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ArthurConanDoyle
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

"ConanDoyle"redirectshere.Fortherugbyplayer,seeConanDoyle(rugbyunion).
SirArthurIgnatiusConanDoyleKStJ,DL(22May18597July

SirArthurConanDoyle

1930)wasanIrishScotswriterandphysician,mostnotedforcreating

KStJ,DL

thefictionaldetectiveSherlockHolmesandwritingstoriesabouthim
whicharegenerallyconsideredmilestonesinthefieldofcrimefiction.
Heisalsoknownforwritingthefictionaladventuresofasecond
characterheinvented,ProfessorChallenger,andforpopularisingthe
mysteryoftheMaryCeleste.Hewasaprolificwriterwhoseother
worksincludefantasyandsciencefictionstories,plays,romances,
poetry,nonfictionandhistoricalnovels.
Contents[hide]
1 Name
2 Earlylife
3 Medicalcareer
4 Literarycareer
4.1 SherlockHolmes
4.2 Otherworks

Born

ArthurIgnatiusConanDoyle
22May1859
Edinburgh,Scotland

Died

7July1930(aged71)
Crowborough,Sussex,England

Occupation

Novelistshortstorywriterpoet,
physician

Nationality

Scottish

Citizenship

UnitedKingdom

Almamater

UniversityofEdinburghMedical
School

Genre

Detectivefictionfantasyscience
fictionhistoricalnovelsnon
fiction

Notable
works

StoriesofSherlockHolmes
TheLostWorld

Spouse

LouisaHawkins(m.1885
1906)
JeanLeckie(m.19071930)

Children

Five

5 Sportingcareer
6 Personallife
7 Politicalcampaigning
8 Justiceadvocate
9 Spiritualism,Freemasonry
10 Death
11 Honoursandawards
12 Bibliography
13 Seealso
14 References
15 Furtherreading
16 Externallinks

Name

[ edit ]

Doyleisoftenreferredtoas"SirArthurConanDoyle"orsimply
"ConanDoyle"(implyingthatConanispartofacompoundsurname,
asopposedtohisgivenmiddlename).Hisbaptismentryinthe

Signature

registerofStMary'sCathedral,Edinburghgives"ArthurIgnatius
Conan"ashisgivennames,and"Doyle"ashissurname.ItalsonamesMichaelConanashisgodfather.[1]The
cataloguersoftheBritishLibraryandtheLibraryofCongresstreat"Doyle"aloneashissurname.[2]
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StevenDoyle,editoroftheBakerStreetJournal,haswritten:"ConanwasArthur'smiddlename.Shortlyafterhe
graduatedfromhighschoolhebeganusingConanasasortofsurname.Buttechnicallyhislastnameissimply
'Doyle'."[3]Whenknighted,hewasgazettedasDoyle,notunderthecompoundConanDoyle.[4]Nevertheless,the
actualuseofacompoundsurnameisdemonstratedbythefactthatDoyle'ssecondwifewasknownas"Jean
ConanDoyle"ratherthan"JeanDoyle".[5]

Earlylife

[ edit ]

ArthurIgnatiusConanDoylewasbornon22May1859at11PicardyPlace,Edinburgh,Scotland.[6][7]His
father,CharlesAltamontDoyle,wasEnglish,ofIrishCatholicdescent,andhismother,Mary(neFoley),wasIrish
Catholic.Hisparentsmarriedin1855.[8]In1864thefamilydispersedduetoCharles'sgrowingalcoholismandthe
childrenweretemporarilyhousedacrossEdinburgh.In1867,thefamilycametogetheragainandlivedin
squalidtenementflatsat3SciennesPlace.[9]Doyle'sfatherdiedin1893,intheCrichtonRoyal,Dumfries,after
manyyearsofpsychiatricillness.[10][11]
Supportedbywealthyuncles,DoylewassenttotheJesuitpreparatoryschoolHodderPlace,Stonyhurst,atthe
ageofnine(186870).HethenwentontoStonyhurstCollegeuntil1875.From1875to1876,hewaseducatedat
theJesuitschoolStellaMatutinainFeldkirch,Austria.[9]HelaterrejectedtheCatholicfaithandbecome
anagnostic.[12]Healsolaterbecameaspiritualistmystic.[13]

Medicalcareer

[ edit ]

From1876to1881hestudiedmedicineattheUniversityofEdinburghMedical
School,includingperiodsworkinginAston(thenatowninWarwickshire,nowpart
ofBirmingham),SheffieldandRuytonXITowns,Shropshire.[14]Duringthattime
hestudiedpracticalbotanyattheRoyalBotanicGardeninEdinburgh.[15]While
studying,Doylebeganwritingshortstories.Hisearliestextantfiction,"The
HauntedGrangeofGoresthorpe",wasunsuccessfullysubmittedtoBlackwood's
Magazine.[9]Hisfirstpublishedpiece,"TheMysteryofSasassaValley",astory
setinSouthAfrica,wasprintedinChambers'sEdinburghJournalon6
September1879.[9][16]On20September1879,hepublishedhisfirstacademic
article,"GelsemiumasaPoison"intheBritishMedicalJournal,[9][17][18]astudy
whichtheDailyTelegraphregardedaspotentiallyusefulina21stcentury
allegedmurderinvestigation.[19]
DoylewasemployedasadoctorontheGreenlandwhalerHopeofPeterheadin
1880[20]and,afterhisgraduationfromuniversityin1881asM.B.,C.M.,asa

PortraitofDoylebyHerbert
RoseBarraud,1893

ship'ssurgeonontheSSMayumbaduringavoyagetotheWestAfrican
coast.[9]HecompletedhisM.D.degree(anadvanceddegreeinScotlandbeyondtheusualmedicaldegrees)on
thesubjectoftabesdorsalisin1885.[21]
In1882hejoinedformerclassmateGeorgeTurnavineBuddashispartneratamedicalpracticeinPlymouth,but
theirrelationshipproveddifficult,andDoylesoonlefttosetupanindependentpractice.[9][22]Arriving
inPortsmouthinJune1882withlessthan10(900today[23])tohisname,hesetupamedicalpracticeat1Bush
VillasinElmGrove,Southsea.[24]Thepracticewasinitiallynotverysuccessful.Whilewaitingforpatients,Doyle
againbeganwritingfiction.
In1890DoylestudiedophthalmologyinVienna,andmovedtoLondon,firstlivinginMontaguePlaceandthenin
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SouthNorwood.HesetupapracticeasanophthalmologistatNo.2UpperWimpoleSt,LondonW1(thenknown
as2DevonshirePlace).[25](AWestminsterCouncilplaqueinplaceoverthefrontdoorcanbeseentoday.)

Literarycareer

[ edit ]

SherlockHolmes

[ edit ]

Doylestruggledtofindapublisherforhiswork.HisfirstworkfeaturingSherlock
HolmesandDr.Watson,AStudyinScarlet,wastakenbyWardLock&Coon20
November1886,givingDoyle25(2500today)forallrightstothestory.The
pieceappearedoneyearlaterintheBeeton'sChristmasAnnualandreceived
goodreviewsinTheScotsmanandtheGlasgowHerald.[9]
HolmeswaspartiallymodelledonhisformeruniversityteacherJosephBell.In
1892,inalettertoBell,Doylewrote,"ItismostcertainlytoyouthatIowe
SherlockHolmes...roundthecentreofdeductionandinferenceandobservation
whichIhaveheardyouinculcateIhavetriedtobuildupaman."[26]and,inhis
1924autobiography,heremarked,"Itisnowonderthatafterthestudyofsucha
character[viz.,Bell]IusedandamplifiedhismethodswheninlaterlifeItriedto
buildupascientificdetectivewhosolvedcasesonhisownmeritsandnot
throughthefollyofthecriminal.[27]RobertLouisStevensonwasable,evenin

PortraitofSherlockHolmes
bySidneyPaget,1904

farawaySamoa,torecognisethestrongsimilaritybetweenJosephBelland
SherlockHolmes:"MycomplimentsonyourveryingeniousandveryinterestingadventuresofSherlockHolmes....
canthisbemyoldfriendJoeBell?"[28]Otherauthorssometimessuggestadditionalinfluencesforinstance,the
famousEdgarAllanPoecharacterC.AugusteDupin.[29]Dr.(John)Watsonoweshissurname,butnotanyother
obviouscharacteristic,toaPortsmouthmedicalcolleagueofDoyle's,DrJamesWatson.[30]
AsequeltoAStudyinScarletwascommissionedandTheSignoftheFourappearedinLippincott'sMagazinein
February1890,underagreementwiththeWardLockcompany.DoylefeltgrievouslyexploitedbyWardLockasan
authornewtothepublishingworldandheleftthem.[9]ShortstoriesfeaturingSherlockHolmeswerepublishedin
theStrandMagazine.DoylewrotethefirstfiveHolmesshortstoriesfromhisofficeat2UpperWimpoleStreet
(thenknownasDevonshirePlace),whichisnowmarkedbyamemorialplaque.[31]
Doyle'sattitudetowardshismostfamouscreationwasambivalent.[30]In
November1891hewrotetohismother:"IthinkofslayingHolmes,...andwinding
himupforgoodandall.Hetakesmymindfrombetterthings."Hismother
responded,"Youwon't!Youcan't!Youmustn't!"[32]Inanattempttodeflect
publishers'demandsformoreHolmesstories,heraisedhispricetoalevel
intendedtodiscouragethem,butfoundtheywerewillingtopayeventhelarge
sumsheasked.[30]Asaresult,hebecameoneofthebestpaidauthorsofhis
time.
InDecember1893,todedicatemoreofhistimetohishistoricalnovels,Doyle
hadHolmesandProfessorMoriartyplungetotheirdeathstogetherdown
theReichenbachFallsinthestory"TheFinalProblem".Publicoutcry,however,
ledhimtofeatureHolmesin1901inthenovelTheHoundoftheBaskervilles.
In1903,DoylepublishedhisfirstHolmesshortstoryintenyears,TheAdventure
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SherlockHolmesstatuein
Edinburgh,erectedoppositethe
birthplaceofDoyle,whichwas
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oftheEmptyHouse,inwhichitwasexplainedthatonlyMoriartyhadfallenbut

demolishedc.1970

sinceHolmeshadotherdangerousenemiesespeciallyColonelSebastian
Moranhehadarrangedtoalsobeperceivedasdead.Holmeswasultimatelyfeaturedinatotalof56short
storiesthelastpublishedin1927andfournovelsbyDoyle,andhassinceappearedinmanynovelsandstories
byotherauthors.
JaneStanfordcomparessomeofMoriarty'scharacteristicstothoseoftheFenianJohnO'ConnorPower.'The
FinalProblem'waspublishedtheyeartheSecondHomeRuleBillpassedthroughtheHouseofCommons.'The
ValleyofFear'wasserialisedin1914,theyearHomeRule,theGovernmentofIrelandAct(18September)was
placedontheStatuteBook.[33]

Otherworks

[ edit ]

Doyle'sfirstnovelswereTheMysteryofCloomber,notpublisheduntil1888,andtheunfinishedNarrativeofJohn
Smith,publishedonlyin2011.[34]Heamassedaportfolioofshortstoriesincluding"TheCaptainofthePoleStar"
and"J.HabakukJephson'sStatement",bothinspiredbyDoyle'stimeatsea.Thelatterpopularisedthemysteryof
theMaryCeleste[35]andaddedfictionaldetailssuchastheperfectconditionoftheship(whichhadactuallytaken
onwaterbythetimeitwasdiscovered)anditsboatsremainingonboard(theoneboatwasinfactmissing)that
havecometodominatepopularaccountsoftheincident.[9][35]Doyle'sspellingoftheship'snameasMarie
Celestehasbecomecommonerineverydayusethantheoriginalform.[36]
Between1888and1906,Doylewrotesevenhistoricalnovels,whichheandmanycriticsregardedashisbest
work.[30]Healsoauthorednineothernovels,andlaterinhiscareer(191229)fivestories,twoofnovellalength,
featuringtheirasciblescientistProfessorChallenger.TheChallengerstoriesincludewhatisprobablyhisbest
knownworkaftertheHolmesoeuvre,TheLostWorld.Hewasaprolificauthorofshortstories,includingtwo
collectionssetinNapoleonictimesfeaturingtheFrenchcharacterBrigadierGerard.
Doyle'sstageworksincludeWaterloo,thereminiscencesofanEnglishveteranoftheNapoleonicWars,the
characterofGregoryBrewsterbeingwrittenforHenryIrvingTheHouseofTemperley,theplotofwhichreflects
hisabidinginterestofboxingTheSpeckledBand,aftertheshortstoryofthatnameandthe1893collaboration
withJ.M.BarrieonthelibrettoofJaneAnnie.[37]
DoylewasknownasSpiritualism'sAmbassador,apassionthatwasstartedin1873whenhejoinedtheSocietyof
PsychicalResearch.HispassionforSpiritualismisreflectedinhiswritingduringthelatterpartofhislife.Nineteen
ofSirArthur'soversixtybooksareaboutSpiritualism.Theyinclude:TheNewRevelation(1918),LifeAfterDeath
(1918),TheVitalMessage(1919),SpiritualismandRationalism(1920),TheWanderingsofaSpiritualist
(1921),TheComingoftheFairies(1922),TheCaseforSpiritPhotography(1922),OurAmericanAdventure
(1923),OurSecondAmericanAdventure(1924),Spiritualist'sReader(1924),MemoriesandAdventures(1924),
TheEarlyChristianChurchandModernSpiritualism(1925),TheLandofMist(1926,fiction),TheHistoryof
Spiritualism,intwovolumes(1926),PheneasSpeaks.DirectSpiritCommunicationintheFamilyCircle(1927),Our
AfricanWinter(1929),TheEdgeoftheUnknown(1930).

Sportingcareer

[ edit ]

WhilelivinginSouthsea,DoyleplayedfootballasagoalkeeperforPortsmouthAssociationFootballClub,an
amateurside,underthepseudonymA.C.Smith.[38](Thisclub,disbandedin1896,hasnoconnectionwiththe
presentdayPortsmouthF.C.,whichwasfoundedin1898.)Doylewasakeencricketer,andbetween1899and
1907heplayed10firstclassmatchesfortheMaryleboneCricketClub(MCC).Healsoplayedfortheamateur
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cricketteamtheAllahakbarriesalongsideauthorsJ.M.BarrieandA.A.Milne.[39]
Hishighestscore,in1902againstLondonCounty,was43.Hewasanoccasionalbowlerwhotookjustonefirst
classwicket(althoughoneofthehighestpedigreeitwasW.G.Grace).[40]Alsoakeengolfer,Doylewaselected
captainoftheCrowboroughBeaconGolfClubinSussexfor1910.(HehadmovedtoLittleWindleshamhouse
inCrowboroughwithhissecondwife,JeanLeckie,livingtherewithhisfamilyfrom1907untilhisdeathinJuly
1930.[41])

Personallife

[ edit ]

In1885DoylemarriedMaryLouise(sometimescalled"Touie")Hawkins,theyoungestdaughterofJ.Hawkins,
ofMinsterworth,Gloucestershire,andsisterofoneofDoyle'spatients.Shesufferedfromtuberculosisanddiedon
4July1906.[42]ThefollowingyearhemarriedJeanElizabethLeckie,whomhehadfirstmetandfalleninlovewith
in1897.HehadmaintainedaplatonicrelationshipwithJeanwhilehisfirstwifewasstillalive,outofloyaltyto
her.[43]JeandiedinLondonon27June1940.[44]
Doylefatheredfivechildren.Hehadtwowithhisfirstwife:MaryLouise(28January188912June1976)and
ArthurAlleyneKingsley,knownasKingsley(15November189228October1918).Hehadanadditionalthree
withhissecondwife:DenisPercyStewart(17March19099March1955),secondhusband
ofGeorgianPrincessNinaMdivaniAdrianMalcolm(19November19103June1970)andJeanLena
Annette(21December191218November1997).[45]

Politicalcampaigning

[ edit ]

FollowingtheBoerWarinSouthAfricaattheturnofthe20thcenturyand
thecondemnationfromsomequartersovertheUnitedKingdom'srole,
DoylewroteashortworktitledTheWarinSouthAfrica:ItsCauseand
Conduct,whicharguedthattheUK'sroleintheBoerWarwasjustified,
andwhichwaswidelytranslated.Doylehadservedasavolunteerdoctor
intheLangmanFieldHospitalatBloemfonteinbetweenMarchandJune
1900.[46]Doylebelievedthatthispublicationwasresponsibleforhis
beingknightedasaKnightBachelorbyKingEdwardVIIin1902[4]andfor
Doyle'shouseinSouthNorwood,
London

hisappointmentasaDeputyLieutenantofSurrey.[47]Alsoin1900he
wroteabook,TheGreatBoerWar.
HetwicestoodforParliamentasaLiberalUnionistin1900inEdinburgh

Centralandin1906intheHawickBurghsbutalthoughhereceivedarespectablevote,hewasnotelected.[48]In
May1903hewasappointedaKnightofGraceoftheOrderoftheHospitalofSaintJohnofJerusalem.[49]
DoylewasasupporterofthecampaignforthereformoftheCongoFreeState,ledbythejournalistE.D.
MorelanddiplomatRogerCasement.During1909hewroteTheCrimeoftheCongo,alongpamphletinwhichhe
denouncedthehorrorsofthatcolony.HebecameacquaintedwithMorelandCasement,anditispossiblethat,
togetherwithBertramFletcherRobinson,theyinspiredseveralcharactersinthe1912novelTheLost
World.[50]DoylebrokewithRobinsonwhenhebecameoneoftheleadersofthepacifistmovementduringtheFirst
WorldWar.WhenCasementwasfoundguiltyoftreasonagainsttheCrownduringtheEasterRising,Doyletried
unsuccessfullytosavehimfromfacingthedeathpenalty,arguingthatCasementhadbeendrivenmadandcould
notbeheldresponsibleforhisactions.[51]
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Justiceadvocate

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[ edit ]

Doylewasalsoaferventadvocateofjusticeandpersonallyinvestigatedtwo
closedcases,whichledtotwomenbeingexoneratedofthecrimesofwhichthey
wereaccused.Thefirstcase,in1906,involvedashyhalfBritish,halfIndian
lawyernamedGeorgeEdaljiwhohadallegedlypennedthreateninglettersand
mutilatedanimalsinGreatWyrley.PoliceweresetonEdalji'sconviction,even
thoughthemutilationscontinuedaftertheirsuspectwasjailed.[52]Apartfrom
helpingGeorgeEdalji,Doyle'sworkhelpedestablishawaytocorrectother
miscarriagesofjustice,asitwaspartiallyasaresultofthiscasethattheCourtof
CriminalAppealwasestablishedin1907.[53]
ThestoryofDoyleandEdaljiwasdramatisedinanepisodeofthe1972BBC
televisionseries,TheEdwardians.InNicholasMeyer'spasticheTheWestEnd
Horror(1976),HolmesmanagestohelpclearthenameofashyParsiIndian
characterwrongedbytheEnglishjusticesystem.EdaljiwasofParsiheritageon
hisfather'sside.ThestorywasfictionalisedinJulianBarnes's2005novelArthur
andGeorge,whichwasadaptedintoathreepartdramabyITVin2015.
Thesecondcase,thatofOscarSlater,aYekkeandgamblingdenoperator
convictedofbludgeoningan82yearoldwomaninGlasgowin1908,excited
Doyle'scuriositybecauseofinconsistenciesintheprosecutioncaseandageneral
sensethatSlaterwasnotguilty.HeendeduppayingmostofthecostsforSlater's

Doylestatue
inCrowborough,EastSussex

successfulappealin1928.[54]

Spiritualism,Freemasonry

[ edit ]

Doylehadalongstandinginterestinmysticalsubjects.Hewasinitiatedas
aFreemason(26January1887)atthePhoenixLodgeNo.257in
Southsea.HeresignedfromtheLodgein1889,butreturnedtoitin1902,
onlytoresignagainin1911.[55]
AlsoinSouthseain1887,influencedbyamemberofthePortsmouth
LiteraryandPhilosophicalSociety,MajorGeneralAlfredWilkesDrayson,
hebeganaseriesofpsychicinvestigations.Theseincludedattending
around20seances,experimentsintelepathyandsittingswithmediums.
Oneofthefivephotographsof
FrancesGriffithswiththealleged
fairies,takenbyElsieWrightinJuly
1917

WritingtoSpiritualistjournalLight,thatyear,hedeclaredhimselftobea
Spiritualistandspokeofoneparticularpsychiceventthathadconvinced
him.[56]
Thoughhelaterwavered,heremainedfascinatedbytheparanormal.He
wasafoundermemberoftheHampshireSocietyforPsychicalResearch

in1889andjoinedtheLondonbasedSocietyforPsychicalResearchin1893.HejoinedSirSidneyScottand
FrankPodmoreonapoltergeistinvestigationinDevonin1894.Nevertheless,duringthisperiod,heremainedin
essenceadilettante.[57]
AttheheightoftheGreatWar,in1916,achangecameoverConanDoyle'sbeliefs,promptedbytheapparent
psychicabilitiesofhischildren'snanny,LilyLoderSymonds.[58]This,combinedwiththedeathshesawaroundhim,
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madehimrationalisethatSpiritualismwasa"NewRevelation"[59]sentbyGodtobringsolacetothe
bereaved.TheNewRevelationwasthetitleofhisfirstSpiritualistwork,publishedtwoyearslater.Intheintervening
yearshewrotetoLightmagazineabouthisfaithandlecturedfrequentlyonthetruthofSpiritualism.Followingthe
deathofhisson,Kingsley,justbeforetheendoftheFirstWorldWar,andthedeathsofhisbrotherInnes,histwo
brothersinlaw(oneofwhomwasE.W.Hornung,creatoroftheliterarycharacterRaffles)andhistwonephews
shortlyafterthewar,Doylefoundsolacesupportingspiritualismanditsattemptstofindproofofexistencebeyond
thegrave.Inparticular,accordingtosome,[60]hefavouredChristianSpiritualismandencouragedtheSpiritualists'
NationalUniontoacceptaneighthpreceptthatoffollowingtheteachingsandexampleofJesusofNazareth.He
wasamemberoftherenownedsupernaturalorganisationTheGhostClub.[61]
On28October1918,KingsleyDoylediedfrompneumonia,whichhecontracted
duringhisconvalescenceafterbeingseriouslywoundedduringthe1916Battleof
theSomme.BrigadierGeneralInnesDoyledied,alsofrompneumonia,in
February1919.SirArthurbecameinvolvedwithSpiritualismtotheextentthathe
wroteanovellaonthesubject,TheLandofMist,featuringthecharacterProfessor
Challenger.TheComingoftheFairies(1922)[62]appearstoshowthatConan
DoylewasconvincedoftheveracityofthefiveCottingleyFairiesphotographs.He
reproducedtheminthebook,togetherwiththeoriesaboutthenatureand
existenceoffairiesandspirits.Initiallysuspectedofbeingfalsified,thephotos
weredecadeslaterdeterminedtobefaked(alongwithadmissionsfromthe
photographers).
In1919,themagicianP.T.SelbitstagedasanceathisownflatinBloomsbury.
Doyleattendedthesance.Somelatercommentatorshavestatedthathe
declaredtheclairvoyancemanifestationstobegenuine.[63][64]However,the

Doylewithhisfamilyin
NewYorkCity,1922

contemporaryreportbytheSundayExpressquotesDoyleassaying:"Ishould
havetoseeitagainbeforepassingadefiniteopiniononit,"and:"Ihavemydoubtsaboutthewholething".[65]In
1920,DoyledebatedtheclaimsofSpiritualismwiththenotablescepticJosephMcCabeatQueen'sHallin
London.McCabelaterpublishedhisevidenceagainsttheclaimsofDoyleandSpiritualisminabookletentitledIs
SpiritualismBasedonFraud?whichclaimedDoylehadbeendupedintobelievingSpiritualism
bymediumshiptrickery.[66]
DoylewasfriendsforatimewithHarryHoudini,theAmericanmagicianwhohimselfbecameaprominent
opponentoftheSpiritualistmovementinthe1920sfollowingthedeathofhisbelovedmother.AlthoughHoudini
insistedthatSpiritualistmediumsemployedtrickery(andconsistentlyexposedthemasfrauds),Doylebecame
convincedthatHoudinihimselfpossessedsupernaturalpowersaviewexpressedinDoyle'sTheEdgeofthe
Unknown.HoudiniwasapparentlyunabletoconvinceDoylethathisfeatsweresimplyillusions,leadingtoabitter
publicfallingoutbetweenthetwo.[67]AspecificincidentisrecountedinmemoirsbyHoudini'sfriendBernardM.L.
Ernst,inwhichHoudiniperformedanimpressivetrickathishomeinthepresenceofConanDoyle.Houdini
assuredConanDoylethetrickwaspureillusionandthathewasattemptingtoproveapointaboutDoylenot
"endorsingphenomena"simplybecausehehadnoexplanation.AccordingtoErnst,ConanDoylerefusedto
believeitwasatrick.[68]
In1922,thepsychicalresearcherHarryPriceaccusedthespiritphotographerWilliamHopeoffraud.Doyle
defendedHope,butfurtherevidenceoftrickerywasobtainedfromotherresearchers.[69]Doylethreatenedtohave
PriceevictedfromtheNationalLaboratoryofPsychicalResearchandclaimedifhepersistedtowrite"sewage"
aboutspiritualists,hewouldmeetthesamefateasHarryHoudini.[70]Pricewrote"ArthurConanDoyleandhis
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friendsabusedmeforyearsforexposingHope."[71]BecauseoftheexposureofHopeandotherfraudulent
spiritualists,DoyleledamassresignationofeightyfourmembersoftheSocietyforPsychicalResearch,asthey
believedtheSocietywasopposedtospiritualism.[72]
DoyleandspiritualistWilliamThomasSteadweredupedintobelievingJuliusandAgnesZancighadgenuine
psychicpowers,bothclaimingthattheZancigsusedtelepathy.In1924JuliusandAgnesZancigconfessedthat
thattheirmindreadingactwasatrickandpublishedthesecretcodeandallthedetailsofthetrickmethodthey
hadused,underthetitleOurSecrets!!inaLondonnewspaper.[73]InhisbookTheHistoryofSpiritualism(1926),
DoylepraisedthepsychicphenomenaandspiritmaterializationsproducedbyEusapiaPalladinoandMina
Crandon,whowerebothexposedasfrauds.[74]In1927,DoylespokeinafilmedinterviewaboutSherlockHolmes
andspiritualism.[75]
RichardMilner,anAmericanhistorianofscience,haspresentedacasethat
DoylemayhavebeentheperpetratorofthePiltdownManhoaxof1912,creating
thecounterfeithominidfossilthatfooledthescientificworldforover40years.
MilnersaysthatDoylehadamotivenamely,revengeonthescientific
establishmentfordebunkingoneofhisfavouritepsychicsandthatTheLost
Worldcontainsseveralencryptedcluesregardinghisinvolvementinthe
hoax.[76][77]SamuelRosenberg's1974bookNakedistheBestDisguisepurports
toexplainhow,throughouthiswritings,Doyleleftopencluesthatrelatedto
hiddenandsuppressedaspectsofhismentality.[78]

Death
Doylein1930,theyearofhis
death,withhissonAdrian

[ edit ]

Doylewasfoundclutchinghischestinthehallof
WindleshamManor,hishouseinCrowborough,
EastSussex,on7July1930.Hediedofaheart

attackattheageof71.Hislastwordsweredirectedtowardhiswife:"Youare
wonderful."[79]Atthetimeofhisdeath,therewassomecontroversyconcerninghis
burialplace,ashewasavowedlynotaChristian,consideringhimselfaSpiritualist.
Hewasfirstburiedon11July1930inWindleshamrosegarden.
HewaslaterreinterredtogetherwithhiswifeinMinsteadchurchyardintheNew
Forest,Hampshire.[9]Carvedwoodentabletstohismemoryandtothememoryof
hiswife,originallyfromthechurchatMinstead,areondisplayaspartofa
SherlockHolmesexhibitionatPortsmouthMuseum.[80][81]Thatinscriptionreads,
"Bladestraight/Steeltrue/ArthurConanDoyle/BornMay22nd1859/Passedon7th
July1930."

Doyle'sgraveatMinstead,
England

Theepitaphonhisgravestoneinthechurchyardreads,inpart:"Steeltrue/Blade
straight/ArthurConanDoyle/Knight/Patriot,Physician,andmanofletters".[82]
Undershaw,thehomenearHindhead,Haslemere,whichDoylehadbuiltandlivedinbetweenOctober1897and
September1907,[83]wasahotelandrestaurantfrom1924until2004.Itwasthenboughtbyadeveloperand
stoodemptywhileconservationistsandDoylefansfoughttopreserveit.[42]In2012theHighCourtruledthe
redevelopmentpermissionbequashedbecauseproperprocedurehadnotbeenfollowed,[84]butitisnowdueto
becomepartoftheSteppingStonesschoolforchildrenwithdisabilitiesandadditionalneeds.
AstatuehonoursDoyleatCrowboroughCrossinCrowborough,wherehelivedfor23years.[85]Thereisastatue
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Conan_Doyle

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7/25/2016

ArthurConanDoyleWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ofSherlockHolmesinPicardyPlace,Edinburgh,closetothehousewhereDoylewasborn.[86]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Conan_Doyle

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