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IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP)

Volume 6, Issue 3, Ver. I (May. -Jun. 2016), PP 01-05


e-ISSN: 2319 4200, p-ISSN No. : 2319 4197
www.iosrjournals.org

Designing and Simulation of High- k , N-channel MOSFET


devices using Tina Pro
Puja Acharya1, Shilpa Mehta2
1

Assistant Professor, ECE Deptt K R Mangalam University Gurgaon, India


Assistant Professor, ECE Deptt K R Mangalam University Gurgaon, India

Abstract: This paper focuses on the development of 80nm channel length of high-k (TiO2) n-channel (NMOS)
and p-channel (PMOS) enhancement mode MOSFETs which emerged due to replacement of SiO 2 by high-k
(TiO2) MOSFETS, as there were many problems while using SiO2 like high leakage current, short channel and
electron tunneling effect.
Keywords: Simulation of the fabrication process was carried out by using Tina Pro Software to obtain more
accurate process parameters & the results were then compared with NMOS using SiO2 as gate dielectric.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Here we will be discussing about the role of gate dielectric in (MOSFET) devices, and their criteria for
the selection of high-k materials. Furthermore, materials preferred for gate dielectrics both high-k & low-k
materials. So, to start with gate dielectrics which is the one used between its gate and substrate. When any metal
and a semiconductor or any dielectrics form an interface, charge transfer takes place across the interface. In
state-of-the-art processes, the gate dielectric is subjected to its important role, including [6]:
a) Interface to the substrate is electrically cleaned.
b) High capacitance is required to increase the trans- conductance of MOSFET device.
c) To avoid dielectric breakdown and leakage due to quantum tunneling, high thickness of channel is required.
The capacitance and thickness constraints directly oppose each other. For silicon based substrate
MOSFETs, the gate dielectric considered is SiO2 as it offers high impedance. As we know thermal oxide has a
very clean interface [6].
MOSFETs are backbone of the integrated-circuit industry till date. The reason behind is the perfection of
the SiO2/Si interface. As MOSFET dimensions have scaled, correspondingly larger values of the oxide
capacitance (Cox) are required. The oxide capacitance is mandatory for inverting the surface to a sufficient sheet
charge density in order get the desired current for the particular given supply voltage and for avoiding short
channel behavior [6].
Here some of the defects are formed in the gate oxide at the SiO2/Si interface due to flow of charge
carriers. The solution to this can be an insulator with higher dielectric constant whose properties can be dependent
on the material as well as on the processing technology. Initial high-k dielectric was TiO2 and later on other
dielectrics were introduced by many researchers like Al2O3, ZrO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, ZrSixOy, Y2O3, Ya2O3 for
submicron MOSFET [5].

II.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF GATE DIELECTRIC

As silicon dioxide (SiO2) has excellent dielectric properties that lead to the evolution of microelectronics
during the past decades.[5] Due to reduction in feature size integrated circuit performance has been improved, but
there are some disadvantages due to scaling factor. So, there emerged a need for high dielectric constant rather
than using SiO2.

III.

Materials Selected For Gate Dielectric

Based on strength of material dielectric is divided in two categories namely: Low-k and High-k.
A. LOW-k
A low-k as the name specifies the one with small dielectric constant. Although there is availability of large
number of materials with lower dielectric constants but in terms of integrity to a manufacturing process only
some of them are suitable. So, efforts have been made in direction of these classes of materials [2]. Some of these
materials are defined below:
DOI: 10.9790/4200-0603010105

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Designing and Simulation of High- k , N-channel MOSFET devices using Tina Pro
a) Fluorine-doped Silicon Dioxide
Here, SiO2 doping is done with fluorine in order to generate fluorinated silica glass, dielectric constant range is
from 3.9 to 3.5 [1].
b) Carbon-doped Silicon dioxide
Here, doping of SiO2 with carbon is done, dielectric constant is 3.0 [5].
c) Porous Silicon dioxide
Different methods are applied for creating larger voids or pores in SiO2 dielectric. Voids may have a dielectric
constant of approximately 1, so the dielectric constant of the porous material can be reduced by raising the
porosity of the film.
d) Porous Carbon-doped Silicon dioxide
By UV curing method, methyl groups in carbon doped silicon dioxide can be removed and pores can be defined
to the carbon doped silicon dioxide low-k materials [4].
B. High-k
The term high-k dielectric defines a material with a high dielectric constant k that will allow increase in gate
capacitance without the associated leakage effects. Such dielectric constants are defined below:
a) Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)
This material has following characteristics like high permittivity, high band gap, high band discontinuities, and
good break down voltage. But the main problem is that the high processing temperatures (1000oC) the mobility of
electrons shows a flat band voltage shift in the positive direction.
b) Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
This is an alternative gate dielectric material suitable for deep submicron MOSFET applications. It is
advantageous too as it has dielectric constant of 80, bandgap as 3.5eV for amorphous films and 3.2 eV for
crystalline films which are good for acting as an insulator.
c) Zirconium oxide (ZrO2)
ZrO2 is referred due to its dielectric constant (k~25) higher band gap (~5.8eV). It is thermodynamically stable
with Si, but crystallization temperature is about 500oC, which is low for ULSI processing.
Gate Dielectric
Material

Dielectric constant
(k)

SiO2
Al2O3
TiO2
ZrO2
HfO2
Ta2O5
Y2O3
Ya2O3

3.9
8
80
25
25
25
13
27

Energy Band
Gap
Eg (eV)
9
8.8
3.5
5.8
5.8
6
6
4.3

Conduction Band Offset


Ec (eV)
3.5
3
1.1
1.4
1.4
1.5
2.3
2.3

Valence Band
Offset
Ec (eV)
4.4
4.7
1.3
3.3
3.3
3.4
2.6
0.9

Table 1: High-k dielectric materials and their properties

IV.

Role Of Simulation Software

TINA is an acronym of "Toolkit for Interactive Network Analysis. TINA Design Suite is a powerful
and affordable circuit simulator and PCB design software package for analyzing, designing, and real time testing
of analog, digital, HDL, MCU, and mixed electronic circuits and their PCB layouts. It also analyzes SMPS, RF,
communication, and opto-electronic circuits which generate and debug MCU code using the integrated flowchart
tool and also test microcontroller applications in a mixed circuit environment. A unique feature of TINA is that it
can bring the circuit to run with the optional USB controlled TINA Lab II and Lab Xplorer hardware, which turns
the computer into a powerful, multifunction T&M instrument.

V.

Simulation Results

Simulations of the both high-k devices (NMOS and PMOS) are done by using Tina Pro. Device simulation
is done for calculating the electrical behavior of semiconductor devices. It also helps in calculating some of the
design parameters such as sheet resistance, channel surface concentration, gate oxide thickness.
a. Determination of Threshold voltage
Threshold voltage is the one which determines the requirements for turning the transistor on or off.
According to the simulation results, the threshold voltage for NMOS with TiO2 is around to -0.74V while for
DOI: 10.9790/4200-0603010105

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Designing and Simulation of High- k , N-channel MOSFET devices using Tina Pro
NMOS with SiO2,Vt is equal to 0.23V and for PMOS with TiO2, Vt is equal to -0.24V. Figure shows the Id-Vg
characteristics for the transistors with Vt.

(a)

(b)

(c)
Figure2: The Id-Vg curve for (a) NMOS with SiO2 as gate dielectric (b) NMOS with TiO2 as gate dielectric and
(c) PMOS with TiO2 as gate dielectric; obtained from Tina Pro simulator.
b. MOSFET V-I Characteristics

(a)

(b)

DOI: 10.9790/4200-0603010105

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Designing and Simulation of High- k , N-channel MOSFET devices using Tina Pro

(c)
Figure 3: Family of Id vs. Vgs curve for (a) NMOS with SiO 2 as gate dielectric (b) NMOS with TiO2 as gate
dielectric and (c) PMOS with TiO2 as gate dielectric; obtained from Tina Pro simulator.
c. Effect of Drain Voltage and Threshold Voltage
Threshold Voltage (V)

Gate oxide thickness vs Threshold voltage


0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8

NMOS
PMOS

2.2

2.5

3.3

3.5

Gate oxide thickness (nm)

d. Effect of gate oxide thickness on device parameters like Threshold voltage, Sheet resistance and Channel
Surface concentration.

FIG 4: EFFECT OF GATE OXIDE THICKNESS ON DEVICE PARAMETERS (A) THRESHOLD VOLTAGE (B) SHEET
RESISTANCE (C) CHANNEL SURFACE CONCENTRATION

DOI: 10.9790/4200-0603010105

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Designing and Simulation of High- k , N-channel MOSFET devices using Tina Pro
EFFECT OF HIGH-K ON THRESHOLD VOLTAGE

Threshold voltage (V)

E.

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

Effect of TiO2 on Threshold voltage

Threshold
voltage
TiO2

SiO2
NMOS

Fig 5: Effect of High-k on Threshold voltage

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[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

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DOI: 10.9790/4200-0603010105

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