37 vues

Transféré par zacharyfoster90

ae6070 word

- Mil Std 1333b(Aircrew Station Geometry)
- An Itroductory Guide for Operating RC Helicopters
- 3.4 Power & Efficiency
- DIAGRAMA DE CONEXIÓN - CATAMARAN OUKIVA.pdf
- 124464300 Leishman Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics
- DN02-S09011-E-XK-3510-00
- AE6070Final Zachary Foster
- 7 References
- PowerFactorFAQ.pdf
- VKS Cable Schedule Bay-01 (Update)
- WCE2008_pp1542-1547.pdsdff
- ELEC28
- Bell 206B - Flight Manual
- Wind Turbine Efficiency Experiment
- Khrystal
- Price List Chint SEP 2018 Issue
- Structural Composite Elements
- 327 Kazan Ansat Fire Attack System
- tcc-number-115-1-5-2
- Rating Guide

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

Select one helicopter max per category, for a maximum of three vehicles, from the

following five categories:

a) Eurocopter products http://www.eurocopter.com/site/en/ref/Overview_56.html

EC120B

b) Augusta-Westland http://www.agustawestland.com/

c) US Civil Products from Bell, Boeing, Sikorsky

Bell 407

d) US Military Product from Bell, Boeing, Sikorsky

Sikorsky Blackhawk UH-60A

e) Helicopter from the far East (India, China, Korea, Japan,)

1. For the 3 vehicles selected, find out as much as you can from the web and

publications (See my web site for representative papers on Apache, Blackhawk,

etc.). In particular, find out Maximum power, Maximum continuous power,

specific fuel consumption, equivalent flat plate area f, Lock number, etc. If the

exact values are not available, choose a representative range of values for use in

problem #2. Justify your selection.

If any values were not found, they were estimated. The justification is explained in the

next sections for each estimate.

2. For these three vehicles, find

a) Absolute ceiling in hover

In order to find the absolute hover ceiling, first assume an altitude h. Then

0.00198h

1

288.16

4.2553

compute the density using the variation of density formula: sea level

. Next look up the main rotor area. Then find the induced velocity v using the

formula [T/(2A)]1/2, where the thrust is equal to the vehicles gross weight in lbf.

Normally thrust is equal to the vehicles weight plus the download, but in this

case the download is neglected. Next find the main rotor power required by using

the following formula: P=kTv+AR)3*Cd0/8. Divide the Power Required for

the main rotor by the angular velocity in order to find the main rotor torque.

Then divide this torque by the distance between the main rotor and tail rotor shaft

in order to find tail rotor thrust. Then find the induced velocity v at the tail using

the formula [T/(2Atail)]1/2. To find the tail rotor power required, use the following

formula: P=kTtailv+AtailRtail)3*tailCd0/8. Add the required main rotor and tail

rotor power to obtain the total power required. Divide this quantity by 550 to

convert into horsepower. Next, find the total available power at sea level by using

engine charts. The maximum power available at sea level was found by using the

maximum power of the engine and then multiplying by a factor of 0.9 to take into

account 10% power losses. Then use the following formula to find total available

P

power at the selected altitude: Psealevel sealevel . Finally, in order to find the

absolute ceiling in hover, increase or decrease the altitude until the required power

is equal to the available power.

b) Service ceiling in hover

The service ceiling is reached when there is just enough power left to climb at 100

ft/min. In order to calculate the service ceiling, use the following formula: Pavailable

(lbf*ft/s) = Prequired (lbf*ft/s) + Weight (lbf) * Rate of Climb (ft/s). The values for

Weight of the helicopter as well as the desired Rate of Climb are known. Next,

rearrange the formula so that Rate of Climb (ft/s) = [Pavailable (lbf*ft/s) - Prequired

(lbf*ft/s)] / Weight (lbf). Remember to convert ft/s to ft/min and then solve for the

altitude that gives a Rate of Climb of 100 ft/min.

c) Maximum forward speed from power considerations

In order to calculate maximum forward speed at an altitude, first choose the

altitude and then assume a forward velocity, V. Use this speed to calculate , the

advance ratio. Then calculate alpha using the following formula: TPP =

arctan(.5**V2*f/W).

The above figure was used in order to estimate each helicopters equivalent flat

plate area f. For the UH-60A Blackhawk, the Utility helicopter curve was used.

The UH-60As empty gross weight of 11,218 lbs. gives it an equivalent flat plate

area of approximately 26.2 ft2 on the Utility helicopters curve. This is around the

estimate used in Yeos Performance Analysis of a Utility Helicopter with

Standard and Advanced Rotors.

For the EC120B, its empty gross weight of 2,185 lbs. gives it an equivalent flat

plate area f of 4 ft2 on the Clean helicopters curve. For the Bell 407, its empty

gross weight of 2,598 lbs. puts it in the vicinity of the equivalent flat plate area of

the OH-6A Cayuse, which is 5 ft2. However, like the Bell 222, the Bell 407 is a

much more streamlined vehicle than a military observation/scout helicopter. For

this reason, the equivalent flat plate area for the Bell 407 was estimated to be 3.8

ft2.

Then calculate CT by using the formula CT = GW/(cos(TPP)*TPP (R^3)), since

CT = CW/cos(TPP). Next, to solve for inflow ratio, first assume an initial guess

and then iterate using equation 2.126 from Principles of Helicopter

Aerodynamics, which is show below:

Plug in the assumed initial guess into the formula to get the next guess. Iterate this

process until the n-1 guess is equal to the n guess.

Now enter this value of into the equation CP= P=kCT+ Cd0/8)(1+4.62) + .

5(f/A) 3. The 4.6 is an empirical correction factor that is used because not enough

is known about the blade characteristics, and blade element theory cannot be used.

Once CP is found, Prequired of the main rotor can be solved using the following

formula: P=CP*AR)3. Find P required for the tail in the same manner as when

calculating the P required for the tail in the hover settings. Add the required power

for the rotor and tail to find the total power required. When the total power

required is equal to the power available at the given altitude, the maximum

forward speed is found. The forward velocity that equates the Power required with

the Power available is the maximum forward velocity at that altitude.

d) Range and endurance for a typical operating condition (choose gross weight,

payload, fuel for an advertised operating condition).

To approximate range, the following equation was used:

weight of the helicopter as the fuel is burned. However, a conservative estimate is

sometimes beneficial in that he may have slightly more range than estimated.

When looking at a chart of fuel flow vs. airspeed, the airspeed that gives the

maximum range can be determined by finding the point that is tangent to the line

coming from the intersection of the vertical and horizontal axes.

Graphical Determination of

Maximum Specific Range for a

given GW

Fuel Flow

Rate lb/hr

Best SR=1/slope

Best speed for maximum specific range

Relative Forward Speed including head or tail wind, knots

In order to find endurance, the range was divided by the forward velocity of the

helicopter.

The below graph also shows how to visually find the speed which gives the

longest loiter.

Power

HP

Power loiter

Best speed for Loiter

Forward Speed

b times I, where b is the number of blades, and I is the blade moment of inertia).

AI

J 2 A

GW 0 T ,

where J = Moment of Inertia = JMain + JTail tail/main) + Jtransmission. The mass

moment of inertia of each rotor blade (a stick about an end) is calculated using the

formula I = (1/3)mbladeLblade2. Mass has to be converted from lbs. to slugs.

The mass of each blade is calculated using information from the table above.

Table III. from Nixons Preliminary Structure Design of Composite Main Rotor

Blades for Minimum Weight paper gives the weight of the UH-60As blade. This

value was then scaled in order to approximate the weight of the UH-60As tail

blades as well as the blades of the EC120B and the Bell 407. The equation used

was Total Blade Weight main rotor = (#blades * weight of Blackhawk blade (in

slugs) * blade length * chord length)/(Blackhawk blade length * Blackhawk chord

length).

The equation used for the tail rotor total mass was Total Blade Weight tail rotor =

(#blades tail * (Total Blade Weight main rotor (in slugs)/(#blades main)) * blade

length tail * chord length tail)/(blade length main * chord length main). These

scaling equations assume that all the helicopters blades are made of the same

Titanium material that the Blackhawks blades are composed of. The scaling

equation also assumes the thickness of the blades are equivalent. Once the mass

moment of inertia is found for the rotor and the tail, plug J into

AI

J 2 A

GW 0 T .

Three different situations were analyzed. The first on was where Jtransmission = 10%

of JMain. The second was where Jtransmission = 5% of JMain. The third situation was

where Jtransmission = 0.

For safe autorotative landing, the autorotative index must be higher than 60 for

single engine helicopters, and higher than 25 for twin-engine helicopters

(assuming only one engine is likely to fail).

3. Compare your results with advertised values.

For the Bell 407 at 5,000 lbs., the absolute hover ceiling was calculated to equal 6,467.45

ft. and the service hover ceiling to equal 5,684.71 ft.

These values are similar to the advertised values obtained below. The Out of Ground

Effect Hover Ceiling with a Takeoff Gross Weight is 5,750 ft. at International Standard

Day conditions at 20 degrees Celsius. This value is slightly higher than the calculated

value of 5,684.71 ft. Possible discrepancies can be attributed to the fact that for Power

available, it was estimated that there was a 10% power loss. In addition, Cd was estimated

as 0.007 for the Bell 407. This value was chosen because the Bell 407 is a clean,

streamlined helicopter and the Blackhawk is a less streamlined utility helicopter, whose

Cd is equal to approximately 0.008.

The calculated value for maximum forward velocity at an altitude of 4,000 ft. is 123.73

knots true airspeed, which is remarkably close to the advertised value of 126 ktas in the

same conditions.

For the Bell 407 at 5000 lb. weight, the maximum range was calculated to be

approximately 350 nautical miles, with an average true airspeed of 103.68 knots. This is

slightly less than the advertised value of 364 nautical miles with an average true airspeed

of 120. However, my calculated value is also at the point that would be tangent to the line

drawn from the intersection of the axes.

The above calculations for Autorotative Index show that if the moment of inertia of the

transmission is at least approximately 5% of that of the main rotor blade total, then the

autorotative index will be 60 and above, which is the safe advertised value for singleengine helicopters. Possibilities of uncertainty include not knowing the mass moment of

inertia of the transmission and using estimates. Other possibilities of uncertainty are not

knowing the density and thickness of the blades and relying on a scaling model.

For the Eurocopter 120B, the below table shows the advertised values of the hover

ceiling, fuel consumption, max speed, and endurance.

For the EC120B at 3,781 lbs., the absolute hover ceiling was calculated to equal 7256.93

ft., which is close to the advertised value of hover ceiling in standard atmospheric

conditions of 7,600 ft. The service ceiling in hover is calculated to equal 6,507 ft. The

advertised value of hover ceiling in standard atmospheric conditions plus 20 degrees

Celsius is 1,700 ft. Both the calculated values for absolute and service ceiling in hover

are inside this range.

Discrepancies between the calculated and advertised values can be attributed to Cd being

estimated as 0.007 for the EC120B. This value was chosen because the EC120B is a

clean, streamlined helicopter and the Blackhawk is a less streamlined utility helicopter,

whose Cd is equal to approximately 0.008. In addition, the dimension of tail rotor chord

was estimated as 2.5 inches because an exact dimension could not be found. This chord

dimension was estimated by scaling the tail rotor chord of the Bell 407 down since it has

a smaller rotor length. In addition, the chord was scaled down even more due to the

EC120Bs Fenestron tail design. Furthermore, the length from the main rotor hub to the

tail rotor hub was estimated because an exact dimension could not be found.

The calculated value for maximum forward airspeed is 107.13 ktas, which is almost

exactly the same as the airspeed obtained from the chart below.

For the EC120B, two different rates of fuel consumption are given. One is for the fast

cruise speed of 120 knots, and the other is for the recommended cruise speed. Since our

maximum speed is under the recommended cruise speed, the value for fuel consumption

per hour used is the one found in the above graph for the recommended cruise speed,

approximately 185 lb/hr.

It gives a maximum range of 415.76 nautical miles, which is greater than the advertised

range of 383. However, when the fuel consumption in lb/hr is changed to the advertised

value of 213 for the recommended cruise speed, the range decreases to 361.11 nautical

miles.

If there was a graph with the fuel consumptions vs. velocity at more than 2 data points

(which are both above the maximum speed calculated), then a more accurate estimate of

range could be given. On a side note, if the two different range calculations are averaged,

the maximum range would be around 388 nautical miles, which is very close to the

advertised value of 383.

The maximum endurance at loiter calculated is 3.88 hours, which is close to the

advertised endurance of 4.19 hours. However, like the range, the accuracy of this

calculation could be greatly increased with more data regarding fuel consumption per

hour.

The above calculations for Autorotative Index show that the autorotative is under 60,

which is minimum safe advertised value for single-engine helicopters. Possibilities of

uncertainty include not knowing the mass moment of inertia of the transmission and

using estimates. Other possibilities of uncertainty are not knowing the density and

thickness of the blades and relying on a scaling model. The thickness of the Fenestron tail

blades is thinner than that of the other helicopter tail blades. This however, would just

decrease the Autorotative index. The two main causes of Autorotative index being lower

than 60 can most likely be attributed to under-predicting the Inertia of the transmission

and perhaps over downscaling the mass of the rotors.

For the UH-60A Blackhawk weighing at mission takeoff weight of 16,994 lbs., the

calculated absolute hover ceiling is 14,818.9 ft. and the calculated service hover ceiling is

14,293.36 ft.

The below graph gives a hover ceiling of around 14,500 ft. for when the helicopter

weighs around 16,994 lbs. and is operating at maximum torque% or maximum power.

This value is very close to the calculated maximum hover absolute and service ceilings.

Discrepancies could result from the estimate used to choose power loss. For the most

part, these estimates are very close. The exact hover ceiling depends on the temperature,

because that effects the air density.

The calculated maximum forward velocity at 12,000 ft. altitude is 117 knots. At 12,000 ft.

the temperature is supposed to be -9 or approximately -10 degrees Celsius. Using the

following graph, it is found that the advertised value of should be around 150 knots.

However, when using the graph for 0 degrees Celsius instead of -10 degrees Celsius, the

maximum forward velocity drops to 115 knots, which is remarkably close to the value

calculated.

The maximum range calculated is 192.28 nautical miles, when the Blackhawk is traveling

at an average speed of 103 knots. This is without extra external fuel tanks or internal fuel

tanks. However, the advertised value for maximum range calls for a average airspeed of

120 knots. The maximum calculated endurance is around 2.5 hrs. This loiter time is

achieved with the velocity around 60 knots. However, in the advertised value above, it

recommends a loiter speed of 80 knots. In all the calculations as well as advertised

values, 60 knots seems to be the most efficient speed for loiter as the power consumption

is the lowest at this forward velocity.

For the range calculations, the graph below was used to find the fuel consumption in

lb/hr.

Autorotative index is above 25 in each scenario below, from Transmission inertia = 10%

to 5% to 0% of the main rotor inertia. In addition, this autorotative index is calculated at

12,000 ft. altitude. If the altitude decreases, the autororative index will increase until it

reaches a value between 36-40. Since the Blackhawk has 2 engines, if one fails, the other

can still supply enough power for it to continue flying.

Reference Material

1. PowerPoint Part3

2. http://www.bellhelicopter.com/MungoBlobs/134/463/407_ProductSpec_201302Web.pdf

3. Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics

4. Data and performances of selected aircraft

5. http://www.heliandco.be/uploads/common/ec120.pdf

6. http://cnmv.ploiesti.roedu.net/~radu/stuff/ec120.pdf

7. http://www.airbushelicopters.com/site/en/ref/Characteristics_57.html

8. http://asp.wn.com/feedback/bell-407.html

9. TM-1-1520-237-10 Technical Manual Operators Manual for UH-60A

10. http://wikileaks.org/syria-files/docs/1047227_uh-60-black-hawk-helicopter-s-70iblack-hawk-helicopter-mh.html

11. http://www.geaviation.com/engines/docs/military/datasheet-T700-401C-701C.pdf

12. http://halfdome.arc.nasa.gov/tutorial/Reports/Howlett%20CR166309.pdf

13. https://vtol.org/

14. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/uh-60a-specs.htm

15. http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/uh-60.htm

16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikorsky_UH-60_Black_Hawk

17. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19840023041.pdf

18. http://axenty.com/blog/tips/rules-of-thumb/

19.

- Mil Std 1333b(Aircrew Station Geometry)Transféré parlgq584520
- An Itroductory Guide for Operating RC HelicoptersTransféré parbont3ks
- 3.4 Power & EfficiencyTransféré parCurtis Collins
- DIAGRAMA DE CONEXIÓN - CATAMARAN OUKIVA.pdfTransféré parMartín Andrés García
- 124464300 Leishman Principles of Helicopter AerodynamicsTransféré parMartino Ermacora
- DN02-S09011-E-XK-3510-00Transféré parayemyothant
- AE6070Final Zachary FosterTransféré parzacharyfoster90
- 7 ReferencesTransféré parKaio Dos Santos Silva
- PowerFactorFAQ.pdfTransféré parAnonymous NxpnI6jC
- VKS Cable Schedule Bay-01 (Update)Transféré parTien Dat Tran
- WCE2008_pp1542-1547.pdsdffTransféré parPeter Lo
- ELEC28Transféré parVijay Polisetty
- Bell 206B - Flight ManualTransféré parTom Manuels
- Wind Turbine Efficiency ExperimentTransféré parcwahrenburg
- KhrystalTransféré parEuropez Alaskha
- Price List Chint SEP 2018 IssueTransféré partoots guiao
- Structural Composite ElementsTransféré parromixrayzen
- 327 Kazan Ansat Fire Attack SystemTransféré partuan dao
- tcc-number-115-1-5-2Transféré parJose Ramos
- Rating GuideTransféré parTharanga Lakmal
- Perry Rhodan 024 The Venus Trap.rtfTransféré parHeavycavalry
- KG934V1 1-6 KirloskarTransféré parNiten Gupta
- QBR FebruaryTransféré parDaniel Ghersi
- Torque.docxTransféré parAlfredoKytou
- pgk lorTransféré parRohit Kapoor
- debate topic linksTransféré parapi-403389773
- Progress-Energy-Carolinas-Inc-*-Curtailable-Load-Rider-(No.58)Transféré parGenability
- Supervisor Jacob's remarks to the CPUCTransféré parSteve Schmidt
- EDOC_006509Transféré parfaberromero
- Etude Impact ReseauTransféré parDomingo Ben

- jeti-mezon-1208sTransféré parPreston Heller
- Emergency ProceduresTransféré pareagleguard30
- V for ValorTransféré pardjjr7744
- AS350B3 - Flight ManualTransféré parTom Manuels
- SFAR 73 to Part 61Transféré parEnis Mabrouk
- Development of the Autogiro. a Technical PerspectiveTransféré parvictor
- DCS UH-1H Flight Manual EN_minTransféré parferisanse20054368
- SHT OM 014 AS350B2 EmergenciesTransféré paremdcad3790
- Helicopter Preliminary DesignTransféré parNausheen Basha
- AE6070Final Zachary FosterTransféré parzacharyfoster90
- GyrosTransféré parOana Bordei
- lec9.pdfTransféré parTesh Si
- Applied Aerodynamics Student HandoutTransféré parJyothi Sudarshan
- Helicopter AerodynamicsTransféré partbrackman99
- gyrotermsTransféré parGembia Lenkova
- ep11_Transféré parfitness255
- Basic Aviation Safety 2013Transféré parJannys Kharisma Asyam Nashrullah
- FM-AS350B3.241201933.pdfTransféré parJulio Alexi
- AE6070Final Zachary FosterTransféré parzacharyfoster90
- gk HV curveTransféré pargk
- X-Plane Installer Log.txtTransféré parApfelbaumfresser
- Rotation Rc HeliTransféré parchilledkarthik
- Mi-171A1 RFM Part-ITransféré parskauffmann
- Seminar ReportTransféré parbhushan
- Bailey Rotor modelTransféré parpurn prakash
- Hughes 369 Pilots ManualTransféré parJames Duncan
- Rotorcraft TechnologyTransféré parLuiz Eduardo De Alencar Bion
- 1flight ControlTransféré parNaveen Bhatia
- hfh_ch05Transféré parSofianeMendoud
- Aerodynamics Recent DevelopementsTransféré parvishal kumar sinha