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CHAPTER-1

1. INTRODUCTION
Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, hydraulics, robotics,
etc., of these sources, hydraulics form an attractive medium. Automation plays an
important role in automobile. Nowadays almost all the automobile vehicle is being
atomized in order to product the human being. The automobile vehicle is being atomized
for the following reasons:
To achieve high safety

To reduce man power

To increase the efficiency of the vehicle

To reduce the work load

To reduce the fatigue of workers

To high responsibility

Less Maintenance cost

CHAPTER-2
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 PNEUMATICS:
The word pneuma comes from Greek and means breather wind. The word
pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the word
pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a
working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and
equipment.
Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out the
simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has played a more important role in the
development of pneumatic technology for automation.
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made
available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When
the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the
necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using
reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain
pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the
volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure
and normal ambient temperature.
The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robert Boyle in 1962 and
that found that the product of pressure and volume of a particular quantity of gas.
The usual written as
PV = C

(or) PV = P2V2

In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about 14.7
Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 30 inches high
in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly
used system now a days.
2.2 SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS:
Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by
mechanical power. Pneumatic is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization
particularly for sequential (or) repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already
have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing the power (or) energy
requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be
economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power).
The main advantage of an all pneumatic system are usually economic and
simplicity the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. It can also have out standing
advantages in terms of safety.
2.3 PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR:
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be made
available. In sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When
pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the
necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using
reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain
pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the
volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure
and normal ambient temperature. Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors,
which decides the life of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will result in

increased precipitation of condense from the compressed air. Compressor may be


classified in two general types:
1. Positive displacement compressor.
2. Turbo compressor
Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for
compressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply air for pneumatic
control application.
The types of positive compressor
1. Reciprocating type compressor
2. Rotary type compressor
Turbo compressors are employed where large capacity of air required at low
discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control
application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in pneumatic
service.
2.4 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS:
Built for either stationary (or) portable service the reciprocating compressor is by
far the most common type. Reciprocating compressors lap be had is sizes from the
smallest capacities to deliver more than 500 m/min. In single stage compressor, the air
pressure may be of 6 bar machines discharge of pressure is up to 15 bars. Discharge
pressure in the range of 250 bars can be obtained with high pressure reciprocating
compressors that of three & four stages.
Single stage and 1200 stage models are particularly suitable for pneumatic
applications , with preference going to the two stage design as soon as the discharge
pressure exceeds 6 bar , because it in capable of matching the performance of single stage
machine at lower costs per driving powers in the range .

CHAPTER-3
3. FACTORS DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF MATERIALS
The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below.
3.1 Properties:
The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed
application. The various requirements to be satisfied can be weight, surface finish,
rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability
etc.
The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their
selection
a. Physical
b. Mechanical
c. From manufacturing point of view
d. Chemical
The various physical properties concerned are melting point, Thermal
Conductivity, Specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical
Conductivity, Magnetic purposes etc.
The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile, compressive
shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, elastic
limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding
properties.

3.2 Manufacturing Case:


Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities
obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of
special materials.
3.3 Quality Required:
This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. For
example, it would never be desirable to go for casting of a less number of components
which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel.
3.4 Availability of Material:
Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then becomes obligatory for
the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for
the material designed.
The delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in
mind.
3.5 Space Consideration:
Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved
are high and the space limitations are there.
3.6 Cost:
As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an
important part and should not be ignored.
Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and non-maintenance of the
designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.

CHAPTER-4
4. COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION
4.1 MAJOR PARTS:
The major parts PNEUMATIC THREE AXIS MODERN TIPPER are described
below:
Air compressor
Direction Control Valve
Cylinder
Connecting hoses
Flow control valve
Bearing with bearing cap
Wheel arrangement
Vehicle model frame
Rotating Plates
4.1.1AIR COMPRESSOR:
The main function of the air compressor is to compress the air up to the required
pressure. The maximum capacity of the compressor is 10105 to 12 105 N/m2. This is a
two stages or two-cylinder reciprocating air compressor. The two cylinders are for low
and high compression. The air pressure is measured at various places by the use of
pressure gauges. V-belt and pulley are used to drive the compressor.
Compressors can be broadly classifieds into two groups. They are:
Positive Displacement Compressor
Dynamic Compressors

Compressor:-

According to the design and principle of operation:1. Rotary screw compressor


2. Turbo compressor

4.1.1.1Positive Displacement Compressor:


Successive volumes of air isolated and then compressed to a higher pressure.
There are essential two forms of positive displacement compressor, reciprocating and
rotary.
4.1.1.2Dynamic Compressors:
These are rotary continuous machines in which a high speed rotating element
accelerates the air and converts the resulting velocity head into pressure.
Positive displacement compressors work on the principle of increasing the pressure of
a definite volume in an enclosed chamber. Dynamic (turbo) compressor employs rotating
vanes or impellers to impart velocity and pressure to the flow of the air being handled.
The pressure comes from the dynamic effects such as centrifugal force.

4.1.2 PRESSURE GAUGE:


Pressure gauge is used for measuring the outlet pressure of air from the
compressor. The gauge used is Bourdon type pressure gauge. The maximum capacity of
this gauge is 10 105 to 12 105 N/m2. The gauge is fitted at the outlet of the air
compressor.

4.1.3 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES:


4.1.3.1 Pneumatic valves:
The pneumatic cylinder is regulated and controlled by pneumatic valves. These
valves are actuated manually, mechanically, electrically, pneumatically, and by various
combined mode of actuation.
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4.1.3.2Need of Valves:
DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES To control the to and fro motion of
cylinder, the fluid energy has to be regulated, controlled and reversed with a
predetermined sequence in a pneumatic system.
Similarly one may have to control the quantity of pressure and flow rate to
generate the desired level of force and speed of actuators. To achieve these functions,
valves are used. Valves are fluid power elements used for controlling and regulating the
working medium.
The main functions of the valves are:
Start and stop the fluid energy
Control the direction of flow of compressed air
Control the flow rate of the fluid
Control the pressure rating of the fluid
Although various types of valves are available, they are mainly classified as below:
Direction control valves
Direction control check valves
Flow control valves
Pressure control valves
The main purpose of a valve in a pneumatic circuit is to control outputs. Valves
can be divided into a number of groups according to what they control.
4.1.3.3 Directional control valves:
Directional control valve on the receipt of some external signal, which might be
mechanical, electrical or a fluid pressure pilot signal, charges the direction of or stops, or
starts the flow of fluid in some part of the pneumatic/hydraulic circuit.
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4.1.3.4 Pressure Control Valves:


These are used to control the pressure in part of the pneumatic/hydraulic circuit.
4.1.3.5 Flow Control Valves:
These are used to control the rate of flow of a fluid through the valve.
A directional control valve on the receipt of some, external signal, which might be
mechanical, electrical or a fluid pilot signal, changes the direction of stops, or starts the
flow of fluid in some part of the pneumatic/hydraulic circuit. They can be used to carry
out such functions as:
1. Controlling the direction of motion of an actuator
2. Selecting alternative flow paths for a fluid.
3. Stopping and starting the flow of fluid.
Carrying out logic functions such as AND, OR, NAND
4.1.3.6 Actuators:
An actuator is a device that is used to apply a force to an object
Fluid power actuators can be classified into two groups:
Linear actuators are used to move an object or apply a force in a straight line.
Linear actuators can be divided into two types.
They are:
1. Single acting cylinders
2. Double acting cylinders
A single acting cylinder is powered by fluid for the movement of the piston in one
direction with it being returned in the other direction by an internal spring or an external
force, a double acting cylinder is powered by fluid in both directions.

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Rotary actuators are used to move an object in a circular path. Rotary


actuators are the fluid power equivalent of an electric motor.

Direction Control Valve:-

Directional control valve:Directional control valves are one of the most fundamental parts in hydraulic
machinery as well and pneumatic machinery. They allow fluid flow into different
paths from one or more sources. They usually consist of a spool inside a cylinder
which is mechanically or electrically controlled. The movement of the spool
restricts or permits the flow, thus it controls the fluid flow.
Nomenclature:The spool (sliding type) consists of lands and grooves.The lands block oil flow
through the valve body. The grooves allow oil or gas to flow around the spool and
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through the valve body. There are two fundamental positions of directional control
valve namely normal positionwhere valve returns on removal of actuating force
and other is working position which is position of a valve when actuating force is
applied. There is another class of valves with 3 or more position that can be spring
centered with 2 working position and a normal position.

4.1.4 PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS:


Cylinders are the one, which offers the rectilinear motion to mechanical elements.
Cylinders are classified as light, medium, and heavy duty with respect to their
application.
4.1.4.1Single Acting Cylinders:
In this type, the cylinder can produce work only in one direction. The return
movement of the piston is effected by a built in spring or by application of an external
force. The spring is designed to return the piston to its initial position with a sufficiently
high speed.
Types of single acting cylinders:
Diaphragm cylinder
Rolling diaphragm cylinder
4.1.4.2Double Acting Cylinder:
The force exerted by the compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a
double acting cylinder. They are used particularly when the piston is required to perform
work not only on the advance movement but also on the return. In principle, the stroke
length is unlimited, although buckling and bending must be considered before we select a
particular size of piston diameter, rod length and stroke length.
We use cylinders that are double acting type (i.e.) the compressed air can be
passed to either end of the cylinder. These cylinders are made up of cast iron.

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Pneumatic Cylinder:-

Key points: Pneumatic cylinders come in many basic versions.


All cylinders can be tweaked to better fit an application.
Custom designs can perform better and save money when standard cylinders
dont fit the job.

Resources:14

Pneumatic cylinders are widely used to generate force and motion on a vast range
of OEM equipment. They can move products directly or indirectly by pushing,
pulling, lifting, lowering, or rotating, and can keep them from moving by
clamping them in place.

Wide acceptance comes in large part because cylinders are simple,


economical, durable, and easy to install. They can produce thousands of pounds of
force over a broad range of velocities; cycle at high speeds without overheating;
and stall without internal damage. And they readily tolerate tough conditions such
as high humidity, dusty environments, and repetitive high-pressure wash downs.
Pneumatic actuators come in literally thousands of styles, sizes, and
configurations. This variety makes more innovative-equipment possible, but
sorting out the best cylinder for an application can be a bit overwhelming. Here
are some key considerations.
Cylinder design:The basic, rod-style industrial cylinder consists of a tube sealed by end caps. A rod
attached to an internal piston extends through a sealed opening in one of the ends.
The cylinder mounts to a machine and the piston rod acts upon the load.
A port at one end of the cylinder supplies compressed air to one side of the piston,
causing it (and the piston rod) to move. The port at the other end lets air on the
opposite side of the piston escape usually to atmosphere. Reversing the roles
of the two ports makes the piston and rod stroke in the opposite direction. Rodstyle cylinders function in two ways:
Double-acting cylinders use compressed air to power both the extend and
retract strokes, moving the rod back and forth. This arrangement makes them
ideal for pushing and pulling loads. Controlling the rate at which air exhausts
determines rod speed.
Single-acting cylinders have compressed air supplied to only one side of the
piston; the other side vents to atmosphere. Depending on whether air is routed to
the cap or rod end determines whether the rod extends or retracts.

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:Rod-style cylinders come in various designs:-

Repairable cylinders can be disassembled to replace seals and other internal


components. This extends a cylinders life. These durable cylinders are
generally used in rugged, heavy-duty applications.
Sealed-for-life or disposable cylinders have end caps mechanically crimped to
the tube. Internal components are preluded prior to assembly. Although they are
less expensive to manufacture than comparable repairable cylinders, they cannot be
taken apart to repair without destroying the housing. These cylinders are usually
used in lighter-duty applications and must be replaced when they fail.
Compact:Cylinders fit into smaller spaces where only a short stroke is required. They are
used in lighter-duty applications due to the small bearing surface on which the rod
slides. They mainly come in single-acting versions, but double-acting styles also
are available.
Guided :-

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Cylinders have guide rods and guide blocks mounted parallel to the piston rod, or
dual piston rods. They prevent the piston from rotating and provide precise,
controlled linear motion especially when the unit is subject to high side loads.
In such cases, the guides reduce rod and piston bending and uneven seal wear.
They are recommended in applications with sizeable offset loads or require that
the load be guided, for example, down a conveyor.
Rack-and-pinion:Units convert a cylinders linear motion to angular rotation that can exceed 360.
The rotary actuators with the rack mounted on the rod are often used in
process industries to operate quarter-turn valves.In addition to rod-type cylinders,
other designs included.
Bellows:Are durable, single-acting actuators with flexible, reinforced-elastomeric walls
and metal end plates. They extend when inflated and can generate high forces,
thanks to their large diameters. A cylindrical shape lets them bend in any direction,
making them useful where load direction might curve. Note that external restraints
should be used to limit maximum extension and compression. Unrestrained
extension can blow off the end plate, and exhaust without restraint can let the load
crush the sidewalls.
Rodless cylinders, as the name implies, have no rod extending through the end
caps. Instead, an external carriage slides back and forth on the tube. The load
mounts on this carriage. In many designs, an internal piston is mechanically
connected to the carriage through a sealed longitudinal slot in the cylinder wall.
Long sealing strips inside and outside the cylinder tube prevent air leaks and dust
and dirt ingression. Other variations include cable-and-pulley arrangements and
magnetically coupled pistons and carriages.

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4.1.5 SEALS:
4.1.5.1 Air Seal:
Air seal is used to prevent the leakage of air pressure from the cylinder. Normally
it is made up of neoprene rubber. If there are any air leakages in the system, it will reduce
the efficiency.
4.1.5.2Wiper Seal:
Wiper seal is provided at the entrance of the cylinder to avoid dust materials from
the environment. It is made up of neoprene rubber.
4.1.5.3O Ring:
The O rings are fitted into the grooves of piston to maintain perfect seal between
the piston and the cylinder wall. They are mostly made up of neoprene rubber.
4.1.6 CYLINDER TECHNICAL DATA:
Barrel:
It is made of cold drawn aluminimum honed to 25mm.
Piston Rod:
M.S. hard Chrome plated
Seals:
Nitrile (Buna N) Elastomer
End Covers:
Cast iron graded fine grained from 25mm to 300mm
Piston:
Aluminium.
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Media:
Air.
Temperature Range:
0^c to 85^c
Cushions:
Adjustable standard on 400mm bore and above.
4.1.7 CONNECTORS:
In our system there are two types of connectors used; one is the hose connector and
the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an adapter (connector) hose
nipple and cap nut. These types of connectors are made up of brass or Aliminium or
hardened steel.
Reducers are used to provide inter connection between two pipes or hoses of
different sizes. They may be fitted straight, tee, V or other configurations. These
reducers are made up of gunmetal or other materials like hardened steel etc.
4.1.8 FLOW CONTROL VALVE:
In any fluid power circuit, flow control valve is used to control the speed of the
actuator. The floe control can be achieved By varying the area of flow through which the
air in passing.
When area is increased, more quantity of air will be sent to actuator as a result its
speed will increase. If the quantity of air entering into the actuator is reduced, the speed
of the actuator is reduced.

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4.1.9BEARING WITH BEARING CAP:


The bearings are pressed smoothly to fit into the shafts because if hammered the
bearing may develop cracks. Bearing is made upof steel material and bearing cap is mild
steel.
Ball and roller bearings are used widely in instruments and machines in order
to minimize friction and power loss. While the concept of the ball bearing dates
back at least to Leonardo da Vinci, their design and manufacture has become
remarkably sophisticated.
This technology was brought to its p resent state o f perfection only
after a long period of research and development. The benefits of such specialized
research can be obtained when it is possible to use a standardized bearing of the
proper size and type.
However, such bearings cannot be used indiscriminately without a careful
study of the loads and operating conditions. In addition, the bearing must be
provided with adequate mounting, lubrication and sealing.
4.1.10 WHEEL ARRANGEMENT:
The wheels are fitted to the body of the vehicle with the help of end bearing
and bearing caps. The wheels are made up of fiber material.
4.1.11 TIPPER BODY:
The tipper body is made up of mild steel sheet metal. This frame is look like a
small model trailer.
4.1.12 ROTATING PLATES:
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The rotating plates are fixed in the bottom the trailer body, so that the cylinder will
rotates in the required side. The plates are made up of mild steel materials.

CHAPTER-5
5. BATTERY
5.1 INTRODUCTION:
In isolated systems away from the grid, batteries are used for storage of excess
solar energy converted into electrical energy. The only exceptions are isolated sunshine
load such as irrigation pumps or drinking water supplies for storage. In fact for small
units with output less than one kilowatt. Batteries seem to be the only technically and
economically available storage means. Since both the photo-voltaic system and batteries
are high in capital costs. It is necessary that the overall system be optimized with respect
to available energy and local demand pattern. To be economically attractive the storage
of solar electricity requires a battery with a particular combination of properties:
(1)

Low cost

(2)

Long life

(3)

High reliability

(4)

High overall efficiency

(5)

Low discharge

(6)

Minimum maintenance
(A)

Ampere hour efficiency

(B)

Watt hour efficiency


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We use lead acid battery for storing the electrical energy from the solar panel for
lighting the street and so about the lead acid cells are explained below.

5.2 LEAD-ACID WET CELL:


Where high values of load current are necessary, the lead-acid cell is the type most
commonly used. The electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulfuric acid (HSO). In the
application of battery power to start the engine in an auto mobile, for example, the load
current to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A. One cell has a nominal output of
2.1V, but lead-acid cells are often used in a series combination of three for a 6-V battery
and six for a 12-V battery.
The lead acid cell type is a secondary cell or storage cell, which can be recharged.
The charge and discharge cycle can be repeated many times to restore the output voltage,
as long as the cell is in good physical condition. However, heat with excessive charge
and discharge currents shortened the useful life to about 3 to 5 years for an automobile
battery. Of the different types of secondary cells, the lead-acid type has the highest
output voltage, which allows fewer cells for a specified battery voltage.
5.3 CONSTRUCTION:
Inside a lead-acid battery, the positive and negative electrodes consist of a group
of plates welded to a connecting strap. The plates are immersed in the electrolyte,
consisting of 8 parts of water to 3 parts of concentrated sulfuric acid. Each plate is a grid
or framework, made of a lead-antimony alloy. This construction enables the active
material, which is lead oxide, to be pasted into the grid. In manufacture of the cell, a
forming charge produces the positive and negative electrodes. In the forming process, the

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active material in the positive plate is changed to lead peroxide (pbo). The negative
electrode is spongy lead (pb).

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Automobile batteries are usually shipped dry from the manufacturer. The
electrolyte is put in at the time of installation, and then the battery is charged to from the
plates. With maintenance-free batteries, little or no water need be added in normal
service. Some types are sealed, except for a pressure vent, without provision for adding
water.
The construction parts of battery are shown in figure (6).
5.4 CHEMICAL ACTION:
Sulfuric acid is a combination of hydrogen and sulfate ions. When the cell
discharges, lead peroxide from the positive electrode combines with hydrogen ions to
form water and with sulfate ions to form lead sulfate. Combining lead on the negative
plate with sulfate ions also produces he sulfate. There fore, the net result of discharge is
to produce more water, which dilutes the electrolyte, and to form lead sulfate on the
plates.
As the discharge continues, the sulfate fills the pores of the grids, retarding
circulation of acid in the active material. Lead sulfate is the powder often seen on the
outside terminals of old batteries. When the combination of weak electrolyte and
sulfating on the plate lowers the output of the battery, charging is necessary.
On charge, the external D.C. source reverses the current in the battery. The
reversed direction of ions flows in the electrolyte result in a reversal of the chemical
reactions. Now the lead sulfates on the positive plate reactive with the water and sulfate
ions to produce lead peroxide and sulfuric acid. This action re-forms the positive plates
and makes the electrolyte stronger by adding sulfuric acid.
At the same time, charging enables the lead sulfate on the negative plate to react
with hydrogen ions; this also forms sulfuric acid while reforming lead on the negative
plate to react with hydrogen ions; this also forms currents can restore the cell to full
output, with lead peroxide on the positive plates, spongy lead on the negative plate, and
the required concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte.

25

The chemical equation for the lead-acid cell is


Charge
Pb + pbO + 2HSO

2pbSO + 2HO
Discharge

26

27

On discharge, the pb and pbo combine with the SO ions at the left side of the
equation to form lead sulfate (pbSO) and water (HO) at the right side of the equation.
One battery consists of 6 cell, each have an output voltage of 2.1V, which are connected
in series to get an voltage of 12V and the same 12V battery is connected in series, to get
an 24 V battery. They are placed in the water proof iron casing box.
5.5 CARING FOR LEAD-ACID BATTERIES:
Always use extreme caution when handling batteries and electrolyte. Wear gloves,
goggles and old clothes. Battery acid will burn skin and eyes and destroy cotton and
wool clothing.
The quickest way of ruin lead-acid batteries is to discharge them deeply and leave
them stand dead for an extended period of time. When they discharge, there is a
chemical change in the positive plates of the battery. They change from lead oxide when
charge out lead sulfate when discharged. If they remain in the lead Sulfate State for a few
days, some part of the plate dose not returns to lead oxide when the battery is recharged.
If the battery remains discharge longer, a greater amount of the positive plate will remain
lead sulfate. The parts of the plates that become sulfate no longer store energy.
Batteries that are deeply discharged, and then charged partially on a regular basis can fail
in less then one year. Check your batteries on a regular basis to be sure they are getting
charged. Use a hydrometer to check the specific gravity of your lead acid batteries. If
batteries are cycled very deeply and then recharged quickly, the specific gravity reading
will be lower than it should because the electrolyte at the top of the battery may not have
mixed with the charged electrolyte.
Check the electrolyte level in the wet-cell batteries at the least four times a year
and top each cell of with distilled water. Do not add water to discharged batteries.
Electrolyte is absorbed when batteries are very discharged. If you add water at this time,
and then recharge the battery, electrolyte will overflow and make a mess.

28

Keep the top of your batteries clean and check that cables are tight. Do not tighten
or remove cables while charging or discharging. Any spark around batteries can cause a
hydrogen explosion inside, and ruin one of the cells, and you.
On charge, with reverse current through the electrolyte, the chemical action is
reversed. Then the pb ions from the lead sulfate on the right side of the equation re-form
the lead and lead peroxide electrodes. Also the SO ions combine with H ions from the
water to produce more sulfuric acid at the left side of the equation.
5.6 CURRENT RATINGS:
Lead-acid batteries are generally rated in terms of how much discharge currents
they can supply for a specified period of time; the output voltage must be maintained
above a minimum level, which is 1.5 to 1.8V per cell. A common rating is ampere-hours
(A.h.) based on a specific discharge time, which is often 8h. Typical values for
automobile batteries are 100 to 300 A.h.
As an example, a 200 A.h battery can supply a load current of 200/8 or 25A, used
on 8h discharge. The battery can supply less current for a longer time or more current for
a shorter time. Automobile batteries may be rated for cold cranking power, which is
related to the job of starting the engine. A typical rating is 450A for 30s at a temperature
of 0 degree F.
Note that the ampere-hour unit specifies coulombs of charge. For instance, 200
A.h. corresponds to 200A*3600s (1h=3600s). the equals 720,000 A.S, or coulombs. One
ampere-second is equal to one coulomb. Then the charge equals 720,000 or 7.2*10^5C.
To put this much charge back into the battery would require 20 hours with a charging
current of 10A.
The ratings for lead-acid batteries are given for a temperature range of 77 to 80F.
Higher temperature increase the chemical reaction, but operation above 110F shortens
the battery life.

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Low temperatures reduce the current capacity and voltage output. The amperehour capacity is reduced approximately 0.75% for each decreases of 1 F below normal
temperature rating. At 0F the available output is only 60 % of the ampere-hour battery
rating. In cold weather, therefore, it is very important to have an automobile battery unto
full charge. In addition, the electrolyte freezes more easily when diluted by water in the
discharged condition.
5.8 CHARGING THE LEAD-ACID BATERY:
The requirements are illustrated in figure. An external D.C. voltage source is
necessary to produce current in one direction. Also, the charging voltage must be more
than the battery e.m.f.
Approximately 2.5 per cell are enough to over the cell e.m.f. so that the charging
voltage can produce current opposite to the direction of discharge current. Note that the
reversal of current is obtained just by connecting the battery VB and charging source VG
with + to + and to-, as shown in figure. The charging current is reversed because the
battery effectively becomes a load resistance for VG when it higher than VB. In this
example, the net voltage available to produce charging currents is 15-12=3V. A
commercial charger for automobile batteries is essentially a D.C. power supply, rectifying
input from the AC power line to provide D.C. output for charging batteries.
Float charging refers to a method in which the charger and the battery are always
connected to each other for supplying current to the load. In figure the charger provides
current for the load and the current necessary to keep the battery fully charged. The
battery here is an auxiliary source for D.C. power.
It may be of interest to note that an automobile battery is in a floating-charge
circuit. The battery charger is an AC generator or alternator with rectifier diodes, driver
by a belt from the engine. When you start the car, the battery supplies the cranking
power. Once the engine is running, the alternator charges he battery. It is not necessary
for the car to be moving. A voltage regulator is used in this system to maintain the output
at approximately 13 to 15 V.
30

The constant voltage of 24V comes from the solar panel controlled by the charge
controller so for storing this energy we need a 24V battery so two 12V battery are
connected in series. It is a good idea to do an equalizing charge when some cells show a
variation of 0.05 specific gravity from each other. This is a long steady overcharge,
bringing the battery to a gassing or bubbling state. Do not equalize sealed or gel type
batteries. With proper care, lead-acid batteries will have a long service life and work very
well in almost any power system. Unfortunately, with poor treatment lead-acid battery
life will be very short.

31

CHAPTER-6
6. D.C MOTOR
6.1 INTRODUCTION:
The electrical motor is an instrument, which converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy. According to faradays law of Electro magnetic induction, when a
current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force
whose direction is given by Flemings left hand rule.
Constructional a dc generator and a dc motor are identical. The same dc machine
can be used as a generator or as a motor. When a generator is in operation, it is driven
mechanically and develops a voltage. The voltage is capable of sending current through
the load resistance. While motor action a torque is developed.
The torque can produce mechanical rotation. Motors are classified as series
wound, shunt wound motors.
6.2 Principles of operation:
The basic principle of Motor action lies in a sample sketch.

Movement of
Conductor

Magnetic flux

current carrying
Conductor

32

The motor runs according to the principle of Flemings left hand rule. When a
current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field is produced to move the
conductor away from the magnetic field.
The conductor carrying current to North and South poles is being removed. In the
above stated two conditions there is no movement of the conductors. Whenever a current
carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. The field due to the current in the
conductor but opposes the main field below the conductor. As a result the flux density
below the conductor. It is found that a force acts on the conductor to push the conductor
downwards.
If the current in the conductor is reversed, the strengthening of the flux lines
occurs below the conductor, and the conductor will be pushed upwards.
As stated above the coil side A will be forced to move downwards, where as the
coil side B will be forced to move upwards. The forces acting on the coil sides A and B
will be the same coil magnitudes, but their directions will be opposite to one another. In
DC machines coils are wound on the armature core, which is supported by the bearings,
enhances rotation of the armature. The commutator periodically reverses the direction of
current flow through the armature. Thus the armature rotates continuously.

33

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: a motor uses magnets to
create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental
law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel.
So if you have 2 bar magnets with their ends marked north and south, then the
North end of one magnet will attract the South end of the other. On the other hand, the
North end of one magnet will repel the North end of the other (and similarly south will
repel south). Inside an electric motor these attracting and repelling forces create rotational
motion.
In the diagram above and below you can see two magnets in the motor, the
armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet
(the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it is not to
save power).
6.3 Electromagnets and Motors:
To understand how an electric motor works, the key is to understand how the
electromagnet works. An electromagnet is the basis of an electric motor. You can
understand how things work in the motor by imagining the following scenario.

Say that you created a simple electromagnet by wrapping 100 loops of wire
around a nail and connecting it to a battery. The nail would become a magnet and have a
North and South pole while the battery is connected. Now say that you take your nail
electromagnet, run an axle through the middle of it, and you suspended it in the middle of
a horseshoe magnet as shown in the figure below.
If you were to attach a battery to the electromagnet so that the North end of the
nail appeared as shown, the basic law of magnetism tells you what would happen:

34

The North end of the electromagnet would be repelled from the north end of the
horseshoe magnet and attracted to the south end of the horseshoe magnet.
The South end of the electromagnet would be repelled in a similar way. The nail
would move about half a turn and then stop in the position shown.
You can see that this half-turn of motion is simple and obvious because of
the way magnets naturally attract and repel one another. The key to an electric motor is to
then go one step further so that, at the moment that this half-turn of motion completes, the
field of the electromagnet flips.
The flip causes the electromagnet to complete another half-turn of motion. You
flip the magnetic field simply by changing the direction of the electrons flowing in the
wire (you do that by flipping the battery over). If the field of the electromagnet flipped at
just the right moment at the end of each half-turn of motion, the electric motor would
spin freely.
The Armature:

The armature takes the place of the nail in an electric motor. The armature is an
electromagnet made by coiling thin wire around two or more poles of a metal core. The
armature has an axle, and the commutator is attached to the axle. In the diagram above
you can see three different views of the same armature: front, side and end-on. In the endon view the winding is eliminated to make the commutator more obvious. You can see
that the commutator is simply a pair of plates attached to the axle. These plates provide
the two connections for the coil of the electromagnet.

35

6.4 The Commutator and brushes:


The "flipping the electric field" part of an electric motor is accomplished by two
parts: the commutator and the brushes.
The diagram at the right shows how the commutator and brushes work together to
let current flow to the electromagnet, and also to flip the direction that the electrons are
flowing at just the right moment.
The contacts of the commutator are attached to the axle of the electromagnet, so
they spin with the magnet. The brushes are just two pieces of springy metal or carbon that
make contact with the contacts of the commutator.
Putting It All Together:
When you put all of these parts together, what you have is a complete electric motor:

In this figure, the armature winding has been left out so that it is easier to see the
commutator in action. The key thing to notice is that as the armature passes through the
horizontal position, the poles of the electromagnet flip.
Because of the flip, the North pole of the electromagnet is always above the axle
so it can repel the field magnet's North pole and attract the field magnet's South pole.
If you ever take apart an electric motor you will find that it contains the same
pieces described above: two small permanent magnets, a commutator, two brushes and an
36

electromagnet made by winding wire around a piece of metal. Almost always, however,
the rotor will have three poles rather than the two poles as shown in this article. There are
two good reasons for a motor to have three poles:
It causes the motor to have better dynamics. In a two-pole motor, if the
electromagnet is at the balance point, perfectly horizontal between the two poles of
the field magnet when the motor starts; you can imagine the armature getting
"stuck" there. That never happens in a three-pole motor.
Each time the commutator hits the point where it flips the field in a two-pole
motor, the commutator shorts out the battery (directly connects the positive and
negative terminals) for a moment. This shorting wastes energy and drains the
battery needlessly. A three-pole motor solves this problem as well.
It is possible to have any number of poles, depending on the size of the motor and
the specific application it is being used in.

CHAPTER-7
7. DESIGN AND DRAWINGS
7.1PNEUMATIC CYLINDER
37

7.1.1 Design of Piston rod:


Load due to air Pressure.
Diameter of the Piston (d)

40 mm

Pressure acting (p)

6 kgf/cm

6 0.981

5.886 bar
0.5886N/mm2

=
Material used for rod

C 45
(data book page no 1.12 )

Yield stress (y)

factor of safety

36 kgf/mm

3698.1

3531.6 bar

353.16N/mm2

2( data book page.no 8.19)

Force acting on the rod (F) =

F
Design Stress(y)

Pressure x Area

p x (d / 4)

0.5886 x {( x 40 ) / 4 }

739.6 N

y / F0 S

353.16 / 2
=

176.5N/mm2

4F/ [y]

(4739.6)/ [176.5]

Minimum diameter of rod required for the load

2.3 mm

We assume diameter of the rod

15 mm

38

7.1.2 Design of cylinder thickness:


Material used

Cast iron

Assuming internal diameter of the cylinder

40 mm

Ultimate tensile stress

250 N/mm

Working Stress
Assuming factor of safety
Working stress ( ft )

Ultimate tensile stress / factor of safety

250 / 4

62.5 N/mm2

According to LAMES EQUATION


Minimum thickness of cylinder ( t )

= ri {(f t+p)/(ft-p)-1}

Where,
ri

inner radius of cylinder in cm.

ft

Working stress (N/mm)

Working pressure in N/mm

Substituting values we get,


t

2.0 { (62.5 + 0.5886) / (62.5 0.5886) -1}

0.27mm

We assume thickness of cylinder

2.5 mm

Inner diameter of barrel

40 mm

Outer diameter of barrel

40 + 2t

40 + ( 2 x 2.5 )

45 mm

Pressure x area

p x /4 (d)

7.2 DESIGN OF PISTON ROD:


7.2.1 Diameter of Piston Rod:
Force of piston Rod (F)

39

0.5886 x ( / 4) x (40)

739.6 N

(/4) (dp) x ft

(/4) x (dp) x 62.5

739.6

(/4) x (dp) x 625

dp

739.6 x (4/) x (1/62.5)

15

3.8 mm

15 mm

Approach stroke

160 mm

Length of threads

2 x 20

Extra length due to front cover

12 mm

Extra length of accommodate head

20 mm

Total length of the piston rod

160 + 40 + 12 + 20

232 mm

230 mm

Also, force on piston rod (F)

dp
By standardizing dp
7.2.2 Length of piston rod:

By standardizing, length of the piston rod

40mm

7.3 DESIGN OF BALL BEARING:


Bearing No. 6202

(Data book page.no 4.13)

Outer Diameter of Bearing (D)

35 mm

Thickness of Bearing (B)

12 mm

Inner Diameter of the Bearing (d)

15 mm

Corner radii on shaft and housing

1(From design data book)

Maximum Speed

=
40

14,000 rpm (From design data book)

Mean Diameter (dm)


dm

(D + d) / 2

(35 + 15) / 2

25 mm

7.4 WAHL STRESS FACTOR:


(From design data book page.no 7.100)
Ks

4C 1 +
4C 4

(4 X 2.3) -1 + 0.65
(4 X 2.3 )-4

Ks

0.65

2.3

1.85

7.5SPECIFICATION
7.5.1 Double acting pneumatic cylinder
Technical Data
Stroke length

Cylinder stoker length 160 mm = 0.16 m

Quantity

Seals

Nitride (Buna-N) Elastomer

End cones

Cast iron
41

Piston

EN 8

Media

Air

Temperature

0-80 C

Pressure Range

8 N/m

7.5.2 Flow control Valve


Technical Data
Port size

0.635 x 10 m

Pressure

0-8 x 10 N/m

Media

Air

Quantity

7.5.3 Connectors
Technical data

Max working pressure

10 x 10 N/m

Temperature

0-100 C

Fluid media

Air

Material

Brass

7.5.4 Hoses
Technical date

Max pressure

10 x 10 N/m

Outer diameter

6 mm = 6 x 10 m

Inner diameter

3.5 mm = 3.5 x 10 m

42

43

44

CHAPTER-8
8. WORKING PRINCIPLE
Since pneumatic circuit plays a vital role in this device, it is very necessary to
explain the working of this circuit.
Initially starting with air compresses, its function is to compress air from a low
inlet pressure (usually atmospheric) to a higher pressure level. This is an accomplished
by reducing the volume of the air.
Air compressors are generally positive displacement units and are either of the
reciprocating piston type or the rotary screw or rotary vane types. The air compressor
used here is a typically small sized, two-stage compressor unit. It also consists of a
compressed air tank, electric rotor and pulley drive, pressure controls and instruments for
quick hook up and use. The compressor is driver by a 1 HP motor and designed to
operate in 10 100 PSI range. If the pressure exceeds the designed pressure of the
receiver a release value provided releases the excesses air and thus stays a head of any
hazards to take place.
Then having a pressure regulator where the desired pressure to the operated is set.
Here a variable pressure regulator is adopted. Through a variety of direction control value
are available, a hand operated spool value with detent is applied.
The spool value used here is 5 ports, 3 positions. There are two exhaust ports, two
outlet ports and one inlet port. In two extreme positions only the directions can be
changed while the Centro ore is a neutral position and no physical changes are incurred.
The 2 outlet ports are connected to an actuator (Cylinder).

The pneumatic

activates is a double acting, single rod cylinder. The cylinder output is coupled to further
purpose. The piston end has an air horning effect to prevent sudden thrust at extreme
ends.

45

8.1 PRINCIPLES OF WORKING


The compressed air from the compressor reaches the direction control valve. The
direction control valve changes the direction of flow according to the valve
position handle.
The compressed air pass through the direction control valve and it is admitted into
the front end of the cylinder block. The air pushes the piston for the lifting stroke.
At the end of the lifting stroke air from the valve reaches the rear end of the
cylinder block. The pressure remains the same but the area is less due to the
presence of piston rod. This exerts greater pressure on the piston, pushing it at a
faster rate thus enabling faster return stroke.
The stroke length of the piston can be changed by making suitable adjustment in
the hand liver valve operating position.

46

CHAPTER-9
ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
9.1 ADVANTAGES: It requires simple maintenance cares
Checking and cleaning are easy, because of the main parts are screwed.
Handling is easy.
Manual power not required
Repairing is easy.
Replacement of parts is easy.
9.2 DISADVANTAGES

Initial cost is high.


Separate air tank or compressor is required.

9.3 APPLICATIONS

All hydraulic and pneumatic dipper applications.


Easy to unload the materials

47

CHAPTER-10
10. LIST OF MATERIALS
Sl. No.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
Viii
Ix
X
Xi

PARTS

Pneumatic Double Acting Cylinder


5/2 Direction Control Valve
Battery
Wheel
Bearing with Bearing Cap
Polyethylene Tube
Hose Collar and Reducer
Stand (Frame)
Dash Pad
D.C Motor
Flow control valve

48

Qty.
1
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
1

Material
M.S
Aluminium
Electronics
Rubber
Fiber
Polyurethene
Brass
Mild steel
Plastic
Aluminum
Lead-Acid

CHAPTER-11
11. CONCLUSION
This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use
our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,
purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the
project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.
We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully.
The THREE AXIS PNEUMATIC MODERN TIPPER is working with satisfactory
conditions. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and
also quality. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available
facilities. In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about
our impression project work.
Thus we have developed a THREE AXIS PNEUMATIC MODERN TIPPER
which helps to know how to achieve low cost automation. The operating procedure of
this system is very simple, so any person can operate. By using more techniques, they can
be modified and developed according to the applications.

49

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

G.B.S. Narang, Automobile Engineering, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 1991,


pp 671.

2.
3.

William H. Crowse, Automobile Engineering.


MECHANISMS IN MODERN ENGINEERING DESIGN Vol. V. PART I

4. ELEMENTS OF WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY VOL II


-S.K. HAJRA CHOUDHURY
-S.K. BOSE
-A.K. HAJRA CHOUDHERY
5.

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

-I.B. PRASAD

50