Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2

Engineering Standards

Standard

4906
Page

1 of 2
GUIDELINE FOR SPECIFICATION OF
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF LINE PIPE

Issue Date

Rev. No.
Date

1.

10/87
1
06/91

SCOPE
This standard provides guidelines for the specification of supplemental fracture toughness testing of line pipe, if
required, including the determination of the test parameters and acceptance criteria to be specified in Engineering
Standard 4905, Standard for Purchase of Line Pipe.

2.

CODES AND STANDARDS


American Petroleum Institute (API), Spec. 5L and RP 5L3
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), A370

3.

GENERAL
3.1

It is desirable that the fracture toughness of line pipe be of a level sufficient to resist or arrest the
propagation of a ductile fracture of the pipe. The fracture toughness level may be specified in terms of
percent shear area and/or ft-lbs of absorbed energy as determined by Charpy impact tests or in percent
shear area for drop-weight-tear tests. Charpy impact testing is the more commonly used method of
determining fracture toughness of pipe and absorbed energy should be used as the acceptance criteria
while percent shear area should be reported for informational purposes only to assure ductile behavior.

3.2

Supplemental fracture toughness testing should be specified for the purchase of pipe in cases in which all
of the following conditions are met.

3.2.1

Pipe grade is X-42 or higher,

3.2.2

Pipe diameter is 10-3/4 inches or greater,

3.2.3

The minimum design temperature of the pipe is not significantly above typical cross-country
pipeline operating temperature.

3.2.4

The pipe to be purchased is of sufficient quantity (150 tons or greater) to make supplemental
fracture toughness requirements practical and the installed location and length will be such
that the risk of propagation of a ductile fracture in the pipeline is unacceptable.

4.

TEST REQUIREMENTS

4.1

Charpy V-Notch Impact Test (SR5)


When specified on the specification sheet in the standard for purchase, the pipe manufacturer is to
perform Charpy impact tests in accordance with API 5L, SR5. The following test requirements should
also be specified on the specification sheet.

4.1.1

The specimens should be tested at 32F.

4.1.2

The average shear value of the fracture appearance of the three (3) specimens per SR5A
should not be less than 60% and the all-heat average for each order per diameter, size and
grade should not be less than 80%.

* Indicates revised paragraph, this Rev. No.

Engineering Standards

Standard

4906
Page

2 of 2
GUIDELINE FOR SPECIFICATION OF
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF LINE PIPE

Issue Date

Rev. No.
Date

4.1.3

10/87
1
06/91

Minimum acceptance criteria for absorbed energy should be 26 foot-pounds or the energy
calculated from the formula below, whichever is greater.
CVN = 0.0108 (DF x SMYS)2 (_D/2 x t)1/3,
where

CVN =
DF
=
SMYS =
D
t

=
=

full-size Charpy V-notch absorbed energy (ft-lbs),


design factor (fraction of SMYS),
specified minimum yield strength (thousands of pounds per square
inch - ksi),
pipe outside diameter (inches),
pipe wall thickness (inches).

4.1.4

When multiple heats or lots are involved, the minimum average of three samples from any
one heat or lot (heat minimum) should be no less than 80% of the minimum all-heat
average (CVN) determined above.

4.1.5

The largest Charpy sample size (full-size, 2/3 or 1/2) obtainable from the pipe wall shall
be used. When it is not possible to obtain full size samples, the CVN required will be that
calculated above multiplied by the Charpy size fraction.

4.2

Drop-Weight-Tear Test (SR6)

When specified on the specification sheet in the standard for purchase, the pipe manufacturer is to
conduct drop-weight-tear tests in accordance with API 5L, SR6, to determine fracture toughness. A heat
minimum shear area of 50% and an all heat minimum average shear area of 75% should also be
specified on the specification sheet.

* Indicates revised paragraph, this Rev. No.