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Every day society is invaded by hundreds of thousands of savages, (in

America alone, we are confronted with close to 10,000 of these

"savages" everyday). Who are these people? Infants. (Alimentary canal
with a lot of noise at one end and utter irresponsibility at the other
(Bierstedt)). The dilemma that all societies face is how to turn these
savages into, considerate, independent, moral human beings. How does
society accomplish this formidable task? (Not always successfully, of
course)-- through the process we call socialization.
Socialization Defined:

"Socialization" is defined as the process by which we acquire our social

identities and internalize the values, norms, statuses, and roles of the
social world. [Schaefer: "Socialization is the process whereby people
learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as
members of a particular culture" (p. 58).
Another word for learn is, "internalize." To sociologists, the social world
around us is real-- as real as any physical object in the environment.
(This stems from Durkheim and his Rules of Sociological Method,
where he defined social facts as real entities to be studied).
The text book stresses that the process of socialization occurs through
interaction (p. 58). --But, we do become socialized without social
interaction, (as the term is defined). Examples: books, radio, television-the latter especially. Effects of violence on TV on behavior of children?
Types of Socialization:

Primary-- during the early years of life. The teaching of language and
other cognitive skills.
Anticipatory-- learning which is directed toward one's future roles.
College, Trade School, Law School, Medical School.

Developmental Socialization-- new learning is added to and blended

with old in a relatively smooth and continuous process of development.
Reverse Socialization-- the younger generation transfers knowledge to
the older generation. This occurs mostly in industrial societies where the
pace of technological change is very rapid, a good example is children
teaching their parents how to use computers. Here are some other
immigrant families
rapid social change in the 60's requiring a revision of old attitudes
about race, sex, etc.
technological growth
modernizing countries that send their youth to industrialized
nations to bring back knowledge

Resocialization-- this involves a sharp break with the past. The military
is a good example. --"Officer and a Gentleman" -- the military, prisons,
religious cults, etc.
Some Key Features of Socialization:

Socialization differs markedly from society to society with regard to

what people become because the values and norms are quite different.
Urie Bronfenbrenner; Two Worlds of Childhood. Describes some
of the child-rearing practices in the former Soviet Union.
Everything was oriented towards the group and cooperation. In
the United States individual competition is evident and children
are praised for their efforts in the classroom. (In some cases, the
class roll is posted and children are given stars for attendance,
mastering multiplication tables, etc.). Bronfenbrenner describes a

different situation in soviet classrooms. Children are grouped

according to rows and each row is called a "link." Children's
work is evaluated as a group or "link" effort. Slackers are publicly
confronted by groups of students. This illustrates how in the
former USSR emphasis was placed upon the group and group
conformity which contrasts with the United States where we stress
individual excellence and independence.
Socialization differs also by subculture-- for example the rich vs the
poor-- whether you learn to ride polo ponies or bowl; sail a yacht, paddle
a canoe through white water rapids, or troll for bass in your 18' motor
boat with the 300 HP Evenrude outboard.
Socialization can also differ by region-- whether you call it the "War of
the Great Rebellion," or "The War for Southern Independence against
Northern Aggression," for example.
Socialization is an on-going, life-long process-- It never stops. (But
most research indicates that socialization that takes place during infancy
and childhood is most important).
Socialization is a critical process-- It enables society to reproduce itself
socially as well as biologically. It is what enables the United States, for
example, to be passed down from generation to generation. If we didn't
succeed in socializing our children into accepting our values, beliefs,
norms, institutions, customs, roles, etc., our nation and the principles
behind it would quickly vanish. In many respects, the most important
thing we will do in our lifetime will be to socialize our children.
Socialization is the process through which we develop our own
individual personalities: Our cognitive beliefs, perceptions, intellectual
concepts of how the world is put together.
Einstein-- the theory of relativity came out of the social
environment in which he was educated. The British, from the
Newtonian School focused on absolutes; The concept of relativity
(in philosophy and the sociology of knowledge) was "foreign" to
them. Einstein, on the other hand spent several years at the Vienna
where the question of relativity in philosophy was a heated topic
of discussion. It was logical for him to apply it to physics when

attempting to explain deviances which Newtonian physics could

not account for.

Our emotional character, of showing love, hate, excitement, pride,

etc. are all obtained through socialization. (Kissing or rubbing

Our behavioral skills and aptitudes are acquired through

socialization. (Hunting with a bow and arrow or designing rocket
Socialization: nature or nurture?
Don't confuse this with the question of free will, both views can be be
determinist. (We can be locked into a behavior pattern just as effectively
through socialization as we can be through genetic make-up). What
influences who or what we become? (We've already said something
about this when we discussed culture).
o Biology sets some limitations, obviously. (Men can't have babies.
Short people won't do as well on the basket ball court as tall ones.
Shorter people may tend to run faster on long distance runs, etc.).

o Culture and the social structure of society, on the other hand, sets
up the general rules and positions (to be filled). Basically they set
forth the opportunities. They make it important to be tall, short,

The key question: "Which is more important in determining what we

become: nature (heredity) or nurture (environment)? This question is
critical because of the socio-political outcomes it will produce. The

stance that society takes regarding this question determines the degree of
freedom allowed its citizens.
For example, if people in power take a herediteranian view, the
implication is that certain classes are superior or inferior to others
genetically. (Society may try to rectify this through drastic measures
such as extermination or forced sterilization, or it may simply restrict
opportunity by closing out education and certain jobs to those believed
to be inferior). The implication of this "nature" argument, is that society
can do little to help these disadvantaged people beyond measures
designed to keep them out of the way of the more "capable" members of
society? Head start, affirmative action, and similar pro grams are,
according to this view a waste of money that could be better spent
The political implications of environment are very different. Here the
argument is that genetic ability is of secondary importance. If society
could equalize the social conditions that people face-- open up
opportunity to everyone-- the kinds of serious social problems present
today would be minimized. People "fail" because of the way the system
is set up. Ghetto kids, for example, come into contact with bad
influences, and their parents can't help them. Their trapped -- inadequate
schools, poor home environment.
This theme has been popular in books and film for many years:
The 1938 British movie, "Pygmalion," with Leslie Howard and
Wendy Hiller addresses this issue directly. (The Englishmen have
a wager between them over whether or not they can turn an
unpolished lower class girl into a society person). Later (1964)
that story was made into an Oscar-winning motion picture, a
musical entitled, "My Fair Lady," with Rex Harrison and Audrey
Hepburn. (Harrison won the Oscar for best actor) Today we use
the term, "Pygmaleon Effect" to refer to sitations where people do
well by virtue of the fact that they are predicted to do well.

Another, more recent example is the movie, Trading Places,

starring Dan Akroyd and Eddie Murphy. Dan Akroyd is the rich,
Harvard-educated, successful young business man (stock analyst).
Eddie Murphy is the street bum, derelict, begging for money. A

wager is made by two rich brothers for whom Akroyd works. (Is it
nature or is it Nurture?) Will the right environment turn a street
bum into a corporate prince? In the movie we are lead to believe
that it will.
John B. Watson (1878-1958) called the father of American Psychology
for his role in the development of behaviorism once boasted: "Give me a
dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring
them up in, and I'll guarantee to take any one [of them] at random and
train him to become any type of specialist I might select-- doctor, lawyer,
artist, merchant, chief, and yes, even beggar and thief, regardless of his
talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his
ancestors." -- Fortunately, ethics prevented anyone from taking up his
This is a simplistic view! We can't train anybody to be a pro baseball
player, quarterback; nor can most people become doctors, nuclear
physicists, or fashion models. Nature, as we have said, sets limits on
what we can become, while nurture (society) determines what potentials
we can tap-- society puts certain values on certain skills. We are a
product of the complex interaction between nature and nurture. Here are
some examples:
In selecting talent: Take the top 25% of an 11th grade class.
Studies have shown that for those from lower class families, only
50% go on to college. Compare this to the figure of 90% for those
kids from upper class families. Now, among the weaker students-those not in the top 25% of their high school class, from low
income families, only 6% go on to college; from high income
families, the corresponding figure is 26% -- and we haven't even
addressed the questin of the type of college, and quality of

I.Q. tests are supposed to measure innate intelligence-- the

capacity to learn... but do they? The Pygmaleon Effect: Rosenthal
and Jackobsen (1968) did an experiment in which they tested all
the students in an elementary school for I.Q. They then randomly
selected a group of elementary school students and told their

teachers that these pupils were "late bloomers," and would spurt
ahead in the upcoming school year. (This was a concocted story.
No tests were given that even remotely indi cated this). One year
later they tested all the students again and, miraculously, these
students all did much better on the I.Q. tests. Why? What
happened? These students showed marked improvement over the
other students because of the teachers' expectations. They
expected more out of the "special" group of students and gave
them more attention. (The patterns of interaction were different).
The teachers expected more out of these children and got it. The
Pygmaleon effect has some frightening implications for the way
children are educated. It's not purely an objective system.

Measuring the Influence of Biology vs Environment:

Identical twin studies: Genetically the same, but reared in separate
environments. (Sociobiologists point to the many similarities among
such twins). A recent study of identical twins revealed some fascinating
similarities-- when two brothers who were separated at birth were
married; to whom they were married; hobbies; etc. But they also
reveilled some interesting dissimilarities, too. So the question is still
unsettled. Culture and the social environment did produce some
significant differences. Schaefer points out that identical twins separated
at birth but raised in similar environments are remarkably similar-however, those raised in very different environments show marked
Birth order in families: Siblings are genetically similar, yet they
become quite different people. It has been shown that position in the
family (birth order) can determine personality traits. Oldest: bossy,
guilt-ridden, over-achiever; Middle: good manipulators, negotiators,
rule younger brothers and sisters; battle with older sibs for influence and
attention; Youngest: spoiled, adventuresome, laid-back
Isolation; total institutions and shaping personality:
Animal studies:

Monkeys: The famous Harlow studies-- took infants away from

moms-- those raised in isolation became warped, frightened,
histile, anti social. Impregnated females would not care for their
young and abused them.

Geese: this is somewhat different. Conrad Lorenz learned that

there is a critical time period after Goslings (and other birds)
hatch when they "identify" their parents" -- imprinting. Anything
that happens to be infront of them at that critical time will be their
parents. (A dog, cat, human, etc.). Thus, "Biology sets the stage,
but circumstance determines the results."
Humans: Fortunately, we can't repeat Harlow's experiments using
children because we recognize the ethical problems of such research!
But there are occasions in the past that have provided some insight:
Tragic experiment of Friedrich II in the 13th century. He arranged
to have children raised with a minimum of social contact and
social interaction. He felt that in this "pure" state, free from
corrupting influences of his times, man-- the noble beast in man
would emerge. What language would he speak? Hebrew? Greek?
Latin? Experiment was a failure. Without love and attention the
children all died.

Kingsley Davis' studies of children raised in isolation:

Anna: illegitimate-- grandfather kept her in an attic for 6

years. By the age of 10 she had reached the level of
socialization of a 2- 3 year old. Anna died at the age of 10
--(Hit by a car).

o could speak simple words and phrases

o could play with building blocks

o was able to wash hands
o would follow simple directions

Isabelle: Grandfather kept her and her deaf-mute mother in

a dark room. Isabelle, unlike Anna, had physical contact
with another human being; When she was found she hated
men, behaved like an animal, and was believed to be deaf
and retarded (but, in fact was not).

A trained team of doctors and psychologists-- helped

her spurt through the stages of development. By the
age of 8.5 she had reached a normal level of
development for a child of her chronological age.
Why? Because of the social interaction with mother
while she was growing up.

Genie-- 1970; 13-year old girl was discovered-- She had

been confined in room (basically alone) since tha age of 20
months. People would not speak to her, kept her isolated
from interaction-- she never could speak as a normal child
world, despite intensive attempts at therapy.
Socialization and Personality Development
It is believed that infants have no knowledge of anything beyond their
immediate physical needs. They react to physical sensation.
Feel pain in their stomachs-- but do not "know" that they're

They do not know anything about themselves: male or female;

white or brown skinned; blue or brown-eyed; kind or mean;
smart or ignorant
They don't have any notion of self or of personality. What is
personality? Personality is simply an individual's typical patterns of
attitudes and behaviors recognized by the individual and by others. There
are basically three components to personality:
The cognitive: what we think, perceive, and remember.
A Behaviorial component: our abilities, talents, and skills.
An Emotional component: feelings, love, hate, sympathy, anger.

Much of our personality is a reflection of our culture. Personalities will

differ according to culture as the following examples indicate:
Yanomamo Indians of Brazil encourage children to strike parents
as a means of expressing anger.
One New Guinea tribe, the Mundugumor, are a fierce and
aggressive people-- always fighting.
Another New Guinea tribe, the Arapesh, encourage passivity and
cooperation abong members.
Still, each member of a society has a unique and different personality
Sociological Theories of Personality Development
Symbolic Interaction; (focuses on human beings interacting in everyday
life). People interact by communicating with each other using symbols
which have shared meanings. The point is that these shared symbols
allow interaction and communication and make socialization possible.
Animals communicate, but only we humans have language.

Charles Horton Cooley, (1864-1929):

Cooley developed the concept of the "looking glass self" -- our image of
outselves can come only from our interaction within society. There can
be no "I" until there's a "they." The "they" is all the people in the society
in which we live. at first they are our parents, family, and other primary
groups. Later the "they" becomes our teachers, peers, employers, pastors,
We imagine how others see us. We, ourselves are always the result of
how we look to others. We gradually build up an image of ourselves
from the notions of thoers' opinions of us -- the "looking glass self."
Example: A little girl is told from the very first years of her life
that she is intelligent-- she will come to see herself as a very
bright little girl-- she will internalize the picture of herself that all
the people with whom she interacts reflect. She will think and act
as if it were true, even if she is only of average intelligence. Now,
what happens when she interacts with another set of "others" (a
different primary group from the one she's been associating with
since birth-- her schoolmates, for example)? The first days of
elementary school are very stress-producing, as we all know. No
longer is our little girl so smart - she's just part of the crowd. How
many of you have felt the same thing? What about your first year
of college? What did that do for your selfimage? Bright star in
High School-- interstellar void in college.
Cooley said that there are three components of the "looking-glass self":
our perceptions of how we appear to others
our perceptions of how others judge us
our feelings about those judgements

George Herbert Mead, (1863-1931)

Another symbolic interactionist, philosopher and social psychologist)

Mead said that the self has two parts: the "I" and the "me." Mead
claimed that the "me" accounts for similarities between people while the
"I" accounts for differencs between people.

The "I" is the part of the self that is innate-- containing the
spontaneous, natural, creative, special aspects of one's self.

The "me" is the part of the self that's socialized-- the part that has
internalized the values, norms, statuses, roles of society. The "I"
represents our inner demands, while the "me" represents the
societal demands.
The first people who impose restrictions on the "I" are called significant
others. We can also call them "role models." But there is a subtle
difference. role models are people whom we tend to admire. (Also
people whom we would like to please). Examples: girls---mom; boys--dad.
Reference Groups: These are groups of people whom are meaningful in
the development of the self.
Example: Girl who wants to become an actress-- her reference
group will be actresses, in general. (She may subscribe to the
trade journals; read everything that has to do with the field of
drama, watch all the movies, etc.).

Another example: Boy wants to become a Army Officer-- builds

models of tanks, reads la lot of military history, tours the Military
Academy, etc.

Here are some examples which demonstrate this further and

illustrate the difference between reference groups and role models.
Within each of the examples given above, there may be a specific
person-- a personal hero-- whom a boy or girl holds as an ideal to
aspire to. In the case of the actress, it may be Jodi Foster or Jane
Fonda. In the caseof the army officer, it might be George Patton or
George MacArthur. Specific people are role models.
Of course, there is a process involved in all of this: Mead said that the
imitation of role models involves role taking: we put ourselves in the
place of a role model. In doing this, we can anticipate the response we
will get to our behavior and we can see how we appear to the other
(person) and modify our behavior accordingly. Examples: Children
playing "house," "doctor and nurse," "war." Now, as the child grows
older, its world enlarges and "others" (significant others), become more
numerous. Gradually, what Mead calls the "generalized other," becomes
real to them. (The generalized other is akin to the greater society itself).
Through repeated role taking, people begin to assimilate the values of
the whole society-- community values become set in their minds.
Significant others are real persons.
The generalized other represents societal values.
What is the process of socialization like to symbolic interactionists like
Cooley and Mead? It is a gradual process whereby we slowly (and
realtively painlessly) assimialte the values of society. Surely, it it is not a
completely painless process-- there are disapointments--we can't all
become what we want to be and the inner demands of the "I" must
sometimes be frustrated by the social "me" which must mediate them,
but still, the process is gradual and the pain of adjustment will be
mediated by time.
Psychological Theories of Personality Development
Psychology focuses on the individual and therefore much of what
follows looks at internal processes within the mind as they affect

socialization. However, the discipline of psychology does not ignore

external factors in the socialization process. Infact. there is a whole
school, "social psychology" that has, ineffect, blended the disciplines of
sociology and psychology.
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Sigmund Freud (1856-1938): Unlike Cooley and Mead who viewed
socialization as a process that gradually brought society and the
individual into allignment or harmony with eachother, Freud saw society
and the individual as being in constant conflict. He did not see the
individual a social product as did Cooley and Mead, but was interested
in the constraints that society placed on the natural impulses of people.
To Freud, socialization was forced on the individual and the individual
tried to resist the rules of society thoroughout his life.
Freud's Components of the Personality:

To Freud, the infant was; self-centered; always seeking personal

pleasure; aggressive; amoral; egocentric. He further argued that there
were three components to the personality; the id, ego, and superego.
From the very beginning, parents force their will on the pleasureseeking ID, or the unconscious part of the personality which has
desires of various sorts --hunger, sex, pleasure, etc. and seeks
immediate satisfaction of these desires. For example on the new
infant they impose such rigors as feeding schedules and toilet
training to name a few.

Since children need love and approval (and also are weaker than
their parents), they try to obey these demands-- They develop
an EGO. The ego is the rational part of the personality. (Don't
confuse it with a sense of right and wrong or conscience). The ego
realizes that the person will be punished for violating the norms of

society so it attempts to satisfy the demands of the id in ways that

are acceptable to society. Example, the id is frustrated and wants
child to strike parents, but ego realizes that this is not a "wise"
move and, instead, the child strikes her doll.

Around the age of five, the child begins to realize just how
enormous the power is that society and his/her parents hold over
him/her. Children actually become fearful of the punishments
which could result from the id's aggressive and sexual impulses.
The conscience develops. This is what Freud would call the
"SUPEREGO." The superego actually tries to suppress the id. It
represents the social constraints (now internalized by the
individual) whereas the id represents uncontrolled inner desires.
(Now the ego, which before only had to worry about controlling
the id and channeling its desires into socially acceptable measures
of behavior, has to contend with the on-going struggle between
the id and superego. It tries to moderate the two).

Example: Child wants cookie. Id says, "Go for it! Get it

now! Don't pussyfoot around!" Superego says, "No!
It's wrong to be greedy and want that cookie! Give it to the
starving kids in developing nations!" Ego says, "You'd
better ask mom for it. If she says it's OK, then you can eat

The Theory of Psycho-Sexual Development:

Freud proposed that children passed through several stages as they grew.
It was important that they negotiate each of these stages successfully-- if
not, they would experience difficulties later in life. The particular
problem in the adult personality could be traced to the strage of
development that the child was "frustrated" in. Here are some greatly
simplified examples:

During the oral stage, babies receive gratification by the

stimulation of their gums and mouths (pacifiers). Adults who
display traits of excessive drinking or compulsive eating, Freud
would argue, were frustrated at this oral stage.

During the anal stage, babies and young children (up to the age of
about three) obtain pleasure through excretory activity. Adults
who are stingy, stubborn, or generally compulsive were frustrated
at this stage of development.

Later on, during the phallic stage, the area of pleasure shifts to the
sex organs. Young children are attracted toward the parent of the
opposite sex. (In females we call this the electra complex. In
males, it is the Oedipus complex). According to Freud, both boys
and girls suffer from what he called the castration complex. Boys
fear that they will be castrated. Girls fear they already have been
castrated. Freud claimed that children would mature only by
resolving this complex. If not, they could become "fixated" or
"delayed" or have their interests shift from one object to the other
which might impede sexual maturity. Frustration experienced
during the phallic stage could lead to serious problems in
personality adjustment and interpersonal relationships.

Erik Erikson's Eight Life Stages:

Erikson, a psychologist, was one of Freud's students. He expanded and

integrated Freud's theories and also the theories of Cooley and Mead. He
was one of the first to write about socialization as it occurs throughout
life. Erikson theorized eight stages of development for humans. Each
stage brings about physiological changes and new social situations. The
individual must adapt to these changes and experiences a crisis at each
stage. Erikson's theory places heavy emphasis on the early stages of
life-- Stages I through IV, (ages 0 through 11) because they set the stage

for the rest of one's life. However, he maintains we have many chances
to alter our lives and that the detrimental effects of one stage can be offset by adjustments at later stages.
Stage I: (1 year) (Infancy) Trust vs Mistrust: Children are
totally dependent upon adults. If their needs are met with warmth
and love, kids develop a feeling of trust-- there is security,
reliability, comfort in the world. On the other hand, if their needs
are not met or people caring for them are not dependable and
affectionate, kids develop mistrust-- the world is a frightening,
suspicious, insecure place.

Stage II: (2+3 yrs) Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: Kids

learn how to walk, talk, climb, open and close things, control their
bodily functions. If parents allow children freedom to try and even
to fail, they will gain confidence that they can control their lives-autonomy. But, if parents are critical, impatient, and overprotective, the child develops a sense of shame and doubt in his

Stage III (4+5 yrs) Initiative vs. Guilt: Children at this stage,
try to extend their abilities, explore, initate, exploit opportunities
and try new adventures. If parents praise children's efforts, and
courage them to find out about the world on their own, kids
develop feelings of self-worth and initiative. However, if kids are
punished and ridiculed for their failures in these attempts, they
develop feelings of guilt. (This will determine whether they
should try to become leaders).

Stage IV: (6-11 yrs) Industry vs Inferiority: (Elementary

school). The social setting of the school replaces that of the home.
Children get rewards for following the rules. If they are praised in
their attempts to learn about the world and to develop talents to
live in it successfully, they will acquire a sense of industry. But, if

they do poorly in school and are not encuraged in their studies,

they will develop a sense of inferiority.

Stage V: (12-18 yrs) Identity vs Role Confusion: Young people

draw upon all past experiences in order to develop a sense of self.
The "looking glass self" is very important as the adolescent relies
upon peers for his/her own self-image. If the adolescent cn
understand the aspects of his or herself, the ego is strengthened
and a sense of identity develops-- a clearly defined "self." Youth
will know who they are, where they're going, their goals and what
they can do. However if adolescents arrive at this point with
feelings of mistrust, doubt, shame, guilt, or inferiority, they can't
integrate personalities and role confusion results. The self will be
hazy-- ill defined.

Stage VI: (young adulthood) Intimacy vs Isolation: Learning

to make close friends, falling in love, starting families--- If young
adults have acquired all the positive traits from the previous
stages, they will be able to share and give themselves without
fear-- this is intimacy. However, if they have acquired negative
self- feelings from the past stages, there will be isolation-- the
inability to get close to others.

Stage VII: (middle age) Generativity vs Self- absorption: At

this stage, life is moving on and there is little possibility to change
direction. People will be comcerned with those outside their
immediate world -- the welfare of the younger generation, for
example, what Erikson calls generativity, if they feel that they,
themselves have led useful, productive lives. On the other hand,
people who believe that their lives have been a failure will fail to
establish a sense of generativity and instead exhibit, selfabsorption.

Stage VIII: (old age) Integrity vs Dispair: Elderly people must

come to terms with death. Integrity gives a person the ability to
look back on his or her life with satisfaction and self-acceptance-recognizing that there have been good times, bad times, joy and
pain. Despair results when a person sees hislife as a series of
failures and disappointments and realizes that it's too late to
change anything.

Developmental theory:
Jean Piaget developed and articulated a highly respected and influential
theory of cognitive development. What do we mean by "cognitive"?
Cognitive abilities are intellectual abilities, (perceiving, remembering,
reasoning, calculating, believing). It places emphasis on the internal
processes of the mind as it matures through interaction with the social
environment. Piaget showed that human beings gradually passed
through a series of stages of cognitive development. (One of the ways he
did this was to study children playing games and see how the rules
developed). There were four stages to his model:
Stage I; SENSORI-MOTOR (0-2 years): Infants are not rulebound because they can't understand and are not aware of the
world up to 8 months. After that they are aware that ther's
something out there but can't understand the rules.

Stage II; PRE-OPERATIONAL STAGE (2-7 years): At this

stage, children can't hadnle concepts of speed, weight, number,
quality, causality; When you give them two glasses of water, tallthin one and short fat one, they will always say the taller glass has
more water in it because it is taller, even when the volume of
water in the short glass is clearly greater. More importantly, from
our point of view, children at this stage can't take the roles of
another-- can't understand the feelings of others, nor do they care
to understand. They're very egocentric.


this stage, thinking is tied to the concrete world--- real situations,
not abstract ones. Kids begin to see the "world out there" and
society as something imposed from the outside-- morality in
society exists an is unchangeable-- it is imposed upon them and
they must obey. Children feel that they must obey the rules, but do
not feel that they have to believe in them.


this stage formal, abstract thought is obtained). Abstract personal
goals-- utopian social conditions-- "adolescent idealism." Young
adults come to realize tht the rules are good for all members of the
group. Rules are necessary for the existence of the social order.
However, they also realize that rules are made by mutual consent
and can be changed by mutual consent.

Agencies of Socialization:
There are many:
Family-- earliest and most important; also gives us social status.
School-- gives us many of the values of the larger society.
Peer Group-- a place where we can challenge many of the values
of our family and the school.
Mass Media-- 95% of American homes have a T.V. set.
Secondary Groups-- religious, company we work for, military,
political parties, the police, etc.