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1.1 Infection Control

1.2 Source of Infection
1.3 Transmission
1.4 Sources of Infection
1.5 Transmission of Infection
1.6 Hand Care
1.7 Practice Guidance
1.8 Status of Host
2.1 How to Identify Difficult/Challenging Situation
2.2 Planned Responses to Difficult/Challenging Behavior
2.3 Strategies in Dealing with Difficult Behaviours
2.4 How to Assess Incidents
2.5 Debriefing Mechanism of Staff Involved in Incidents
3.1 First Aid Management
3.2 Physical Hazard
3.3 Casualtys Conditon
3.4 Equipment and Resources
3.5 Vital Signs
3.6 First Aid Principle
3.7 First Aid
3.8 Monitoring and Recording
3.9 How to request medical assistance

Reporting Complete Information Details of Incident


4.1 Definition and Characteristics of the Patient
4.2 Health Care Provider
4.3 Communication and Modes of Communication
4.4 Establishing Rapport and Good Interpersonal Relationship with Patients
4.5 Respect thee differences of Patients
4.6 Responsibilities and Right of a Patient


5.1 Cleaning and Cleaning Agents Definition
5.2 Tools and Equipment Needed
5.3 Legal Requirements and and Regulation Regarding Supervision
5.4 Proper Waste Management
5.5 Safety Storage of Cleaning Materials and Equipment
5.6 Area Inspection for Hazards
5.7 Consideration when Dealing and Caring for Children
5.8 Kinds of Contact to Formulate Observation in Caring for Children
5.9 Potential Risk to Consider in Dealing with Children
5.10 Rules to Observe to make the Children Environment Safe for Play
5.11 Providing a Safe Environment and Risk Reduction Strategies in Taking
Care of children
5.12 Age Appropriate tools, equipment, toys, and games for children
5.13 Hazards in Caring for Children
5.14 Identifying Emergency Fire Exit
5.15 Risk Reduction Strategies in Caring for Children


6.1 Safety Precautions in Using Chemicals and Tools in Cleaning
6.2 Method of Identifying and Removing Stains, Mud, Paint and Grease
6.3 Types/Uses/Functions of Cleaning Equipment/Supplies and Materials
6.4 Cleaning Products
6.5 Proper Storage of Cleaning Equipment


The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and

parasites that are not normally present within the body. An infection may cause no
symptoms and be subclinical, or it may cause symptoms and be clinically

Infection Control

The purpose of this document is to provide practical guidance on procedures to

help minimize the risk of infection amongst staff and service users by ensuring
good standards of basic hygiene, universal infection control procedures, and by
providing staff with appropriate training and equipment.

Source of infection

can be eliminated by decontamination techniques using heat (boiling water,

autoclave, etc) or chemicals (detergent, disinfectants, etc);


routes can be blocked by hygiene procedures and/or isolating infected individuals;

Sources of Infection

Biological agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites cause infection.
The natural environment contains enormous numbers of these micro-organisms,
most of which are harmless and in some cases are beneficial.

The main sources of infectious (pathogenic) agents include:

blood and other body fluids such as saliva

human or animal waste products such as feces, urine and vomit
respiratory discharges such as coughs and sneezes
skin contact with contaminated surfaces
contaminated food or water.

Transmission of Infection
To cause infection the infectious agent must enter a host by some route.
The most common routes are:

Ingestion for example, eating/drinking contaminated food/water or from

dirty hands
Inhalation - for example, breathing in air contaminated by coughs,

sneezes, dust, spray

Broken skin - for example, cuts, abrasions, eczema, puncture wounds
caused by needles

Permeable membranes - for example, in the eye, nose, mouth can let fluids

Hand Care
Hand washing is the single most important procedure for the prevention of cross infection
and forms the basis of all universal precautions.

Mandatory Procedures

Any cuts or abrasions must be covered by an impervious waterproof dressing

whilst at work.
Staff who develop skin conditions resulting in cracked skin or open sores must
seek medical treatment as soon as possible and take advice as to whether they are

fit to continue undertaking the type of work they are required to do.
Staff should be aware that a skin irritation could be an allergic reaction to
supplied protective gloves or the powder within them, or to a particular brand of
gloves, and should seek advice from the Occupational Health Unit. It should be
noted that managers have a responsibility to provide a range of gloves as an
alternative e.g. vinyl gloves. LATEX GLOVES SHOULD NOT BE PROVIDED
due to its high prevalence of skin irritation and is not recommended for use by the

Health and Safety Executive.

Appropriate protective gloves must be worn when handling household chemicals
or body products
Hands should be washed:

On arrival and leaving a job task or work place

After using the toilet, coughing, blowing nose
After handling potentially contaminated articles Before and after meal breaks
Before and after preparing or assisting with food
When hands are visibly dirty
After removing gloves. N.B. Wearing protective gloves is not an alternative to
hand washing.

Hands should be dried thoroughly on paper towels. The use of cotton towels are
not recommended due to the risk of cross-contamination. Wet hands transfer
microorganisms more effectively than dry ones and organisms can be removed by
friction from the paper towel.

Practice Guidance

Proper hand washing involves the use of hot water with soap or liquid soap on
hands that are already wet. Particular attention should be paid to the thumbs, the
tips of fingers and the skin and webs between the fingers. See hand-washing
diagrams in Annex A for the recommended technique. For routine hand washing,

soap and hot water is sufficient.

Alternatively, apply an alcohol based hand rub or antiseptic gel if soap and water

is not available.
Nail varnish, false nails and jewelry should be avoided and where possible should

be removed when washing your hands.

Staff routinely performing personal care tasks should keep their nails cut short.
Short sleeves or long sleeves (which can be rolled up) should be worn as long
sleeves deter thorough hand decontamination. Infectious Conditions Mandatory

Staff who believe they are infectious must seek advice specific to the type of
work they do from their GP or Occupational Health Unit before undertaking any
duties involving direct contact with a person or animal. Staff should consult their

line managers about any difficulties.

Staff working with a known person or animal with a particular infectious
condition must seek advice from a relevant health care professional about any
additional precautions needed. A risk assessment should be completed by a
competent person where the risks are recognized and the precautions to be taken

are noted. Practice Guidance

Staff with psoriasis, eczema or other exfoliating skin conditions should take extra
precaution when undertaking personal care tasks and wear personal protective

equipment (PPE) to ensure exposed areas are covered up, as appropriate.

Baths/showers used by people other than the person with an infectious condition
must be thoroughly cleaned after use with a neutral general-purpose detergent.

A disposable apron must be worn in circumstances when the organism could

transfer on to clothing and be carried to another person.

After each contact with an infectious source, hands must be carefully cleaned
according to the hand washing protocol and any PPE should be disposed of and

changed between clients, that is, aprons/gloves.

Some diseases are notifiable. Under the Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act
1984 and Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1988, doctors in
Scotland have a statutory duty to notify the Consultant in Public Health Medicine
at the local Health Board if they are aware that, or have cause to suspect that, a
patient is suffering from one of the notifiable diseases.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Uniforms where provided should be worn at all
times and PPE should be used in addition to normal work clothing. PPE is not a substitute
for safe systems of work but is complimentary to it. Practice Guidance
Gloves must be worn at all times as they provide a reliable method for reducing the
acquisition of micro-organisms. They are single use items and when removed, should be
disposed of as clinical waste. Gloves should be changed between tasks or different
working activities. The wearing of gloves does not remove the need for hand washing as
the integrity of gloves cannot be taken for granted and hands may also become
contaminated during their removal.
Disposable plastic aprons should be worn where there is a risk that clothing or uniform
may become exposed to blood, body fluids, secretions and excrement, with the exception
of sweat. They should be also used when working with materials or equipment that may
lead to contamination of their clothing and uniform. Plastic aprons should be worn as
single use items for one procedure or activity then discarded and disposed of as clinical
Eye protection should be worn when reconstituting and using disinfectants, if there is a
risk of splashing. They should also be worn if there is a risk of bodily fluids or other
contamination splashing into the eyes.

Facemasks should be worn when there is a risk of transferring infection to an open

wound or a client with reduced immunity. If required, this will be advised by the line
manager. A facemask could also be used to help mask noxious, unpleasant smells.
Other PPE may be issued as identified by the risk assessment, such as arm protectors.
The same regulations relating to their disposal as clinical waste still applies (refer to
"Clinical Waste" section).
In all cases of PPE, including gloves, they should be used in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions and having regard for any limitations of that product.

Hazard Identification-a qualitative determination of which pathogens threaten

human health

Exposure Assessment- Measurement or prediction of duration and intensity

Water Contact- Prime factor influencing amount of exposure o pathogens in



Asking why a behavior occurs is not typically as useful as popularly believed. It is
usually sufficient to describe the behavior without inference, identify emotional
responses, and appreciate the effect of the behaviors consequences. Some possible
causes could be fatigue, discomfort, need of attention, maturity or some environmental
As a carer, try to understand why the person you look after is behaving in this way. For
example, they might feel anxious or bored, or in pain. Some people find a distraction can
focus a person's energies elsewhere and prevent them displaying challenging behaviour.

Professional help with challenging behaviour

If you're finding it hard to cope with the behaviour of the person you look after, you can
ask your GP to refer you to a specialist with knowledge of challenging behaviour. You
will usually be asked to keep a record of the person's behaviour to see if there are any
patterns. In extreme circumstances for example, if the person's behaviour is harmful to
themselves or others and all methods of calming them have been tried a doctor may
prescribe medication.
The approach uses a series of steps or questions designed to provide perspective on the
problem behavior . The first questions are concerned with clarifying the problem. Next,
we review factors that might contribute to disruptive classroom behavior. The final steps
are to select a response and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy. The steps can be
followed like a checklist.




Where patients repeatedly demonstrate challenging behavior, carers should implement
more structured intervention strategies as part of a staged response to address the
Developing a Behaviour Support Plan and/or Individual Education Plan.

Consider if any environmental changes need to be made, explicit teaching of

replacement behaviours, engaging appropriate support services, establishing a

student support group to establish the students needs and supports required,
implementing appropriate disciplinary measures that are proportionate to problem
behaviours and considering alternative learning or behaviour management
Critical incidents are known to affect individuals lives significantly by prompting strong
emotional responses ranging from common, uncomplicated stress-related reactions to the
more complex post-traumatic stress disorder

Lesson 3: Applying Basic First Aid

FIRST AID MANAGEMENT - First aid management helps you to equip yourself
with the basic knowledge about the health related conditions.
How to assess a casualty? - If you think someone needs your help, before you
do anything you need to check the situation is safe and assess whats wrong with
them. These checks are broken into two stages called The Primary and
Secondary Survey
Primary Survey - First, you need to look and see if they have any injuries or
conditions that could be immediately life-threatening, and deal with these as
quickly as possible. To do this, the letters DR. ABC will help you to remember to
check. D- Danger R- Response A- Airway B- Breathing C- Circulation
Secondary Survey - If you manage to deal with anything life-threatening
successfully, or there is nothing life-threatening to deal with, then you can assess
someone in more detail for any other injuries or conditions.

Physical Hazard - A physical hazard is a type of occupational hazard that involves

environmental hazards that can cause harm with or without contact.
Falls - are a common cause of occupational injuries and fatalities, especially in
construction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and
Machines - are commonplace in many industries,
including manufacturing, mining,

Construction and agriculture, and can be dangerous to workers.

Confined spaces - also present a work hazard. The National Institute of
Occupational Safety and Health defines "confined space" as having limited
openings for entry and exit and unfavorable natural ventilation, and which is not
intended for continuous employee occupancy
Noise - also presents a fairly common workplace hazard: occupational hearing
loss is the most common work-related injury.
Temperature - extremes can also pose a danger to workers. Heat stress can
cause heat stroke, exhaustion, cramps, and rashes. Cold stress also poses a danger
to many workers. Overexposure to cold conditions or extreme cold can lead
to hypothermia, frostbite, trench foot, or chilblains.
Electricity - poses a danger to many workers. Electrical injuries can be divided
into four types: fatal electrocution, electric shock, burns, and falls caused by
contact with electric energy.
Casualtys Condition
Convey details of casualtys condition
Once you have connected with the emergency services operator and
requested an ambulance, hold the line to tell them details such as:
Locations of casualtyproviding the exact address is best, but if you arent
sure of this, give some landmarks or nearest cross streets, and some directions.
Number of casualties
Nature and extent of illness or accidentinclude the physical condition of the
casualty, and any relevant signs and symptoms
The number of the phone you are using
Your name.
Then hold the line to answer any further questions and provide any other relevant
details, such as damaged power lines.
When providing details of the casualtys condition, include the following
Colorwhat color is the casualtys skin?
Conscious stateis the casualty conscious?
Breathingis the casualty breathing? If not, have rescue breaths and CPR
Bleedingis the bleeding controlled? Is it bright red spurting blood or dark red
flowing blood?
Pupilsare the pupils of equal size and reacting to light?
ShockAre there signs of shock (pale, sweaty, nauseous, cold)?
Movementdoes the casualty have coordinated movement?
Can the casualty feel and move limbs, if conscious?
Anything abnormal (such as bruising, a bone sticking out or swelling).

Equipment and Resources

A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first
aid, and can be put together for the purpose by an individual or organization or
purchased complete.
Red Cross recommends:
2 absorbent compress dressings (5 x 9 inches)
25 adhesive bandages (assorted sizes)
1 adhesive cloth tape (10 yards x 1 inch)
5 antibiotic ointment packets (approximately 1 gram)
5 antiseptic wipe packets
2 packets of aspirin (81 mg each)
1 breathing barrier (with one-way valve)
1 instant cold compress
2 pair of nonlatex gloves (size: large)
2 hydrocortisone ointment packets (approximately 1 gram each)
1 roller bandage (3 inches wide)
1 roller bandage (4 inches wide)
5 sterile gauze pads (4 x 4 inches)
Oral thermometer (non-mercury/nonglass)
2 triangular bandages
Vital Signs
Vital signs are measurements of the body's most basic functions. The four main
vital signs routinely monitored by medical professionals and health care providers
include the following:
-Body temperature
-Pulse rate
-Respiration rate (rate of breathing)
-Blood pressure (Blood pressure is not considered a vital sign, but is often
measured along with the vital signs.)
What is body temperature?
The normal body temperature of a person varies depending on gender, recent
activity, food and fluid consumption, time of day.
Normal body temperature can range from 97.8 degrees F (or Fahrenheit,
equivalent to 36.5 degrees C, or Celsius) to 99 degrees F (37.2 degrees C) for a
healthy adult.
What is the pulse rate?
The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart
beats per minute taking a pulse not only measures the heart rate, but also can
indicate the following:
-Heart rhythm
-Strength of the pulse

What is the respiration rate?

The respiration rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. The rate is
usually measured when a person is at rest and simply involves counting the
number of breaths for one minute by counting how many times the chest rises.

First aid principles

First, do no harm. This doesn't mean do nothing. It means make sure that if
you're going to do something you're confident it won't make matters worse. If
you're not sure about the risk of harm of a particular intervention, don't do it.
Don't panic. Panic clouds thinking and causes mistakes. You needed to calm
yourself before attempting to intervene. It's far easier to do this when you know
what you're doing, but even if you encounter a situation for which you're
unprepared, there's usually some good you can do.
Immediate action As in most endeavor's, the principle to be adopted in first aid
is immediate action. Bystanders or relatives not knowing what to do, or being too
timid to try, may have unwittingly contributed to unnecessary deaths and chronic
injuries. If a person is sick or injured, then they need help, and they need it
Quick action is necessary to preserve life and limb. A casualty who is not
breathing effectively, or is bleeding heavily, requires immediate assistance. If
quick effective first aid is provided, then the casualty has a much better chance of
a good recovery.
The clean up After an incident it is important to put some time aside for
yourself. Very often first aiders become concerned that they did not do a good
enough job, and that they were not effective in their role.
When you think about how you handled the incident, the first thing you should keep in
mind is that by stepping forward and doing first aid you have done more for the casualty
than anyone else could ever do

First Aid - First Aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or
injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed, or until the
illness or injury is fully dealt with.
It generally consists of a series of simple, potentially life-saving, steps that an
individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment:
It is important to assess the situation quickly, to appreciate the limitations of your

own actions, and to seek expert assistance e.g., by calling 999/112/911 for
ambulance, police or fire service help as soon as possible.
Severe bleeding

Put on sterile disposable gloves and a face shield if available.

Calm and reassure the person.

Lay the person down.

Apply firm, direct pressure using a clean pad (or sterile dressing if available) over
the wound. The person's own hand can be used to apply pressure whilst getting a
suitable dressing/putting on your gloves.
Whilst applying the direct pressure, elevate and support the injured area above the

level of the heart.

Firmly wrap a bandage around the pad or dressing to hold it in place, but not so

firmly that it cuts off the circulation extremities.

If blood soaks through the pad and bandage, do not remove but cover with

another pad and bandage, continuing to apply pressure to the wound until bleeding is
Monitor for symptoms of shock: pale, cold or clammy skin; rapid breathing; rapid

or weak pulse; reduced level of consciousness.

If symptoms of shock are present:

With the person lying down, raise and support their legs above the level of
their heart (continue to keep the injured part elevated as well).

Loosen any tight clothing around their neck or their waist.

Keep the person warm.

Objects embedded in a wound

If a large object is embedded in a wound, do not try to remove it.

If there is associated severe bleeding, lay the person down, apply firm pressure on
either side of the object and elevate the injured part.

To maintain pressure on either side of the object, build up padding around the
object so that the padding is higher than the object.

Monitor for, and treat for, shock as needed.

Call 999 for an ambulance as needed.

Nosebleeds are extremely common. They are usually benign, self-limiting and
spontaneous. Trauma to the nose, especially nose picking, is the most common
underlying cause.
If the person is haemodynamically unstable, call 999 and resuscitate/apply First Aid
measures whilst waiting for the ambulance to arrive. Wear disposable gloves and a face
shield if available.
If the person is haemodynamically stable

Sit them down, ensure they are leaning slightly forward and tell them to pinch the
soft, fleshy part of their nose firmly for 10-15 minutes.

Their mouth should be open so that they can breathe through their mouth and can
spit out any blood from their mouth into a sink, bowl or container in front of them.

Monitor their pulse and their blood pressure.

After 10-15 minutes, they can gently release the pressure to see if the bleeding is
controlled. If it is not controlled, tell them to pinch again.

If the bleeding does not stop after 10-15 minutes of pressure, and cautery or

packing are not possible in primary care due to lack of facilities or expertise, send
the person to Accident and Emergency.
Burns and scalds
Ensure your own safety. Wear protective clothing as needed. Approach with care.

Call for help as needed.

Stop the burning process:

Remove the heat source.

Help the person to 'drop and roll if clothing is on fire.[4]

Turn the power off if electricity is involved.[4]

Assess Airway, Breathing and Circulation and look for other injuries.

Remove clothing and any jewellery (unless clothing is stuck to the skin).

Cool the area that has been burnt, using running, cool/tepid water for 10-30
Watch that you do not over-cool the person if a large area has been burnt. Keep

the person warm.

For chemical burns, wear protective gloves, remove any contaminated clothing,

brush any powder chemical off the skin and irrigate the area for 60 minutes.
Once cooling is completed, cover the burn to protect the skin, help relieve pain

from exposed nerve endings and keep the area clean. Cling film makes a good burn
cover. Cover the burn lengthways with the cling film. Do not wrap tightly around a
limb. Clean plastic bags can be considered to cover hands and feet.

Provide pain relief.

Elevate the affected area if oedema and swelling are present.


Keep the person still and support the injured area using soft padding.

Do not move the person or the injured part unnecessarily.

Do not allow the person to eat or drink. They may need surgery.

An ambulance may be needed if the person is in a lot of pain and cannot safely be
transported to hospital.

If an ambulance will take some time to arrive, you are in a remote area, or it is a
suspected upper limb fracture and the person can be safely transported to hospital,
immobilise the injured area using a splint.

A broad arm sling can be used to support and immobilise an injured arm. An
injured leg can be splinted to the uninjured leg using bandages around the knees,
ankles and above and below the fracture site. Ensure that any immobilisation does
not restrict blood supply to an extremity.

Open fractures need special care. The fracture should be covered with a sterile
dressing whilst awaiting arrival of the ambulance.

Sprains and strains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament. It occurs when excessive or abnormal forces are
applied around a joint. The ankle and knee are commonly affected. Tenderness, swelling,
bruising, loss of function, and joint instability (if it is a severe sprain) can occur. The
sprain can be simply graded into:

Grade 1: mild stretching of the ligament; no joint instability.

Grade 2: partial ligament rupture; no joint instability.

Grade 3: complete ligament rupture; joint instability.

A strain is when a muscle is stretched or torn. It occurs if a muscle is over-stretched or

has had forced strong contraction.

A first-degree strain is when just a few muscle fibres are injured. There is
tenderness and pain but normal muscle strength.

A second-degree strain is when a greater number of muscle fibres are injured with
more severe pain and tenderness and possible bruising. Mild swelling and loss of
muscle strength will also be present.

A third-degree strain is when the muscle tears all the way through, leading to total
loss of muscle function.
Monitoring and Recording

You will need to record the casualtys vital signs, like his or her temperature, pulse and
so on. If you do not have a thermometer, you must compare the casualtys temperature
with your temperature, by placing the back of your hand on your forehead, and then on
the casualtys forehead. Note whether the casualty is hotter or colder than you, and
whether his or her temperature is changing over time. Take note of the colour of the
casualtys skin. In dark skin, check the palm of the casualty, or the sole of his or her feet,
or nails or lips. Note whether the casualtys skin appears normal in colour, or is unusual
(for example, greyish-blue). Also note if his or her colour changes over time. You also
need to record his or her pulse and breathing rate, and whether these change over time. If
there are writing materials, write these things down each time you check. If not, you will
need to remember these, and in particular changes over time (eg. the casualtys
temperature is getting
hotter, there is a difference in his or her colour, etc.).
It is very, very important that you keep a constant check on the casualtys condition and
make a note of what you find, for the following reasons:
The results of these checks will help you know whether the casualty is improving or
deteriorating and any further treatment they may need.
To hand over to any medical personnel who will be taking over the care of the casualty.

How to request medical assistance

When in any injury or accident, send or call for medical help immediately. First
aid is not a replacement for skilled medical attention. The person who knows the
most first aid should stay with the victim, while someone calls for help/medical
assistance. For medical help, call a hospital emergency room, rescue service,
police department, ambulance or doctor.
If the victim is conscious and able to talk ask what happened while you are
waiting for medical help. Ask witness for details such information may be need
for later by doctors who treat the injured person.

Reporting Complete Information Details of Incident

If the casualty appears unresponsive, ask them loudly if they are OK and if they can
open their eyes. If they respond, you can leave the casualty in the position they are
in until help arrives. While you wait, keep checking their breathing, pulse and level
of response:

Are they alert?

Do they respond to your voice?

Do they respond to pain?

Is there no response to any stimulus (they're unconscious)?

If there is no response, leave the casualty in the position they are in and open their
airway. If this is not possible in the position they are in, gently lay them on their back and
open the airway.
You open the airway by placing one hand on the casualtys forehead and gently tilting the
head back, then lifting the tip of the chin using two fingers. This is to move the tongue
away from the back of the mouth. Do not push on the floor of the mouth as this will cause
the tongue to obstruct the airway.

To check if a person is still breathing:

Look to see if their chest is rising and falling.

Listen over their mouth and nose for breathing.

Feel their breath against your cheek for 10 seconds.

If they are breathing, place them in the recovery position so the airway remains clear of
If the casualty is not breathing, call 999 or 112 for an ambulance, then begin CPR.

If the heart stops beating, you can help maintain their circulation by performing chest
compressions. This is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when combined with rescue
If you are not trained or feel unable to give rescue breaths, you can perform compressiononly CPR.
Agonal breathing is common in the first few minutes after a sudden cardiac arrest (when
the heart stops beating). Agonal breathing is sudden, irregular gasps of breath. This
should not be mistaken for normal breathing and CPR should be given straight away.
First aid provides the initial attention to a person suffering an injury or illness. First aid in
the workplace has a number of benefits including:

saving lives,
preventing permanent disablement,

providing immediate support to the injured person

improving safety awareness and preventing injury and illness in the workplace,

assist in the early return to work and rehabilitation.

The objective of this response protocol is to guide the University community:

to determine appropriate trained first aider coverage for buildings and to select
and appoint appropriate staff to fulfil the role of First Aid Officer;
to determine needs for first aid equipment, primarily first aid kits, for buildings;

to ensure that the equipment is maintained to facilitate rapid response to first aid

in responding promptly and appropriately to first aid situations and other

emergencies with a first aid aspect;

in making appropriate arrangements for first aid in field work and trips away from
the University

in making appropriate arrangements for first aid in situations where volunteers

and/or members of the public participate in research activities, clinics, trials etc.
where there is an increased risk of adverse health effects requiring first aid or
emergency response;

in reporting incidents, injuries and illnesses as required by legislation;

to encourage activities to be undertaken that prevent injuries.

in disclosing health information that can assist in prompt and appropriate first aid
response to foreseeable medical emergencies and to guide medical staff dealing
confidentially with such disclosed health information.

All faculty, department and section managers are responsible for:

informing staff, students and visitors of local first aid arrangements including
details of how to contact First Aid Officers. Security Officers are first aid officers
and can be contacted by phoning Ext: 1168 or Ext 1122;
provision of first aid kits and other essential first aid response equipment in
relevant locations in buildings; and
first aid arrangements for clinics, fieldwork, research activities and laboratories
with particular hazards.

First Aid kits will normally only be installed in high risk work areas. A risk assessment
must be conducted for the relevant locations/activities to ascertain if a first aid kit is
required. The risk assessment is to be conducted by Facilities Management in
collaboration with Human Resources. Facilities Management will be responsible for
auditing and refurbishing first aid kits.
First Aid Officers are responsible for:

providing first aid to people who are injured or ill in the workplace,
maintaining first aid kits after utilisation in a medical emergency,

recording treatments and reporting treatment and incidents,

maintaining a current first aid qualification, and

participating in refresher training and competency development activities.

Role of first aid officers

In a first aid emergency a first aid officer is expected to take charge and may direct others
on the scene to assist with managing the emergency until Emergency Services or more
qualified personnel take over.
The role of the first aid officer is to initiate:

the emergency treatment of injuries and illness;

arranging prompt and appropriate referral of casualties to medial aid if required;

coordinate emergency services response if required

recording treatments and reporting incidents

the maintenance of first aid equipment, and keeping clean, checking and
restocking first aid kits if utilised.

First aid officers undertake regular refresher training. Refresher training includes
practical components, such as Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) practice and use of
the Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs).
First aid provides the initial attention to a person suffering an injury or illness. First aid in
the workplace has a number of benefits:

it can save lives;

it can prevent permanent disablement;
it can improve safety awareness and thereby prevent injury and illness in the

it places the incident on record for future reference if required;

it can assist early return to work and rehabilitation.

Lesson 4: Maintaining High Standard of Patient Services

4.1 Definition and Characteristics of the Patient

a person who is under medical care or treatment.
a person or thing that undergoes some action.
Characteristics of a Patient
The Angry Patient
Some people find it hard to admit when theyre feeling frightened or vulnerable.
Some find it easier to express fear as anger, by shouting or calling people names.
The Demanding Patient
You will encounter patients who will demand a lot of your time; asking questions,
asking for specific and generally insisting on taking a lot of your attention.
The Patronizing Patient
Its not uncommon for nurses to sometimes feel patronized by their patients.
The Secretive Patient

Some patients doesnt want to take their medicines so they just put it under their
pillow or anywhere that the nurses wouldnt know.

4.2 Health Care Provider

What is Health Care Provider?

A "health care provider" is defined as: a doctor of medicine or osteopathy,
podiatrist, dentist, chiropractor, clinical psychologist, optometrist, nurse
practitioner, nurse-midwife, or a clinical social worker who is authorized to
practice by the State and performing within the scope of their practice as defined
by State law, or a Christian Science practitioner.

Types of health care providers

A primary care provider (PCP) is a person you may see first for checkups and health

The term "generalist" often refers to medical doctors (MDs) and doctors of
osteopathic medicine(DOs) who specialize in internal medicine, family practice,
or pediatrics.
OB/GYNs are doctors who specialize in obstetrics and gynecology, including
women's health care, wellness, and prenatal care. Many women use an OB/GYN
as their primary care provider.
Nurse practitioners (NPs) are nurses with graduate training. They can serve as a
primary care provider in family medicine (FNP), pediatrics (PNP), adult care
(ANP), or geriatrics (GNP).
A physician assistant (PA) can provide a wide range of services in collaboration
with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).


Registered nurses (RNs) have graduated from a nursing program, have passed a
state board examination, and are licensed by the state.
Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) are state-licensed caregivers who have been
trained to care for the sick.
Advanced practice nurses have education and experience beyond the basic
training and licensing required of all RNs.

4.3 Communication and Modes of Communication

What is Communication?
the imparting or exchanging of information or news
means of connection between people or places, in particular.
Verbal Communication
Is an exchange of information using words including both spoken and written
Non Verbal Communication
It is sometimes referred as Body Languages
Facial Expression
Eye Contact
Symbolic Communication
It involves both verbal and nonverbal symbolism to convey meaning
Modes Of Communication
Interpersonal Mode
Engages in conversation, provide and obtain information, express feeling and
emotion and exchange opinions
Interpretive Mode
Understand and interpret written and spoken words on a variety of topic
Presentational Mode
Present information, concepts and ideas, to a readers or listeners on a variety of
4.4 Establishing Rapport and Good Interpersonal Relationship with Patients
What is Rapport?
is a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned
understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate well.
relation; connection, especially harmonious or sympathetic relation
How do we Build Rapport with our Patients?
Get to Know Them
Anticipate their Needs
Follow Through
Make Other Care Providers Aware
Respectfully Call them by their Names
Listen Actively
Offer Follow-up Calls or Surveys
Remain Calm and Friendly
Offer Appropriate Greetings and Closings
4.5 Respect the Differences of Patients

Respect is frequently invoked as an integral aspect of ethics and professionalism

in medicine, yet is often unclear what respect means in the setting.
Does Respect Require Admiration?
Having established that persons are the appropriate object of respect, we turn our
attention to describing what the nature of that respect entails. In doing so, we
suggest drawing a distinction between respect and related concepts such
as admiration or liking. It is to be expected that physicians will have a natural or
instinctive preference for some patients over others. Such feelings are often
couched in the language of respect.
Are Respectful Behaviors Sufficient?
Finally, we wish to emphasize that our conception of respect involves valuing
patients, or at the very least, acknowledging their value. This attitude of valuing
will typically express itself in certain behaviorsextending common courtesies,
expressing concern for others and their well-being, taking their feelings and
experiences seriously. Indeed, many accounts of respect in medicine and in the
professional education of physicians rightly emphasize behaviors.
Typical ways of speaking about respect, doubtless, take us in many conflicting
directions. For example, it is often said that respecting people essentially requires
that we not interfere with them, leaving them free to do as they please. It is
commonly thought that people deserve respect based on their status or their
accomplishments, and by the same token, that they can sometimes lose our
respect, or, it is suggested that respect is solely a matter of following norms and
rules of social engagementsomething we can do by rote.
4.6 Responsibilities and Right of a Patient
It is your responsibility to:
Give correct and complete information about your health status and health history.
Ask questions if you do not understand information or instructions.
Inform your caregivers if you do not intend to or cannot follow the treatment plan.
Accept health consequences that may occur if you decide to refuse treatment or
Cooperate with your caregivers.
Respect the rights and property of other patients.
Tell your caregivers of any medications you brought from home.
Report any changes in your health status to your caregivers.
You have the right to:
Respect and Privacy
Quality Care
Information & Communication

Maintain A Clean And Healthy Environment

Table Of Content
A. Cleaning And Cleaning Agents Definition

B. Tools And Equipment Needed

C. Legal Requirements And Regulation Regarding Supervision
D. Proper Disposal Of Waste Materials
E. Safety Storage Of Cleaning Materials

Cleaning And Cleaning Agents Definition

Cleaning is the activity of removing the dirt from things and places, especially in
a house.
Cleaning agents Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays,
or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on
surfaces. Purposes of cleaning agents include health, beauty, removing offensive odor,
and avoiding the spread of dirt and contaminants to oneself and others. Some cleaning
agents can kill bacteria and clean at the same time. Some types of cleaning agents are as
1. Acidic cleaning agents are mainly used for removal of inorganic
Deposits like scaling. The active ingredients are normally strong mineral acids and
chelants. Often, surfactants and corrosion inhibitors are added to the acid.

Alkaline cleaning agents contain strong bases like sodium

hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Bleach (pH 12) and ammonia (pH 11) are common
alkaline cleaning agents. Often, dispersants, to prevent redeposition of dissolved dirt, and
chelants, to attack rust, are added to the alkaline agent.

Neutral washing agents are pH-neutral and based on non-ionic

surfactants that disperse different types of dirt.

4. Degreaser Cleaning agents specially made for removal of
grease are called degreasers. These may be solvent-based or solvent-containing and may
also have surfactants as active ingredients.
Tools and Equipment Needed
All-purpose cleaner are type of cleaner works on most countertops, sinks and
Glass cleaner Opt for a streak-free formula to clean your mirrors, windows and
other glass with less effort.
Tile and grout cleaner is an acid-based, scrub-free solution works best on bathtub
and shower tile, as well as toilets
Wood cleaner is good when cleaning wood furniture, opt for a polish made for the
type of finish on your wood.

Microfiber cloth Microfibers are mostly made of polyester, and, unlike cotton,
they leave no lint behind
Extendible duster No matter your height, you will be able to reach the tops of
the ceiling fans in your home with one of these handy cleaning tools.
Scrubby sponges The sponge side works well for most cleanups, while the
scrubby side helps you tackle tougher jobs.
Toilet brush Having a brush that cleans your toilet, and only your toilet, helps
curb the spread of germs to other surfaces.
Vacuum Vacuums work on both hard and soft surfaces, such as carpet, floors
and upholstery
Bucket Using a bucket, as opposed to filling a sink with cleaning, makes it
much easier to tackle floors.
Microfiber mop This tool works for many types of hard surface flooring.
Grout brush These narrow brushes help you free grout lines of debris,
resulting in longer-lasting grout.
Rubber gloves Protect your hands while cleaning, especially when using acidbased cleaners or if you suffer from skin sensitivity.

Legal Requirements And Regulation Regarding Supervision

Elements and Performance Criteria
1. Maintain a clean and hygienic environment
1.1 Ensure cleaning occurs as an ongoing process as per recognised state/ territory
regulations and requirements
1.2 Use appropriate cleaning agents as per recognised state/ territory regulations
and requirements

1.3 Follow standard precautions for infection control

1.4 Adequately maintain ventilation, lighting and

1.5 Adhere to personal hygiene/health procedures as per recognised state/ territory

regulations and requirements
1.6 Ensure beds and bedding conform to health, hygiene and safety requirements
as relevant
1.7 Ensure food preparation, handling, storage and serving areas comply with
recognised state/ territory food safety and handling requirements

Proper Waste Management

Waste management is all those activities and action required to manage waste
from its inception to its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection,
transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation. It also
encompasses the legal and regulatory framework that relates to waste management
encompassing guidance on recycling etc.

Safety Storage Of Cleaning Materials And Equipment

Flammable Materials that are highly flammable require special handling. Gases
such as propane and butane must be kept in pressure-safe containers with appropriate

Hazardous materials All chemicals, including cleaning materials, should be kept

in their original containers or in properly labeled containers of an appropriate type.
Machinery equipment Machinery such as forklifts such must be kept in a safe
location where it is protected from unauthorized access, weather and accidental damage.

Organizational Procedures Implemented For Safety

Table of Content
A. Area inspection for hazards.
B. Consideration when dealing and caring for children.
C. Kinds of contact to formulate observation in caring for children.
D. Potential risk to consider in dealing with children.
E. Rules to observe to make the children environment safe for play.
F. Providing a safe environment and risk reduction strategies in taking care
of children.
G. Age appropriate tools, equipment, toys and games for children.
H. Hazards in caring for children.

I. Identifying emergency and fire exit.

J. Risk reduction strategies in caring for children.

Area inspection for hazards

Are inspection is a planned event in which the workplace is inspected to identify
potential hazards. Anybody can do an area inspection. Ideally though, an inspection
would involve an experienced person from the area.
Area inspections use a checklist to help identify hazards. Using the checklist and
looking at the area of concern is the best way to go about doing an inspection. There are
number of checklists depending on the type of area being inspected. Once hazards are
identified, solutions are required to be put in place to ensure the hazard is controlled.
Area inspection is a vital element of any safety management system. It should be
done to determine whether you are meeting the standards you have set for your area.
They are important because if they are carried out effectively, they allow you to identify
and remedy problems before they become more serious or may result to an accident.
1) Find the hazards.

2) Asses the risks.

3) Fix the problems.
Consideration When Dealing And Caring For Children
Facilitate the optimal growth and development of each individual child or young
person to achieve his or her potential in all aspects of functioning; Help each child or
young person for whom he or she bears responsibility by preventing problems where
possible, by offering protection where necessary, and by providing care and rehabilitation
to counteract or resolve the problems faced
Rights: Children have the right to
care, protection, and guidance that is in their best interest and take into
consideration their evolving capacities, receive the love and care of adults discipline
consistent with their rights and dignity, Children have the right to special care and
protection when needed to protection from abuse and neglect.
Responsibilities: Children are responsible for
loving and nurturing others and understanding others as best able; learning about
and expressing feelings. treating others as they would like to be treated, not hurting
others, and acting safely.

Kinds of contact to formulate observation in caring for children

What kinds of changes are there between the beginning and the end of an activity? Does
the child's mood change as he/she works?
What is the child's relationship to you? Is the child eager to see you? Is he/she eager to
tell you about what he/she is doing?
What is the child's relationship with his parents? Is the child eager to see them at the end
of the day? Does the child share with them the things he/she has been doing?
How much energy does the child use? Does he/she work at a fairly even pace or does
he/she work in "spurts" of activity? Does he/she use a great deal of energy in
manipulating the materials, in body movements, or in talking?
Communicating Concerns with Parents

Ask if parents have concerns or questions about how the child seems to be

Share your own observations and concerns

Choose your words carefully

Stress the importance of checking things out right away

Keep your eye on the goal

Be ready to offer information and resources

Potential Risk In Dealing With Children

Child care health and development includes learning how to keep children safe
and healthy in a child care environment. "When families leave their children in your care,
they trust that you will provide the best care possible for them. One of the most, if not the
most, important responsibilities that we have as child care providers is to keep children
safe and healthy.
Space/Environment for Infants and toddlers explore their worlds through their
senses and movements, by touching and mouthing anything within reach. When thinking
about child care health and development, as well as, creating a safe environment,
remember who the classroom is for.
Sanitation for Infants and toddler are sometimes thought of as being in a sensorymotor stage of development, which means they explore the environment using their
senses. Mouthing is one way that infants and toddlers explore the environment and learn.
Rules to observe to make the children environment safe for play
Understanding the importance of keeping children safe and knowing what safe
environments look like are the first steps to creating a safe space for children to learn. It
is up to you to make sure your environment is safe. It is however also important that the
environment should be such that children are not exposed to unacceptable risk of death or
severe injury. Almost any environment contains hazards and sources of harm.
There are rules that you need to follow in order to have a safe environment for your

1. Always provide Adult Supervision

2. Pay attention to the surfaces surrounding the child
3. Maintenance and Inspection of equipment
4. Make sure the toys match the children's ages and abilities
5. Always be a role model of active but sensible play.
Providing A Safe Environment And Risk Reduction Strategies In Taking Care Of
Children are natural explorers and risk takers. They move quickly, put things in
their mouths, drop or throw things, and love to climb and hide. Keeping children safe is
crucial. But setting up an environment where you spend all day saying "Don't touch this!"
or "Stay away from that!" is not the answer. Instead of spending your time redirecting
children, think carefully about how you set up the environment. Giving children the
chance to explore freely in a well-organized and child-safe space is a much more
effective way to manage behavior and encourage learning.
Risk Reduction Strategies

Try a child's-eye view.

Make sure your space is child-safe.

Organize toys and supplies to make things easy for children.

Harmful materials should be out of reach (chemicals/sharp objects)

Age Appropriate Toys

With so many choices, shopping for just the right toy can be an overwhelming
(and expensive) undertaking. Our guides will help you find age-appropriate toys that will
bring joy to the babies and toddlers in your life. In each guide, we've included
information about children's development, so you'll know why a toy makes sense at a
particular age.
Avoiding hazards - Keeping children safe
Child care safety is an important issue because young children explore their world
with all their senses, including touching and mouthing anything within their reach. For
this reason, it is very important to remove any potential hazards within their reach.
Identifying Emergency and Fire Exit
Usually, a workplace must have at least two exit routes for prompt evacuation.
More than two exits are required, however, if the number of employees, size of the
building, or arrangement of the workplace will not allow a safe evacuation. Exit routes
must be located as far as practical from each other in case one is blocked by fire or

Exits can only have those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from
occupied areas of the workplace.

Exits must be separated by fire resistant materials. It should also have a clear sign
for everyone to notice it immediately.

Exits must be permanent parts of the workplace.

Exits must be available at all times.

Risk reduction strategies in caring for children

1. Children and babies often need different emergency treatment than adults.

Keep your child under supervision.


You can reduce the risk of injuries by making a few practical changes to your


Remove tripping hazards

Child safety to prevent:


Never leave your child alone

Actively Supervise

Be prepared


Remove tripping hazards

Use a sensor light for stairs and steps

Tables and chairs should have ends and sides that are raised 100mm

Bunk beds should only be used by children over nine years.


Keep children's play areas away from your kitchen

Keep flammable liquids away and out of reach of children

Prepare a home fire escape plan and practice it with all the family members.


Be aware of foods that can choke children, such as candies and nuts.

Encourage children to sit calmly and enjoy an unhurried meal.

Check toys regularly for any small parts

Review legal requirements and regulation and safety

Responsibilities of Individuals

Responsibilities of Management

Departmental Administrators and Managers

Groundwater Protection Program Report any hazardous materials or other

pollutants spilled to or discovered in soil or groundwater to EH&S for appropriate
emergency or non-emergency clean up.

Hazard Communication Program Except in chemical laboratories, a written

Hazard Communication Program is required if hazardous materials are used or

Implementation of the IIPP will satisfy the requirements of the Hazard

Communication Program.

Hazardous Material and Waste Management Inform employees and students that
hazardous materials and hazardous waste, except as expressly authorized by
regulations or campus licenses or permits, may not be disposed of via the sewer
system, regular trash, fume hoods or other unsafe or environmentally damaging
routes; and to stress the importance of proper hazardous material/waste

Rules For Safe Play

Teach children to use play areas and play equipment safely and to play suitable
games. Let them think up a set of rules that they will agree to accept.

Play away from cars

Play somewhere soft in case of falls

Play somewhere made for children

Use equipment properly

Report damaged or broken equipment

Play in the shade where possible and apply sunscreen

Stay out of the sun between 10am-3pm

Look after friends, especially little friends

Take turns

Play gently without violence - pushing and pulling can cause falls

Choose the right game for the right place

A well-planned play area will include active, open and quiet areas. Encourage
children to use these areas appropriately and respect the needs of others.

Rough games should only be played where the ground is soft and there is
nothing hard to fall on

Ball games need lots of space

Chasing games are better played away from other people and buildings

Quiet games and boisterous games don't really mix

Try not to spoil someone else's game with your own

Maintaining direct contact with individuals or group

Too much eye contact is instinctively felt to be rude, hostile and condescending;
and in a business context, it may also be perceived as a deliberate intent to dominate,
intimidate, belittle, or make the other feel at a disadvantage. (Which was how
Goldilocks felt when the bears caught her eating their porridge). So unless you have in
mind doing one of those things, its better to avoid too much eye contact.
Too little, on the other hand, can make you appear uneasy, unprepared, and
insincere. In its analysis of patients complaints, for example, one large county hospital
found, that 9-out-of-10 letters included mention of poor doctor-patient eye contact; a
failure which was generally interpreted as lack of caring.
Just the right amount of eye contact the amount that produces a feeling of
mutual likability and trustworthiness will vary with situations, settings, personality
types, gender and cultural differences. As a general rule, though, direct eye contact
ranging from 30% to 60% of the time during a conversation more when you are
listening, less when you are speaking should make for a comfortable productive
And did you know these other facts about eye contact?
Eye contact produces a powerful, subconscious sense of connection that extends
even to drawn or photographed eyes; a fact demonstrated by Researchers at Cornell
University who manipulated the gaze of the cartoon rabbit on several Trix cereal boxes,
asked a panel of adults to choose one, and discovered, as they expected, that the box most

frequently chosen was the one on which the rabbit was looking directly at them, rather
than away.
We reduce eye contact when we are talking about something shameful or
embarrassing, when we are sad or depressed, and when we are accessing internal
thoughts or emotions.

Identification of potential hazards and risk in environment

Hazards and Risk

Built Environment refers to buildings, structures and other infrastructure at

the school site.

Chemicals and Hazardous Substance need to managed according to specific


Curriculum Activities may involve a rang of risks that need to be carefully

managed to ensure the safety of all students, staff or other participants .

Dust is usually generated by mechanical processes such as sanding and


Equipment and Machinery needs to be maintained and serviced

appropriately and used according to safe operating procedures.

Driver and Vehicle Safety improve the safety of yourself and others when

Working at Heights requires safe systems of work to prevent falls.

Playgrounds and outdoor areas require systems to be implemented to

minimize the risk of injury associated with playground equipment.

Infection Control each individual must know safe disposal

and hand


Noise control measures to be put in place by school to prevent noise

induced hearing loss caused by exposure to excessive levels of noise

Emergency And Evacuation Procedures

Staff and family responsibilities
In case of a major emergency such as fire or earthquake, we must be prepared to
respond appropriately. Our emergency preparedness procedures include doing fire and
earthquake drills with the children, practicing our emergency evacuation procedure and
storing emergency supplies.
In our emergency preparations we are also asking parents to send the following
provisions for each child
These provisions will supplement child care supplies in case of an earthquake. In
the large ziplock bag attached to this sheet please include:

Small flashlight with batteries

Emergency aluminized polyester blanket

A few Band-aids

Three non-perishable food items CAUTION:NO NUTS!

A small comfort toy

A small favourite book

A picture of the family

A comfort note

A small package of baby wipes

A small bottle of water

The following emergency supplies are required if we need to stay at the child care centre
for up to 72 hours in case of an earthquake. These supplies are stored on site.


4 litres per day per person in tight lidded non-breakable containers

Food and Utensils

Three-day supply of non-perishables: canned and dehydrated food, dried fruit, canned
juices, comfort food

plastic eating utensils, can-opener

Medical Supplies

First Aid Kit and First Aid Manual


list of children with allergies or medical conditions

pain relievers for children and adults

medication needed for individual children (must have completed instructions for
medication forms)

hot/cold packs

Different types and Characteristics of Floor

Laminate Flooring
Commonly known as a cheap version of wood laminate is truly a workhorse. As a very durable
material, this substance rarely fades, is resis tant to stains and is pretty easy to install.
Hardwood Flooring
Hardwood flooring gives value, but it also takes it away at the very beginning of its life-cycle. In
other words, its one of the more-expensive options to cover your floor.
Stone Flooring
Strong, thick stone used in covering a floor is a choice for the ages. And since its nearly
indestructible, its there for the long run.
Tile Flooring
Tiles, nonetheless, are not indestructible. Chipping and cracking are common when heavy
objects are dropped on them, or something that weighs a lot shatters an individual tile. These are
very noisy floors that can become slippery when fluids are spilled on them.
Carpet Flooring
Occasionally, some carpets are not made for the long-haul. Wear and tear could be a disqualifier.
However, with modular carpet tiles, this issue might be on-the-way to being solved. In a worn
spot, using the modular method, its relatively easy to pop-out the bad piece, replacing it with a
new tile.
Safety Precautions in Using Chemicals and Tools in Cleaning
A complete list of all cleaning chemicals used in the facility; this documentation should include
details such as how many gallons (and multiple-gallon containers) are stored, where they are
stored, and the potential hazards of and necessary precautions for each specific chemical (for
instance, whether or not a chemical needs to be kept away from direct sunlight).
Safety Data Sheets (formerly referred to as Material Safety Data Sheets) for each chemical used
or stored.
Keeping all cleaning chemicals in their original containers and never mixing chemicals, even if
they are the same "type" of chemical.

Storing chemicals in well-ventilated areas away from HVAC intake vents; this helps prevent
any fumes from spreading to other areas of the facility.
Installing safety signage in multiple languages (or, even better, using images and no words) that
quickly conveys possible dangers and precautions related to the chemicals. This signage and
training must follow new requirements outlined in OSHA's Globally Harmonized System (GHS).
Making sure all cleaning workers know exactly what the following "signal words" mean:
Caution: the product should be used carefully but is relatively safe.
Warning: the product is moderately toxic.
Danger: the product is highly toxic and may cause permanent damage to skin and eyes.
"Cleaning Chemical Safety Programs should also include getting rid of chemicals that have not
been used for a prolonged period of time," says Jennifer Meek, Director of Marketing and
Customer Relations for Enviro-Solutions. "A good rule of thumb is to consider disposing of any
chemical product that has not been used for six months, and disposing of any product that has not
been used for a year."
Steps on Bed Making
Clear the bed. Whether you're making your bed after getting up in the morning or after
washing your sheets, the first thing to do is to clear the bed. Be sure to take off pillows, stuffed
animals, comforter, e.t.c.
Put the fitted sheet on. If the fitted sheet is not already on the bed, you will need to put it
on. Do this by tucking the elasticated ends of the sheet around the corners of the mattress.
3. Put the top sheet on. Next, take the top sheet and spread it over the bottom sheet.
Remember that the side with the large hem should go at the top of the bed and the hem should be
aligned with the head of the mattress.

Make hospital corners.

Place the duvet or comforter on top. Once the top sheets is tucked in place, you can lay
your blankets, duvet or comforter on top.
Fold the top sheet and duvet down. Take the edge of the top sheet at the head of the bed
and neatly fold it back over the top edge of the duvet, blanket or comforter.
Fluff the pillows. Grab your pillows and give them a good fluffing before you place them
of the bed. To fluff a pillow, grab it on either side and squeeze the sides together before releasing


Add the finishing touches. Now your bed is almost complete!

To finish it off, take any decorative cushions or pillows you might have and place them in
an upright position at the head of the bed, leaning against the sleeping pillows for support.

If you have an additional blanket, quilt or throw blanket that you like to keep on your bed
for aesthetic purposes (or in case it gets cold!), fold it neatly in half and lay it evenly over the
bottom half of the bed.
Proper Handling of Soiled Linen and Pillowcases According to Standard Operating Procedures
STEP 2: Remove it w/ hygienic precaution.
STEP 3: Place new sheets
Standard Operating Procedure - Mattress and pillow cleaning
1. Wipe the mattress from top to bottom using hot water, detergent and blue cloth
2. Dry thoroughly using paper towels
3. Clean as per mattress
Method of Identifying and Removing stains, mud, paint and grease
1. Let the mud dry, and then brush off as much as possible.
2. Pretreat with a prewash stain remover.
3. Launder.
Flush the stain with warm water Flip the fabric so the reverse side of the stain is
facing up. Then use a forceful stream of warm water (a kitchen tap is ideal) to flush the
stain from the reverse side, trying to wash as much of the paint out away from the
garment as you can.
Treat the stain with detergent and warm water If you dont have Persil laundry
detergent to hand, you can also use dishwashing detergent in a pinch. Regardless of your
cleaning product, its essential that you test it on a small inconspicuous area of the fabric
first, and always check the labels of your detergent and garment to ensure that they are
compatible. Using a sponge or clean cloth, work the lather into the stain and blot until the
paint comes out. You may need to rinse and repeat this process a few times.
Try rubbing alcohol for stubborn stains If the above technique isnt quite robust
enough, blot the stain repeatedly with rubbing alcohol (once again, test a small area first).
You can use nail polish remover, which is even stronger, but this will damage synthetic
fabrics (such as acetate) so be sure to check the garment care tag first.
Finally, pre-treat with a commercial stain remover and launder If you have a
commercial stain remover compatible with your fabric, apply this to the stain to be extra
certain, and then wash the clothing immediately in the washing machine as usual.

Types/uses/functions of cleaning equipment/supplies and materials

All-purpose cleaner- This type of cleaner works on most countertops, sinks
and stovetops.
Glass cleaner- Opt for a streak-free formula to clean your mirrors, windows
and other glass with less effort.
Tile and grout cleaner- An acid-based, scrub-free solution works best on
bathtub and shower tile, as well as toilets
Wood cleaner- When cleaning wood furniture, opt for a polish made for the
type of finish on your wood
Microfiber cloth- Microfibers are mostly made of polyester, and, unlike cotton,
they leave no lint behind.
Extendable duster- No matter your height, you will be able to reach the tops
of the ceiling fans in your home with one of these handy cleaning tools.
Scrubby sponges- The sponge side works well for most cleanups, while the
scrubby side helps you tackle tougher jobs. These work in both the kitchen
and bathroom.
Toilet brush- Having a brush that cleans your toilet, and only your toilet,
helps curb the spread of germs to other surfaces.
Vacuum- Vacuums work on both hard and soft surfaces, such as carpet, floors
and upholstery. Make sure the beater bar is set for the correct surface and
use attachments for upholstery and hard to reach, tight spaces such as
between your refrigerator and wall.
Bucket- Using a bucket, as opposed to filling a sink with cleaning, makes it
much easier to tackle floors.
Microfiber mop- This tool works for many types of hard surface flooring.
Grout brush- These narrow brushes help you free grout lines of debris,
resulting in longer-lasting grout.
Rubber gloves- Protect your hands while cleaning, especially when using
acid-based cleaners or if you suffer from skin sensitivity.
Products and techniques in cleaning floor types and surface texture according
to safety procedures and manufacturers specification
Asphalt Floor- Make sure you mop the floor on a weekly basis. This will
prevent dirt to build-up and you will not have to wash or polish the floor very
Ceramic or Porcelain Floor- Do not use any kind of abrasive cleaner on
ceramic floors as it will scratch the glaze.
Brick Floor- First, vacuum the floor to get rid of debris. Then use a damp mop
to get rid of dirt.
Wood Floor- If the wooden floor has been treated with polyurethane, you can
use a damp mop to clean the surface.
Linoleum Floor- You can remove heel marks from the floor by using fine
grade steel wool to apply liquid floor wax. Rub the desired area gently and
then finish off with a damp cloth.
Hard Floor Maintenance- Hard floors include stone, tiles, resilient flooring, and
other non-carpeted surfaces. For routine hard floor maintenance, the cleaning
staff should:

Vacuum to remove and contain particulate matter from flooring surfaces, or

alternatively, use mops equipped with reuseable/cleanable collection heads.
Cleaning Products
Mop- It is used to soak up liquid, for cleaning floors and other surfaces, to mop up
dust, or for other cleaning purposes.
Cleaning agents- Substances used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells,
and clutter on surfaces.
Floor Wax-Used to polish and preserve the finish of floors
Rag- Used for cleaning, washing, or dusting.
Broom and dustpan- Brooms remove debris from floors and dustpans carry dust and
debris swept into the dustpan.
Proper Storage of Cleaning Equipment
Good cleaning equipment deserves good care. The first essential of good care is
providing suitable storage space. Cleaning equipment should be located where it is
readily accessible from all rooms where it will be used.
Storage- One of the first things to look at is how you store your cleaning equipment
when you are not using it. Brushes and brooms which are stored poorly can have
bristles bent out of shape and therefore will not be as effective when you next use
them. In some cases, it may be better to stand them up with the brush head at the
top, like paint brushes.