against Gm+ve & Gm-ve bacteria whereas Erythrodontium
julaceum onlyshows inhibition in case of Gm+ve bacteria. The free radical scavenging
activities of these genera were examined and compared with respect to Vitamin C
considering their percent inhibition by 2, 2-Diphyle-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) at different
concentrations of plant extracts. We presume that the efficacy of the antimicrobial
potential is not indicative for their antioxidative potential but probably due to the
concentration of bioactive compounds. Therefore, Himalayan bryophytes can be explored
extensively for future therapeutic and medicinal purposes.
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E-43 Exploring the Potential of Growth and Bio-control Properties of


Rhizospheric Fluorescent Pseudomonads of Exotic Bamboos
Suman Rawat1*, Divya Rawat2, Solomon Das3, Y. P. Singh4 and Padma Singh5
Research Institute, Dehradun 248006, Uttarakhand, India, 1,2,5Kanya Gurukul
Mahavidyalaya, Gurukul Kangri University, Hardwar 249401,Uttarakhand,India,
*Corresponding Author Email: singh_yp@rediffinail.com

3,4Forest

Keywords : Antagonist, Afforestation, Bamboo, PGPR

ABSTRACT
Bamboo, an important, widely occurring species, constitutes about 13% of area of the
Indian forests. Fast growth rate and shallow root system make bamboos mycotrophic
(mycorrhiza dependent) and also create a niche in the root zone that is conducive for
microbial growth and proliferation. Fluorescent pseudomonads, a rhizosphere competent,
significantly contribute in growth and defence of plants. Diversity of fluorescent
pseudomonads of seven exotic bamboos was explored in relation to their growth
(phosphate solubilisation and IAA) and bio-control (siderophore and HCN) properties.
These properties were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively to select out efficient
inoculants for wastelands afforestation under National Green Mission.

E-44 Characterization and Bio-Control Activity of Pseudomonas Isolates


from Rhizospheres of Tamil Nadu against Rhizoctonia solani
Sumit Sisodia, Piyush Jai Mallick, Nupur, Niharika, Priti Shekar and Rekha Govindan*
Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, Vinayaka Missions University, Paiyanoor
603104 Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India. *Corresponding Author Email:
rekhagovindan2000 @yahoo.com
Keywords : Fluorescent Pseudomonads, Bio-control Activities, Characterization

ABSTRACT
In this study, fluorescent Pseudomonads were isolated from rice rhizosphere from the
southern districts of Tamil Nadu and screened them against Sheath blight pathogen,
Rhizoctonia solani. Among them, an isolate designated as ABL1008 was selected for
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further studies owing to its potential antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The
isolate ABL1008 also produced iron chelating substance siderophores and Hydrogen
cyanide (HCN) which play a major role in biocontrol mechanism against plant pathogens.
The complete work has indicated a major biocontrol role for Pseudomonas sp. isolate
ABL1008 against Rhizoctonia solani. Hence field trials for the effectiveness of
Pseudomonas sp. isolate ABL1008 looks very promising.

E-45 Management of Aphids on Brassica napus L. by


Manipulating Sowing Dates
Surjeet Kumar* and Ranbir Singh
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,
Palampur-176062.
*Corresponding Author Email: skumarhpau@gmail.com
Keywords : Aphids, Management, Brassica napus, Sowing dates

ABSTRACT
Brassica napus L. popularly known as gobhi sarson in India and Canola in many
other parts of the world, is an important crop belonging to the rapeseed-mustard group of
oilseed crops, the second most important source of edible oil in India after groundnut. One
of the reasons for reduction in productivity is aphid (Lipaphis erysimi, Brevicoryne
brassicae and Myzus persicae) infestation. Chemical control is harmful with respect to
non-target organisms, human health, quality of produce and overall environment. So, ecofriendly approaches may be an alternative. The field trial was conducted at Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh, India. Results indicated that among the three aphid species observed
to infest the crop, B. brassicae was the most dominant followed by M. persicae on the
crop sown on different sowing dates. The population of L. erysimi was observed to be
negligible. The crop sown between 3rd and 18th October harboured less aphid population
and yielded significantly more compared to the late sown crop (2nd and 17th November).
It is concluded that use of chemical insecticides can be minimized by sowing the crop
early (before le October) without any significant decrease in the yield.
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E-46 Study of Egg Parasitoids (Chalcidoidea : Mymaridae) of Uttar Pradesh


Tabassum Rehmat* and Shoeba Binte Anis
Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (U.P.).
*Corresponding Author Email: tabassum.ento@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Uttar Pradesh supports huge diversity of insects. Members of the family Mymaridae
(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are often referred to as Fairy flies, occurs in almost every
habitat and available throughout the year. Mymarids are often overlooked because of their
small size about 0.35mm-1.5mm. Its members are known to parasitize the eggs of wide
variety of insects in the orders: Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera
and Psocoptera of agricultural crops, thus with a remarkable diverse host array. The
oopahagous habit of mymarids, leads to the recognition as potential agents in the biocontrol
of insect pest of agriculturally important crops. Mymarid fauna is represented in India by
26 genera and about 113 species. The present study is based on following 8 mymarid
genera collected during 2006 to 2011 from Uttar Pradesh viz., Arescon, Camptoptera,
Erythmelus, Himopolynema, Mymar, Polynema, Stethynium, Staphanodes, which is
about 30 % of the total Indian mymarid fauna. Species wise analysis shows that genus
Erythmelus with 8 species dominated the diversity followed by Camptoptera (4 species),
Polynema, Arescon, Stethynium (2 species each) and Himopolynema, Mymar,
Stephanodes (1 species each). Among mentioned species, 6 species are recorded for the
first time in India. The present study of mymarid fauna not only helps in calculating their
diversity and richness but also helps in finding effective biological control agents for
successful biological control programmes.

E-47 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Oyster Mushroom


Pleurotus florida
Thillai maharani, K. A., K. Sharmila and M. Kalaiselvam*
Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608502, Tamilnadu, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: kalaifms@gmail.com
Keywords : Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Pleurotus, Ethanolic extract
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of four different solvent extracts of
P. florida were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of different solvents were tested
against pathogenic bacteria and fungi of human origin using disc diffusion method. Total
antioxidant, reducing power and total phenolic content effect of the extracts was
determined by phosphor-molybdenum assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and
folin ciocalteu methods respectively. Results indicated that the maximum antibacterial and
antifungal activity was observed in ethanol extract of P. florida was found at 23 mm and
20mm against Streptococcus sp and E. floccosum respectively. Ethanolic extract of P.
florida produced minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 25mg/ml against E. coli
followed by K. oxytoca (25mg/ml), P. murabilis (75mg/ml) and Sterptococcus sp.
(50mg/ml). The ethanol extract exhibited good antioxidant activity (230 g equivalent of
BHT/g), strongest reducing power inhibition (79.24%) and also contain high phenolic
content (6.25 mg gallic acid/g of dry extract). The results provided evidence that the
ethanol extracts of P. florida might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and
antimicrobial agents.

E-48 Acridid Pests (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) of Purvanchal Region of


Uttar Pradesh
Uzma Rafi*, M. K. Usmani and Hirdesh Kumar
Department of Zoology,
Aligarh Musim University, Aligarh.
*Corresponding Author Email: rafiuzma@gmail.com
Keywords : Orthoptera, Acridid, Pest

ABSTRACT
Purvanchal is eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. The soil is rich in quality and having high
earthworm density nearby Indo-Gangetic areas. Specimens were collected from different
districts of Purvanchal region of Eastern Uttar Pradesh during 2010-2012. The inventory
of the grasshopper and locust fauna in the Purvanchal region (Eastern UP.) revealed the
presence of 38 species, divided into 10 sub-families namely Acridinae, Catantopinae,
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Cyrtacanthacridinae, Eyprepocnemidinae, Gomphocerinae, Hemiacridinae, Oedipoditute,


Oxyinae, Spathosterninae and Tropidopolinae. Among these subfamilies, we found that
oedipodinae is the best represented one. Subfamily Oedipodinae is the largest, consisting
of 11 species. The sub families Cyrtacanthacridinae. Gomphocerinae, Spathosterninae and
Tropidopolinae are represented by only one species each. Species richness and abundance
of Acridid pests were studied. Observation was also made on their host and habitat.
Species richness was maximum in Mau district while minimum in Gorakhpur district.
Maximum specimen collection was obtained from cultivated area, shows the maximum
abundance of Acridid pests in agricultural areas.

E-49 Silk Biomaterials-A Review


V. Asha Krishna1*, Ch. Ramanamma2 and T. Vijaya3
1,3S.P. Mahila Visvavidyalayam
(S.P. Womens University),
Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh,
2NSPR Degree College for Women,
Hindupur, Anantapur, A. P.
*Corresponding Author Email: ashakrishnanine@gmail.com
Keywords : Bombyx mori, Silk, Biomaterial, Tissue engineering.

ABSTRACT
Silkworm produces a fine, glistening, fabulous proteinaceous silk thread the fabric
made of which is regarded as the queen of textiles and has made great contribution to
the human civilization, biologically, silkworm innovates as potential insect system for
production of high cost proteins and currently silkworm is technically convenient,
ethically acceptable a valuable laboratory animal model to discriminate molecules as well
as screening antimicrobials, evaluating the efficacy of novel antibiotics for pathogenic
bacterial infection in humans, screening of drugs etc. Still there is a vast scope to explore
the tiny insect for the welfare of the mankind.
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E-50 Prediction of Number of Generations of Tobacco Caterpillar,


Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), A Polyphagous Pest, Based on Thermal
Degree-Days Requirement under Climate Change Scenarios
V. Sridhar*, M. Jayashankar and L.S. Vinesh
IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake post, Bangalore-560089, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: vsridhar@iihr.ernet.in
Keywords : Spodoptera litura, Thermal degree days, Horizontal cut off, Vertical cut off

ABSTRACT
Number of generations of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was assessed under current and
expected future climate change scenarios based on Thermal Degree-days (TDD)
requirement and prevailing/expected temperatures. The assessment was done for IPCC
Al B climate change scenario for three localities in India viz., Ludhiana (Northern India),
Bangalore (Southern India) and Kalyani (Eastern India). The number of generations was
calculated after obtaining the effective degree-days accumulation for each day by using
both horizontal and vertical cutoff methods. Estimated number of generation of S. liltura
by Horizontal cutoff method were 9, 10, 11 generations in Ludhiana; 8, 10, 12 generations
in Bangalore and 10, 11, 12 generations in Kalyani in different scenarios of climate change
i.e., 1960-1990 (base line scenarios), 2030-2050 scenario and 2061-2098 scenarios,
respectively. With Vertical cutoff method, it was estimated that S. litura would complete
7 generations each in 1960-1990 (base line scenarios), 2030-2050 scenario and 2061-2098
scenarios under Ludhiana conditions; 9, 10, 11 generations under Bangalore conditions and
9, 10, 10 generations, under Kalyani conditions under similar scenarios as mentioned for
Ludhiana.

E-51 Projected Climate Change Mediated Response of Spodoptera litura


(Fabricius) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) in India as Assessed by CLIMEX Modeling
V. Sridhar, A. Verghese, L. S. Vinesh and M. Jayashankar
IIHR, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560089,
*Corresponding Author Email: vsridhar@iihr.ernet.in
Keywords : Climate change, Spodoptera, CL1MEX
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ABSTRACT
Insect pest problems in agriculture have shown a considerable shift during the recent
past, because of climate change apart from ecosystem and technological changes. This
is particularly true in case of polyphagous pest like Spodoptera litura. CLIMEX was
used to model the potential distribution of the species in the India based on different
scenarios emphasizing increase in the temperature viz., 1C, 2C and 3Craise in
temperature; 0.1C temperature increase per each latitude in comparison with current
scenario. Suitability of the localities was expressed in terms of Eco-climatic index (El)
ranging from 0 to > 20 by combining the interaction effect of various stress indices and
growth indices for the development of S. litura. It was observed that in temperate areas
the pest incidence may increase in future, in contrast to the decreasing trend in areas
where already the prevailing temperatures are near tipper thresholds.

E-52 Elicitors, Effectors and R Genes : The New Paradigm and a Lifetime
Supply of Questions-A Review
V. V. N. Vamsy Krishna. D.
IIT Biology Faculty, Velammal Matric Hr. Sec School,
Velammal knowledge Park,
Ponneri, Tamilnadu- 601204.
Keywords : MAMPs/PAMPs, R proteins, PAMP-triggered Immunity (PTI), Virulence strategy.

ABSTRACT
Pathogens are diversified infectious agents that recognize the target host and
propagate disease/infection. Animal immune system possesses immunoglobulins, circulating
immune cells and phagocytic process as defense mechanisms. But, in plants they are two
main mechanisms were evolved. One, developing physical and chemical barriers
(preformed). two, induced resistance mechanisms (R-genes products) which can be
compared with innate and adaptive immunity seen in animals. To be successful pathogens
they should pass these barriers. This presentation focuses on defense mechanisms of
plants. Those are Preformed and induced Molecular responses by which the plant system
evolved to eliminate the pathogens from its immediate environment.

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E-53 Development and Trait Analysis of Insect Resistant Transgenic Bt


Brinjal & Bt Tomato
Vageesh babu S. Hanur*, K. Boopal, K. N. Srividya, M. S. Saraswathi and Vijeth V. Arya
IIHR, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560089,
*Corresponding Author Email: vageesh@iihr.ernet.in)
Keywords : Bt transgenics, Insect resistance, Leucinodes orbonalis, Brinjal.

ABSTRACT
Brinjal (Eggplant, aubergine, Solanum melongena L.) and tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.) are important vegetable crops of the Indian subcontinent and the world.
Yield and marketable quality of these crops are severely affected by the pests, brinjal
shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee and tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa
armigera). Harnessing the power of Bt technology, present investigation was undertaken
to develop insect resistant Bt transgenic brinjal cv. Arka Keshav and Bt tomato cv. Arka
Vikas. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation using synthetic Cry2A Bt gene
construct was followed by selection of independent T2 and T3 transgenic lines which were
evaluated for the presence and expression of Bt transgene. The transgenic lines were also
phenotyped for expression of the resistance trait through challenge inoculation infestation.
Lines that are promising are undergoing further testing.

E-54 Evaluation of Antagonists against Soil Borne Pathogens of Brinjal


Vikas Gupta*, V. K. Razdan and Sachin Gupta
1SKUAST-J, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir.
*Corresponding Author Email: vicky_mahajan2k @yahoo.co.in.
Keywords : Brinjal, Biocontrol agents, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. virens,
Chaetomium globosum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae and
Rhizoctonia solani.

ABSTRACT
Brinjal crop suffers from many biotic stresses, out of which soil borne diseases are
of great economic importance. It was observed that most of the fungal and bacterial
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antagonists tested were found effective against soil borne diseases under in-vitro and invivo conditions. Five isolates of fungal antagonists viz., Trichoderma viride (Tv1 and
Tv4), T. harzianum (Th1 and Th4) and T. virens (Gv2) and one isolate of bacterial
antagonist, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf2), found highly effective against all the soil
borne pathogens under in vitro conditions were used for seed, soil and seed + soil
treatments in pot experiments, to observe their effectiveness on seed germination, seedling
emergence and wilt incidence on brinjal cv. Pusa Purple Long. Among fungal antagonists
isolate Tv4 (Trichoderma viride) and among bacterial antagonists isolate Pf2 (Pseudomonas
fluorescens) were found most effective against the soil borne pathogens. Pot studies
revealed that Seed and soil application of antagonists resulted in significantly higher seed
and seedling emergence compared to seed and soil application alone. Pot studies further
revealed that seed + seedling + soil application of the antagonists resulted in lesser wilt
incidence compared to only seed + seedling or soil application of these antagonists.

E-55 Eco-Friendly Management of Coir Industry Wastes through


Saprophytic Fungi and Its Post Fact Utilization as Organic Manure
Vinay, M. T., Vinay, G. P., Rayankula Naidu., Mamatharani, D. R and G. Panduranga Murthy*
Bhoomigeetha Institute of Research & Development B.H. Road, Tumkur-572102, Karnataka,
India, *Corresponding Author Email: pandu_murthy@rediffmail.Com
Keywords : Coir industry wastes, Saprophytic fungi, Degradation, Eco-friendly management,
Coir Compost / Manure 1,-; 4, a //

ABSTRACT
Coir industry is a labor intensive and export oriented traditional industry. Coir pith is
a lingo-cellulosic agro-residue. It was found that, the disposal of Coir wastes have created
serious problems leading to public health hazards and environment. In addition, it was
observed that, the problem of huge dumps of Coir wastes is mainly due to delay in
biological degradation under natural condition. Recent developments in microbialbiotechnology yields new applications for the fastening of degradation process with
selected saprophytic fungi such as, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus
flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Pleurotus sp. Ganoderma sp. and Trichoderma
harzianum. In the present study, Coir pith wastes were subjected for degradation by
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

Solid state fermentation using the above desired fungal organisms and the experiment
was kept for 45days incubation. During degradation, the enzymes such as Cellulase,
Ligninase and Pectinase were analyzed at different temperatures and pH. Activity of all
these degradative enzymes was high at 40C temperature and pH 5 with the substrate
concentration (5%) in selected fungal species. It could understand that, the high yield of
Cellulase and Ligninase enzymes at optimized temperature and pH indicates the effective
degradation of Coir wastes within the short period. The degraded material was subjected
for NPK analysis using soil samples of different regions and most significant NPK
contents estimated in compost prepared from coir degradation. This compost was
analyzed for toxicity and it has sustainable environmental development properties along
with special characters of supplying necessary nutrients.

E-56 Decaleside II : A New Class of Natural Insecticide for Control of


Stored Grain Insect Pests
Y. Rajashekar
National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, P. Bag No: 2491, H.A. Farm Post,
Bellary Road, Bangalore-560 024, Karnataka, India. Email: rajacftri@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Decalepis hamiltonii; Decaleside II; Novel trisaccharides; Contact toxicity;
Mammalian safety; Stored grain insect pests

ABSTRACT
Insects cause extensive damage to stored grains and their value added products,
which may account to 5-10% in the temperate zone and 20-30% in the tropical zone.
Plants may provide alternatives to currently used insect control agents as they constitute
rich source in bioactive molecules. We have isolated natural insecticidal molecule from the
edible roots of Decalepis hamiltonii named Decaleside II, which is novel trisaccharides,
highly toxic to various insects. Decaleside II showed highest insecticidal activity by
contact bioassay with LC50 in the range of 0.004-0.0158 mg/cm2 to the insects, Sitophilus
oryzae, Rhizopertha dominica, Callosobruchus chinensis and Tribolium castaneum.
In the grains treated with the Decaleside II at the 100 ppm, 80% insect mortality was
observed tested within 24 h and, the mortality reached100% at 7d of exposure for all the
insects. The Decaleside II caused significant reduction in F1 progeny of all the insects in
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the treated grain and the progeny was completely suppressed at 100ppm dosage. The
mammalian safety of the new insecticides is inherent in their chemical structure with 14 or 1-1 linkage that is easily hydrolyzed by the digestive enzymes of mammals.
However, the insect selectivity and mammalian safety of Decalesides or similar molecules
makes them highly suitable for use as novel grain or seed protectants of natural origin.

E-57 Pleurotus eous-An Easy Growing Mushroom with Immense Potential


for Farmers of Jammu
Sachin Gupta*, Moni Gupta, V. K. Razdan and Manpreet Kaur
Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of
Jammu, Chatha, Jammu (J & K)-180 009.
*Corresponding Author Email: sachinmoni@ gmail.com
Keywords : Pleurotus eous, Mushroom, Fruit body, Wheat straw, Wheat bran

ABSTRACT
Pleurotus eous commonly known as pink oyster was studied for various parameters
of its growth. For mass multiplication, malt dextrose agar, temperature of 20o C and pH
6.5 was found to be the best for supporting its growth. Various substrates were evaluated
for its cultivation and wheat straw was found to the best substrate producing the
maximum number of fruit bodies, average fruit body weight, number of flushes and total
yield. Supplementation of wheat straw with wheat bran was found to be effective in
causing significant increase in yield of mushrooms. Maximum Benefit: Cost ratio was
obtained in the treatment consisting of sterilization of wheat straw with hot water
treatment, spawning @ 4 percent of dry weight and supplementation with wheat bran.

E-58 Antioxidant Defense in the Male and Female Pupa of


Antheraea paphia L.
G. C. Patra1*, N. Mohanty2 and D. G. Dey3
G. Department of Zoology, North Orissa University, Takatpur , Baripada -757003,
3Department of Zoology, Udala College, Udala, Mayurbhanj -757041 Odisha. Corresponding
Author Email: gcpatranou@gmail.com
1,2P.

Keywords : Antheraea paphia, Pupae, Haemolymph, Fatbody, Antioxidants.


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ABSTRACT
Tropical tasar is produced by silkworm Antheraea paphia Linn. mainly available in
Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Mayurbhanj, Odisha. The quality of silk yarn produced out
of Modal cocoon is best in the world. The present investigation accounts for a
comparative study of the antioxidants status in the diapausing pupae of the male and
female. Emphasis has been given on the contents of protein, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C),
reduced glutathione (GSH) and level of lipid peroxidation (LPX) i. e. malondialdehyde
(MDA) content formed in the haemolymph and fat body tissues of pupae of the silkworm.
Results of the present study indicate that the female pupae are superior to male based
on their antioxidant status.

F. Agronomy, Soil and Water Conservation, Agricultural Meteorology


and GIS
F-1 Performance of Coconut Based Agri-Hoticultural System in
Coastal Odisha
A. K. Patra*, A. K. Mohapatra, B. P. Gantayat, P. J. Mishra and B. B. Behera
All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Agroforestry, Orissa University of Agriculture &
Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, Orissa. *Corresponding Author Email:
alokpatra2000@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Cocos nucifera, Agri-horticultural system, Oryza sativa

ABSTRACT
Coastal Odisha has vast acreage under medium land which can be successfully
intercropped with coconut (Cocos nucifera) under agri-horticultural system. A participatory
survey work was undertaken by the AICRP on Agroforestry, OUAT, Bhubaneswar
during 2007-08 in Puri district to assess the feasibility and economic aspects of growing
coconut in rice field. It was observed that coconut was planted under three different agrihorticultural systems. Coconut palms planted on the usual rice field bunds at 7.5 m plant
to plant spacing were found to be of poor growth and less productive as compared to pure
stand plantation. Coconut planted in paddy field on raised bunds of 3 m width accommodated
about 90/ha. The paddy area was reduced by about 20% with 24% yield reduction. But
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this reduction in rice was compensated by nut yields of coconut. On an average 89 nuts/
plant/year were harvested in mixed stand as compared to 80 nuts in pure stand. Two rows
coconut (5 m x 7.5 m) planted on raised bunds of 7 m width (leaving 1.0 m on either side
of the bund) accommodated about 105 trees/ha. The rice area was reduced by about 28%
with 35% reduction in yield. But nut yield was more in mixed stand of rice + coconut (85
nuts/plant/year) as compared to that in pure stand (76 nuts/plant/year). Besides these
three systems coconuts were also planted at a spacing of 8 m x 7.5 m on raised paddy
bund with an alley space of 5 m width which is utilized for fish farming.

F-2 Performance of Intercrops in High Density Acacia mangium Plantation


A. K. Patra*, A. K. Mohapatra, S. Das, P. J. Mishra and B. B. Behera
AICRP on Agroforestry,
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology,
Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 003.
*Corresponding Author Email: alokpatra2000@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Acacia mangium, Agri-silvicultural agroforestry system, Cucurbita moschata,
Phaseolus mungo

ABSTRACT
Block plantation of Acacia mangium at 2.5 m x 2.0 m spacing on the Chitrotpala
river bank in Kendrapada district of coastal Odisha was taken up during 2007. The soil
of the planting site was sandy clay loam with moderate in organic carbon, low in
phosphorus and medium in potash availability. Two intercrops in sequence, pumpkin
(Cucurbita moschata) in February and blackgram (Phaseolus mungo) in October were
grown in the tree alleys. Both the crops were rainfed. An average fruit yield of 22.58 t/
ha was obtained from summer pumpkin grown in association with trees as against 24.65
t/ha in the open field during first year. Blackgram taken during post rainy season recorded
0.245 t/ha with trees as compared to 0.325 t/ha without the tree component. The
reductions in yield were 9.17 and 18.0% in pumpkin and blackgram, respectively when
grown in association with trees as compared to their respective sole crops. During second
and third year, respective yield reductions were 13.3 and 14.6 %, and 25.1 and 32.8 %.
Acacia mangium attained a height of 6.8 m with a collar diameter of 17.6 cm after 36
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months of planting. The initial soil values remained more or less same after three years
of Acacia mangium plantation. As the canopy of the trees closed during fourth year yam
(Dioscorea alata) was planted in the pits dug near each Acacia mangium plant which
recorded tuber yield of 15.2 t/ha as against 18.7 t/ha in pure stand.

F-3 Evaluation of Soil Resources for Agricultural Development in


Subarnarekha Watershed, Ranchi District, Jharkhand
A. K. Sahoo, Dipak Sarkar and K. Das
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR),
Regional Centre, Salt lake, Kolkata700 091, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: skcssri@gmail.com
Keywords : Watershed, Alternate Land Use Plan, Land cxapability, Soil site suitability,
Prioritization.

ABSTRACT
Soil resource inventory (1:50,000 scale) in Subarnarekha watershed, Ranchi district,
Jharkhand under rainfed agro eco-region was carried out for development of an alternate
land use plan of the watershed. The watershed represents a typical undulating terrain
developed on granite gneiss landscape dominated by six major physiography viz. hills,
pediments, monadnocks, plateau top, undulating plateau and valley. Soils were loamy
skeletal to fine in texture (clay 11.1 to 50.6%), neutral to strongly acidic (pH 4.5 to 7.1),
low to medium (0.6 to 9.2 gkg-1) in organic carbon and CEC (4.2 to 19.7 cmol (p+) kg1). Inceptisols were the dominant soils followed by Alfisols and Entisols. Undulating
topography, shallow soil depth, severe soil erosion and strong soil acidity were the major
constraints in the soils of hilly terrain, monadnocks and plateau. However, in the soils of
valleys and depressed lands, imperfect to poor drainage and surface soil acidity were the
major constraints for crop growth. Soils were grouped under land capability classes of II,
III, IV, VI and VII and soil site suitability for different crops were evaluated. The
watershed was prioritized and an action plan was developed considering the problems and
potential of the watershed areas and the need of the farmers.

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F-4 Evaluation of Inhana Rational Farming Technology (IRF) as a


Complete Package of Practice for Sustainable Organic Tea CultivationA
Case Study from FAO-CFC-TBI Project at Maud Tea Estate, Assam
A. Seal1*, S. Saha2, A. Das3 and R. K. Sarkar4
Organic Research Foundation (IORF), West Bengal, India,
3Calcutta University, India,
4Ballygunge Science College,
Calcutta University, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: inhanabiosciences@gmail.com

1,2Inhana

Keywords : Organic tea, Inhana rational farming, Economic sustainability

ABSTRACT
Inhana Rational Farming Technology (IRF) was scientifically evaluated as an organic
package of practice towards meeting the objectivity of FAO-CFC-TBI project i.e. finding
out an effective pathway for sustainable organic tea cultivation. IRF exhibited most
significant performance over other organic packages of practice, i.e. either original like
biodynamic farming or formulated combining vermi compost, indigenous compost (FYM)
and microbial formulations (on the basis of scientific rationale and experts opinion); both
in terms of crop productivity and economic sustainability under all growth stages of tea
plant for three years i.e. from 2009-2011 at Maud tea estate, Assam (India). Assessment
of the effect of different packages towards organic management of tea nursery, through
the utilization of Dickson Quality Index (used to evaluate seedling quality) indicated
highest value for IRF treatment as compared to others. Crop yield under IFR was 10.14,
23.58 and 5.77 percent higher than the next best packages of practice under new
plantation (age : 0-2 years), young tea (age : 3 to 6 years) and mature tea (age : 11-14
years) respectively. Conversely when evaluated for the respective input cost under each
package, expenses under IRF was found to be 68.32, 80.19 and 79.18 percent lower than
the others. Soil Development Index (SDI) was also formulated to assess the variation in
soil quality under application of different packages of practice. Highest SDI was obtained
under IRF, which had also correlated significantly with the respective crop performance
thereby confirming the effective soil-plant relationship.

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F-5 Effect of Weed Control on Growth and Yield Attributing Characters of


Upland Drilled Paddy under the Lateritic Condition of Konkan
A. V. Dahiphale*, B. D. Shinde, N. V. Dalvi and M. J. Mane
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli 415712, Dist-Ratnagiri. (India).
*Corresponding Author Email: amol2d@gmail.com
Keywords : Upland drilled rice, Weed control, Weed control efficiency

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various weed control measures
on growth and yield of upland rice under lateritic soil conditions. The performance of rice
was not influenced by introducing cowpea, as an intercrop in direct seeded upland rice
for 30-35 days. It was also ineffective in controlling the weeds. For effective weed control
and higher yields as well as higher net returns from the direct seeded kharif upland rice,
Oxydiargyl @ 0.1 kg/ha should be sprayed 5-6 days after sowing of the crop and it should
be followed by hand weeding 20-25 days after sowing.

F-6 Root Environment and Crop Production in Saline Eco-System of Sunderban


Amaresh Bakly and Pulin B, Chakraborty*
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Regional Research Station (Coastal Saline Zone),
P.O. Akshoynagar, Kakdwip 743 347, 24-Parganas (S), West Bengal, India. Corresponding
Author Email: pulin_chakraborty@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to study the microclimate in a crop grown after
harvest wet-season rice in sunderban. Short duration crops, viz, lentil, gram and mustard
were grown as test crops adopting conventional, strip and zero-tillage with straw and
polyethylene mulch. The result revealed that mulch treatments had significant effect on
modification of the root- zone environment irrespective of tillage practices. Poly-mulch, in
association with minimum tillage, reduced evapotranspiration rate from 1.65 to 1.35 mm
d-1. This increased moisture availability to the crops for a longer period and decreased soil
salinity from 2.32 to 0.58 dS m-1. Poly-mulch raised soil temperature by 1.7C while straw
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mulch reduced it by 0.7C. Minimum tillage helped in maintaining relatively lower


temperature in the root-zone even when poly-mulch was applied. Significant yield increase
was achieved when straw mulch was applied with either of the minimum tillage practices.
As a consequence, either of the minimum tillage practices with straw mulch proved to be
most remunerative, producing highest (1.92) benefit-cost (B : C) ratio. However, of all the
crops, lentil had highest B: C ratio. However of all the crops, lentil had highest B : C ratio,
followed by gram and mustard. Hence, it may be concluded that lentil can be successfully
grown as second crop in delta, adopting minimum tillage with straw mulch.

F-7 Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature of Kakdwip Block in


Sundarban Delta
Amaresh Bakly*, Pulin B. Chakraborty and Smita Kujur
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Regional Research Station, Kakdwip 743 347, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: pulin_chakraborty@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Trend analysis, Sunderban, Kakdwip block

ABSTRACT
Historical rainfall and temperature data for 22 years (1986-2007), collected from the
Regional Research Station of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya at Kakdwip, was
used to analyse the trends of rainfall and temperature. Results revealed that average
rainfall of the area is 2104.08 mm that varies between 1702.46 and 2505.70 mm, but 59
percent of the years received rainfall > 2000 mm. An increasing trend in annual rainfall
was, although, observed but seasonal analysis indicated different trends. Moreover,
monsoon rain, which accounts for 86.61% of total rainfall, concentrates mostly within 23rd
to 45th weeks. However, dependable rains (73.9% probability) are expected to occur
between 21st to 43rd weeks at every alternate year. It was also noticed that the weeks
beyond 41st week experiences severe drought. Further, from 6th-7th week onwards both
maximum and minimum temperature increases by 1.70 and 3-50 C respectively, and it
were more conspicuous beyond 1989. Such increase in temperature as well as rainfall
indicates severe environmental degradation of the delta.

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F-8 Estimation of Cotton Crop Acreage and Production at District Level


Using IRS LISS-III Data and Agromet Yield Model
Anil Sood1*, K N Chaudhary2 and Sushma Panigrahy3
1Punjab Remote Sensing Centre,
PAU-Campus, Ludhiana 141004,
2,3Space Application Centre (ISRO),
Ahmedabad, 380015,
*Corresponding Author Email: anilsood_prsc@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Cotton, Acreage, Production, Remote sensing, Modeling,

ABSTRACT
Cotton acreage in the five districts of Punjab namely Bathinda, Faridkot, Firozpur,
Muktsar and Mansa was carried using Remote Sensing (IRS-R2 LISS-III) digital data
with the objective to estimate pre harvest crop acreage and production for cotton crop.
The digital data was analyzed for acreage estimation following Total enumeration
approach with district as a unit. The results showed that there has been increase of 11.02
per cent in acreage under 5 cotton growing districts studied when compared with last
years (2010-11) estimates from Bureau of Economics and Statistics (BES), Punjab. In
all the five districts the cotton acreage increased in ranging from 3.68% (Firozpur) to
18.72% (Mansa), due to good monsoon and better market prices in last year. Cotton yield
was predicted by agromet model based on normalized correlation coefficient weighted
weather parameters (Tmax, Tmin and rainfall). Weather data up to October 30, 2011 have
been used for the prediction. The production in all the five major cotton growing districts
increased in comparison to the estimates for last year given by Bureau of Economics and
Stat, Punjab and it ranged from 21.10 percent (Bathinda district) to 45.81 per cent in
Muktsar districts. Good monsoon and low incidence of disease and pest attack is
attributed for higher yield.

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F-9 Mitigating Abiotic Stresses through Innovative Resource Conservation


Practices for Crop Diversification, Productivity Enhancement and
Environmental Security in Hill Ecosystems
Anup Das*, G. I. Ramkrushna, B. U. Choudhury, Jayanta Layek, R. Krishnappa, D. P. Patel,
G. C. Munda and S. V. Ngachan
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,
Umiam-793 103, Meghalaya.
*Corresponding Author Email: anup_icar@yahoo.com
Keywords : Resource conservation, Zero tillage, Residue management, Soil carbon, Productivity

ABSTRACT
High rainfall, steep slopes, intensive tillage practices coupled with residue removal
and meager/no application of manure and fertilizer are the major cause of land
degradation in the North Eastern Region of India. Monocropping is by and large prevalent
with average cropping intensity of about 120%. Even though the region receives high
rainfall (2450 mm), there is severe water scarcity in upland during November to April and
makes agriculture almost impossible in the absence of soil moisture conservation measures.
On the other hand, in low land there is excess moisture due to seepage from surrounding
hillocks. Cultivation of a second crop of rice is not possible due to early onset of winter
and subsequent problem of spikelet sterility. Conservation Agriculture (CA) permits
management of soils for agricultural production without excessively disturbing the soil,
while protecting it from the processes that contribute to degradation e.g. erosion,
compaction, aggregate breakdown, loss in organic matter, leaching of nutrient etc. The
CA is a way to achieve goals of enhanced productivity and profitability while protecting
natural resources and environment. To promote CA, zero and minimum tillage, crop
residue management (40 cm standing stubble of rice) crop rotation (pea/lentil/toria in rice
fallow) were followed. Small tools and implements like manual furrow opener, seed cum
fertilizer drill, etc. were used. To ensure timely sowing of second crop in lowland, drainage
channels were provided around the rice field at physiological maturity. The field studies
revealed that rice productivity after 3 cropping cycles were either equal (in upland) or 1015 % higher (lowland) under zero tillage or minimum tillage + residue retained plot
compared to conventional tillage + residue removed plots. Under lowland, after rice
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harvest, it is possible to get 8-9 t/ha green pod yield from pea or 1.5 t/ha seed yield of
lentil or 0.8 t/ha toria seed yield following zero tillage practice. Retention of 40 cm stubble
height resulted 48% and 30% enhancement in lentil productivity under zero tillage in
lowland and upland rice fallow, respectively. The soil organic carbon enhanced by 12.5%
due to double no tillage over conventional tillage after 5 cropping cycles in rice - pea
cropping system. Zero tillage saved energy, build up soil organic carbon content and
enhanced cropping intensity. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties improved over
the years under zero or minimum tillage plots with residue management compared to
conventional tillage and residue removal.

F-10 Nutrient Composition and Uptake by Weeds and Rice under Different
Crop Establishment and Weed Management Practices
Arunbabu, T* and S. N. Jena
College of Agriculture,
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology,
Bhubaneswar-751003.
Corresponding Author Email: arunbabu.thalla@gmail.com
Keywords : Crop establishment methods, Weed management practices, Nutrient concentration
and uptake, Rice, Weeds.

ABSTRACT
Field experiments were conducted during the kharif 2010 and 2011 at Agronomy
Research Farm, Central Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology,
Bhubaneswar to assess the nutrient concentration and uptake by weeds and crops under
different crop establishment methods. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam
in texture with pH 5.45. Grain and straw yield of 5.02 and 5.8 t were recorded in System
of Rice Intensification (SRI). Weedy check recorded highest nutrient composition of
weeds. Highest uptake of nutrients in grain and straw of rice were recorded in conoweeder. Uptake of N, P, K were 69.9, 19.9 and 14.1 kg ha-1 respectively by grain and
that by straw were 27.0, 6.2 and 111.7 kg ha-1 respectively.

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F-11 Spatial and Temporal Cropping Systems Changes over Uttar PradeshA Geographical Information System Analysis
Avadhesh Kumar Koshal
S. V. P. U. A & T., Modipuram, Meerut, U.P. 250110.
*Corresponding Author Email: akkoshal@hotmail.com
Keywords : GIS, Cropping system, IGP & Division

ABSTRACT
Agriculture plays a vital role in economic development of the nation. Uttar Pradesh
is fifth largest state, it is located between 23 52-31 24 N latitudes and 77.5-84. 38
E longitudes and divided in 18 Divisions. Divisional based study of Uttar Pradesh cropping
systems level is useful to understand to overall sustainability of agricultural system. The
changes in cropping pattern have been worked out on the basis of secondary data. The
change analysis for cropping systems data to triennium years (1995-98 to 2005-08). GIS
is computer assisted system for analysis of spatial and non-spatial data. In ARC GIS
software, classified change analysis maps were found more than 15% in five systems:
Rice-Wheat, Sugarcane/ratoon-Wheat, Maize-Wheat, Pearl millet-Wheat and SorghumWheat and other three cropping systems viz. Rice-Mustard, Rice-Gram and FallowWheat systems have not many changes were observed. The dominant cropping systems
are Rice-Wheat system, maximum positive change was observed in Aligarh division.

F-12 Productivity Enhancement of Degraded Coastal Land through Land


Shaping Techniques
D. Burman1*, B. K. Bandyopadhyay2, U. K. Mandal3, Subhasis Mandal4, S. K. Sarangi5, K.
K. Mahanta6, B. Maji7, D. K. Sharma8, N. J. Maitra9, T. K. Ghoshal10, B. Mandal11, P.
Patra12, S. Patra13 and S. De14
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,12,13,14CSSRI, Regional Research Station, Canning Town-743329, West Bengal,
8CSSRI,Karnal-132 001, Haryana, 9Ramkrishna Ashram Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nimpith-743
338, West Bengal, 10Central Institute of Brackish water Aquaculture, Kakdwip Research
Centre, Kakdwip-743 347, West Bengal, 11(BCKV), Mohanpur-741 252, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: burman.d@gmail.com
Keywords : Land shaping technique, Salinity, Waterlogging, Rainwater harvesting, Integrated
Crop-Fish Cultivation, Coastal land
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ABSTRACT
Land shaping techniques like farm pond, deep furrow and high ridge, paddy-cum fish
cultivation have been developed for restoration and productivity enhancement of degraded
(saline) coastal land. These techniques reduced the process of land degradation by alleviating
soil salinity and waterlogging problems as well as for creation of irrigation resources in
the coastal region. Land shaping techniques have been implemented in about 79 ha of
farmers fields in the blocks of Canning I, Patharpratima, Kultali, Namkhana, Kakdwip in
South 24 Pagarganas district and Sandeshkhali II block in North 24 Pagarganas district
of West Bengal in the Gangetic Delta region in Sundarbans (India). In rabi/summer, due
to creation of different land situation like high land, medium land and low land, the salinity
has been reduced to about 4-5 dSm-1 in high land, 6-8 dSm-1 in medium land and 12-13
dSm-1 in low land from original land (without land shaping) with salinity >15 dSm-1. The
land shaping provided better drainage condition and created irrigation resources through
harvesting of rain water. The reshaped land has provided the scope for integrated
cultivation of crops and fishes round the year. The cropping intensity has been increased
from 100 % to 194 %. Increased in employment generation from 87 to 227 man-days and
farm income from Rs.7700 to Rs. 28,056 per house hold of average holding of 0.35 ha
per annum have been recorded due to implementation of land shaping techniques.

F-13 On Farm Assessment of Nutrient Management of Different Crops in


Alluvial Soils of Punjab
D. S. Benipal*, S. S. Kukal, M. S. Kahlon Balkaran Singh and A. A. S. Gill
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004. *Corresponding Author Email:
dsbenipal@yahoo.com
Keywords : Leaf Colour Chart, Paddy, Site-Specific Nutrient Management, Wheat

ABSTRACT
The demonstrative experiments of proven technology of university to the farmers
were conducted in 9 districts of Punjab. The significantly higher grain yield of paddy in
the fields was recorded with N applied at the time of sowing and after matching the leaf
with leaf color chart (LCC), then at with fixed N application in three equal splits at 0, 21
and 42 DAT. The use of nitrate solution to cotton at weekly intervals resulted in
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significantly higher cotton seed yield as compared to the farmers practices. The
significantly higher grain yield was obtained with three sprays of 0.5 % MnSO4 as
compared with farmers practice.

F-14 An Assessment of Framework-Based Soil Quality in a Long-Term


Rice-Wheat Agro-Ecosystem of Semi-Arid Inceptisol
1Directorate

Debarati Bhaduri1*, T. J. Purakayastha2


of Groundnut Research, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat, 2Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: debarati.ssiari@gmail.com

Keywords : Soil Quality Index, Rice, Wheat, Tillage, Nutrient management

ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out to develop a valid soil quality index through
some chosen indicators using expert-opinion based Conceptual Framework model. The
long-term experiment consisted of two tillage treatments, three irrigation treatments, and
nine nutrient treatments in a rice-wheat cropping system. After rice, CFSQI-P (productivity)
was higher under puddled situation, whereas CFSQI-EP (environmental protection) was
more under non-puddled condition and 3-days of drainage treatment was found promising
for all indices. No-tillage and full organic or partial substitution with organic nutrient
management obtained higher indices. Puddling, 3-days of drainage and FYM-addition in
rice could be practiced for maintaining soil quality. No-tillage, two irrigations and domestic
sewage sludge in wheat can safely be recommended for achieving higher soil quality.

F-15 Ever Green Revolution through Adoption of Soil and Water


Conservation Measures on Watershed Basis in Bundelkhand Region in
Central India
Dev Narayan and S. P. Tiwari
Central Soil & Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Centre, Datia
475661, Madhya Pradesh. *Corresponding Author Email: drdevnarayan@yahoo.com
Keywords : Crop productivity, Ground water, Soil and Water Conservation, Water availability,
Watershed management
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ABSTRACT
The Bundelkhand region with a geographical area of 7.07 m ha in Central India is
characterized with undulating terrain, scarce vegetation cover, hostile climate, lack of
irrigation facilities and unfavorable edaphic conditions and is reported as one of the most
deprived regions of the country. About 70% of the total area in the region has been
affected by varying degree of erosion hazards. About 53% area comes under rainfed
agriculture and crop intensity is about 111% in the region. The yield potential of crops is
low and agriculture is not economically viable until scientific management of land and
water is taken care of to have a self sustainable agriculture. The surface and ground
water availability for drinking, agriculture and industrial purposes is very limited because
of less numbers of perennial flow rivers and stony underground strata. Watershed
projects undertaken in the region following the concept of participatory integrated
watershed management have shown convincing results in increasing agricultural production,
ground water recharge and minimizing erosion from arable and non-arable lands. The
average crop productivity increased from 8.0 to 14.5 q ha-1 in Sheetalpur watershed, from
10.21 q ha-1 to 13.40 q ha-1 in terms of wheat equivalent yield in Bajni watershed, from
2424 to 2845 kg ha-1 of wheat in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed and from 6 q ha-1 to 39.9
q ha-1 in Tejpura watershed, due to adoption of soil and water conservation measures
coupled with improved agro-techniques. The ever green revolution could be brought
through adoption of suitable soil and water conservation measures on arable and nonarable lands following the concept of participatory integrated watershed management for
minimizing land degradation, augmenting ground water recharge and enhancing crop
productivity in Bundelkhand region in Central India.

F-16 Performance of Maize Crop as Influenced by Foliar Spray of Sea Saps


Dipak Kumar Kanchan1, Santosh Kumar Singh2*, S. T. Zodape3,
Arup Ghosh2 and Aradhna Kumari4
1,2RAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar, 848125, 3Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research
Institute, Bhavnagar, Gujrat, 364021, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Ganj Basoda, M.P.,
446422. *Corresponding Author Email: santoshraupusa@gmail.com
Keywords : Maize, Sea weeds sap, Foliar application, Yield parameters

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ABSTRACT
An experiment was carried out at crop research centre Rajendra Agricultural
University, Pusa (25.98090 N, 85.66718 E, elevation 54 m) to study the performance of
two sea weed sap, one extracted from Kappaphycus spp. (K Sap) and another extracted
from Gracillaria spp. (G Sap). The crop under study was autumn maize (var. 900 M
Gold). The experiment was designed in RBD with 10 different treatments. The treatments
comprised three foliar sprays of saps of T1 2.5%, T2 5.0%, T3 10.0% and T4 15% of K
sap, T5 2.5%, T6 5.0%, T7 10.0% and T8 15.0% of G sap, T9 7.5% of K and 7.5% of
G sap and T10 water spray as control. The treatment consisted of foliar spray of sap at
three growth stages of maize crop viz., knee high, tasseling and silking. Recommended
dose of N: P: K: Zn @ 120:60:40:5 kg/ha were applied to all the treatments. Different
treatments significantly influenced grain and straw yields. Yield attributing characters such
as plant height, plant girth, cob length, cob diameter were significantly affected with the
spray of saps. Plant canopy temperature, chlorophyll content (SPAD reading) and 100
grain weight were also superior as compared to control. The results indicated that among
the two saps, K sap outperformed G Sap, although both saps significantly improved crop
performance over control. The best treatment was T3 (10% K Sap) where maximum
grain and stover yield of 72.9 t/ha and 89.3 t/ha was recorded respectively resulting in a
yield advantage of 35.3 % and 34.7 % respectively. Plant height, plant girth, SPAD
values, canopy temperature, cob length, cob diameter and 100 grain weight increased by
7.2%, 22.6%, 13.2%, 7.3%, 23.0%, 16.7% and 13.2% respectively as compared to control
by spray of 10% K sap. Spraying of mixture of 7.5% K sap and 7.5% G sap (T9) was
found to be significantly superior over 5% K sap (T2) or 5% G sap (T6) and was found
at par with 10% K sap spray (T3).

F-17 Effect of Water Regime, Variety and Nitrogen on Yield and Economics
of Summer Rice in the Lateritic Belt of West Bengal
G. C. Malik and M. Banerjee*
Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, 731236.
*Corresponding Author Email: mahua.banerjee@visva-bharati.ac.in
Keywords : Growth, Productivity, Economics, Summer Rice, Water Regimes
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ABSTRACT
A field experiment laid out in split plot design with three replications consisting of two
water regimes and two varieties in the main plots and three levels of nitrogen in the subplot was conducted at Visva-Bharati, West Bengal. The results indicated that IR 36 with
recommended dose of nitrogen (120 kg N ha-1) under continuous saturation needs to be
advocated for cultivation during boro (summer) season for improving productivity of the
crop and increasing net return in lateritic belt of West Bengal. The crop grown under
alternate drying and wetting condition with low nitrogen level (60 kg N ha-1) produced
very low yield that ultimately paid very low return.

F-18 Physico-chemical Properties of Some Soils of Tripura under Different


Land-use
Gautam Chel
Department of Chemistry, M.B.B. College, Agartala 799004, Tripura, India. *Corresponding
Author Email: chelgautam@gmail.com
Keywords : Degraded Soil, Timber Plantation, Physico-Chemical Properties, CarbonSequestration, Tripura

ABSTRACT
The soils of Tripura are predominantly red-lateritic in nature and sandy-clay loam or
clay loam in texture. In natural forests, different types of secondary and timber plantations
viz. natural rubber, bamboo, teak, gamir, sal and various types of orchards are also grown
gainfully in these soils. However, due to shifting cultivation these soils were degraded. In
this backdrop, the present work was undertaken to see the influence of timber and
secondary forest plantation on soil properties in sub-tropical Tripura. Soil samples were
collected under three plantations viz. gamir, sal and bamboo from surface layer (0-30 cm
depth). The ages of the plantations were about 25 and 40 years. Soils from adjacent
fallow land were also collected for comparison. The result showed that both bulk density
and particle density of soils under all the plantations were decreased with age in
comparison to fallow land. Porosity of soils under these plantations was increased from
53.2% to 58.3% and it was more conspicuous under bamboo plantation. The pH of the
soils ranged from 5.1-6.1 and it was not significantly changed over time. A significant
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increase in soil organic carbon and mineralizable nitrogen content were observed under
all the plantations and it was again highest under bamboo plantation indicating higher
accumulation of organic matter underneath of plants. C/N Ratio of soils under these
plantations became close to 10 from 15 over time suggesting equilibrium had reached
between organic carbon and nitrogen. Total carbon contents of soils under all the
plantations were significantly increased and it varied from 38.5-74.8 mt/ha. An overall
improvement in physical and chemical properties of soils under degraded land in Tripura
was observed due to high value timber plantation/secondary forest which could also
effectively off-set the increased carbon concentration in air through sequestration.

F-19 Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in a Foothill Forest of Eastern


Himalayas
Gopal Shukla* and Sumit Chakravarty
Department of Forestry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya Pundibari-736165, Cooch
Behar, West Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email:gopalshukla12@gmail.com
Keywords : Chilapatta Reserve Forest, Biomass, Carbon sequestration

ABSTRACT
Carbon pool of a forest can be estimated by its biomass storage. A study was
undertaken during April 2007 to March 2009 at Chilapatta Reserve Forest in Duars region
of West Bengal to document its biomass and carbon storage. The basal area of trees
species in the forest ranged from 0.25-41.60 m2 ha-1. The total basal area of trees
estimated was 522.91 m2 ha-1. The total biomass accumulated was 1995.98 Mg ha-1.
Almost all this biomass was contributed by the trees. The total carbon storage in the soil
was 75.83 Mgha-1 while the total carbon pool of the forest in its soil, live and organic
biomass was 973.65 Mgha-1. The biomass and carbon storage of different life form along
with the contributions of different plant organs were also estimated. Drawing CO2 out of
air and sequestering it into biomass is the only known practical way to remove large
volume of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Thus Chilapatta Reserve Forest is
playing a multiple and significant role in regulating atmospheric concentration of carbon
dioxide.
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F-20 Development of Coastal Wetland through RiceFish Integration


System: A Case Study from Orissa State
Gouranga Kar and Ashwani Kumar
Directorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, PIN751023,
*Corresponding Author Email: kar_wtcer@yahoo.com
Keywords : Rainfall, Flood, Wetlands, Coastal Region, Deep Water Rice, Pond Based Farming

ABSTRACT
Traditionally, local farmers of coastal waterlogged areas of eastern region plough the
agricultural field twice or thrice before June with the help of pre-monsoon shower and
broadcast dry seeds of local rice varieties of long duration (150 days) in the first week
of June. But chances of profitable crop production depend upon the time and depth of
flooding/waterlogging. Waterlogging during rainy season for most part of the crop growth
reduces tillering and growth of the normal rice genotype. As a case study, development
and management strategies of seasonal waterelogged coastal areas of Puri district of
Odisha were developed through deep water rice cultivation, pond based farming and
multiple use of water. Based on the rainfall-runoff relationship it was observed that
flooding was highly dependant on rainfall in the catchments and rice yield production was
highly influenced by time of flooding. Among 3 study years (2005, 2006, 2007), no yield
was obtained in 2006 due to occurrence of early flood (1st week of July). Performance
of improved deep water rice varieties (Hangseswari, Sabita, Ambika, Saraswati)
was compared with that of two local varieties (Bankui and Dhalakaritk) under 3
flooding depths. The net water productivity was enhanced from Rs. 1.22/m3 through sole
rice to Rs. 6.26/m3 through integrated rice-fish pond based farming.

F-21 Effect of Hydrogel on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Pearl millet
(Pennisetum glaucum) Production
Harphool Singh
Agricultural Research Station, S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Fatehpur-Shekhawati,
Sikar (Raj.)-332001, India. Email: hpsdvs@gmail.com
Keywords : Pearl millet, Hydrogel and Water use efficiency
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ABSTRACT
The field experiment was conducted at on effect of hydrogel on yield and water use
efficiency in pearl millet production. Agricultural Research Station, Fatehpur-Shekhawati
in three consecutive rainy (kharif) seasons (2006-2008). The soil of the experimental field
was sandy loam, low in available nitrogen (168 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus (21
kg/ha) and high in available potash (301 kg/ha) with 0.46 per cent organic carbon content
and alkaline (pH 8.2) in reaction.. Seed soaking in water, Thiourea (500 ppm) and DMSO
(100 ppm) was done for 5-6 hours and then dried in shade and treated with hydrogel
before sowing. Pearl millet variety ICMH-356 was sown in 45 cm row spacing and
recommended dose of fertilizers and other cultivation practices were adopted. The rainfall
received during the growing period (June to September) was 200.8 mm in 2006, 324.8 mm
in 2007 and 498.2 mm in 2008. Seasonal consumptive use of water by the crop for the
entire growing season was estimated from total soil-moisture depletion by soil-moisture
determination crop yield attributes viz. effective tillers/plant, ear length, grain weight/
earhead and test weight were significantly influenced by seed treatment with hydrogel
The maximum increase in number of effective tillers per plant, ear length grain weight/
earhead and test weight were observed with seed coating by 20 gm hydrogel + TU +
DMSO followed by 20 gm hydrogel and 10 gm hydrogel + TU + DMSO per kg seed
and were found significantly superior over control though the differences among the
hydrogel levels were non significant. The grain and stover yields were also significantly
influenced by the hydrogel application. The highest increased in grain yield was noted with
seed coating 20 gm hydrogel + TU + DMSO followed by 20 gm hydrogel, 10 gm hydrogel
+ TU + DMSO and 10 gm hydrogel per kg over untreated control. The respective
increase was of the order of 23.30, 19.56, 17.10 and 11.79 per cent over control.
Likewise, the maximum stover yield was observed with 20 gm hydrogel + TU + DMSO
followed by 20 gm hydrogel and 10 gm hydrogel + TU + DMSO per kg over untreated
control. The maximum water-use efficiency (WUE) quantity was noted with seed coating
20 gm hydrogel + TU + DMSO followed by 20 gm hydrogel, 10 gm hydrogel + TU +
DMSO and 10 gm hydrogel per kg over untreated control.
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F-22 Inclusion of Summer Mungbean in Cereal Based Production Systems


for Long-Term Sustainability and Soil Health

*1,2Indian

K. K. Hazra1*, M. S. Venkatesh2 and P. K. Ghosh3


institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024, Uttar Pradesh; 3Indian Grassland
and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh.
Corresponding authors email: kalikrishna123@gmail.com
Keywords : Mungbean, Soil health, Cropping system, Sustainability

ABSTRACT
Inclusion of pulses in cereal based cropping systems has been recommended for
system sustainability and soil health. Under irrigated production system of Indo-gangetic
plain zones of India, inclusion of summer mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in rice-wheat and
maize-wheat system not only increased the system productivity but also significantly
increased the yield of component crops (rice -356 kg/ha; wheat-394 kg/ha; maize- 653
kg/ha) after eight years of cropping cycles. The increase in the yield of the component
crops upon inclusion of mungbean was mainly attributed to improvement in soil quality.
The significant increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) and its fraction (Cfrac1, Cfrac2,
Cfrac3 and Cfrac4), soil microbial biomass carbon and soil available nutrients (N, P, and
K) was noticed. Rice-wheat-mungbean and maize-wheat-mungbean with higher annual
vegetation cover and carbon input, sequestered higher SOC both under organic (all crop
residues incorporation +FYM+Biofertilizers) and inorganic (recommended NPKSZnB)
production system compared to conventional R-W and M-W system.

F-23 Tillage Influence on Soil Aggregation, Organic Carbon Content and Its
Distribution in Aggregate Size Fractions
K. M. Hati*, A. K. Indoria, R. K. Singh, J. Somasundaram and R. S. Chaudhary
Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal-462038, M. P.
*Corresponding Author Email: kmh@iiss.ernet.in
Keywords : Conservation tillage, Wheat, Soil organic carbon, Soil Aggregation, Vertisol

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ABSTRACT
Excessive disturbance of the top soil through intensive tillage operations and removal
of residues in conventional tillage systems result in breakdown of soil structure, accelerated
oxidation and consequent reduction in soil organic carbon content. While in conservation
tillage system crop residues are retained and tillage operations are kept at bare minimum
which generally stimulates sequestration of carbon in the soil. But, information on the
physical mechanism of carbon stabilization under conservation tillage in Vertisols is
meagre. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of conservation tillage
with differential nitrogen levels on soil aggregation and compartmentalization of SOC in
different aggregate size classes after eleven crop cycles of soybean and wheat system.
The percent distribution of macro-aggregates (>250m) was significantly higher in
conservation tillage which includes no tillage (NT) and reduced tillage (RT) treatments in
comparison with conventional tillage (CT) treatment at 0-5 and 5-15cm depth. However,
the difference was not significant at 15-30-cm depth. On the other side, the per cent
micro-aggregate (53-250m) fractions in NT and RT treatments were significantly lower
than the CT treatment at all the three depths, suggesting that more macro-aggregates are
formed from these micro-aggregates in conservation tillage system with input of residues
and reduction of tillage operations. In all treatments and depths, maximum soil was
retained in small macro-aggregates fraction (250-2000m) suggesting that small macroaggregates in this soil are relatively stable. The SOC in different aggregate size classes
decreased with decreasing size classes in all treatments and soil depths. The SOC of large
macro-aggregates at all soil depths and small macro-aggregates in 0-5 and 5-15cm soil
depth was significantly higher in NT and RT than in CT, indicating an increase of SOC
in macro-aggregates in NT and RT. At surface 0-5 cm depth, maximum SOC was found
in NT followed by RT and mould board tillage (MB) and minimum SOC was recorded
in CT owing to higher residue input in NT, RT and MB than CT. Further the residue
decomposition was less in NT than RT and MB owing to contrasting microclimate in NT
compared with RT and MB. At 5-15 and 15-30cm depths, the difference in SOC contents
of NT, RT and MB was not significant, but the SOC content in these treatments were
significantly higher than that of CT. The SOC increased significantly with N levels at 05cm depth. The SOC values were not different at N50% and N100% but they were
significantly lower than N150% at 5-15cm depth. Our study clearly indicated that adoption
of conservation tillage promoted formation of macro-aggregates from micro-aggregates,
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increased total soil organic carbon content and stabilized more soil carbon by capturing
them inside aggregates and consequently decreasing their decomposition rate by physically
occluding them from microbial attack.

F-24 Yield and NPK Uptake in Vegetable Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata l.) as
Influenced by Plant Densities and Phosphorus Levels
K. Ravi Kumar*, V. Sudha Vani, K. Uma Jyothi and K. Sasikala
College of Horticulture, Venkataramannagudem - 534 101, Andhra Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: ravikuna4u@gmail.com
Keywords : Uptake of Nitrogen & Phosphorus, Protein content, Plant density, Phosphorus
Level, Vegetable Cowpea

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Venkataramannagudem
to study the effect of plant densities and phosphorus levels on the growth, yield and its
attributes of vegetable cowpea. The higher plant density of 74,074 plants/ha recorded
significantly higher uptake of nitrogen (129.87 kg/ha), phosphorus (34.01 kg/ha), potassium
(89.02 kg/ha) and higher protein content (21.48 %). The uptake of N (132.24 kg/ha), P
(35.65 kg/ha), K (89.90 kg/ha) and protein content (22.96 %) were increased with
increasing the phosphorus levels % thus indicating 60 kg P2O5/ha could be the optimum
dose for vegetable cowpea. The interaction effect of plant density level of 74,074 plants/
ha and phosphorus @ 60 kg P2O5 was also significantly superior to the other treatmental
combinations with regards to the protein content and NPK uptake. The increase in NPK
uptake was mainly attributed to higher pod yield/ha.

F-25 Improved Planting Technique Saves Irrigation Water and Enhances


Water Use Efficiency of Potato
K. G. Mandal*, A. K. Thakur, S. Mohanty and Ashwani Kumar
Directorate of Water Management (ICAR), Bhubaneswar-751 023, Odisha. *Corresponding
author E-mail: mandal98kg@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Irrigation, Potato, Planting technique
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ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted to study different planting methods for saving of
irrigation water and enhancing WUE of potato during 2008-11 at the DWM Research
Farm, Mendhasal, Odisha. The design of the experiment was split-plot with three
replication. Three planting techniques: S1, normal planting at 50 x 15 cm spacing (planting
in 50 x 15 cm spacing and making ridges in the crop row after emergence; furrow spacing
50 cm), S2, paired row planting at 75 x 20 cm spacing (planting of 2 rows at 25 cm
spacing, and making of 1 ridge with 2 rows; furrow spacing 75 cm), and S3, paired row
planting at 100 x 15 cm spacing (planting of 2 rows at 50 cm spacing and making of 1
ridge with 2 rows; furrow spacing 100 cm) were superimposed on four main plot
treatments viz. two (I1), three (I2), four (I3) & five (I4) irrigations. Pooled data of three
years revealed that fresh tuber yield of potato in S1 (15.09 t ha-1) was statistically at par
with S2 (14.78 t ha-1), and both S1 and S2 was significantly greater than S3 (12.71 t ha1). Thus tuber yield in paired row method was not reduced significantly; highest tuber yield
was recorded with I4, and it was similar with I3. The lowest yield was obtained in I1. The
irrigation water depth decreased in S2 (17.73 cm) and S3 (15.21 cm) compared to S1
(22.49 cm), hence a significant reduction in irrigation water requirement occurred by 21
and 32% in S2 and S3, respectively compared to S1. The increase in ET with higher
irrigation levels (I4) decreased the crop WUE because of not recording commensurate
increase in tuber yield; the irrigation treatment for WUE was significant. However, the
efficient planting techniques, S2 (44.11) significantly enhanced the crop WUE when
compared to S1 (40.75) and S3 (41.07 kg tuber per ha mm water). Thus, saving of water
and enhancing water use efficiency of potato could be achieved through improved planting
techniques.

F-26 Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen Sources on Growth, Yield and Input
Use Efficiency of Soybean in a Sandy Loam Soil
K. K. Bandyopadhyay*, S. Pradhan, R. Singh, A. K. Sutradhar and D. K. Joshi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110 012, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: kk.bandyopadhyay@gmail.com
Keywords : Soybean, Water Use Efficiency, Nitrogen use efficiency, Biomass partitioning
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted on a Typic Haplustept at the Indian Agricultural
Research Institute, New Delhi during kharif, 2010-11 in a split plot design with four levels
of irrigation (Rainfed, One irrigation, two irrigations, three irrigations at critical growth
stages in the absence of rainfall) and three nitrogen management strategies (urea, urea
+ farmyard manure and farmyard manure) in soybean (cv Pusa 9814) for improving input
use efficiency under soybean-wheat system. It was observed that with the increase in the
irrigation levels, partitioning of photosynthates towards pod decreased and the root length
density at 0-15 cm was minimum at highest irrigation level. Among the nitrogen sources,
integrated use of urea and farmyard manure resulted in maximum partitioning of
photosynthates towards pod and higher root length density in 0-15 cm soil layer. There
was decline in grain yield but increase in the biomass yield of soybean with increase in
the irrigation levels. Among the nutrient sources the maximum grain yield and biomass
yield of soybean was obtained with the integrated use of urea and farmyard manure. The
water use efficiency and partial factor productivity of N followed the trend similar to the
grain yield of soybean. Thus from this study it may be concluded that soybean may be
grown under rainfed condition or with one irrigation at pod formation stage and with
integrated use of urea and farmyard manure to achieve higher yield and water and
nitrogen use efficiency in sandy loam soils of Delhi region.

F-27 Impact of Fertilizer Types and Doses on Root Growth, Yield, Fertilizer
Use Efficiency and Economics of Cauliflower in Recent Alluvium of Gangetic
Plain
K. Rajan1* and A. Abdul Haris2
Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Fernhill (PO),
Udhagamandalam-643004, The Nilgiris, TN, 2ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region,
P.O.-B.V.College, Patna-800014, Bihar. *Corresponding Author Email: krajanars@gmail.com
1Central

Keywords : Fertigation, Fertilizer types, Cauliflower, Root growth, Yield and economics

ABSTRACT
In a field experiment conducted at Patna (ICAR RCER) to study the effects of
different types of fertilizers and doses on root growth, yield, fertilizer use efficiency (FUE)
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and the economics of cauliflower in the recent alluvium of under fertigation. Conventional
fertilizers (CF), Solid Soluble Fertilizers (SSF) and Liquid Fertilizers (LF) and three doses
of 50%, 75% and 100 % were tested with recommended doses of 120:80:80 N P K/
ha. Root length was found highest in CF + LF (202 %) followed by CR + SSF (172 %)
compared to CF and similar trend was observed in root surface. Highest curd yield of 39
t ha-1 was recorded with the fertigation through CF + LF and the lowest yield with CF
alone (38 t ha-1). Significant fertilizer use efficiency was observed in 50% (2.78 Q kg-1
NPK) dose to 100%. B:C ratio was significantly highest in CF alone in main plot (2.01)
and 50% dose (1.63) application which was 2.28 and 1.24 times higher than CF + LF and
100% doses respectively.

F-28 Seed Priming and Foliar Nutrition towards Enhancing Lathyrus


Productivity under Rice-Utera System
M. K. Bhowmick
Rice Research Station (Govt. of W. B.),
Chinsurah (R.S.) 712 102, Hooghly,
West Bengal, India.
Email: bhowmick_malay@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Foliar Nutrition, Lathyrus Productivity, Rice-Fallows, Seed Priming, Utera System

ABSTRACT
A field study was conducted at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Sub-station, Beldanga,
Murshidabad, West Bengal during rabi, 2006-07 and 2007-08 to evaluate low-cost
technologies (seed priming and foliar nutrition) for enhancing lathyrus productivity under
rice-utera system. Use of sprouted seeds could significantly produce the highest seed
yield (1111.00 kg ha-1) and was followed by seed soaking in 2% KH2PO4 solution
(1047.10 kg ha-1). Regardless of seed priming, foliar spray of 2% urea and 2% DAP
(twice) recorded higher seed yields of 1113.75 and 1079.29 kg ha-1, respectively, owing
to improvement in crop growth and yield attributes.
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F-29 Crop Geometric Studies for Growing New Mungbean Genotypes in


West Bengal
M. K. Bhowmick
Rice Research Station (Govt. of W. B.), Chinsurah (R. S.) 712 102, Hooghly, West Bengal,
India. Email: bhowmick_malay@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Crop geometry, Mungbean Genotypes, Optimum spacing, Seed yield

ABSTRACT
Field studies were conducted at Pulses and Oilseeds Research Sub-station, Beldanga,
Murshidabad, West Bengal during pre-kharif, 2004 and 2005 to optimize spacing
requirements for growing new mungbean genotypes viz. WBM 4-34-1-1 (Bireshwar) and
WBM 29 (Sukumar) in West Bengal. Though the genotype WBM 29 significantly yielded
the highest (906.83 kg ha-1) in 75 days and was followed by WBM 4-34-1-1 (800.06 kg
ha-1), the latter matured earlier (in 65 days) than the others including B 1 (state check)
and PDM 54 (national check). All these genotypes could yield higher at an optimum
spacing of 25 cm x 10 cm (818.54 kg ha-1) as compared with 20 cm x 10 cm (789.71
kg ha-1) and 30 cm x 10 cm (763.50 kg ha-1).

F-30 Effect of Intercropping on Maize (Zea mays) With Legumes during


Kharif Season under Red and Lateritic Tract of West Bengal
M. K. Mandal*, M. Banerjee, H. Banerjee, A. Alipatra and G. C. Malik
Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, 731236.
*Corresponding Author Email: malaymandal86@gmail.com
Keywords : Chlorophyll, Groundnut, Intercropping, Maize, Nutrient uptake, Soybean, Yield

ABSTRACT
Field experiment was undertaken during kharif season of 2010 and 2011 at
Sriniketan Research Farm, Visva-Bharati, West Bengal. The grain and stover yield of
maize were significantly higher in pure crop than intercropping systems, while the cob
yield was highest in maize + soybean (1 : 2) and statistically at par with yield of sole
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maize. Groundnut out-yielded soybean with respect to grain yield and was higher in maize
+ groundnut (1 : 2). Further, maize + groundnut (2 : 4) gave higher net return followed
by maize + groundnut (1 : 2). Thus under red and lateritic tracts groundnut can be
intercropped with maize for economic gain.

F-31 Productivity of Maize -Chickpea Cropping System under Permanent


Raised Bed

1,2Indian

M. K. Singh1*, Narendra Kumar2 and P. K. Ghosh3


Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024, India, 3Indian Grassland and Fodder
Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India. *Corresponding Author Email:
singh.mrityunjai@gmail.com
Keywords : Pulses, Raised bed planting, Cropping system

ABSTRACT
The performance of maize-chickpea cropping system was studied under permanent
raised bed system, as it saves substantial amount of diesel, irrigation water and other
agricultural inputs. The raised bed of 75 cm width was prepared during Kharif season
with tractor drawn raised bed planter and maize was sown. During Rabi season, after
reshaping with same raised bed maker, rainfed chickpea was grown. The highest
chickpea equivalent yield (3568 kg/ha) was obtained in maize - chickpea + spinach
followed by maize - chickpea + fenugreek (3513 kg/ha) and lowest in maize-chickpea
system. The maize stalk mulch helped in suppressing the weeds.

F-32 Estimation of Photo-Thermal Requirements of Mulberry for Raising


Future Population with Plasticity
Monica Chaudhuri (nee Mukhopadhyay)*, Elfrida Khyriem and B. B. Bindroo
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore, India 742101.
*Corresponding Author Email: chaudhuri.monica@gmail.com
Keywords : Mulberry, Photothermal unit, Heliothermal unit, Phenothermal Index,
Heat use efficiency
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Mulberry, an important commercial crop thrives in tropical and temperate countries.
Its foliage serves as exclusive food for the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Periodical foliage
harvest is a heavy stress on mulberry. Quick regeneration, vigorous growth and yield for
longer duration are culmination of many temporal plant processes and affected by photothermal responses. The paper embodies the first ever comprehensive report on estimates
of Photothermal and Heliothermal Units, Phenothermal index and Heat Use Efficiency
with respect to the phasic duration and foliage yield of mulberry varieties. The differential
response to photo- thermal requirement is expected to open up vista for raising population
of mulberry for better plasticity in future.

F-33 Spatial Spread and Structural Change of Groundwater Markets and


Irrigation Services in India : An Inter-Regional Analysis
Mukesh Kr. Sinha
Directorate of Water Management,
Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar-751023 Orissa, India.
Email: drmukesh@scientist.com
Keywords : Water markets, Irrigation services, Spread and scale

ABSTRACT
Study conducted to assess scale and spread of water markets and irrigation services
in India. NSS data used for analysis indicated that area irrigated through pump irrigation
services has increased from 1.0 million ha to 20.0 million ha. Further, there are 21 million
pump owners and another 24 million farmers who report hiring of irrigation services. Of
these, there are some 11 million electric pumps which service at least 1213 million
buyers. This means that the benefit of electricity subsidy percolates to 2324 million
farmers in India, Thus, the role played by hired irrigation services and groundwater
markets needs attention, and will also go a long way in sustainable management of
groundwater resources.
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F-34 Boost Rice-Fallows Chickpea Production System in India through


Suitable Soil Moisture Conservation Practices
Narendra Kumar*, P. K. Ghosh, M. K. Singh, K. K. Hazra and M. S. Venkatesh
Indian Institute of Pulses Research,
Kanpur 208024 (India).
*Corresponding Author Email: nkumar.icar@gmail.com
Keywords : Mulch, Rice fallow, Soil moisture conservation, Tillage

ABSTRACT
In India about 11.7 m ha rice fallow area exists, of which 82% lies in the Eastern
and North Eastern states. Pulses like lentil, chickpea, mung bean and urd bean may prove
as ideal crops to explore the rice fallow areas. A number of abiotic factors related to soil
and water lead to low or stagnated pulse production in rice fallows during past several
years. An attempt was made to study the effect of soil moisture conservation practices
on chickpea productivity in rice fallows. Significant variations in yield were recorded due
to moisture conservation practices used under the study. In general, zero tillage with
mulching is superior to conventional tillage and recorded 23-28% higher yield of chickpea.
Zero tillage + dibbling sowing + mulching (1660 kg/ha) recorded highest chickpea yield
followed by zero-till drill sowing + mulching (1589 kg/ha) over conventional method (1295
kg/ha). Similarly, higher yield was observed under zero till + rice straw mulching over
zero-till drill system without mulching. Standing rice residue also performed at par to
mulching. The highest relative water content (72.4%) at flowering stage was also
recorded in zero tillage + dibbling sowing + mulching followed by zero-till drill sowing +
mulching (69%) and lowest under conventional practice (61.2%). Thus, for realising
higher yield of pulses in rice fallows under zero tillage, soil moisture conservation practices
like mulching and standing residue may be practice.

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F-35 Resilient Mustard Production System for Semi-Arids through


Organic Amendments
O. P. Premi*, B. K. Kandpal, S. S. Rathore and Kapila Sekhawat
Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur, Rajasthan 321 303, India,
*Corresponding Author Email: oppremidrmr@gmail.com
Keywords : Mustard, Organic, Productivity

ABSTRACT
The continued conventional practices deteriorated soil health and factor productivity
resulting stagnated mustard yield and higher cost of production in fragile dry semi-arids
of Rajasthan. A paradigm shift by use of organics could reverse the trend and make the
system resilient and sustainable. The six years study on the use of organics on mustard
confirms the hypothesis. The mustard productivity in organic farming (green manuring +
vermicompost + mustard straw recycling) superseded conventional system in the fifth
year. The weather abrasions caused 17.8% lower yield drop at organic than conventional
system. The improvement in bulk density ( 1.54 to 1.32 mg/m3, infiltration rate (5.8mm
to 8.3 mm/hr) and SOC (2.5 to 3.7g/kg) due to organic system indicate its high resilience
level.

F-36 Comparison of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with Traditional


Methods for Rice Productivity
P. Deb Roy*, T. Mitran, Durgesh kumar Singh, B. N Saha and Biswapati Mandal
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, W. B.
*Corresponding Author Email: partha.slg09@gmail.com
Keywords : SRI, Conventional method, Photosynthetic rate, Root biomass, Seed yield

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of different rice
varieties managed under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and conventional method of
cultivation. Five rice varieties were selected for this study viz. KRH 2, IR 64, SATABDI,
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MTU 1010 and GB 1. The study revealed that all the varieties perform well under
conventional method of cultivation than under the SRI in terms of effective tiller/m2 and
seed yield. Highest seed yield in SRI method was obtained in MTU 1010 (4.30 t/ha)
followed by KRH 2 (4.26 t/ha) while in conventional method in GB 1 (4.76 t/ha) followed
by KRH 2 (4.42 t/ha). Net Photosynthetic rate and root biomass were measured to
validate our findings. No significant differences were observed between SRI and
Conventional methods of rice cultivation. Besides, high labour requirement in SRI for
weeding make it costly than conventional method for cultivation of rice.

F-37 Integrated Approach towards Rainwater Harvesting in a Farm at IARI,


New Delhi
P. Mookerjee and N. V. K. Chakravarty
Nuclear Research Laboratory (Retd.), Agril. Physics, IARI, New Delhi
Keywords : Rain water harvesting, Groundwater Quality, Conservation,

ABSTRACT
A study has been carried to work out effective rain water harvesting in a farm at
IARI, which is based on the study of the rainfall pattern during the last 35 years and the
study of single day rainfall events which were likely to produce run-off available for
harvesting. The study was carried during the years 2008- 2010. On an average, about 56.3
ha-meter of water is available as run-off at the IARI farms. This information prompts for
Rainwater Harvesting and conveys the message that every year we lose a good amount
of fresh water which goes waste into the drain. It was observed that there is a natural
slope from north-eastern side towards south-western area. It is therefore imperative that
there will be tendency of natural flow of the run-off towards the south-western side.
Taking into consideration the positions of already existing drainage channels and the sites
which were at relatively lower altitude and which were near to those channels, a site was
identified for making of a recharge pond. Also, since ground water quality beneath this
site was found to be within acceptable limit, it is suggested to make at least one recharge
shaft in order to artificially recharge the aquifer. This will facilitate recharging large
volume of water available due to short duration high intensity rains.
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F-38 Studies on Response of Wheat Under No Till Conditions Succeeding


Rice to Time of Nitrogen Application in Relation to Dose of Herbicide
Pawan Kumar Sharma
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004. India. Email: pksharmapau62@pau.edu
Keywords : Wheat, Nitrogen application, Herbicide

ABSTRACT
Field experiment was conducted for two years to study the response of wheat under
no till conditions succeeding rice to time of nitrogen application in relation to dose of
herbicide. Results revealed that application of nitrogen in three splits proved better than
two splits. Application of third split of nitrogen coincided with herbicide application which
enhanced the herbicide use efficiency. Weed dry matter at harvest was significantly
higher with two splits of nitrogen than its application in three splits.

F-39 Evaluation of Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) Technology as an


Effective, Comprehensive & Economical Method for Organic Vegetable
Cultivation taking Tomato as a Test Crop
1,2Inhana

R. Bera1, A. Dutta2 and K. Sengupta3


Organic Research Foundation (IORF), West Bengal, India, 3Bidhan Chandra
Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal India.
*Corresponding Author Email: inhanabiosciences@gmail.com
Keywords : Organic, Inhana Rational Farming, Tomato

ABSTRACT
The effectivity of Inhana Rational Farming (IRF) was critically evaluated in two
different agro-ecological zones viz. hot moist sub humid zone (15.1) with alluvial soil (at
University Farm of BCKV, W.B.) and dry sub-humid zone (12.3) with red and laterite
soil (at Farmers field, Bankura, W.B.) during 2008-2009 taking tomato (variety : Rituraj)
as the test crop. The experiment was laid down as per randomized block design (RBD)
with 7 treatments replicated 4 times. The treatments included local farming practice with
chemical inputs and Inhana Rational Farming Technology (IRF) of Inhana Biosciences
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with varying dose of Novcom compost. The most significant finding was that crop
performance under standard IRF Package (Novcom compost @ 4 ton/ bigha and
recommended solution sprays for plant management under IRF) was 23.2 and 19.7
percent higher than that of Chemical Practice in both the study areas respectively. The
net income in case of Standard IRF package was also higher by Rs. 6933/- and Rs. 3280/
- per ha respectively as compared to its chemical counterpart. Soil analysis after crop
harvest indicated an increasing trend of soil fertility especially in terms of soil microbial
population in the plots receiving Novcom compost as compared to the chemically treated
plots. The higher crop response in the IRF plots might be due to their better soil-plant
nutrient dynamics. The study indicate that an energized plant and soil system as achieved
under IRF through the application of Novcom compost and various energized botanical
solutions for plant management, can exhibit better crop performance at an economical
cost as compared to conventional chemical practice.

F-40 Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Fertility and Yield of


Greengram (Vigna radiata l.) Grown in Ragi-Berseem- Greengram Cropping
Sequence in an Acid Soil

1AICRP

R. K. Patra*, Pramod Kumar Das and S. K. Pattanayak


on Post Harvest Technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar-751 003, 2,3Orissa University of
Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003.
Keywords : Greengram, Integrated Nutrient Management, Acid Soil

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was laid out during 2011-12 in a randomised block design
comprising of eight treatments to study the influence of integrated nutrient management
on yield and quality of green gram cv. PDM-139 in Ragi- Berseem- Green gram cropping
sequence in an acid soil (pH 5.4). The soil was sandy in texture, low in available N, very
high in available P, low in available K and low in available S. The highest grain yield
1160 kgha-1 was recorded in NPK and liming along with FYM plication and Rhizobium
inoculation followed closely by NPK and liming along with vermicompost application and
Rhizobium inoculation. The highest protein content in the seed (25.8%) was observed both
in the treatments having NPK + vermicompost with or without Rhizobium inoculation. The
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highest uptake (82.3 kg N, 16.3 kg P, and 93.1 kg K ha-1) and the highest nutrient use
efficiency (N 42.0%, P 95.4% and K 25.2%) were reported NPK and liming along with
FYM application and Rhizobium inoculation. The maximum recycling of 23.7 kg N and
70.5kg K ha-1 in case of NPK+FYM+R+Lime treatment and 7.5kg P ha-1 in case of
NPK+VC+R+Lime treatment were observed. The soil pH after the two crops of ragi and
berseem in the different treatments increased over the initial pH of 5.4 by 0.28 to 0.58
units. The increasing trend in pH was also observed after the green gram crop in almost
all the treatments. NPK and FYM with Rhizobium inoculation and liming recorded highest
values o 118 kg per hectare and similarly NPK and FYM with Rhizobium inoculation
recorded the highest values of 213 kg/ha K in the soil after harvest of green gram. The
highest gross income of Rs 40600/ha with a BCR value of 2.96 were observed in NPK
+ liming along with FYM and rhizobial inoculation followed closely by NPK + liming along
with vermicompost and rhizobial inoculation. Finally, it may be concluded that there was
a yield gain of 75 per cent in the green gram crop with soil test based inorganic nutrient
application over absolute control. Organic integration further increased the yield by 21 per
cent over the inorganic nutrient. Seed inoculation with Rhizobium and treatment with Mo
increased the yield by another 33 per cent. Acid soil amelioration increased the seed yield
by 24 per cent.

F-41 Effect of Organic Farming and Integrated Weed Management on Yield,


Yield Contributing Characters and Quality of Satawar (Asparagus racemosus)
R. K. Upadhyay
Vigyan Prasar (D.S.T.) A-50, Institutional Area, Sector - 62, Noida. *Corresponding Author
Email: rkupadhyayfzd@yahoo.com
Keywords : Satawar (Asparagus racemosus), Organic farming, Integrated Weed Management

ABSTRACT
Satawar (Asparagus racemosus) is a woody climber which grows to a height 0.90
to 2.50 meter and belongs to the family Liliaceae. A multiplication field experiment was
conducted of farmers field Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Lucknow
(U.P) and at Faizabad in the gangetic alluvium of eastern Uttar Pradesh during 2009-10.
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The main objective of the experiment was to ascertain the response of farm yard manure
(FYM), vermicompost (VC), inorganic input and integrated weed management on yield
and yield contributing characters of Satawar (Asparagus racemosus)..The field experiment
was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replication keeping five
treatments as Organic input first factor viz., T1-control, T2-Chemical fertilizer @ 120:60:60
kg NPK ha-1, T3-FYM @ 15 t ha-1 , T4- Vermicompost @ 6 t ha-1 and T5-40:20:20 kg
NPK ha-1+ FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2 t ha-1 and four treatment of weed management
as a second factor viz., W1-control, W2- Hand weeding at 30, 60 and 90 day after
transplanting (DAT), W3-Pendimethalin @ 1 liter a.i. ha-1 pre emergence and W4-Hand
weeding at 30, 60 and 90 + Pendimethalin @ 1 liter a.i. ha-1 as pre emergence. The total
treatment combinations were 20 with three replications. The treatment T5W4 (40:20:20 kg
NPK ha-1+ FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2 t ha-1 and Hand weeding at 30, 60 and 90 day
+ Pendimethalin @ 1 liter a.i. ha-1 as pre emergence) resulted in significantly highest plant
height, no. of branches per plants and yield of shatawar as compared to others and the
lowest plant height was recorded in T1W1 (control). The data further revealed that
significantly lowest weed population (18 m-2) was in T1W4 (40:20:20 kg NPK ha-1+ FYM
@ 5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2 t ha-1 and Hand weeding at 30, 60 and 90 + Pendimethalin @ 1
liter a.i. ha-1 as pre emergence) as compared to other treatments except T2W4, T4W4,
T3W4 and T5W4 i.e. the weed population under which was found to be at par with T1W4.
It was further evident from the data that the highest weed control efficiency (92.34%)
was recorded in T1W4 (40:20:20 kg NPK ha-1+ FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2 t ha-1 and
Hand weeding at 30, 60 and 90 + Pendimethalin @ 1 liter a.i. ha-1 as pre emergence) and
it was at par with T2W4, T4W4, T3W4, T5W4, T5W2 and, T3W2 as compared to other
treatments.

F-42 Jatropha Plantation for Simultaneous Waste Land Reclamation Fuel


Production and Socio-Economic Development in Degraded Areas in India
R. S. Sengar* and Reshu Chaudhary
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut250110, U.P.,
India. *Corresponding Author Email: sengar65@gmail.com
Keywords : Jatropha curcas, Biodiesel, Wasteland, Fuel Production
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant can be grown in low to high rainfall areas either
in the farms as a commercial crop or on the boundaries as a hedge to protect field from
grazing animals and to prevent erosion. It produces seeds are known to thrive on eroded
lands and require only limited amount of water, nutrients and capital inputs. This is a
multipurpose drought resistant perennial plant belonging to Euphorbeacae family and
gaining importance for the production of biodiesel. Jatropha can help increase rural
income self sustainability and alleviate poverty is tribal communities and small farmers. It
can help to increase income from plantation and agro industries. This plant offers the
option both to cultivate wastelands and to produce vegetable oil suitable for to biodiesel.
More versatile than hydrogen and new propulsion systems such as fuel cell technology,
biodiesel can be used in todays vehicle fleets worldwide and may also offer a viable path
to sustainable transportation, i.e. lower greenhouse gas emissions and enhanced mobility
even in remote areas. Mitigation of global warming and the creation of new regional
employment opportunities can be important cornerstones of any forward looking
transportation system for emerging economies.

F-43 Effect of graded doses of phosphorus on forage yield and quality of


cowpea varieties under semi-arid conditions
R. S. Sheoran* and S. K. Dhanda
CCS HAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sadalpur (Hisar) Haryana.
*Corresponding Author Email: sheoranrs@gmail.com
Keywords : Cowpea, Varieties, Phosphorus, Forage Yield, Crude protein

ABSTRACT
The present study was carried out at the Research Farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during kharif season of 2008-09 to evaluate the
comparative performance of promising varieties of cowpea for forage yield and quality.
The treatment combinations included six varieties viz. UPC 626, UPC 628, UPC 629,
UPC 4200, Bundel Lobia-1 and UPC 9202 and three levels of phosphorus viz. 40, 60 and
80 kg P2O5/ha. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, low in
organic carbon poor in available nitrogen medium in available phosphorous and rich in
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available potassium. variety Bundel Lobia-1 performed significantly better than other
varieties for herbage yield except varieties UPC 628 and UPC 4200 which were found
statistically at par. It gave 41.0, 12.2 and 17.0 per cent higher green fodder yield than
UPC 626, UPC 629 and UPC 9202 where as the corresponding values for dry matter
yield were 49.5, 22.2 and 30.4 per cent, respectively. Likewise, the variety Bundel Lobia1 resulted in the highest crude protein content (14.9%) and crude protein yield (8.3 q/ha).
The increasing rates of applied phosphorus upto 60 kg P2O5/ha significantly increased the
green as well as dry matter yields over 40 kg P2O5/ha. Further application of 80 kg P2O5/
ha could not bring any significant improvement in herbage yield. An increase of 14.4 and
1.6 per cent in green fodder and 20.9 and 1.0 per cent in dry matter yield was observed
with the application of 80 kg P2O5/ha over 40 and 60 kg P2O5/ha, respectively. The
increasing levels of phosphorus also improved the crude protein content and crude protein
yield over the lower doses.

F-44 Influence of Tillage and Weed Control Practices on Weed Growth and
Yield of Wheat in Rice-Wheat System
Raghavendra Singh, K. B. Anand and P. K. Bisen
Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi 221 002
Keywords : Tillage, Weed, Herbicide, Rice and Wheat

ABSTRACT
A Field experiment was conducted during two consecutive winter seasons on sandy
clay loam (Usiocrepis) soil at the Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Udai Pratap
Autonomous College, Varanasi, to study the effect of tillage and weed control practices
on weed growth and yield of wheat in ricewheat system. Tillage is one of the most
important factor which influence the type of weed flora in wheat crop and different tillage
practices exhibited significant variation on relative composition of weed flora. Weed
density and dry matter production was significantly less in conventional tillage as
compared to the reduced and zero tillage. Herbicide application significantly reduced the
weed density and its dry matter production as compared to weedy check. Amongst
different herbicide sulfosulfuron produced significantly lower weed density and total dry
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matter production of weeds. All the herbicides treated plots produced grain yield
significantly higher than weedy check. Sulfosulfuron applied at 25 g/ha recorded significantly
higher attributes and yield than metribuzin alone and application of isoproturon and its
mixture with 2,4-D.

F-45 Leaf Area Index and Sunlit Leaf Area Index and its Impact on Leaf
Dry Matter Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Different Dates of
Planting
S. Basu*, S. K. Dutta, D. Fangzauva, S. Jena, R. Nath and P. K. Chakraborty
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal-741252. *Corresponding Author Email:
shrabanibasu.ag@gmail.com
Keywords : LAI, Rice, Sunlit leaf area index, Transplanting

ABSTRACT
A two year field experiment (2007 and 2008) was conducted on rice variety Satabdi
(IET 4786) transplanted on five dates starting from 1st July to 29th July at an interval of
one week at the B.C.K.V research farm, Kalyani. LAI and sunlit leaf area index (L*)
were measured at tillering, panicle initiation, emergence and 100% anthesis. LAI
increased from tillering to anthesis irrespective of dates of transplanting. With the delay
in transplanting, LAI decreased. The sunlit LAI also followed similar trend. The L*: LAI
was maximum during tillering. L* explained the variation in leaf dry matter more
scientifically than LAI.

F-46 Performance of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Relation to Differential


Potassium Levels in a Sandy Loam Soil
S. S. Kukal, Gurpreet Singh, Meetpal Singh and D. S. Benipal
Department of Soil Science,
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
Keywords : Differential irrigation, Maize, Relative leaf water content, Soil water stress
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ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted during 2011 in a sandy loam soil at Research Farm
of Punjab Agricultural University to study the impact of different levels of potassium on
plant water status and performance of maize crop under differential scenarios of soil
water status. The periodic biomass was significantly higher with application of K at all the
growth stages. At 15 and 60 DAS, higher doses of K did not significantly affect the
biomass whereas, it increased significantly at 100 DAS with application of K. However,
it was statistically similar in all the levels of applied K. The 1000-grain weight was not
affected significantly due to irrigation and K levels. The average grain yield increased by
15% with the application of 30 kg K/ha from 6.23 t/ha in plots without K application,
irrespective of the irrigation levels. The relative leaf water content (RLWC) was not
significantly affected by irrigation as well as K levels.

F-47 Performance of Indian Mustard Hybrid Under Different Cropping System


S. S. Rathore, Kapila Shekhawat, O. P. Premi and B. K. Kandpal
Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India 321303
Keywords : Cropping system, Indian Mustard, Hybrids

ABSTRACT
Mustard in as important oilseed crops in India, its production in the country has
increased during the last five years due to adoption of improved mustard varieties and
agronomic practices. Recently developed mustard hybrids are good in their productivity
over existing varieties and also have complementarities with other crops in cropping
system. In this study attempts have been made to find out suitable mustard based cropping
system for hybrid Coral-432 in semiarid conditions of Bharatpur. Overall effect of various
cropping system on seed yield of mustard hybrid Coral-432 was significant. Maximum
seed yield was recorded under sesame-mustard cropping system which was significantly
higher over seed yield under other cropping systems during 2010-11 but during 2011-12,
coral-432 was recorded maximum seed yield under cluster bean-mustard cropping system.
Minimum seed yield of coral-432 was recorded under cotton-mustard cropping system
during both year of experimentation. Maximum biological yield was recorded under
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

fallow-mustard and cluster bean mustard cropping system during 2010-11 and 2011-12
respectively. Maximum harvest index was observed under sesame-mustard, closely
followed by cluster bean -mustard cropping system during 2010-12. Maximum oil yield
was recorded under sesame-mustard and under cluster bean-mustard cropping system.
Maximum net return (Rs 68590) was found under the cropping system of sesame-mustard
and next best cropping system was pearl-millet-mustard. Like in gross return, the trend
of net return was similar as the cost of cultivation was same for all the treatments.
Cotton-mustard and soybean mustard cropping systems were observed to be poor in
terms of net return. Benefit cost ratio was also calculated under various cropping system
for coral -432 mustard hybrids. The best economic viability of coral-432 was notices under
sesame-mustard, which was equally good under other cropping systems like pearl-milletmustard, cluster bean-mustard, groundnut-mustard and fallow-mustard cropping systems.

F-48 Cultivation Techniques for Adhatoda vasica Nees. and Centella


asiatica (L.) Urban in Upper Brahmaputra Valley Agro-climatic Zone: An
Approach to Sustainable Development of Agro-ecosystems
S. Upadhyaya* and L. R. Saikia
Dept. of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh - 786004, Assam, India.
*Corresponding Author Email:sristi_eco@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Medicinal plant, Organic manures, Intercropping, Sustainable

ABSTRACT
Effect of different organic manures on production of biomass of two potential
medicinal plants Adhatoda vasica and Centella asiatica and intercropping between them
were studied at Dibrugarh University under Upper Brahmaputra Valley Agroclimatic
Zone of India during 2008-2011. The experiments were laid down in RBD. Cowdung,
compost and vermicompost were used as organic manure. Manures were applied at three
levels eg. cowdung @ 12.0, 19.5 and 27.0 t ha-1; compost @ 7.5, 15.0 and 27.7 t ha-1
and vermicompost @ 2.5, 3.0 and 3.75 t ha-1 in case of A. vasica and cowdung @
6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 t ha-1; compost @ 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 t ha-1 and vermicompost @ 1.0, 1.5
and 2.0 t ha-1 in case of C. asiatica.. In case of sole cultivation of A. vasica maximum
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leaf biomass (2.74 t ha-1) and economic benefit (Rs. 30,941 ha-1) was obtained in cowdung
@ 27.0 t ha-1 followed by cowdung @ 19.5 t ha-1 (2.50 t ha-1 and Rs. 26,955 ha-1) than
compost @ 22.7 t ha-1 (2.35 t ha-1 and Rs. 22,132 ha-1) and in case of sole cultivation
of C. asiatica, maximum biomass (6.52 t ha-1) was obtained in cowdung @12 t ha-1
followed by cowdung @ 9 t ha-1 (6.35 t ha-1) and compost @ 8 t ha-1 (6.16 t ha-1 ); and
maximum profit (Rs. 1,02,414/-) was obtained in application of cowdung @ 9 t ha-1,
followed by cowdung @ 12 t ha-1 (Rs. 1,01,028/-) and compost @ 6 t ha-1 (Rs. 98,390/
-). The intercropping practice between A. vasica and C. asiatica showed excellent
results in terms of land use pattern where the LER values obtained were highly significant
and cost effective than sole cultivation of any one of them. Organic cultivation of A.
vasica and C. asiatica, using locally available and cheap organic manures like cowdung
and compost is highly encouraging. The technique is eco-friendly and its value will be
many times more if it is calculated in terms of environmental health. The technique of
intercropping between A. vasica and C. asiatica was found to be very effective and the
practice has good prospect in organic cultivation of these species under this agroclimatic
zone. The technique as a whole is therefore, recommended for sustainable management
of the wild and important medicinal plant of this agro-climatic Zone.

F-50 Assessing Impact of Climate Change on Production of Kharif Rice and


Mustard in West Bengal Using Info-crop Model
Saon Banerjee1, Asis Mukherjee2, Apurba Mukherjee3 and Subharanjan Das3
on Agrometeorology, Directorate of Research, BCKV, 3,4Network Project on Climate
Change, Directorate of Research, BCKV, Kalyani : 741235.
*Corresponding Author Email: sbaner2000@yahoo.com

1,2AICRP

Keywords : Climate change, Crop growth model, InfoCrop, Rice, Mustard

ABSTRACT
Crop growth simulation model is a very useful tool for prediction of growth and yield
of a crop using various parameters including weather. The future weather situation as
predicted by PRECIS model has been used in InfoCrop model to assess the possible
impact of climate change on production of Kharif rice and mustard in West Bengal. After
proper calibration and validation of the model for West Bengal situation the yield has been
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

predicted for ten selected locations of the state for the year 2025 and 2050. It has been
observed that in the year 2025, the yield reduction of the Kharif rice may be in the tune
of about 20% on an average and in 2050, the yield reduction may be 27.8%. In case of
mustard, 20.0 to 33.9% yield may be reduced in the year 2025 and the yield reduction may
be as high as 40% in 2050. Attempt has also been made to sort out adaptation strategy
with help of crop growth model.

F-51 Geo-electrical Investigations for Shallow Ground Water in the


Research Farm of CSSRI, Canning, West Bengal
Shishir Raut*, B. Maji and D. Burman
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute,
Canning Town, S24PGS, West Bengal-743329.
*Corresponding Author Email: shi_cssri@yahoo.com
Keywords : Vertical electrical soundings, Ground water, Geochemical analysis, Geo-botanical,
IRSP6

ABSTRACT
Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) assuming Schlumberger configuration assuming
Wenner configuration respectively were carried out in sixteen positions in the research
farm of CSSRI, Canning Town covering an area of approximately 13.3 ha in the coastal
area of West Bengal. Five geoelectric layers were found in the area within a depth of
50 m below ground level. VES data from two points were compared with bore whole data
to assign resistivity values to different strata. Geobotanical study using IRSP6 LISS3 data
was done to find out ground water potential in the nearby villages. Using resistivity fence
diagram the quantity of ground water under shallow aquifer was computed to be around
5.0 ha-m. Chemical analysis of ground water samples showed that the quality of ground
water was good with low salinity and low alkali hazard and could be grouped as C3/2S1/
2 under USDA irrigation water quality classification. Deep rooted trees like Acacia
nilotica was used to find out ground water potential zone for exploration purpose. In the
satellite image it was found that there were available water potential zone.

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F-52 Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Rapid Measurement of


Compost Quality
Somsubhra Chakraborty*and Md. Nasim Ali
IRDM Faculty Centre, RKMVU, Kolkata-700103, India,
Corresponding Author Email: som_pau@yahoo.com
Keywords : Boosted regression tree, Diffuse reflectance, Partial least squares, Penalized Spline
regression, Visible near-Infrared

ABSTRACT
Fifty five compost samples of diverse origin were collected and scanned as received
by a visible near-infrared (VisNIR, 3502500 nm) diffuse reflectance spectroradiometer.
The raw reflectance and 1st-derivative spectra were used to predict log10-transformed
organic matter (OM) using partial least squares (PLS) regression, penalized spline
regression (PSR), and boosted regression tree (BRT). Incorporating compost pH,
moisture %, and EC as auxiliary predictors along with reflectance, both PLS and PSR
models showed comparable cross-validation r2 and validation RMSD. The BRT-reflectance
model exhibited best predictability (residual prediction deviation = 1.61, validation r2 = 0.65,
and RMSD = 0.09 log10%). These results proved that VisNIR spectroscopy along with
easy-to-measure auxiliary variables can quantify compost OM with reasonable accuracy.

F-53 Effect of Sunflower Stover Incorporation and Nutrient Management on


Energetics of Pigeon pea-Sunflower Cropping System
1I.C.A.R

Subhash Babu1 and Priyanka Suryavanshi2


Research complex for NEH region, Sikkim centre, 2Punjab Agriculture University,
Ludhiana. *Corresponding Author Email: subiari@gmail.com

Keywords : Direct and residual effect, Energy efficiency, Energy input, Energy output, Energy
productivity, Pigeonpea-sunflower cropping system, Sunflower stover incorporation

ABSTRACT
A fixed plot field experiment was carried out during kharif and spring seasons of
2008-2009 and 2009-2010 at research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New
Delhi. Kharif season experiment in the first year was laid out in split-plot design, assigning
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

sunflower stover incorporation (8 tonnes/ha), and no stover incorporation (control) to main


plots and combination of P levels and bio-fertilizers (Control, 15 kg P/ha, 15 kg P/ha+PSB,
30 kg P/ha) to sub-plots. Spring season experiment of both the years was laid out in splitsplit plot design in which NP doses to sunflower crop (Control, 50% RD of NP, RD of
NP (80 kg N+15 kg P/ha) were applied in sub-sub plots. Kharif season experiment in
second year was laid out in split-split plot design to investigate the residual effect of NP
applied to sunflower crop in sub-sub plots. All the treatments replicated thrice during both
the years. Direct effect of sunflower stover incorporation caused 33.3, 37.6, 28.0 and
33.8% reduction in gross energy output, net energy output, energy use efficiency and
energy productivity of pigeon pea respectively during second year. On the contrary,
residual effect of sunflower stover incorporation caused marked improvement in energetics
of sunflower. This leads to 11.3, 18.9, 10.9, 20.1, 14.9, 22.5, 10.6 and 19.3% increment
in gross energy, net energy output, energy use efficiency and energy productivity
sunflower during both the year respectively. Among the P levels, direct effect of 30 kg
P/ha in pigeon pea and residual effect in sunflower yielded maximum gross and net
energy, energy use efficiency and energy productivity in both the crops. RD of NP applied
to sunflower recorded lower energy use efficiency (6.8 and 6.2), energy productivity (0.75
and 0.67 kg/MJ) of sunflower in respective seasons. However, application of 30 kg P/ha
in pigeon pea only recorded higher values of gross (170.36x103 MJ/ha and 149.68x103 MJ/
ha) and net energy output (156.50x103 MJ/ha and 134.84x103 MJ/ha), energy use
efficiency (11.29 and 9.22) in respective season of pigeon pea-sunflower cropping system.

F-54 Suitability of Groundwater for Irrigation and Its Impact on


Soil Fertility and Relationship of Soil Organic Carbon with
Other Chemical Properties of Soil
Sucharita Mohapatra1*, D. K. Kundu2
of Water Management, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 2CRIJAF,
Kolkata, West Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: sucharitamohapatra86@gmail.com

1Directorate

Keywords : Groundwater, Soil fertility, Soil organic carbon, Micronutrients

ABSTRACT
Supply of irrigation water and nutrients will be vital for increasing cropping intensity
and productivity. Although groundwater potential of Odisha is high, only about 15% of it
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has so far been developed and exploited in the state and khurda district is still lower, only
11%. There is great scope to lift and use groundwater for irrigation during dry season for
enhancing cropping intensity and farm productivity. However, knowledge of groundwater
is essential for judging its suitability for irrigation and impact of its continuous use on soil
fertility. Therefore a study was undertaken to assess groundwater quality in two
agriculturally important blocks of khurda district, viz. Balipatna and Balianta. Groundwater
samples from 30 tube wells and soil samples from 4 depths ()-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60 cm)
of three groundwater-irrigated and three adjacent rainfed farms were collected in January
2008. Groundwater samples and soil samples were analysed for various chemical
properties. Groundwater of the study area was found to be good in respect of all the
attributes except the iron content. Fifty percent of water samples had more than 5 mg/
L iron and 23% had more than 10 mg/L of iron. Soils especially the plow-layer soils of
the study area were found acidic, non-saline, low in organic carbon (or nitrogen),
phosphorus and sulphur, low to medium in potassium, sufficient in zinc and copper, and
high in iron and manganese content. Intensive use of this groundwater for irrigation is not
likely to have any adverse effect on soil health except accumulation of excess iron in the
plow-layer soils and on growth of most crops. However, rice crop grown under puddled
field condition may suffer iron toxicity problems because of increased solubility of iron in
the reduced/ anaerobic soils. Unless some pre-treatment is given to remove excess ironrich groundwater may not be suitable for micro-irrigation as precipitation of iron may clog
the drip lines. As organic carbon is an important characteristic of soil health, its
relationship with other chemical parameters were analysed by regression model.
Micronutrients were found to be better predictors than other cations for SOC.

F-55 Standardisation of Optimum Spacing and Quantity of Green Manure


Incorporation in SRI Rice (Cv.Badshahbhog) Under Organic Nutrient
Management
Suting, D.*, Halder, A., Mandal, M., Debnath, S. and Pramanick, M
Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West
Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: mahadevpramanick@gmail.com
Keywords : SRI, Dhaincha green manuring, Organic nutrient management
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to optimise spacing and quantity of green manure
incorporation in SRI Rice (cv. Badshahbhog) under organic nutrient management in a split
plot design where three levels of spacing as main plot factor and six levels of organic
nutrient management from various sources with different quantum of green manure
incorporation was chosen as sub plot factor. Application of dhaincha green leaf manuring
@45 kg N eqiv./ha + Vermicompost @ 12 kg N eqiv./ha +Mustard Cake@ 12 kg N eqiv./
ha + FYM @12 kg N eqiv./ha + Azospirillum @ 20 kgN eqiv./ha + Rock phosphate @
100 kg/ha + PSB @ 1.5 kg/ha) with 25 cm x 15 cm spacing recorded the highest yield
(2800.33 kg/ha), uptake of N, P and K , net return (42,897.5 Rs/ha) and B: C ratio (2.38).

F-56 An Insight into the Agricultural Sustainability of Birbhum District


Swapan Kumar Maity
Institute of Agriculture,
Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-731236.
*Corresponding Author
Email: swapankumar.maity@visva-bharati.ac.in
Keywords : Agricultural sustainability, Birbhum district

ABSTRACT
The agriculture of Birbhum district in West Bengal is characterized by mostly rice
dominated rainfed monocropping and cereals dominated irrigated intensive cropping.
Major concerns in agricultural sustainability of the district are decline in productivity of
rice particularly winter and summer rice, less crop diversity, less production of pulse and
oilseeds than the requirement of the district, decline in soil fertility with emerging
deficiency of micronutrients, vagaries of monsoon rain making crop production an
uncertain affairs in rainfed areas and excessive exploitation of underground water in tube
well irrigated areas in the absence of sound rain water management systems. High market
fluctuations of conventional agricultural produce and increasing input costs further worsen
the economic sustainability of agriculture as the livelihood of major group of the people
of the district.

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F-57 Studies on the, Efficacy of Separate and Premix Application of


Carfentrazone-Ethyl and Sulfosulfuron with Surfactant on the Weeds of
Wheat
T. Dey1*, S. K. Gunri2 and M. K. Mandal3
1Institute

of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, 2,3BCKV.,


West Bengal India. *Corresponding Author Email: deytanmoy7@gmail.com
Keywords : Wheat, Herbicide, Yield

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Farm of Banaras Hindu
University during the rabi season of 2010. The experiment was carried out in randomized
block design with eight treatments replicated three times. The analyzed data revealed that
application of herbicide mixture of carfentrazone + Sulfosulfuron has control the weeds
effectively as compared to their alone application and so this herbicide mixture has some
positive effect for controlling the weeds in wheat as compared to their single application.
Among 91 treatments application of carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%
WDG424+30 a a.i./ha) with surfactant (750 g/ha) gave significantly higher wheat grain
yield (4360 kg/ha/ and significantly superior to rest of herbicidal treatment. It was found
that carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25% WDG (24+30 g a.i./ha) with
surfactant (750 g/ha) found as the best treatment to control the complex weed flora in
wheat and to maximize wheat yield.

F-58 Evalutaion of Fertilizer Potential of Sea Weed Extracts on the Growth,


Quality and Productivity of Sesame (Sesamum indicum.L) in the Red and
Lateritic Belt of West Bengal
Tanmoy Shankar, G. C. Malik, M. Banerjee and A. Ghosh
Institute of Agriculture, Visva- Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, Central salt and
marine chemicals research institute, Corresponding Author
Email:tanmoy_shankar@yahoo.com
Keywords : Gracilaria, Kappaphycus, Sea weed extracts, Sesame
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect sea weed extracts on sesame
in the red and lateritic belt of west Bengal during pre-Kharif season of 2012 at
agricultural farm of Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal. The
recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) was added @ 80:40:40 kg of N: P2O5:K2O/ha.
Foliar spray of seaweed extract significantly influenced the growth attributes at the stages
of observation. At 60 DAS, much higher values for plant height, SPAD reading, LAI , dry
matter , CGR, NAR, RGR and yield were observed by application of sea weed extracts
of Gracilaria(g) and the highest value was obtained by application of 15 % G+100%
RDF over Kappaphycus and control.

F-59 Moisture Use and Energy Budgeting of Lentil + Oat Intercropping


under Varying Row Ratio and Phosphorus Management
Ummed Singh
Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of
Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir 193201, Presently at Indian Institute of
Pulses Research, Kanpur-24. Email: singhummed@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Energy budgeting, Lentil, Moisture use, Oat, Phosphorus uptake

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted during winter seasons of 2006-08 at Wadura,
Sopore to evaluate the production potential, biological feasibility and energy efficiency of
intercropping of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) with oat (Avena sativa L.) under varying
row ratio, P levels and biofertilizers. Oat was found dominant and aggressive as compared
to lentil. Lentil and oat under 2 : 1 row ratio proved more remunerative and recorded
higher yield advantage than 3 : 1 and 1 : 1 as judged by lentil-equivalent yield (1.13 tonnes/
ha), crop productivity (4.77 kg/ha/day), land-equivalent ratio (1.35), income-equivalent
ratio (1.27), crop profitability (96.34/ha/day), area-time equivalent ratio (1.20) and
monetary advantage (8 580). Significantly higher P uptake by lentil was observed in
3 : 1 row ratio, being 15.5 and 49.1 % higher than under 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 ratio, respectively.
Intercropping of lentil+oat under 2:1 row ratio recorded higher WUE compared with other
row ratio. Lentil intercropped with oat under 2 : 1 row ratio utilized more water for
evapotranspiration and metabolic activities. The rate of moisture use and consumptive use
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of water was higher under 1 : 1 row ratio than other row ratios. In general, the crops
extracted greater amount of soil moisture from the top 030 cm soil layer than from 30
60 cm and 6090 cm soil depth in all the intercropping systems. Application of P at 17.2
kg/ha being on par with 25.8 kg P/ha recorded statistically higher P uptake by lentil (8.3
kg/ha), oat (16.4 kg/ha) and intercropping system (23.3 kg/ha) over 8.6 kg P/ha. The
highest water-use efficiency and rate of moisture use were recorded with 17.2 kg P/ha,
followed by 25.8 kg P/ha and least with 8.6 kg P/ha. Significant improvement in P uptake,
moisture characteristics viz., consumptive use, water-use efficiency and rate of moisture
use by lentil and oat and intercropping system was noticed under dual inoculation with
PSB+VAM over PSB and VAM alone. As per computation, input energy differed due to
difference in energy use under different row proportions. Among different row proportions,
2:1 row ratio recorded maximum energy efficiency (9.08) and energy productivity (739.3
g/MJ), followed by 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 row ratio. Application of 17.2 kg P/ha recorded
maximum energy efficiency (8.94) and energy productivity (718.9 g/MJ), followed by
higher dose of P at 25.8 kg P/ha and least at 8.6 kg P/ha. Among biofertilizer inoculations,
dual inoculation with PSB+VAM recorded the maximum energy output (197.5103 MJ/
ha), energy efficiency (9.36) and energy productivity (768.1 g/MJ) followed by VAM and
PSB alone.

F-60 Phenotypic Characters and Utilization of Early Sprouting Mulberry


Variety Shivalik in Doon- Valley to Make Sericulture More
Remunerative and Economically Viable in North West India
V. B. Srivastava*, R. K. Dhingra, K. R. Maurya, P. K. Singh, Anil Dhar and K.A.Sahaf*
Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board Ministry of Textile, Govt. of
India, Sahaspur, Dehradun (Uttarakhand). *Corresponding Author Email:
srivastava_vb@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Agronomy, Mulberry cultivation, Silkworm rearing, Sericulture economics

ABSTRACT
Mulberry (Morus alba) is the basic component for sericulture development and it has
been concluded that mulberry leaf contributes on 38.2% for the successful harvest of
bivoltine cocoon crop with only 16.6% combined contribution of rearing techniques,
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

silkworm race and silkworm eggs thereby suggesting the importance of mulberry in the
economics of sericulture. The Farmers of North Western region of India hesitates to grow
mulberry on their prime land due to stiff competition with existing cash crops viz. wheat,
maize, paddy & sugarcane. However they have shown keen interest in sericulture on
many occasions to get additional income. In this circumstances non availability of mulberry
leaves become a major obstacle to initiate sericulture in this areas. The climatic condition
of North Western region of India has been changed due to global warming. Due to this,
Doon- valley which was earlier considered as silk- bowl of India now facing gradual
decrease in silk production. Earlier only two crops of silkworm rearing was undertaken
during spring and autumn ,as the available mulberry varieties in Doon valley sprout late
and foliage also appear late, which restrict silkworm rearing only in spring and autumn
season. However, number of rearing days has been increased due to rise in mercury level
in Doon- valley as well as North Western region of India. In this situation Shivalik-a new
mulberry variety emerge out as a boon for Doon- valley as well as North Western region
of India, which sprouts early and foliage also appears early, which facilitate early brushing
of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) for rearing to produce cocoon during spring and autumn
season .In other words to undertake additional one or two more rearing in the increased
rearing days. This will help to make sericulture more remunerable and economically viable
in Doonvalley as well as North Western region of India. The present paper is the
outcome of preliminary research carried out at R.S.R.S. Sahaspur to screen out a new
mulberry variety having early sprouting quality to undertake additional silkworm rearing in
increased rearing days to make sericulture more remunerable and economically viable in
Doonvalley as well as North Western region of India by the way of to enhance the
cocoon production by 10-30% in near future for the adaptation of sericulture at farmer
level.

F-61 Effect of Staggered Sowing, Planting Ratio and Subtending Cob Leaf
Clipping on Growth Parameters of Single Cross Maize Hybrid Hema
Vinutha, K. S.*, S. Rajendra Prasad, Ramegowda, Ravishankar, P., Parashivamurthy, Shanthala, J
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, Karnataka, India. *Corresponding
Author Email: vinuthaks.mysore@gmail.com
Keywords : Maize, hydro priming, staggered sowing, planting ratio, subtending cob leaf clipping.
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Abstract
To improve seed yield and quality parameters of newly released single cross maize
hybrid Hema staggered sowing, planting ratio and subtending cob leaf clipping was
undertaken in Dept. of Seed Science & Technology, College of Agriculture, Bangalore.
The growth parameter like plant height and number of leaves recorded non-significant
difference for all treatments and its interactions. Better synchronization between female
silking and male tasseling was recorded in sowing of male 3 days earlier to female by
56.83 and 57.09 days followed by hydro priming of male line which recorded 55.21 and
55.95 days respectively.

G. Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Soil Biology and


Microbiology, Agricultural Chemicals
G-1 Availability of Micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in Basmati Growing
Soils of Jammu
A. K. Mondal, Pardeep Wali* and A. P. Rai
Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology,
Chatha, Jammu-180009, J&K. *Corresponding Author Email: deepwal@gmail.com
Keywords : Basmati, Soils, Submergence, Micro-nutrients, Sufficient, Deficient

ABSTRACT
An incubation study on 20 representative basmati growing soils of Jammu was
carried out for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days submergence to record changes in the availability
of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn). The soils under study were sufficient in DTPA
extractable Cu, Fe & Mn, but 95 % soil samples were deficient in Zn. The availability
of Fe and Mn increased by 60-65% and 200-250% after 30 and 45 days of incubation,
respectively whereas Zn & Cu decreased up to 34 & 74%, respectively. Both simple and
multiple correlation and regression analysis showed variable contribution of physicochemical properties. Management of Zn & Cu for better nutrition, production and
productivity of famous basmati rice growing soils in rice-wheat agro-ecosystem of Jammu
is needed.

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G-2 Performance of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by


Nutrient Management Strategy in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal
A. Sengupta*, S. K. Gunri, R. Nath and T. Biswas
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur-741235, Nadia, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: amritasengupta06@yahoo.com
Keywords : Groundnut, NPK, FYM, Yield, Economics

ABSTRACT
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the judicious combinations of FYM and
NPK fertilizers for groundnut variety TG 51, during two consecutive summer seasons of
2011 and 2012, at District Seed Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur,
Nadia, situated in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in
randomized block design with ten treatments. Results revealed that all growth and yield
attributes increased significantly with increasing levels of NPK fertilizer either as basal
and /or split application along with FYM. The highest pod yield (3320 kg/ha) was recorded
in the treatment received 100% RDF as basal along with FYM 7.5 t/ha. Available N,
P2O5 and K2O also increased significantly due to treatment effects. Highest Benefit : Cost
ratio (3.84) was found in the treatment with 100% of RDF which was closely followed
by treatment received 100% of RDF and FYM 7.5 t / ha.

G-3 Available Sulfur Status in Soils of Jalpaiguri, North Dinajpur and Nadia
District, West Bengal
A. Seth1*, A. Datta2, I. Das3, S. Saha4, K. Beura5, A. K. Pradhan6, R. Das7, S. P. Badole8 and
Biswapati Mandal 9
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Deptt. of Agril Chem. & Soil Sci.,
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, W.B.,
9Director of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, W.B.
*Corresponding Author Email: anindita.asg@gmail.com
Keywords : Available Sulfur, Alluvial Soil, West Bengal

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ABSTRACT
Eighteen hundreds of alluvial soil samples were collected from 302 villages under 49
blocks of 3 districts for estimation of available sulphur in soil. Results showed that
available sulfur in these soils varied from 0.02 to 12.9 g g-1, 0.08 to 17.6 g g-1, 0.11
to 9.79 g g-1 with the mean of 3.1 g g-1, 3.3 g g-1, 4.0 g g-1 in jalpaiguri, North
Dinajpur and Nadia district respectively. From this, in West Bengal, soil available sulfur
(S) were found 99% soil were deficient in Jalpaiguri, 98% in North Dinajpur and 100%
on Nadia district considering the critical limit as 10.0 g g-1 . Available S status in soil was
found to be positively correlated with change in soil pH while the correlation between
available S and soil organic carbon was found negative.

G-4 Boron Adsorption Behavior of Soils as Influenced


by Soil Characteristics
Abir Dey*, B. S. Dwivedi and M. C. Meena
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi110012.
*Corresponding Author
Email: abirdey21@gmail.com
Keywords : Boron Adsorption, Vertisols, Inceptisols, Alfisols, Soil Characteristics

ABSTRACT
Studies on adsorption of B were undertaken in 12 soils representing different agroecological regions. The adsorption of added B was in the order: Vertisol > Inceptisol >
Alfisol. Higher the concentration of added B in solution, greater was the variability in B
adsorption. Soils within each order also differed in B adsorption. Freundlich and Langmuir
adsorption equations explained the adsorption behaviour of the soils, yet based on
prediction coefficients (R2) Freundlich appeared the best fit for Vertisols and Inceptisols,
and Langmuir for Alfisols which showed lowest B adsorption. Freundlich constant a
and Langmuir constant b were positively correlated with free CaCO3, CEC and clay
content.

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G-5 Impact of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) and Sodium Tri Poly
Phosphate (STPP) Present in Detergent on Crop and Soil Quality
Ajay*, J. K. Saha, and M. V. Singh
Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR), Bhopal (MP).
*Corresponding Author Email: ajay07051963@gmail.com
Keywords : LAS, STPP, MBAS, Detergent, Surfactant

ABSTRACT
The dye, methylene blue, in aqueous solution reacts with anionic-type surface active
materials, LAS which is main component of detergent along with STPP, to form a blue
colored salt and measured with spectrophotometer through extraction with chloroform as
MBAS. A survey was conducted to have an estimate of detergent pollution from Bhopal,
Gwalior, Jabalpur and Bhopal, showed the Indore was having highest content of LAS and
STPP. Similarly, HIG & MIG are polluter in LAS and HIG and LIG in STPP category.
The further deleterious effects on different crops and soil including biochemistry have
been observed and explained.

G-6 Distribution of Available Micronutrients in Soils of Nadia District,


West Bengal
Amit Kumar Pradhan*, Kasturikasen Beura, Anindita Seth, Ipsita Das, Susmit Saha, Ashim
Datta, Durgesh Kumar Singh, G.C. Hazra and Biswapati Mandal
Director of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West
Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: amyth005@yahoo.com
Keywords : Distribution, Available micronutrients, Soil

ABSTRACT
Micronutrients are essential elements for plants, animals and humans. Because of
intensive cultivation, there is widespread deficiency of nutrients in soil. To study plant
availability of micronutrients in soils we collected around 800 samples from 132 villages
under 18 blocks of Nadia district in West Bengal. The soils of district were neutral to
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alkaline in nature with pH ranging from 6.3 to 8.9. The available Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were
in the range of 0.1 to 1.2 gg-1, 3.4 to 259.4 gg-1, 0.3 to 6.9 gg-1, and 5.11 to 111.1 gg1 with the mean value of 0.63, 53.4, 2.5 and 20.1 gg-1 respectively. Considering the
critical limits of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn as 0.8, 4.5, 0.2, and 3.0 gg-1 respectively, about 70%,
30%, 5% of total soil samples were deficient in Zn, Fe, Cu and no significant deficiency
was seen in case of Mn.

G-7 Assessment of Heavy Metal Tolerance of Aromatic Grasses - A Case


Study with Lemon grass and Palmarosa in Nickel and Cadmium
Contaminated Soil
Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR),
PO: CIMAP, Lucknow-226016, Uttar Pradesh.
*Corresponding Author Email: amitabha_54@yahoo.com
Keywords : Aromatic grasses, Essential oil, Heavy metal, Phytoremediation

ABSTRACT
The results of the experiments carried out at Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants, Lucknow to assess the heavy metal tolerance capacity of Lemon-grass
(Cymbopogon flexuosus) and Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) in alluvial soil spiked
with graded levels of Ni (0-300 ppm) and Cd (0-200 ppm) revealed that both the grasses
thrives well with varying level of tolerance for Ni and Cd without any reduction in oil
content and the active constituents of the essential oil. The Ni and Cd concentration in
roots of Lemongrass and Palmarosa were much higher than that in the shoot tissues of
the respective plant. Inter species variation between the two species for their root binding
capacity for Ni and Cd have been observed. This has indicated that Lemongrass and
Palmarosa could be utilized in phytoremediation of Ni and Cd contaminated soil where
these grasses will act as phytostabilizer by binding the heavy metals in their roots and
restricting their upward movement to the shoot tissues.

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G-8 Effect of Fipronil on FDA and Dehydrogenase Activity of Soil


Anindita Seth*1 Ashim Chowdhury2 and Biswapati Mandal3
1,2Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta,
3Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia.
*Corresponding Author Email: anindita.asg@gmail.com
Keywords : Insecticide, Alluvial Soil, Incubation, FDA, Dehydrogenase activity

ABSTRACT
A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with fipronil, a pyrazole insecticide,
to study its effect on FDA and dehydrogenase activity in the alluvial soil. Fipronil was
incorporated into soil sample and incubation continued for different periods of time (1, 7,
15, 30 and 45 days) at FR (0.675 gml-1) and 2FR (1.350 gml-1) along with one set of
control at 250C - 300C under 60% water holding capacity. Application of fipronil showed
a positive effect on FDA while a detrimental effect on dehydrogenase activity.

G-9 Yield and Economics of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as Influenced


by Micronutrient Application in Alfisols
Arnab Roy Chowdhury1* and M. T. Sanjay2
Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, 2University of Agricultural Sciences,
GKVK, Bangalore. *Corresponding Author Email: arnabuas@gmail.com

1Punjab

Keywords : Sunflower, Zinc, Boron, Star-bud, Ray-floret, FYM

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was carried out during Rabi 2007-08 at the Research Farm,
GKVK, UAS- Bangalore to evaluate the effect of zinc and boron on yield and economics
of sunflower cultivation. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly higher (25.01q/ha) in
the treatment where recommended dose of fertilizers (62.5 : 75 : 62.5 kg N: P2O5: K2O/
ha) and FYM (7.5 t/ha) were applied along with combined spray of 0.5 per cent ZnSO4
and 0.2 per cent borax at star bud and ray floret initiation stage, respectively over
application of RDF alone (17.67q/ha. But, highest net return (Rs. 39779) and cost benefit
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ratio (1 : 2.82) were observed in the treatment where RDF + FYM were applied along
with a single spray of 0.2% borax at ray floret initiation stage only.

G-10 Stratification of Carbon and Nutrients in Soil of Guinea Grass Based


Cropping System under Different Nutrient Management Regimes
Arvind K. Rai*, A. K. Dixit, S. K. Rai, Sunil Kumar and Mayank Bhusan
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003. *Corresponding Author
Email: rai_arvindkumar@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Carbon sequestration, Soil carbon fraction, Stratification, FYM, Guinea grass,
Cropping system

ABSTRACT
Changes in the agricultural management can potentially increase the accumulation
rate of soil organic carbon (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. In a
long-term field experiment (2004 2012) conducted with various level of FYM (20, 40,
60 and 80 t/ha) and inorganic fertilizer (200:50:50 (kharif)+ 20:80:0 (rabi) N: P2O5 : K2O
kg/ha) on the topsoil profile distribution (015, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, 60-80, 80-100cm) of
total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), labile carbon (LC), soil pH, dehydrogenase
and phosphatase enzymes, total and available nutrient contents in semi-arid loamy soil at
Jhansi. The crop sequence established was guinea grass guinea grass (Panicum maxicum)
+ [Cowpea - Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)] intercropping system. TC and labile
carbon in the various manure and fertilizer treated plots were expressed on a content
bases and the equivalent soil mass approach. Measurements made at the end of 7 years
showed that in the 015 cm depth, stocks of TC had increased under all the treatments
in comparison to adjoining soils under annual cropping. There was significant increase in
the total carbon, organic carbon, dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymes, total and
available nutrient in soil samples drawn from different depth. In the absence of any
nutrient supplementation in control plot there was 3 times increase in OC (0.7%) over
initial values (0.22%) observed in 2004. This shows the very high potential of guinea grass
based cropping system in carbon sequestration in soil and mitigation of CO2 evolution from
agricultural operations. Most dramatic changes occurred within the 015 cm layer where
plots under FYM treatment had significantly higher TC (1.23-1.75%) in comparison to
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inorganic fertilizer (0.86%) and control (0.62%). Similar trends were also observed for
SOC, LC, total and available P and N contents. FYM plots, however, exhibited strong
vertical gradients of SOC, TC, LC, dehydrogenase, phosphatase activity and total and
available P and N content with concentrations decreasing from 015 to 15100 cm.
Stratification ratios of all the carbon fractions and nutrients were significantly higher in
FYM than in the inorganic fertilizer and control plots.

G-11 Study on the Impact of Mulch on Soil Physical Properties


B. Ravichandrane
TKRSP GHSS, Koravelimedu,
Puducherry607402.
Keywords : Mulch, Temperature, Moisture, pH, Bulk density, Humus level

ABSTRACT
Mulching is an effective erosion control practice, protecting soil surfaces from erosive
action of falling raindrops and abrading wind. It is an important component of many
agricultural land use systems particularly in dry lands. To help our village farmers, we had
carried out a project in a paddy field in which we calculated temperature, moisture, pH,
bulk density and humus level of the agricultural soil using different mulches. Our findings
proved that using organic (Straw, Sawdust, Rice bran) and inorganic (Pebbles) mulches
helped in maintaining good soil physical properties with that of non-mulched soil of the
same field. This process also enhanced the yield which made the farmers happy.

G-12 Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation on Heavy Metals Accumulation in


Soils and Crops in the Peri-Urban Areas of Kolkata, India
Bholanath Saha*, Sushanta Saha, G. C. Hazra and Biswapati Mandal
Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Kalyani- 741 235, West Bengal.
*Corresponding Author Email: bnsaha1@gmail.com
Keywords : Distribution, Heavy metals, Sewage water
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ABSTRACT
Scarcity of ground water for irrigation is an ever increasing problem, owing to which,
use of sewage water in agriculture has become a common practice in three-fourth of the
cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Keeping these points in view, present study was
undertaken to study the heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni) loads in sewage water and
in soils and plants affected by its use in the peri-urban areas of Kolkata. The
concentration of heavy metals (viz. Cu, Cd and Ni) in sewage water was higher than the
recommended maximum concentration indicating that transfer of metals to the soil and
subsequently to plants poses potential health risks, since they can enter the food chain and
the environment. Except for Pb and Ni, the mean DTPA extractable Zn, Cu and Cd
content in sewage irrigated soils was much higher than the permissible limits. Maximum
mean metal accumulation values in shoot of different crops to the tune of 39.53, 22.02,
109.60, 13.68 and 31.90 g g-1 were obtained for Zn (Cauliflower), Cu (Colocasia), Pb
(Amaranthus), Cd (Okra) and Ni (Amaranthus) whereas the maximum accumulation
values in root to the tune of 42.87, 11.90, 98.70, 20.63 and 28.70 were obtained only in
Colocasia.

G-13 Effect of Aggregation on Decomposition of 14C Labelled Plant


Residues in Cultivated Sandy Soil
Bidisha Majumder1 and Yakov Kuzyakov2
of Environmental Sciences, Asian University for Women, Chittagong,
Bangladesh, 2 Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems; Bsgen-Institute, Georg August
University of Gttingen; Gttingen; Germany. *Corresponding Author Email:
bidishamajumder@yahoo.co.in
1Department

Keywords : Aggregate size fraction, 14C-Labelled plant residue, Soil organic matter,
Decomposition, CO2 efflux, C- sequestration, Microbial biomass

ABSTRACT
Different inputs of mineral and organic fertilizers are mainly responsible for increasing
yield of crop coupled with an increase in the amount of crop residues. Transformation of
the crop residues into soil organic C is an important factor improving soil fertility and
aggregation. Apart from long-term organic matter influence, aggregation is also promoted
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by soil bacterial and fungal biomass. These effects on soil aggregation in relation to soil
organic C content have not yet been well investigated. We studied the long-term effects
of 20-years application of mineral and organic fertilizers in an intensive horticultural crop
rotation. Treatments: without fertilization or manuring (control soil), nitrogen applied by
mineral fertilizer, and manure with low or high application rates. The short-term effect on
soil aggregation was simulated by addition of K-polyacrylate to the soil. 14C labelled plant
residues were added to all soils and incubated for 2 weeks to know the effect of
aggregation on plant residue C sequestration in soil aggregate size fractions. Added 14Clabelled plant residues were retained higher in control soil than the mineral and manure
fertilized one. The 14C from plant residues was strongly allocated in microaggregates. This
corresponded to high plant derived microbial biomass and -glucosidase enzyme activity
in microaggregates. However, 42-73% increase of soil organic C by long-term fertilization
caused decrease in microaggregates by increasing small macroaggregates proportion of
soil. As a result, fertilization effect on soil decreased the rate of decomposition of added
plant residue. K-polyacrylate addition increased the large macroaggregate fraction by 1418% by decreasing small macroaggregates and microaggregates of all soils independent
on fertilization. This aggregation effect caused a significant decrease of decomposition
rates, which may predict the consequences of fungal aggregation on sandy soil.

G-14 Effect of Long Term Fertilization on Soil Organic Carbon and


Productivity of Rice Crop under Rice-Rice Cropping System in Godavari
Delta
Ch. Sreenivas*, D. Srinivas, T. V. Sridar, P. V. Satyanarayana, Y. Suryanarayana and M.
Bharathalakshmi
Andhra Pradesh Rice Research Institute & Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Maruteru, W. G. Dt, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University,
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
*Corresponding Author Email: apwamundi@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Rice-Rice system, Balanced fertilization, N- Substitution, Grain yield, Organic
Carbon content

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ABSTRACT
The effect of long term fertilization with organic and inorganic sources of nutrition
on the grain yield and organic carbon content in post harvest soil under rice-rice system
in alluvial soils was studied for 22 years during kharif and 21 years for rabi. Application
of 100% NPKZnS + FYM/PM @ 5 tha-1 recorded highest grain yield and soil organic
carbon content. 100% NPKZnS produced on par for grain yield production and lower soil
organic carbon than 100% NPKZnS + FYM/PM @ 5 tha-1. Nitrogen substitution with
FYM/ GM performed lower than 100% NPKZnS treatment in grain yield production.
However nitrogen substitution with FYM / GM performed superior than 100% NPKZnS
in increasing organic carbon content. Between GM and FYM, FYM performed better
than GM during kharif. Application of FYM @ 10tha-1 was found on par with 100%
NPKZnS in grain production during kharif only but registered higher organic carbon
content. Continuous use of high level of chemical fertilizers had led to soil degradation
problems, which also proved detrimental to soil health. Soil fertility and productivity in
Godavari delta are likely to be affected due to intensive rice monoculture with imbalanced
fertilization under excessive use of irrigation water. Therefore, the present investigation
was undertaken to explore the effect of organic and inorganic nutrition on soil fertility and
productivity.

G-15 Additive Effect of Microbial Inoculation on Barnyard Millet


(Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link.)
Channabasava A* and H. C. Lakshman
P.G. Department of Studies in Botany, Karnatak University, Pavate Nagar, Dharwad-580003,
India. *Corresponding Author Email: channu.kud@hotmail.com
Keywords : Echinochloa frumentacea, Acaulospora laevis, Azotobacter, Biomass, Biofertilizers

ABSTRACT
The interactions of rhizosphere microbes with plants depend on the establishment of
intimate associations between the two partners. Millets are the astonishing food grains for
the developing countries like India, among them Echinochloa frumentacea (Roxb.) Link.,
(barnyard millet) is one of the rare millet. The grains contain 6.2% protein, 9.8% crude
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

fibre, 65.5% carbohydrate, 4.4% ash and the digestibility of protein is 40 per cent. It was
grown with inoculation of beneficial microbes Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas,
Trichoderma and Acaulospora laevis (AM fungus). The experiments were conducted
under polyhouse conditions with completely randomized block design. The plant growth
parameters like height, biomass, grain yield and nutrient uptake and mycorrhizal spores
and root colonization were analyzed. The experimental plant inoculated with bio-inoculants
has showed additive responses. Over all the maximum benefits were offered by the dual
inoculation of Acaulospora laevis and Azotobacter was recorded. This experiment was
conducted to understand the synergistic interaction among the soil beneficial microbes on
growth and grain yield.

G-16 Spatial and Temporal Variation of NPK and Organic Carbon in Soils
of a Rubber Eco-System

1,2Gauhati

D. Mandal1*, K. G. Bhattacharya2 and T. C. Baruah3


University, Guwahati-781014, 3AAU, Jorhat. *Corresponding Author Email:
dmandal60@rediffmail.com

Keywords : Spatial and temporal variation, Nutrients, Rubber ecosystem

ABSTRACT
Spatial (depth) and temporal (season) variation of soil nutrients was recoded for three
consecutive years under a rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) eco-system. The objective of the
study was to see the dynamics of NPK and organic carbon (OC) under hilly slopes of
Assam so that suitable management practices for rubber could be evolved. The result
showed that higher percentage of organic carbon was available during winter period and
minimum during monsoon. A decline in OC was observed in subsurface soil. Available N
was higher during monsoon period (June-July) and thereafter its values began to decline.
Available P and K were higher in surface soil during post-monsoon period (Sept-Oct).
Leaching loss of nitrogen & OM from surface soil was noticed due to high rainfall and
surface run off. Mobility of potassium towards down the profile was observed after
monsoon. The available P status at the sub-surface soil was not increased over the time
indicating its less downward mobility. The beneficial effects of NPK and leaf litter could
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be enhanced further when composed litter was applied along with NPK to the surface
soil during pre-monsoon period (April-May).

G-17 Changes in Phosphorus and Potassium Fractions in Soil Amended With


Rock Phosphate and Mica Enriched Compost in an Inceptisol under a
WheatSoybean Cropping System
D. R. Biswas
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi110012. *Email: drb_ssac@yahoo.com
Keywords : Rock phosphate, Waste mica, Enriched compost, Phosphorus, Potassium, Fractionation

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to prepare and see the changes in phosphorus and potassium
fractions in soil amended with rock phosphate and mica enriched compost in an Inceptisol
under a wheatsoybean cropping system. The enriched compost was prepared by using
rice straw mixed with rock phosphate and waste mica along with phosphate solubilizing
microorganism (Aspergillus awamorii). Results revealed that enriched compost had
higher total P, K, Ca, Mg, micronutrients and biological properties than ordinary compost.
Data revealed that application of 50% recommended dose of fertilizers along with 5 t ha1 of enriched compost resulted in higher fractions of P (saloidP, FeP, AlP, CaP and
OccludedP) and K (water soluble K, exchangeable K and nonexchangeable K) than
unfertilized plot in surface soil after wheat and soybean grown in sequence. Results
revealed that enriched compost prepared using as rock phosphate and waste mica and
crop residues could be an alternative and cost effective option for mitigating the shortage
of water-soluble P and K fertilizers for crop production.

G-18 Characteristics and Crop Suitability Evaluation of Lohit Valley Soils,


Arunachal Pradesh
D. C. Nayak* and S. K. Gangopadhyay
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Regional Centre, Salt lake,
Kolkata 700 091, West Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: dulalnayak@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Alluvial plain, Soil acidity, Low fertility, Suitability evaluation
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Four representative soil pedons under major physiographic situations viz. Wakro
(P1)Humic Dystudepts (Piedmont slope), Lathow (P2)Typic Kandihumults (Undulating
upland), Pathergaon (P3)Aeric Endoaquepts (Very gently sloping plain ) and Digaru
(P4)Typic Udifluvents (Active flood plain) of Lohit district, Arunachal Pradesh were
studied for their characterization, problems and potentials and crop suitability evaluation.
The soils are very deep, coarse loamy to fine in texture except Wakro soils which are
moderately deep and gravelly loam in texture. Most of the soils are very strongly to
moderately acidic throughout the profile (pH 4.4 to 5.6) except Digaru soils. Organic
carbon content in surface soils is high. CEC of the soils is low to medium and have low
to medium base saturation. The exchange acidity ranges from 0.1 to 3.0 cmol (p+) kg1 due to presence of exchangeable Al3+. Crop suitability evaluation indicates that Wakro
soils are marginally to not suitable for most crops. Lathow soils are best suited for major
crops with some limitation of acidity and low fertility. Pathergaon and Digaru soils are
moderate to marginally suitable for agricultural crops and have the risk of flooding /
waterlogging in rainy season.

G-19 Identification of Soil Related Constraints to Sustainability in


Himalayan Region of India
Debashis Mandal
Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, 218,
Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun, 248 195, Uttarakhand.
Email: dmandalcswcrti@gmail.com
Keywords : Soil constraints, Land degradation, Soil erosion, Soil sustainability, Himalayan
region.

ABSTRACT
Soil resources of Himalayan region are finite, fragile and non-renewable. The signs
of degradation are already evident in terms of declining land productivity, loss of biodiversity, increased sedimentation of rivers and reservoirs, drying up of water sources,
recurring droughts and floods and deteriorating environment. The Indian Himalayan region
(IHR) with width varying between 250-300 km across stretches and length of about 2,500
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km from Jammu & Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. It consists of
two distinct geo-political sub-regions viz; North Eastern hills and north western hills.
Varied geological, physiographic, climatic and vegetational characteristics have given rise
to a variety of soil types in Himalayan region. The majority of Himalayan soils belong to
Entisols and Inceptisols. While Entisols are dominant in the Western Himalayas, the later
are found extensively in north eastern part. About half of the area in the Himalayan
region is degraded. Severity of land degradation is in the order of Mizoram > Himachal
Pradesh > Uttarakhand > Nagaland > Tripura. The major causes of degradation are soil
erosion due to water and some adverse soil conditions. The rates are quite high for
Shiwalik hills (>80 t ha-1 yr-1) and shifting cultivation areas (40 t ha-1 yr-1). Land
degradation due to acid soils is more severe in Indian Himalayas (13.95% of TGA) than
that of the country (3.72% of TGA). Extent of acid soils affected area is much more
in NEHs (29.36% of TGA) than that in NWHs (0.76% of TGA). Among the northeastern states, Nagaland has maximum area (90.0% TGA) under acid soils followed by
Manipur (65.91% of TGA), Tripura (61.29% of TGA), Mizoram (55.42% of TGA),
Arunachal Pradesh (14.96% of TGA) and Assam (8.49% of TGA). Soil depth is below
critical limit in about 31.8% lands in the entire region with more severe limitation in northwestern Himalayan region (50.9% TGA) than north-eastern region (4.0% TGA).The soil
quality in terms of infiltration of water and resistance to erosion was poor in about 33.6%
lands in the entire region. Land vulnerability due to erosion is more severe in NEHs Indian
Himalayas (53.8% of TGA) than that in NWHs (42.3% of TGA). The soils of Himalayan
region are, generally, deficient in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium,
sulphur, zinc, boron, molybdenum and iodine. The deficiencies of micronutrients, particularly
of zinc, are becoming more conspicuous in some areas. About 57, 34, 42 and 12 percent
soil samples were found to be deficient in zinc in Meghalaya, Assam, Himachal Pradesh
and Jammu & Kashmir, respectively. The continued degradation of the fragile Himalayan
region would affect adversely the socio-economic and environmental stability of the
region. More holistic approach to land use and management is needed to cope with
increased pressure on soil resources for sustainable food and fibre production while
reducing the adverse off-site environmental impacts of agricultural practices.
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G-20 Cyanobacteria in the Biofilms on the Soils of Santiniketan in Birbhum,


their Role in Soil Structuring and Nutrient Mobilization
Dhanesh Kumar* and S. P. Adhikary
Institute of Science, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (W.B.) 731235. *Corresponding Author
Email: dhanesh7bt@gmail.com
Keywords : Biofilm, Cyanobacteria, UV-absorbing pigments, Soil erosion

ABSTRACT
Santiniketan in the Birbhum district of West Bengal is characterized by red and arid
soils with poor water holding capacity. The diversity of cyanobacteria in the biofilm
occurred on the upper soil surface soon after receiving monsoon rain was studied. The
biofilm primarily composed of Tolypothrix bouteillei, Scytonema ocellatum, Scytonema
tolypotrichoides, Lyngbya major and Phormidium incrustatum, all of which appeared
soon after wetting of dried biofilms. Methanolic extract of most of these organisms from
culture as well as corresponding crust from nature showed prominent absorption in the
UV-A and UV-B region of the spectrum due to Scytonemin and Mycosporine like amino
acids (MAA) which provide protection to the cells/ filaments exposed to high solar
insolence. All these cyanobacterial species possess copious mucilage as well as thick
sheath layer around their trichome with the potency of binding the soil, hence prevent soil
erosion and nutrient mobilization in their micro-environment. Molecular phylogeny approach
was applied to know the evolutionary characters of major organisms.

G-21 Conservation Ti Effect of Moisture Regimes and Pesticides of


Different Biodegradability on Transformation of Different Forms of
Inorganic N in A Dominant Soil Series of West Bengal
Dipankar Saha and Niladri Paul*
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal. *Corresponding
Author Email: nilupaul82@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Pesticides, Moisture regimes, Exchangeable NH4+ and Soluble NO3- - N.

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ABSTRACT
Irrespective of pesticides, more or less similar amount of exchangeable NH4+ is
accumulated in soils maintained under both waterlogged and 60% of the moisture holding
capacity systems. This trend of results of exchangeable NH4+ is observed both in
presence and absence of N-fertilizer. Critical examination of results showed that
comparatively higher amount of exchangeable NH4+ is recorded in waterlogged soil
treated with N-fertilizer. The recorded lower amount of exchangeable NH4+ in waterlogged
soil, treated with higher dose of endosulfan and chloropyriphos justify that addition of
pesticides of different biodegradability hinders the ammonification process. This trend of
results is more prominent in N-treated system. However, irrespective of N-fertilization, in
presence of higher dose of endosulfan and chloropyriphos, comparatively higher amount
of soluble NO3- is accumulated in waterlogged system maintained at 60% of moisture
holding capacity. The beneficial effect of pesticides on nitrification is well marked. Thus
in general, irrespective of pesticides and N-fertilizer applications, comparatively higher
amount of available N is accumulated in waterlogged system than the soil maintained
under 60% of the moisture holding capacity.

G-22 Variation in Nitrogen Contents in Mulberry Garden at Farmers Level


and Their Effect on Mulberry Leaf Yield
H. Chandra, R. C. Kimothil, P. K. Singh & K. A. Sahaf
IRSRS, Central Silk Board, Sahaspur - 248197, Dehradun, CSR & TI, Central Silk Board,
Pampore, Srinagar. Email: drhe@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Soil, Fertilizer, Nitrogen, Variation, Effect, Yield, Leaf, Mulberry, Farmers,

ABSTRACT
Soil fertility refers to the quality that enables the soil to provide proper compound in
proper amount and in proper balance for the growth of plants. Soil productivity is the
capacity of soil for producing specified plants. Major Components of Soil are mineral
material (Inorganic constituents), organic matters, water and air. About 2000 minerals
have been recognized but only few elements & minerals are important in soil, of which
16 nutrient elements are essential for healthy growth of mulberry plants. For instance,
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linking soil health measurement at farmers level can bridge the gap in interpretation for
input & output. In mulberry the soil fertility & leaf quality is known to influence the
performance of Bivoltine silkworm races; however information on the identification of
critical factors influence the cocoons crops performance at farmers level is extremely
scanty. Some researchers reported variation in leaf quality due to mulberry varieties,
doses of fertilizers etc., The repeated cultivation of crop deteriorate soil status & contents
of micronutrients, so soil test based revised fertilizer application at certain interval is
necessary.

G-23 Use of Clays for Removal of Herbicides from Water for Improved
Quality
Irani Mukherjkee* and Aman Kumar
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012.
*Corresponding Author Email: mukrj irani@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Water is a very important constituent of our ecosystem and so we have to preserve
and improve its quality. Pesticides are an essential input in sustainable agriculture.
Injudicious and repeated application, not adhering to the label claim makes the pesticides
available detected in ground water. Pesticides are organic compounds, their chemical
structure, water solubility, adsorption on soils, persistence are the factors which determine
its mobility into ground water. However effluents from the industry run off due to rain and
flow of irrigation water into water bodies also allows the detection of pesticides into
ground water. The WHO has classified the pesticides into five groups on the basis of their
(LD50 values) hazardous nature. It has been reported that increasing amount of the
pesticide residue e present in the soil and these can ultimately be leached to aquifer levels
and contaminate the groundwater or they may be carried away by runoff waters and soil
erosion. The leachability of the pesticides is measured in terms of the groundwater
ubiquity score (GUS). The GUS index l can be written as GUS = log (DT50). [4log
(Ka)], where DT50 and Ka are persistence and mobility respectively. The tendencies of
groundwater contamination are (i) non-leacher (GUS < 1.8), (ii) moderate (1.8 < GUS <
2.8) and (iii) leacher (GUS > 2.8).Groundwater pollution due to pesticides is a worldwide
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problem. There are many reports published on groundwater contamination due to


pesticides all over the workl. Leaching of atrazine in Germany and Denmark has been
reported. Herbicides and nematicides are supposed to be the major groundwater pollutant
pesticides as they are applied directly to the soil. This paper presents the effect of clays
in decontamination of water and improving the water quality. Water fortified with
herbicides (at 25 ppm), namely atrazine, triflural in, metribuzin, butachlor, flufenacet,
pendimethalin and petrialachlor was subjected to decontamination using commonly available
clays (25mg). The results indicated that about more than 90 % is removed by sonication
with clays like bentonite, kaolinite, nanoclay, morittmorllite, Fullers earth and talc.
Morntmorllite and nano clay was found the best for removal of pendimethalin and
flufenacet.

G-24 Soil Resource Appraisal vis--vis Their Suitability for Different Crops
in Badajorenala Micro-Watershed of Khurda, Odisha
K. Das*, T. Bannerjee and A. K. Sahoo
National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (ICAR),
Regional Centre, Block-D K, Sector-II,
Salt Lake, Kolkata-700091.
*Corresponding Author Email: skcssri@gmail.com
Keywords : Badajorenala microwatershed, Soil series, Soil mapping, Land Capability Classes,
Soil site suitability

ABSTRACT
Effective management of land resources needs site-specific detailed information on
the nature of the soils, their characteristics, distribution, extent, their potentials and
constraints. Keeping this in view the present study was carried out in the Badajorenala
micro watershed of Khurda block, Odisha district for identification of the constraints and
soil site suitability for different major crops of the region. Based on detailed soil survey
of the watershed on 1: 4,000 scale eight soil series have been identified and were mapped
in fourteen phase associations. Entisols, Inceptisols and Alfisols were the dominant soil
orders which were occupied 14.8, 52.9 and 15.0 % area. Land capability evaluation
indicated that the problems of soils and wetness of were noted on 50.9% area of
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watershed (LCC III) while the problem of very severe erosion was identified on another
14.5% area (LCC VII). The soil site suitability evaluation reveals that about 31.9% area
was marginally suitable for growing rainfed rice and about 51.4% area for wheat.
Groundnut crop has been found marginally suitable on 49.6% area and about 65.9 % area
was moderately suitable for growing mustard crop. Pigeon pea cultivation was also
prevalent in the area and the soils were moderately suitable on 33.2 % TGA.

G-25 Assessment of Soil Quality and Resilience for Semi-Arid Tropical


Alfisol-Soils
K. Venkanna1, Uttam Kumar Mandal 2*, Ravikant V. Adake 3, K. L. Sharma 4 and
Pushpanjali 5
1,3,4,5Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar,
Hyderabad-500059,
2Central Soil Salinity Research Institute,
Regional Research Station, Canning Town,
South 24-Parganas, West Bengal-743329.
*Corresponding Author Email: uttam_icar@yahoo.com
Keywords : Soil resilience, Principal Component Analysis, SQI, Land use

ABSTRACT
A soil quality index (SQI) was determined for Alfisol soils collected from different
land use system of Nalgonda and Warangal Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Total 22
physical, chemical and biological properties of soil were analyzed and Principal component
identified were moisture retention at 15 bars, available N, available P, DTPA extractable
Zn, exchangeable sodium percentage, C mineralization and bulk density as. Also SQI was
calculated based on four soil function, i.e., nutrient cycling, water availability, resistance
to degradation and salinity and sodicity. A biological resilience of soils was also studied
based on substrate induced respiration after heat stress. There was good relationship (r2
= 0.674) between two procedures of calculating SQI based on SQIs and resilience index
observed soil can be classified in following land use systems: castor < intercrop < pigeon
pea < cotton < maize < fallow < rice. These results indicated that good soils having higher
soil quality indices were also productive with higher resilience capacity.
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G-26 Effect of Eudrilus eugeniae Vermiwash on the growth of


Arachis hypogaea
K. E. Poorni* and A. Manikandan
Vivekanandha College of Arts and Sciences for Women (Autonomous),
Tiruchengode637 205, Elayamplayam, Namakkal Dt, Tamilnadu, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: biochempoorni@gmail.com
Keywords : Vermiwash, Eudrilus eugeniae, Arachis hypogaea.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, the properties and the effect of vermiwash of Eudrilus Eugenia
on the growth and biochemical constituents of Arachis hypogaea were analyzed.
Varying concentrations of vermiwash were used to detect the effect on the growth of
Arachis hypogaea for a period of 4 weeks. The plants were divided into control and
three treatment groups, Treatment I (1% Concentration used), Treatment II (3%
Concentration used) & Treatment III (6% Concentration used). After the treatment
period the root length, shoot length, number of leaves and biomass were evaluated for all
the Eudrilus eugeniae vermiwash treated plants and for the control group. It has been
found that treatment III was found to be effective in all the physical and chemical
parameters analyzed when compared to the control and other treatment groups.

G-27 A Study on Site-Specific Nutrient Management for Rice in Kurnool


and Cuddapah Canal Command Area of Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh
K. V. Ramanaiah1* and V. Kumar Babu2
&CS, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Yagantipalle, Kurnool (Dt.), 2Z. P. High School (Boys),
Banaganapalle, Kurnool (dt.), A. P. *Corresponding Author Email: ramanakv69 @gmail.com
1SHE

Keywords : Black Soil, Nutrient Requirements, Yield Target, Paddy, Profitability.

ABSTRACT
Rice is the primary staple food for more than 40% of the worlds population. Rice
yields in many parts of the country are declining due to conventional blanket and
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imbalanced use of fertilizers. Fertilizer application based on quantitative approaches such


as Soil test crop response (STCR) can assist in improving yields and nutrient use
efficiency in rice. Crop trials were conducted in 135 locations in Kurnool district of
Andhra Pradesh to quantify rice production in the context of the variability of soil
properties and use of balanced fertilizers based on targeted yield concept. Soil properties
indicated moderate to heavy in texture (Sandy clay loam to Clay loam), low to high range
of organic carbon content (0.19 % to 1.43%), pH varied from neutral to medium alkali
(6.65 to 8.52). Soil fertility status for N was low to medium in all samples (138 to 301
kg/ha), with medium to high P (49 to 564 kg/ha) and medium to high K (168 to 1220 kg/
ha). Validity of the yield target for 8.0 tonnes/ha was tested in farmers fields and yield
targets varied at less than 10%. Achievement of additional income (Rs.7399/ha) in all the
demonstrations, clearly indicated that soil test based fertilizer recommendation/application
was economically viable within the agro-ecological zone with relatively uniform cropping
practices and socio-economic conditions.

G-28 Reclaming Sodic Soils by Farmers Participatory Management in


Jaunpur District, Uttar Pradesh
M. S. Yadav1*, D. K. Sharma2, Alok Mathur3, A. N. Singh4 and P. N. Shah5
Pradesh Bhoomi Sudhar Nigam, Lucknow, 2,3,4,5 Remote Sensing Applications Centre,
U. P. Jankipuram, Lucknow. *Corresponding Author Email: msyadav60@rediffmail.com

1Uttar

Keywords : Sodic soils, Reclamation, Gypsum, Participatory management

ABSTRACT
In the present study reclamation was taken up in Jaunpur district in 94 villages under
U.P. Sodic Land Reclamation Project funded by the World Bank. For the execution of
reclamation programmes, maps are required on the village cadastre as a base. High
resolution IRS-LISS-III & PAN merged satellite data have been used in order to map the
sodic lands selected 94 villages. The sodic land map shows the information at plot level
on three categories of sodic soils on the bases land use, viz., B+ (double cropped sodic)
B (single cropped sodic) and C (barren sodic). A total of 4581 ha of sodic area was
mapped out of which, B+ category was 449.5 ha, B category 1117.7 ha and C category
3013.8 ha. From the selected villages, 16584 surface soil samples were collected and
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analyzed for gypsum requirement of sodic soils. Pre- reclamation pH2 and EC2 values are
in range of 9.1 to 10.3 and 0.16 to 1.17 dsm-1 under C category. In case of B category
plots, the pre-reclamation soil pH2 and EC2 values ranged between 9.7 to 10.2 and 0.45
to 1.11 dsm-1. Whereas under B+ category plots, the pre-reclamation soil pH2 and EC2
were found in range of 9.9 to 10.2 and 0.39 to 0.58 dsm-1. After implementation of
reclamation program pH reduced by. .5 to 1.0 unit and EC reduced substantially to with
in permissible level. The success of the reclamation has been due to farmers
participatory management at the site implementation level, in each village. The participatory
irrigation management in the project also involved participation of 1097 water user groups.
A total of 1097 tubewells, out of which 729 were newly developed during the reclamation
activity, provided water required for leaching and subsequent irrigation for crop growth.
The study has benefited 9923 farmers in the district, of which about 6200 farmers
cultivated their barren sodic lands for the first time enhancing their food and livelihood
security.

G-29 Decontamination of Neonicotinoid Residues


Madhuban Gopal*, Rajesh Kumar, Ram Niwas, Archana Upadhyay and Shobhita Kalra
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi- 110012. *Corresponding Author Email:
madhubangopal@gmail.com
Keywords : Neonicotinoids, Saponins, Edible alkali, Transition metal catalyst, Microbe,
Decontamination, Vegetables, Water

ABSTRACT
Neonicotinoids are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically related to nicotine.
The neonicotinoids were developed in large part because they show reduced toxicity when
compared to previously used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. They are used
to control sap sucking pests of fruits and vegetables, but leave their residues in edible
commodities. Saponins were isolated from pericarp of plant Sapindus mucorossi (soap
nut). The contaminated vegetable was treated with various surfactants, edible alkali and
saponin separately and in combination to quantify the remaining neonicotinoid. Various
combinations were attempted to find that an optimum combination of three reagents,
which was successful for decontaminating imidacloprid from okra fruit by 99%. The
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treatment could bring residues from 80 ppm to below the MRL (0.5 mg/kg of imidacloprid
in okra documented in Netherland). The study could be termed complete for utilization only
if the insecticide, present in the waste water generated from such experiment, could also
be detoxified by using a transition metal catalyst and separated by subjecting it to treatment with a microbe (Burkholderia cepacia) identified by its 16S rDNA gene sequencing.

G-30 Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Strain of Nitrogen Fixing


Bacteria of Genus Azotobacter from Tea Rhizosphere of South Assam, India
Mrinal Kanti Bhattacharjee *, P. B. Mazumdar and G. D. Sharma
Assam University, Assam, India, Silchar - 788011.
*Corresponding Author Email: mantu.bhatt.50@gmail.com
Keywords : Dendrogram, Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular characteristics, Nitrogen
fixing bacteria, Nitrogen fixation, Rhizosphere

ABSTRACT
Diverse nitrogen fixing microorganisms grow in the rhizosphere of tea and contribute
to the soil nitrogen pools. The recent isolation and study of nitrogen fixing bacteria
represent an exciting period in the field of biological nitrogen fixation. In this paper an
investigation was carried out for isolation of a bacterial strain of the genus Azotobacter
from rhizosphere of tea plant of the variety TV-20 from Ichabil tea estate of South
Assam, India. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological characteristics it
was identified as a Gram negative, motile nitrogen fixing bacteria. And on the basis of 16S
rDNA analysis it was confirmed that belongs to the genus Azotobacter. And on the basis
of 16SrDNA sequence a dendrogram was constructed.

G-31 Halotolerent Azospirillum lipoferum N-29 as a Biofertilizer for Saline


Soils
Nakade Dhanraj. B.
Govt. Rajaram College, Kolhapur - 416004 (Maha) India.
Email: nakadedhanraj@ yahoo.com
Keywords : Azospirillum lipoferum N-29, Hypersaline Soils, Biofertilizers
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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

ABSTRACT
In the present study halotolerent indigenous strain of Azospirillum lipoferum N-29
was isolated on modified Congored Nitrogen free agar with 6% NaCl concentration from
the hyper saline soils of Kolhapur district of Maharashtra, India. It was identified as by
using Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology. To study its nitrogen fixing ability
acetylene reduction assay was performed, as well as a pot experiment was carried out
on sugarcane 8071 variety, which is cultivated on large scale in western Maharashtra
region of India. Nine pots divided in to three sets. For production of biofertilizers a
biomass production experiment was carried using fully automatic bioreactor, using a
modified Nitrogen free broth medium at 30OC temperature, pH7.0, 140rpm agitation.
Results indicated that Azospirillum lipoferum N-29 strain grows up to 8% NaCl
concentration with optimum 4 % NaCl concentration, pH 7.0, temperature 30OC and at
140 rpm. It tolerates about 12% NaCl salt concentration for 1 hour. Nitrogen fixing ability
Results indicated that there was maximum nitrogen fixation (22%) observed at 30OC
temperature , 4% NaCl salt concentration, at 140 rpm agitation and at pH 7.0. Pot
experiment showed that there was 58% increase in height of plant, diameter of stem,
number of setts, and number of leaves as compared to control set and 20 % increase in
sterile soil with Azospirillum lipoferum N-29, this indicated the combine effect of other
microorganisms with that of Azospirillum lipoferum N-29.Biofertilizer production
experiment indicated that maximum biomass (4*109 cells ml-l ) can be produced within 48
hours at 30OC and at 140 rpm using modified Nitrogen free broth medium with 20%
sucrose. Present investigation indicated the suitability of Azospirillum lipoferum N-29
strain as a candidate for biofertilizer production for saline soils as well as for reclamation
of saline soils.

G-32 Nitrogenous Compounds Nutrition and Salt Tolerance in the Nitrogen


Fixing Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus Species
Nonibala Khumanthem1*, N. Irabanta Singh2, A. K. Singh3 and A. N. Rai4
1,2Centre of Advanced Study in Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur -795 003.
3,4North Eastern Hill University, Shillong -22. *Corresponding Author Email:
khumanthem.nonibala @gmail.com
Keywords : Thermophilic cyanobacterium, Mastigocladus sp, Salt stress, Nitrogen fixation
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Salinity tolerance of thermophilic Cyanobacterium mastigocladus species isolated
from hot spring was examined. M. species tolerated up to 300 mM and found that at salt
stress condition growth, heterocyst frequency and nitrogenase activity were lowered than
the normal. It exhibited enhanced tolerance to NaCl in the presence of ammonium, nitrate
and the amino acids, alanine, asparctic acid, arginine, glutamine and proline. Apart from
providing permanent protection to the growth during stress, like NO3- and NH4+, proline
also relieved the initial salt mediated inhibition on enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation
(nitrate reductase and glutamine transferase activities). All nitrogenous substances which
supported growth in the presence of salt curtailed the Na+ influx.

G-33 Interaction Effect between Potassium and Zinc on the Availability of


Potassium and Cationic Micronutrients in Submerged Soil
P. Roy1*, D. K. Das2 and A. K. Dolui3
of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta. 35,
B. C. Road. Kolkata - 700019,
2Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur, Nadia - 741232.
*Corresponding Author Email: priyamaroy@gmail.com

1,3Institute

Keywords : Cationic Micronutrients, Potassium, Zinc, Submerged Soil

ABSTRACT
Laboratory experiment at ambient conditions was carried out in an inceptisol (SubDivisional Adaptive Research Farm, Kandi, Murshidabad) collected after growing of
kharif rice for two consecutive years to study the interaction effect between potassium
and zinc with nine different treatment combinations under submerged soil condition. The
results reveal that the amount of exchangeable K has been found to be maintained highest
(189.20 mg kg-1) in the treatment T6 where K and Zn was applied combinedly at 60 and
5 mg kg-1 respectively followed by the treatment T3 (185.39 mg kg-1) receiving K at its
highest level (60 mg kg-1) with no application of Zn at 42 days period of submergence.
As regards to the changes in cationic micronutrients, it was found that the amount of Fe,
Mn, Cu and Zn was maintained highest as 152.94, 64.94, 2.64 and 10.18 mg kg-1
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respectively in the treatment T9 where K and Zn was applied simultaneously at their


highest level at 42 days of incubation for Fe and Mn, 35 days of incubation for Cu and
14 days of incubation for Zn. It is interesting to note that the interaction effect of K at
its highest level on the changes in cationic micronutrients was more pronounced while the
effect of zinc at its lower level on the changes in K content in soil was recorded a highest
value . The results suggest that the lower level of Zn has been proved superior on the
availability of K in submerged soil whereas highest level of K was proved beneficial for
the availability of cationic micronutrients under submerged soil conditions.

G-34 Crop Improvement Using Nostoc spp.


P. Ravi Kiran1*, G. V. N. S. Deviram2 N. Sundara Rami Reddy3 and B. S. V. Kartick4
1,3,4 Aurobindo Pharma Ltd, 2 GIS,
GITAM University,
*Corresponding Author Email: thelegend.ravi@gmail.com
Keywords : Nostoc, Crop Improvement

ABSTRACT
Plant nutrients are essential for the production of crops and healthy food for the
worlds expanding population. Plant nutrients are therefore a vital component of sustainable
agriculture. Increased crop production largely relies on the type of fertilizers used to
supplement essential nutrients for plants. The blue green algae (cyanobacteria) are
capable of fixing the atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into an available form of
ammonium required for plant growth. Attempt towards the cultivation of vegetables viz.,
Phaseolus aureus (Green gram), Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) and Corindrum sativum
(Coriander) has been made in the soil media of Visakhapatnam. Addition of Cyanobacteria
along with natural and artificial fertilizers to the soil media enhanced the average crop
productivity by 10 - 15%. Physical and chemical characteristics of the soil are promoted
by 2 - 3% and mineral content by 6%. Therefore a balanced fertilization strategy that
combines the use of chemical and organic biofertilizer must be developed.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

G-35 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrifying Bacteria and N


Transformation Rates in Tropical Rain-fed Rice Soil
Paromita Ghosh
G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Garhwal Unit, Upper
Bhaktiyana, Srinagar, Garhwal, 246174, Uttarakhand, India.
Email: paroghosh@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Ammonium oxidizers, NMineralization, Nitrification, Rainfed rice, Spatial, Temporal
distribution.

ABSTRACT
The rates of Nmineralization, nitrification and nitrifier population fluctuations in
planted (bulk), unplanted (bare) and rhizosphere rice soil was quantified in a tropical
rainfed rice soil. There were significant differences in the nitrogen dynamics and nitrifier
population. The growing rice plants made the soil more aerobic and increased the
availability of substrates for the growth of nitrifiers, which resulted in a ten-fold higher
nitrifier population in bulk soil in comparison to bare soil. The presence of rice plants
created a soil gradient in respect of nitrifier population distribution which consequently
affected their processes. Fertilization enhanced the nitrifier population and processes by
acting as substrate for the nitrifiers as well as affecting proliferation of aerenchyma tissue
and led to better plant growth characteristics.

G-36 Soil Development Index (SDI) to Evaluate Effectively of Different


Organic Inputs towards Soil Quality Development under FAO-CFC-TBI
Project at Maud Tea Estate, Assam

1Inhana

R. Bera1*, M. Khan2 and D. Mazumdar3


Organic Research Foundation (IORF), West Bengal, India, 2Calcutta University,
India, 3 Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur - 741252, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: inhanabiosciences@gmail.com
Keywords : Organic, Inhana Rational Farming, Tomato

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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

ABSTRACT
A study Was conducted at Maud tea estate (Assam), India under FAO-CFC-TBI
Project during 2008-2011; and aimed for formulation of Soil Development Index (SDI) to
evaluate the comparative variation in soil quality under application of different types of
compost viz. vermicompost, Indigenous (FYM), Biodynamic and Novcom compost along
with their respective crop performance.The result showed superiority of Novcom compost
over others in terms of total NPK percent (4.26 %), total microbial count (at least 103
to 106 times higher c.f.u.) and germination index (21.3 % higher than the 2nd best value).
Application of compost for 3 consecutive years to supply 60 kg N caused an overall
increase in the value of soil quality parameters viz. organic carbon (51.6 to 70.7 %),
available nutrient (i.e. N+P+K+S: 16.3 to 33.9 %), microbial population (27.0 to 37.2 %),
available micronutrient (19.3 to 44.8 %) and different N forms.SDI was highest in case
of Novcom compost treated plots (54.72) followed by plots receiving Biodynamic (37.81),
vermi (32.05) and Indigenous (24.82) compost, which indicated higher potential of
Novcom compost over other compost towards effective organic soil management in a
speedy manner. The finding was further corroborated by crop performance data which
showed highest crop yield in the Novcom compost applied plots.

G-37 A Study on Variation of Soil Organic and Inorganic Carbon Stock


under Nutrient Management System of Mulberry (Morus alba L.)
R. Kar, S. K. Majumder, M. K. Ghosh and B. B. Bindroo,
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore- 742 101, W.B.
Keywords : Mulberry, Soil, Organic carbon stock, Inorganic carbon stock

ABSTRACT
The investigation has been initiated to study the extent of variation of soil organic
carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks under mulberry (Morus alba L.,
var. S-1635) nutrient management system comprising nutrient inputs of varying origin.
Under the experimentation, combinations of organic, inorganic and biological sources of
nutrient inputs have been used along with sole inorganic nutrient inputs and control with
no nutrient inputs in the mulberry plantation of 60 cm 60 cm and 90 cm 90 cm spacing.
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SOC stock has been improved due to application of organic as well as inorganic
combination of nutrients resources and also organic, inorganic as well as biological
combination of nutrients resources over sole chemical fertilizers as well as treatment
without any nutrient input. But, SIC stock has furnished its higher titre in sole chemical
fertilizers as well as treatment without any nutrient input in comparison to others. The
regression equation relating SIC stock (y) with SOC stock (x), y = 30.916 0.581x (R2
= 0.682**), indicates an increase of one at the expense of the other. SOC stock has, in
turn, imparted significant positive effect on most of the growth and yield attributes of
mulberry (var. S-1635), but, SIC stock has imparted reverse effect on the same. Thus,
mulberry nutrient management system comprising of inorganic, organic as well as
biological combinations of nutrients resources is capable of maintaining such a balance
between SOC and SICS stock that can exert positive influence on mulberry growth and
productivity.

G-38 Cultivation of Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) for Utilization of Sodic


Soils
R. P. Singh and S. K. S. Chandel
Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi 221002(U.P), India
Keywords : Sodic soil, Vetiver

ABSTRACT
Reclamation of sodic soils is very costly due to requirement of amendments irrigation
and drainage facilities. Utilization of sodic soils for growing of aromatic crops may be
solution for this problem. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted during 2007-2010
in a sodic soil (pH 9.5, ECe 1.25 d Snll and ESP 56) to explore the possibilities of utilizing
such soils for cultivation of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). The experiment was laid out
in randomized block design with seven treatments (including control) and four replications.
The treatments were To (control- no amendments), Ti (gypsum at 60% gypsum
requirements /ha),T2 (sludge at 10 t/ha), 13 (hyacinth compost at10 t/ha), T4 (hyacinth
compost at 3 t ha + gypsum at 40 % gypsum requirements), T5 (hyacinth compost at
3 t/haI + sludge at 5 t ha-I), To (hyacinth compost at 3 t/ ha + sludge at 2 t/ha + gypsum
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at 40 % gypsum requirements/ha). Soil samples from the surface layer (0-15 cm) were
collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for pH, ECe, organic carbon
(available, N, P, K and S. The root and oil yield significantly increased as compare to
control due to application of organic and inorganic amendments. To was found to be
statistically superior over all the treatments. Vetiver alone and in combination with
amendments was able to reduce the sodicity and improve the fertility status of soil. The
pH, ECe, ESP of the soil were decreased where as status of organic matter, available,
N, P, K and S were increased. Maximum improvement was recorded with T6.

G-39 Physical and Biological Resilience of Black Soil (Vertisol) Amended


with Organic Manure
R. Saha*, Vassanda Coumar, K. M. Hati, R. S. Chaudhary and A. Subba Rao
Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal, M. P 462038.
*Corresponding Author Email: saharitesh74@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Soil resilience & resistance, CBR, Cu stress, SMBC, Black soil

ABSTRACT
Black soils, most abundant in central India, possess low strength and undergo
excessive volume changes. Some index properties like swell and shrink potential, plasticity,
compaction, maximum dry density and strength characteristics of this soil are very
important for estimation of soil physical resilience. Californian Bearing Ratio (CBR)
indicates the soils resistance to force and the swell and strength potential of the soil with
the soil properties. Study indicated that the liquid and plastic limit of black soil was 54.4
and 20.7 %, respectively.. The low CBR (range 1.65-2.02 % and 4.36-5.52 % under
soaked and unsoaked conditions, respectively) is attributed to its inherent low strength
which is due to the dominance of the clay fraction.. Maximum dry density of black soil
increased while optimum moisture content reduced under heavy compaction as compared
to light compaction. The resilient modulous, defined as the ratio between repeated deviator
stress and resilient strain, data (15.93-20.89 MPa and 45.09-57.09 MPa under soaked and
unsoaked conditions, respectively) showed that external inputs either in organic form
(FYM) must be applied to black soil for having better resilience. An incubation study was
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

carried out ascribed the recovery rate of black soil under various doses of fully
decomposed FYM. Cu stress is given for reducing the short-term decomposition and to
find the recovery rate under various FYM management (@ 5 - 50 g/kg of soil) practices.
The result from the incubation study revealed that Cu stress significantly (17.98- 29.30%)
reduced the soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and the enzymatic activities as compared
to untreated soils (without Cu stress). Among the various treatments, soil without FYM
showed the lower resistance, hence higher reduction in SMBC (70.70%) followed by
other FYM treated soils (range 56.56 to 66.34 %) at the end of 2-4 weeks after
incubation. At the end of incubation period (16th week), microbial biomass carbon
(SMBC) ranged from 173.76 to 352.66 mg/kg of soil under Cu stress and 239.04 to 371.33
mg/kg of soil under unstressed soil. In genreal, SMBC showed its recovery after 4 weeks
of incubation period under Cu stressed condition. However, it showed recovery after 2
weeks only in case of higher doses of FYM application.

G-40 Tetracycline Fabricated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles - A New


Avenue in Bacterial Treatment
Riya Mukherjee, Mousumi Patra, Milon Banik, Debanjan Dutta, Arijit Chatterjee and
Tarakdas Basu
University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India.
Keywords : Calcium phosphate, Tetracycline, Nano-composite, Antibacterial

ABSTRACT
The nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, SEM, AFM. By
co-precipitation method in the presence of tetracycline yielded nanocomposite with
average size of 110nm. The present study was conducted with the aim to develop a novel
nanoparticle with calcium phosphate and tetracycline and its antibacterial efficiency. Here
we used calcium phosphate nanoparticles to develop a unique and potent antimicrobial
agent by surface decorating it with antibiotic tetracycline. During test, Nano composite
were incubated with multi-drug resistant strains specifically tetracycline resistant strains
and in parallel experiment done only with tetracycline as control. After incubation of 18hrs,
the nanocomposite shows very exciting results with much higher bacteriocidal activity
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compare to the control. In conclusion keeping in the mind the high biocompatibility and
biodegradability of calcium phosphate nanocomposite can be used as future antibiotic,
expected it pose no side effect.

G-41 Changes in Non-Exchangeable K in an Acid and the Corresponding


Limed Soil as Affected By Addition of Nitrogenous and Potassic Fertilizers
Ruma Das* and Dipankar Saha
Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia.
*Corresponding Author Email: rumadas13@gmail.com
Keywords : Exchangeable and labile K, Acid soil, Limed soil, Non-exchangeable K, Nitrogen
and potassium fertilizer

ABSTRACT
Non-exchangeable K reserves can significantly contribute the exchangeable and
labile K in soil. The present investigation was conducted to study the changes in nonexchangeable K in a half limed, full limed as well as the corresponding unlimed soil, were
fertilized with nitrogen (urea) and potassium (MOP) fertilizers either alone or in
combination with optimum moisture level. The results showed that, irrespective of
treatment, full limed soil recorded highest amount of non-exchangeable K over that of half
limed as well as unlimed systems. However, during the 90 day period of incubation,
nitrogenous and potassic fertilizer did not show any significant effect on non-exchangeable
K content in soil.

G-42 Soil Fertility Management of Established Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana)


Plantation under Lac Cultivation
S. Ghosal
Lac Production Division, Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi- 834010,
Jharkhand, India. E mail: soumen66iinrg@gmail.com
Keywords : Ziziphus mauritiana, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Liming, Growth

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
Lac cultivation is a profitable option of agriculture for the farmers of Jharkhand,
Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal etc. An experiment comprising
levels of liming (liming and no liming), nitrogen (0, 100, 200 and 400 g/ tree), phosphorus
(0 and 150 g/ tree) and potassium (0 and 150 g/ tree) to make 32 treatment combinations
replicated thrice was launched in the research farm of Indian Institute of Natural Resins
and Gums, Ranchi (23o23N longitude, 85o23 E latitude and 650 m above MSL) during
2007-10 to generate information on level of soil fertility required to sustain growth of the
tree under kusmi lac cultivation in the winter season. Findings of the experiment indicated
that under control condition, the average bio-mass production per tree started reducing @
0.81 kg/ year and with application of 200 g nitrogen, 150 g each of phosphorus and
potassium along with liming could increase bio-mass production per tree @ 2.97 kg/ year
under lac cultivation. Chlorophyll Content Index (CCI) was significantly affected by liming
and shoot dry matter percent remained significantly lower by potassium application.
Liming could influence soil fertility markedly by increasing soil available potassium, organic
carbon, electrical conductivity and pH. Annual variation on tree growth and soil fertility
was assessed separately for three years. Relatively higher soil pH in the first year might
have contributed in maintaining better soil fertility.

G-43 Influence of Carbonates in Calcareous Soils of Northern Bihar


S. K. Gangopadhyay*, S. K. Singh and D. C. Nayak
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Regional Centre, Salt lake,
Kolkata 700 091, West Bengal. *Corresponding Author Email: skcssri@gmail.com
Keywords : Carbonates, Calcareous soil, Bihar.

ABSTRACT
The influence of CaCO3 on moisture and nutrient status is reported in calcareous soils
producing bountiful Litchi, Rice, Wheat and Maize in Samastipur, Vaishali and Mujaffarpur
districts of northern Bihar. Calcium carbonate is known for antagonistic effects on the
availability of phosphorus, micro-nutrients and moisture. In the present study CaCO3 has
significant positive correlation with moisture and non-significant correlation with macro
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and micro nutrients. CaCO3 also contributed significantly to available water capacity
(AWC). The observation leads to conclude that CaCO3 in these soils helps in maintaining
continuity of moisture supply and protect the crops from intermittent dry spell. CaCO3 also
helps in developing micro- environment of high humidity, which is needed for setting high
quality of Litchi.

G-45 Effects of Liming on Different Forms of Acidity in Soils from Various


Agro-Climatic Zones of West Bengal
S. P. Badole*, Ashim Datta, Anindita Seth and Biswapati Mandal
Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur,
Nadia, West Bengal, India, 741252.
*Corresponding Author Email:shrikantbadole358@gmail.com
Keywords : Liming, Acidity

ABSTRACT
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of liming on changes in different
forms of acidity. Thirty six surface (0-15 cm) soil samples were collected from different
agro-climatic zones of West Bengal namely red-lateritic, terai, new alluvial and costal
saline zones and incubated for 21 days with three doses of lime i.e. no lime, half lime and
full lime of the lime requirement of soil. Results of analysis of soils showed that there
were significant increase in pH of the soil and decrease in total acidity, hydrolytic acidity,
exchange acidity, EBAl3+ and EBH+ upon liming.

G-46 Soil Resource Based Land use Planning of Mathura District of Uttar
Pradesh for Sustainable Agricultural Production
S. K. Mahapatra*, Jaya N Surya, Tarsem Lal and G. S. Sidhu
Natoinal Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre,
IARI Campus. New Delhi - 110012, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: sankarkmahapatra@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Remote sensing, Physiography, Alluvial plain, Entisols, Inceptisols, Land Use Plan.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

Abstract
Agriculture remains a principle force in sustaining the operation and growth of the
whole economy even in highly industrialised countries. As population and human aspirations
increase, land becomes an increasingly scare resource, calling for land use planning.
Inventory of soil resources and evaluation of land capabilities are the key issues to develop
land use plans for sustainable agricultural production. Thus, one district was taken up to
identify soil resources and assess their suitability for various kinds of land utilizations
beneficial for the land users. The soils occurring in various physiographic units were
correlated and classified with respect to their morphological, physical and chemical
characteristics. After soil correlation 20 soil series were identified and mapped into 35 soil
series associations. Inceptisols occupy nearly 79.6 per cent while Entisols cover about
17.2 per cent area. Coarse-loamy soils occupy largest area followed by fine-loamy soils.
Nearly 70 per cent lands are grouped into class II, 9 per cent land into class III, 15 per
cent into class IV and 0.2 per cent into class VII. Soil salinity/sodicity, wetness and
erosion are the major problems of the soil. Based on the soil and land qualities, land use
plan was suggested. About 39 per cent area is suitable for major crops grown in the area.
Nearly 27 per cent area is suitable to all crops and also suitable to agro-forestry. About
3 per cent area is suitable to salt tolerant crops while 11 percent area is suitable for agrihorticulture/agri-floriculture. Crops such as vegetables may be grown in 10 per cent area.
About 0.3 per cent area may be encouraged for forestry/silvi-pasture.

G-47 Potential Effects of Manufactured Nanomaterials on Growth,


Development and Biomass Production in Agriculture Based Crops
Sanghdeep Gautam1*, Pragati Misra2, Pradeep K. Shukla3, P. W. Ramteke4, A. C. Pandey5
1,2Jacob School of Biotechnology and bioengineering,
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad.
3,4Department of Biological Sciences,
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad,
5Nanotechnology Application Centre, Science Faulty Campus,
University of Allahabad, Allahabad.
*Corresponding Author Email: sanghdeep007@gmail.com
Keywords : Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Nitrogen fixation, Plant growth, Biomasss
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ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology and the manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) industry continue rapid
expansion. There is concern about build up in soils and possible MNM entry into the food
supply. MNMs can enter soil through atmospheric routes. Another route of entry is
wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) systems which are neither monitored nor regulated;
having high affinity for activated sludge bacteria, concentrate in biosolids which are landapplied. Nanoparticles stimulate plant growth; most striking is the degree to which MNM
bioaccumulate in tissues and leaves. Some MNMs like Nano-CeO2 impacts were
different: low nano-CeO2 exposure promotes stunted plant growth and biomass. Further,
CeO2 nanoparticles entering roots and root nodules, with higher amounts of nano-CeO2
nearly paralyze nodule-associated nitrogen fixation. In conclusion, high production MNMs
are apt to change agriculture, and demonstrates the importance of managing waste
streams to control such exposures.

G-48 Structural Characteristics of Adsorbed Humic Acid on Clay Minerals


Sanjib Kar*, Arup Chowdhury, Ayan Kumar Das and Subraprakash Kajli
Institute of Agricultural Science,
University of Calcutta,
35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019.
*Corresponding Author Email: sanjib_cu@yahoo.co.in
Keywords : Humic acid, Kaolinite, Bentonite, Adsorption

ABSTRACT
This study examined the structural changes of humic acid (HA) after adsorption by
two different types of clay minerals. Petrographic studies under polarized light for the first
time provide direct evidence for adsorption interactions on mineral surface. The picture
of pure-HA markedly differ from clay-humic adsorption complexes. Kaolinite surface
contain higher amount of Na20, Al2O3, K2O and Fe2O3 than bentonite and makes it more
reactive towards adsorption interaction with humic acid molecule. It was observed that
exchangeable cations on the Kaolinite surface form stronger bond compared to bentonite
at higher pH (pH=8.5), that is identified directly from petrographic pictures.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

G-49 Copper Induced Toxic Responses on the Growth and Yield of Chick
Pea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars
Shiv Rama Krishnan* and Pranjali Ghodke
Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Deemed University, Allahabad.
*Corresponding Author Email: rshivram007@gmail.com
Keywords : Chickpea, Copper, Chlorophyll, Protein, Ascorbic acid, Plant biomass, Varieties

ABSTRACT
A study has been conducted to study the effect of differential levels of Cu (0, 100,
200, 300 mg Cu/kg soil as CuSO4.5H2O on growth and biochemical parameters in chick
pea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Pusa 312 and Pant G 114). All the growth and yield
decreased with an increase in Cu supply. Biochemical studies indicated steady decline
in chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid and soluble protein content with an increasing Cu dose
in both the varieties. Ascorbic acid content was found high in Cu supplied plants. Results
obtained indicated that high dosages of Cu (200 and 300 ppm Cu) exerted significant
inhibitory effect on shoot growth, root growth, chlorophyll and protein content which in
turn resulted in reduction in biomass yield of chick pea. Both the varieties were affected
due to excess Cu, effect being less pronounced in variety Pusa 312 in terms of lower
decrease in growth attributes.

G-50 Diversity of Arthrobacters Isolated for Exploiting Abiotic Stress


Tolerance Mechanism from Salt and Drought Affected Soils of Rajasthan
(India)
Srinivasan R1*, A.K. Saxena2 and Mahesh S Yandigeri3
1Crop Production Division, IGFRI, Jhansi, U.P.,
2Microbiology Division, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
PUSA, New Delhi 12,
3Senior Scientist, NBAII, Bangalore.
*Corresponding Author Email: srinivas_mic@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Arthrobacter, Salt stress, Drought, Isolation, ARDRA.
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ABSTRACT
Isolation of arthrobacters was carried out from the soil samples collected from salt
and drought affected soils of Rajasthan using a selective medium. These isolates were
screened for their intrinsic resistance to salt and drought stress. Based on salt and drought
tolerance, 15 isolates were selected for identification and characterization. All the 15
isolates were found to be Gram positive, non-endospore formers and were able to utilize
fructose as carbon source. Of the 15 isolates, 14 were catalase positive, 13 showed the
rod-coccus cycle and were able to utilize choline as sole carbon and nitrogen source. The
cultures were identified with biochemical tests as Arthrobacter sp. (7); Brevibacterium
sp. (5); Micrococcus sp. (1); Streptococcus sp. (1) and Corynebacterum sp. (1). The
results of biochemical characterization of 12 isolates that were identified as Arthrobacter
and Brevibacterium were further confirmed through a rapid and simple ARDRA method.
The results of RFLP analysis obtained from the isolates were combined together with
virtual digest of A. globiformis, A. pascens, A. nicotianae, A. citreus, and B. casei to
construct a dendrogram. Among the two major clusters formed, cluster A contained all
the accessions of genus Brevibacterium and the five isolates identified as Brevibacterium
sp. on the basis of biochemical tests. The cluster B showed a subdivision at 66% similarity
co-efficient. The sub cluster I contained remaining seven isolates, three reference strains
and five accessions for Arthrobacter globiformis, A. citreus, A. pascens. The sub
cluster II contained, one reference strain and one accession of A. nicotianae.

The

ARDRA although confirmed that all the seven isolates identified as Arthrobacter through
biochemical characterization are actually arthrobacters but hard to identify the isolates at
the species level since they had highly similar ARDRA profiles. To further confirm the
results, 16S rDNA sequences of two isolates (Rj2 and Rj5) belonging to the Arthrobacter
cluster and one isolate (Rj5) belonging to Brevibacterium cluster were sequenced. The
nucleotide sequences revealed that the three isolates belonged to A. globiformis (Rj2), A.
citreus (Rj51) and Brevibacterium sp. (Rj5). The results of our study provide insight into
lack of differences in the conserved gene sequences among the species of Arthrobacter
necessitates combination of methods for identification.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

G-51 Decomposition of Oil Cakes Improves Microbial Activities and Plant


Nutrient Status in Soil
Sudeshna Mondal and Amal Chandra Das
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science,
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur,
Nadia 741252, West Bengal.
Keywords : Decomposition, Microorganisms, Oil cake, Plant nutrients, Soil

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect
of decomposition of four oil cakes, viz. mahua, neem, mustard and groundnut @ 5.0 t ha1 on the activity of microorganisms and availability of organic carbon, nitrogen and
phosphorus in an alluvial soil. Incorporation of oil cakes highly induced the proliferations
of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi in soil. Mustard cake followed by groundnut cake
exerted maximum stimulation towards bacteria and actinomycete population, while neem
cake harboured highest number of fungi in soil. The ecomposition of oil cakes exerted
greater availability of plant nutrients. Non-edible oil cakes retained more amount of
organic carbon and higher C:N ratio, while edible oil cakes accumulated significantly
higher amount of available nitrogen and phosphorus in soil. Groundnut cake retained
highest amount of total nitrogen in soil.

G-52 Heterocycles in All Life Plant Feed Us - We Give Raw Materials


Sundaresan
RN Centre for Research & Development Lab
(Recognized by DSIR)
Keywords : Fertilizer, Heterocyclic, Runoff, Seepage, Biorhythm, Nutrients, Misnomer

ABSTRACT
Scientific reforms for fertilizer use, fertilizer saving from runoff, seepage, wastage,
are saving water bodies, preventing dead zones. Introducing heterocylces which are
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preferred by life. Herterocylces make the use of plant artificial growth regulators
redundant. Inorganics can be minimized. Let us march with advancement in agriculture
and horticulture to reduce expense and yield more. Let secondary photosynthesis given
priority then Heterocyclic compound is must. By illogical inputs let us not impair
biorhythm. Old order changes giving place to new. Posterity should be in safety. Now
water, air, food and health are going towards danger zone.

G-53 Stable Anthocyanin from Black Carrot: A Rich Source of


Nutraceuticals
Supradip Saha* and Aditi Kundu
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi - 110012,
*Corresponding Author Email: s_supradip@yahoo.com
Keywords : Nutraceuticals, Stable anthocyanin, Black carrot, Encapsulation

ABSTRACT
Natural pigments have gained commercial significance as food colorants due to its
very basic nature of natural origin. Acylated anthocyanins, which are known for their
outstanding stability, serve as a major source of natural food colours for the food industry.
Black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativits var. atrorubens. Ale) is one of the rich
sources of acylated anthocyanin. Anthocyanin was extracted with methanol and purified
by adsorbent resin before identification. Five cyanidin glycosides were identified and
quantified in the roots by LC-ESI-MS. Out of five anthocyanins, concentration of cyanidin
3-xylosyl glucosyl galactoside, cyanidin 3-xylosyl galactoside and cyanidin 3- sinapoyl
xylosyl glucosyl galactoside were in significant amount and other two, cyanidin 3- feruloyl
xylosyl glucosyl galactoside and cyanidin 3-p-coutnaroyl xylosyl glucosyl galactoside were
present in traces. Anthocyanin rich extract was encapsulated in maltodextrin for enhancing
its stability.
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

G-54 Studies on Microbial Population Density and Soil Respiration in


Cropland Soil and Middens of Earthworm Linnogaster pusillus, Stephenson
Suruchi Kumari* and M. P. Sinha
Ranchi University,
Ranchi - 834008, Jharkhand,
*Corresponding Author Email: suruchi.hte @gmail.com
Keywords : Linnogaster pusillus, Midden, CO2 Evolution, Microbial Activity

ABSTRACT
The present paper dealt with the relationship of the microbial population and the CO2
evolution in soil and midden of earthworm Linnogaster pusillus, Stephenson. A trend of
decrease in bacterial population and CO2 evolution was recorded up to 42 days of
observation in both the samples. The initial bacterial population (number/g soil) was found
to be 36.3 1.504 X109 and 51.11.350 X109 in soil and midden respectively and
thereafter a declining pattern was noticed. Maximum value of CO2 evolution (mg CO2/
kg soil/h) was 6.23 0.98 and 8.201.72 observed in soil and midden respectively. A
positive significant correlation was observed between the two in both soil and midden of
earthworms with r2=0.9524 (pd0.001) and 0.9856 (pd0.01) respectively. The CO2
release and bacterial population was comparatively higher in midden of earthworm than
in cropland soil.

G-55 Isolation and Characterization of Arsenic Tolerance and Transforming


Bacteria from Arsenic Polluted Rice Fields of West Bengal
T. Biswas* and S. C. Kole
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author Email: tapas.acss@gmail.com
Keywords : Arsenic, Bacteria, Tolerance, Bio-accumulation, Removal
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Section I : Agriculture and Forestry Sciences

ABSTRACT
Thirty arsenic tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from arsenic polluted rice field
from Haringhata Block of Nadia district, West Bengal. The growth pattern and arsenic
tolerance capacity of those isolates were studied by using different concentrations of the
two arsenic species, AsV (500 to 10,000 mg L-1) and AsIII (50 to 1,000 g L-1) at 48 hours
of incubation. Arsenic removal ability by the tolerant bacterial isolates, and that of cell bioaccumulation from arsenate and arsenite broth (50 mg L-1) were studied at different days
of incubation. The selected strains were identified by using 16S rDNA technique. All
bacterial isolates did not show same tolerability to arsenic toxicity. The isolates TB9, TB21,
TB23, TB24 and TB26 showed greater tolerance ability of both arsenate (AsV) and arsenite
(AsIII) and could grow up to 10,000 mg L-1 of AsV and 500 mg L-1 of AsIII in broth.
Arsenic removal ability and that of cell bio-accumulation by the isolates increased with the
increase in incubation period up to 21 days. The selected isolates could remove 5.7 - 10.5
ppm of arsenate (i.e. 11.4 - 21.0 %) and 5.0 9.1 ppm of arsenite (i.e. 10 18.2 %)
from 50 mg L-1 of arsenic enriched broth. The bio-accumulation of arsenic by the isolate
ranged from 4.7 8.8 ppm of arsenate (i.e. 9.4 17.6 %) and that of 4.3 7.6 ppm of
arsenite (i.e. 8.6 15.2 %). The three efficient arsenic removing and bio-accumulating
isolates, TB21, TB23 and TB26 were aerobic, non-spore forming rod shaped gram negative
bacteria and belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Molecular characterization of the strains
based on sequencing of 16 S rDNA and subsequent comparision with existing databases,
the isolates TB 21, TB23 and TB 26 were identified as Pseudomonas mendocina,
Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae respectively.

G-56 Stability of Biochar Carbon - Its Implication on Carbon Sequestration


and Microbial Activities in Soil
T. J. Purakayastha, Himanshu Pathak and Savita Kumari
Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi 110012.
*Corresponding Author Email: tpurakayastha@gmail.com
Keywords : Biochar, C minearalization, Microbial activities
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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

ABSTRACT
In recent years the importance of biochar application in soil has increased tremendously
due to its potential for long-term carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Biochar
was prepared from maize, pearl millet, rice and wheat residues in low cost pyrolysis kiln
at temperature between 350 to 400C. The biochar characterized for various chemical and
physical properties and their stability and role on microbial activities was studied in a
controlled incubation experiment over 15 weeks. The wheat and rice biochar exhibited
higher CEC than the other biochar materials, while the pHs of maize and pearl millet
biochar were higher over rice and wheat biochar. The maize biochar was highest in major,
secondary and micronutrient contents. Total carbon content (was highest in pearl millet
biochar (61%) followed by wheat biochar (52%) and rice biochar (49%) and maize
biochar had lowest carbon content (37%). The cumulative carbon mineralization was
found to be greater in soil treated with wheat biochar. The per cent carbon loss was
lowest in pearl millet biochar (2.49%) followed by maize biochar (2.56%), wheat biochar
(2.92%) and rice biochar (4.49%). Maize biochar having higher nutrient values and carbon
stability could be advocated for enhancing soil fertility and long-term carbon sequestration.

G-57 Effect of Sewage Sludge Application on Yield of Palak, Available


Nutrients and Biological Properties of Soil
Trisha Roy* and D. R. Biswas
IARI, New Delhi.
*Corresponding Author Email: trisha17.24@gmail.com
Keywords : Sewage sludge, Microbial biomass Carbon, Soil enzymes, Available nutrients

ABSTRACT
Changes in soil microbial properties and available macronutrients due to sludge
application obtained from three wastewater treatment plants in Delhi (Okhla, Keshopur
and Papankallan) was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Palak (Spinacia oleracea)
was grown as the test crop with eight different treatments. The yield of Palak and
organic C as well as available N, P and K status of soil improved significantly due to
sludge amendment. Microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activities improved due to
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sludge application but slight decline was obtained due to higher dose of sludge application.
The Papankallan sludge performed best among three sources with respect to yield
increase of Palak.

G-58 Fertility Status of the Soils of District Jhabua


V. K. Singh, I. S. Tomar, R K Tripathi, M Singh and R K Yadav
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, R. V. S. K. V. V.,
Jhabua Madhay Pradesh. India.
*Corresponding Author Email: vinaysoil@yahoo.com
Keywords : Jhabua, Fertility status

ABSTRACT
Fertility survey of soil under soybean wheat cropping system of six development
blocks of district Jhabua (namely Jhabua, Thadala, Meghnagar, Ranapur and Petalabad)
was conducted in 2011 to generate information about there nutrient status. The soils of
the study area develop in sandy loam. Soil sample were collected before soybean sowing
and again after harvesting of soybean from 0-30 cm depth. Processed sample were
analyzed for pH, EC, CaCO3 available N, P, K, and S. The pH of soils ranged from 6.18.5 with a mean value of 7.3, ec range from 0.002-0.38 dsm-1 with a mean value of 0.13
dsm-1, organic carbon range from 2.3-5.1 g/kg with a mean value of 3 gm/kg and CaCO3
range from 4-10 percent with a mean value of 7 percent. The entire sample had low
organic carbon status. The available N, P, K and S content of the soil varied from 90250 kg/ha, 9-15 kg/ha, 150-500 kg/ha and 7-14 ppm. Almost all the samples were low in
available n wears 96 percent low to medium in available P. The available K status of the
soil was also high. About 80 percent of the sample were low and rest is medium in
available S. Crops grown on these soils are likely to suffer largely from deficiency of N
and S correlation coefficient between available major nutrient and soil properties showed
that organic carbon was positively correlated with available N. Whereas pH was
significantly and positively correlated with K. Balanced use of this nutrient was essential
for realizing the full potential of the crops and also to obtain maximum profit from the use
of costly inputs.

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Proc. 100th Indian Science Congress, Part II : Abstracts of Oral/Poster Presentations

G-59 Influenced of Organic Chemical and Integrated Nutrient Management


Practices on Biochemical Parameters in Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera
L. Dunal)
Vimal Patidar*, S. K. Dwivedi, A. Upadhyay, Preeti Sagar Nayak*, R. K. Samaiya and S. Rao
College of Agriculture,
Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidalaya (JNKVV),
Jabalpur (M.P.) India.
*Corresponding Author Email: preetisagarnayak@rediffmail.com
Keywords : Withania somnifera, Ashwagandha, Withanolides

ABSTRACT
Ashwagandha has been identified as a potential cash crop for greening the dry land
zone and making the wasteland productive. It is an important drug dry root contains
various withanoloides, which is used for hiccup, female disorders, cough, rheumatism,
dropsy, anti-inflammatory and neuro tonic. With the growth of ayurvedic industry, there
is great demand for the raw material of medicinal plants. Keeping this in view, an
experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of organic chemical and integrated
nutrient management practices on biochemical changes in Ashwagandha. The result
revealed that T12 (50% NPK per ha + 5 tonnes per ha FYM + 3kg per ha PSB + 3kg
per ha Azotobacter + 5kg per ha Zn) and T7 (10 tonnes per ha FYM + 3kg per ha PSB
+ 3kg per ha Azotobacter + 5kg per ha Zn) significantly improved the various nutrient
viz: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, protein, oil, fibre, moisture, leaf chlorophyll contents,
carotenoids, quality parameters including withaferin A, withanolide A and withanolide B.
The optimal requirements for various treatments determined in present studies for roots
of Ashwagandha, would be very helpful to enhance the economic conditions of farmers
and subsequently pharmaceutical industry for getting quality plant products to be used in
manufacturing of potential drugs to eradicate diseases and increase vitality.

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G-60 Soil Science for Shaping the Future of Agriculture in India


B. P. Bhaskar, D. Sarkar, S. N. Goswami and Tapas Bhattacharyya
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, ICAR,
Amravati road, Nagpur-440033.
*Corresponding Author Email: bhaskaraphaneendra@gmail.com
Keywords : Soils, Natural bodies, Degradation, Urbanization, Agriculture, Civilizations, Soil
Literacy

ABSTRACT
Science is a social practise of the community of scientists by which knowledge is
gained and passed on to generations over a period of time for the benefit of human
society. The human societies in early civilizations, considered soils as part of nature but
did not conduct experiments to test their theories. Historical records proved that the selfdestructive interactions between humans and soils led to extinction of societies (e.g. the
mayan civilization of gautemala), whereas flourished societies have symbiotic relationship
based on mutual enhancement, nurturing soils and restoring degraded ecosystems. A
systematic use of soils by humans began with practice of agriculture and later with
development of genetic soil science by Vasilii V. Dokuchaev in 19th century. This had
profound impact on how soils were studied, classified and perceived by the societies.
Realising soils as geomembrane, pool of flora and fauna, uncharismatic foundation of
human life and a reactor of numerous biophysical and chemical transformations, the
outlook changed and new visions cropped up with new wave of thoughts to address future
socio-environmental issues considering realities hidden in soils. In 20th century, the soil
knowledge crossed over the agricultural roots and became an integral part of land use
evaluations. A point of journey began with a digging of soil bodies on its natural terrain
and mapped over the space with a possible observable discontinuities between landscape
units. Explorations in future must continue with the bundle of theories and accepting the
self defeating views in adoption and innovation of agro technologies by farmers on the
ground. The modern civilisations characterized by large populations, numerous demands
and aspirations cannot survive without realizing the functions of soils and their ecosystem
services in fulfilling their future demands. An attempt is made to explore the pressing
present and future environmental soil challenges for agricultural use.
291