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SOCIAL CAUSE: Human Trafficking
NAME OF THE NGO: Prerana Anti-Human Trafficking







Social Context of NGO


Social Problems


Economical Problems



Psychological Problems



Health Problems


Discussion about various NGOs


Study about other NGOs


Background about NGO "Prerana Anti-Human Trafficking


Details about " Prerana Anti-Human Trafficking


Creating awareness in the society


Activity Planning


Execution of Working Mission


Resources required


Challenges of the NGO






Although human trafficking can occur at local levels, it has transnational
implications, as recognized by the United Nations in the Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children
(also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or the Palermo Protocol), an
international agreement under the UN Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime (CTOC) which entered into force on 25 December 2003. The
protocol is one of three which supplement the CTOC. The Trafficking Protocol is
the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half a century,
and the only one with an agreed-upon definition of trafficking in persons. One of
its purposes is to facilitate international cooperation in investigating and
prosecuting such trafficking. Another is to protect and assist human trafficking's
victims with full respect for their rights as established in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. The Trafficking Protocol, which now has 169
parties defines human trafficking as:

(a) the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by

means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud,
of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the
giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person
having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation
shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or
other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices
similar to slavery, servitude or the removal, manipulation or implantation of

(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation

set forth in sub-paragraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the
means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used

(c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for

the purpose of exploitation shall be considered "trafficking in persons" even if
this does not involve any of the means set forth in sub-paragraph (a) of this

(d) "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen years of age

Human trafficking differs from people smuggling, which involves a person

voluntarily requesting or hiring another individual to covertly transport them
across an international border, usually because the smuggled person would be
denied entry into a country by legal channels. Though illegal, there may be no
deception or coercion involved. After entry into the country and arrival at their
ultimate destination, the smuggled person is usually free to find their own way.
According to the International Centre for Migration Policy Development
(ICMPD), people smuggling is a violation of national immigration laws of the
destination country, and does not require violations of the rights of the smuggled
person. Human trafficking, on the other hand, is a crime against a person because
of the violation of the victim's rights through coercion and exploitation. Unlike
most cases of people smuggling, victims of human trafficking are not permitted
to leave upon arrival at their destination.

While smuggling requires travel, trafficking does not. Trafficked people are held
against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide
services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything
from bonded or forced labour to commercial sexual exploitation. The
arrangement may be structured as a work contract, but with no or low payment,
or on terms which are highly exploitative. Sometimes the arrangement is
structured as debt bondage, with the victim not being permitted or able to pay off
the debt.

Bonded labour, or debt bondage, is probably the least known form of labour
trafficking today, and yet it is the most widely used method of enslaving people.
Victims become "bonded" when their labour, the labour they themselves hired
and the tangible goods they bought are demanded as a means of repayment for a
loan or service in which its terms and conditions have not been defined or in
which the value of the victims' services is not applied toward the liquidation of
the debt. Generally, the value of their work is greater than the original sum of
money "borrowed."

Forced labour is a situation in which victims are forced to work against their
own will under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment; their
freedom is restricted and a degree of ownership is exerted. Men are at risk of
being trafficked for unskilled work, which globally generates 31 billion USD
according to the International Labour Organization. Forms of forced labour can
include domestic servitude, agricultural labour, sweatshop factory labour,
janitorial, food service and other service industry labour, and begging. Some of
the products produced by forced labour are: clothing, cocoa, bricks, coffee,
cotton, and gold, among others.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM), the single largest global
provider of services to victims of trafficking, reports receiving an increasing
number of cases in which victims were subjected to forced labour. A 2012 study
observes that "2010 was particularly notable as the first year in which IOM
assisted more victims of labour trafficking than those who had been trafficked
for purposes of sexual exploitation."

Child labour is a form of work that is likely to be hazardous to the physical,

mental, spiritual, moral, or social development of children and can interfere with
their education. According to the International Labour Organization, the global
number of children involved in child labour has fallen down during the past
decade it has declined by one third, from 246 million in 2000 to 168 million
children in 2012. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest incidence of
child labour, while the largest numbers of child-workers are found in Asia and
the Pacific.

Social Context of NGO

The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has further assisted many non-governmental
organizations in their fight against human trafficking. The 2006 armed conflict in Lebanon,
which saw 300,000 domestic workers from Sri Lanka, Ethiopia and the Philippines jobless

and targets of traffickers, led to an emergency information campaign with NGO Caritas
Migrant to raise human-trafficking awareness. Additionally, an April 2006 report, trafficking
in Persons: Global Patterns, helped to identify 127 countries of origin, 98 transit countries
and 137 destination countries for human trafficking. To date, it is the second most frequently
downloaded UNODC report. Continuing into 2007, UNODC supported initiatives like the
Community Vigilance project along the border between India and Nepal, as well as provided
subsidy for NGO trafficking prevention campaigns in Bosnia, Croatia, and Herzegovina.
Public service announcements have also proved useful for organizations combating human
trafficking. In addition to many other endeavours, UNODC works to broadcast these
announcements on local television and radio stations across the world. By providing regular
access to information regarding human-trafficking, individuals are educated how to protect
themselves and their families from being exploited.

The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) was conceived
to promote the global fight on human trafficking, on the basis of international agreements
reached at the UN. UN.GIFT was launched in March 2007 by UNODC with a grant made on
behalf of the United Arab Emirates. It is managed in cooperation with the International
Labour Organization (ILO); the International Organization for Migration (IOM); the UN
Children's Fund (UNICEF); the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
(OHCHR); and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

Within UN.GIFT, UNODC launched a research exercise to gather primary data on national
responses to trafficking in persons worldwide. This exercise resulted in the publication of the
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons in February 2009. The report gathers official

information for 155 countries and territories in the areas of legal and institutional framework,
criminal justice response and victim assistance services. UN.GIFT works with all
stakeholders governments, business, academia, civil society and the media to support
each other's work, create new partnerships, and develop effective tools to fight human

The Global Initiative is based on a simple principle: human trafficking is a crime of such
magnitude and atrocity that it cannot be dealt with successfully by any government alone.
This global problem requires a global, multi-stakeholder strategy that builds on national
efforts throughout the world. To pave the way for this strategy, stakeholders must coordinate
efforts already underway, increase knowledge and awareness, provide technical assistance,
promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of state and non-state stakeholders,
foster partnerships for joint action, and above all, ensure that everybody takes responsibility
for this fight. By encouraging and facilitating cooperation and coordination, UN.GIFT aims
to create synergies among the anti-trafficking activities of UN agencies, international
organizations and other stakeholders to develop the most efficient and cost-effective tools and
good practices.

UN.GIFT aims to mobilize state and non-state actors to eradicate human trafficking by
reducing both the vulnerability of potential victims and the demand for exploitation in all its
forms, ensuring adequate protection and support to those who fall victim, and supporting the
efficient prosecution of the criminals involved, while respecting the fundamental human
rights of all persons. In carrying out its mission, UN.GIFT will increase the knowledge and
awareness on human trafficking, promote effective rights-based responses, build capacity of
state and non-state actors, and foster partnerships for joint action against human trafficking.
For more information view the UN.GIFT Progress Report 2009. UNODC efforts to motivate
action launched the Blue Heart Campaign against Human Trafficking on March 6, 2009,
which Mexico launched its own national version of in April 2010. The campaign encourages
people to show solidarity with human trafficking victims by wearing the blue heart, similar to
how wearing the red ribbon promotes transnational HIV/AIDS awareness. On November 4,
2010, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust
Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian, legal and financial aid to
victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and
supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.

In December 2012, UNODC published the new edition of the Global Report on Trafficking in
Persons. The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 has revealed that 27 per cent of
all victims of human trafficking officially detected globally between 2007 and 2010 are
children, up 7 per cent from the period 2003 to 2006.

The Global Report recorded victims of 136 different nationalities detected in 118 countries
between 2007 and 2010, during which period, 460 different flows were identified. Around
half of all trafficking took place within the same region with 27 per cent occurring within
national borders. One exception is the Middle East, where most detected victims are East and
South Asians. Trafficking victims from East Asia have been detected in more than 60
countries, making them the most geographically dispersed group around the world. There are
significant regional differences in the detected forms of exploitation. Countries in Africa and
in Asia generally intercept more cases of trafficking for forced labour, while sexual
exploitation is somewhat more frequently found in Europe and in the Americas. Additionally,
trafficking for organ removal was detected in 16 countries around the world. The Report
raises concerns about low conviction rates 16 per cent of reporting countries did not record
a single conviction for trafficking in persons between 2007 and 2010. As of November 2015,
169 countries have ratified the United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol, of which
UNODC is the guardian. Significant progress has been made in terms of legislation: as of
2012, 83 per cent of countries had a law criminalizing trafficking in persons in accordance
with the Protocol.

1.1 Social Problems

The social impacts of human trafficking are rather universal. This does not denote them as
being not a serious matter, nonetheless. Those who have truly experienced human trafficking
are the ones who must cope with the majority of the social impacts. Although, HIV and AIDS
can be spread because of human trafficking, which can affect any and all of the population.
Despite there being shared impacts of human trafficking, the specific incidents tend to differ
from country to country.
If a person has had to experience human trafficking, they have known a life worse than
death itself. The conditions those are forced to live in the brothels are thoroughly atrocious.
Victims of human trafficking have absolutely no freedoms, and experience horrors such as
abuse, violence, deprivation, and torture. These kind of conditions often lead to trauma. With
that in mind, it can be understandable how these people would feel the urge to escape.
Unfortunately, this misdeed will never go without punishment, which are never minor. One
person once had to submerge their body in a barrel filled with water contaminated with
scorpion and other vermin, and sit there for one week. As if that wasnt enough, they also had
to sit in the darkness all lonesome. Another way to make the victims more cooperative would
be to inject them with drugs, leading to addiction, which meant the brothel was eventually
their lifeline. Many people who have been trafficked fought it at first, but eventually accepted
they lost that battle from the beginning. They have even been seen smiling and flirting, but it
is only an act. On the inside, they are broken and crying.

Since human trafficking involves selling a person for sex, pregnancies would be
expected. No matter, human traffickers have even found a way to make that seem dark and
twisted. They force those who are pregnant to have abortions, with unclean instruments by
non-certified practitioners. This lack of sanitation is one of the many factors in the ever
spreading HIV in the human trafficking world. The relationship between human trafficking
and HIV isnt always completely obvious. Really, the fact that there was any relationship at
all between these two problems is a recent realization. Currently, there is not much research
to show the connection, but more studies are being conducted in order to have that sufficient
information necessary for ending the social issue of human trafficking. What is known thus
far is that many are not properly educated in the area of sexually transmitted diseases,
meaning they are typically unaware of what they are and most definitely whether or not one
would have them. This means people all over the world, especially in the world of human
trafficking, people are spreading life threatening diseases, such as HIV and AIDS.

In ten years time, the popular understanding of the problem has changed during the age of
Internet. The technology in many countries have drastically improved over the course of
years and provided many resources for people to use. People can use the Internet for
information and watch television unlike the previous years. The traffickers were able on
continuing their business through various forums or websites and ply their trade in
cyberspace this form of business makes it easier for the traffickers to engage in human
trafficking. In this business, traffickers can close down one website and open up another in a

matter of hours there are reports by the police that said prostitution has moved to indoors. An
example of this is Rhode Island. Apparently, Rhode Island has one of the highest rates of
trafficking because of the lack for enforcement. In addition, there is huge number of
advertisements in newspapers that shows prostitution is happening indoors. Hints in these ads
are "relaxation, table showers and body rubs

In fifty years ago, the awareness of the problem has changed a lot in third world countries. It
is known that people in the developing world might only know of opportunities in other
countries by word of mouth" in addition, capitalism became a huge influence to this ongoing
problem. The structure of capitalism has created cheap labour and corrupt practices that
benefit the employers. There are studies that show that traffickers earn millions of Euros
from the trade of humans during the transition to communism, many European countries
were economically devastated by the lack of market economy

In the previous hundreds of years, there were many events that increased the rate of
trafficking of women and sex trade. One example is the colonization from Europeans and
African slave trade. There was one event that addressed the issue of human trafficking. The
event is called the White Slave Traffic of 1904 drafted by the League of Nations Because
of this event, human trafficking became a moral problem related to slavery. The list of
victims became updated after 1920s by adding children and adult women to the list. Thanks
to the convention, it has "set the standard for anti-trafficking instruments for several decades

1.2 Economical Problems

Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human
trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years,
crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence,
cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result
of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and
businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings
generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an
economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that
affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human
trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as
intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated
products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of
trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of
human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working
decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a

trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is
to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to
decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

Human trafficking is a multi-billion dollar enterprise rivalled only by the international trade
in illegal drugs and arms. As many as twenty-seven million people are trapped in slavery.
More than half are children. Human trafficking is global in scope, and takes many forms.
Consequently it may be viewed through many different lenses. It may be seen as a moral,
religious, or ethical issue, as indeed it was by the abolitionists of the early eighteenth century.
It may be considered primarily as a criminal justice challenge to be met by the vigorous
application of the law. Many groups look at the issue in the framework of human rights
abuse. Then there are sociological, cultural, historical, feminist and other political views as
well, with each emphasizing a different aspect or response.

Sex trafficking may include street prostitution, escort services, pornography production, peep
shows, massage parlours, phone sex operations, strip clubs and exotic dancing, fetish clubs,
sex tourism operations, and mail-order bride rackets. Children, being especially vulnerable,
are often targets for sexual exploitation.
Labour trafficking is widespread in agricultural production, in much labour intensive
manufacturing, in service industries, as well as many smaller enterprises that are not well
regulated. It encompasses debt bondage, domestic servitude, outright forced slave labour,
prison labour and child labour which includes begging rings and child soldiers. Children are
frequently subject to the most extreme labour abuses.


Both of these broad categories, sex trafficking and labour trafficking, may occur within
borders or may involve crossing borders. Both men and women are its victims as well as it
perpetrators. Victims may be lured and initially complicit in their bondage, while others are
simply kidnapped or purchased. Human trafficking occurs in factories, fields, and mines, in
offices, restaurants, and homes, and on the streets of nearly every country in the world.

But in all these cases, the common thread in every instance is: ongoing exploitation through
the use of force, fraud, or coercion. That is the essential element that defines the crime of
human trafficking. Conditions are manipulated so that people become trapped in a web of
sweat, fear, and deceit. With this abuse taking such a variety of forms, it is easy to lose sight
of this common thread, the continuous illegal exploitation of another human being for profit.
We believe that greater focus on this economic foundation of human trafficking, will suggest
avenues for eradicating it that other approaches may not.

At the close of this past century a number of factors gave a huge boost to human trafficking,
giving it a global scale, and making it the fastest growing criminal enterprise at this time.
Three overriding events created a perfect storm for this crime to flourish.

First was the decades long march toward a globally integrated economy that accelerated
following World War II and which still continues. Second was the dissolution of the Soviet
Union in the 1980s which, however much it may have been welcomed from a political
perspective, resulted in enormous disruption to the social fabric of Eastern Europe and eroded
the stabilizing influence of a strong central government. Lastly the successful formation of
the European Union broke down barriers across a huge area of Western Europe and greatly
eased the costs and difficulties of moving people without documents across borders. In
addition to these monumental changes, there has been a huge increase in the outsourcing of
manufacturing, especially to Asia and South America where labour markets are far less
regulated. The recent worldwide economic downturn has only exacerbated this trend.

Traffickers are opportunistic hunters. In the past few decades the opportunity for profit has
skyrocketed, and the risks of being penalized have greatly diminished. It is estimated that
human trafficking accounts for more than 32 billion dollars in illegal profits every year, more
than Nike, Google, and Starbucks combined. Yet it remains an almost invisible crime.
1.3 Psychological Problems


Natasha was 19-years-old when she was approached by a woman while shopping at the mall.
The woman told her she loved her makeup and had been looking for someone to join their
makeup team. They did make up for movies and fashion shows. She told Natasha she thought
she would be perfect for the job and gave Natasha her business card in case she was
interested. The offer seemed legitimate to Natasha and after a phone interview, filling out
some paperwork, and a makeup test she was asked to meet the woman and the womans boss
at a restaurant to go over some final details. But while she was at the restaurant, something
felt wrong.
I felt like the woman started being short with me, and uncomfortable, Natasha told
Americas Most Wanted. I felt like she was looking at her boss in a weird way. I started
getting a completely different vibe.
She decided to leave the restaurant and never come back, but the woman and man had
different plans for her. As soon as she stepped outside the restaurant, she was forced into a car
and kidnapped. She was taken to a home and left in a room for days without contact to the
outside world. Once she was taken out of the room, her life changed forever.
Rosa was just 13-years-old and working as a waitress in a small Mexican village, when a
family acquaintance told her about a higher paying waitressing job in the US that could help
support her family. It took a while for Rosa to convince her family to let her take the job, but
finally she did. Soon after, she and a few other girls travelled on foot across the border to a
rundown trailer where they were told they would be working. But that work, she was told,
was not waitressing it was prostituting. At that point, Rosas life changed forever.

For these two girls, it was a life they never imagined, but once they were in it, it was a life
they couldnt get out of. Both became victims of the sex (human) trafficking industry.

Rosa was gang-raped and locked up like a prisoner until she agreed to do what she was told.
She lived under 24-hour watch and was forced to engage in sexual relations with up to 30
men a day. When she got pregnant, she was forced to have an abortion, then sent back to
work the next day.
According to Natasha and the police, Spyder had many girls working for him. To control
Natasha, police say Spyder threatened to kill her family if she ever tried escape. Natasha told
AMW she was also physically beaten when she didnt comply with his rules.
The fear was constant, Natasha said. It was constant: please dont hurt my family. I will
do whatever you want.'
For millions of people around the world this fear is real. According to Initiative against
Sexual Trafficking, it is estimated that somewhere between 700,000 and four million women,
children and men are trafficked each year, and no region is unaffected. (Numbers are varying
however because many organizations report different numbers, as can be seen in the photo
below.) UNICEF reports more than one million children enter the sex trade yearly.
The stories you read above about Natasha and Rosa are common in the sex trafficking world,
both for men and women. Traffickers typically lure women to the U.S. with false promises of
jobs as waitresses, nannies, models, factory workers, and other work. The Department of
Health and Human Services also say traffickers lure people by false marriage proposals
turned into bondage situations, parents, husbands, and boyfriends selling the victim into sex
trade, and people being kidnapped to be taken into an operation. Men can be forced into
working at brothels, sweatshops, construction sites and fields. According to UNFPA, as
illegal migrant workers, they may be subjected to sexual violence, horrific living conditions,
threats against their families and dangerous workplaces. Once lured, the victims are
prevented from leaving by fear and heavy security. They can also be confined, starved,
beaten, raped, and shamed.
Recently Ive noticed many stories in the news about being people jailed for running these
sorts of operations. But what goes unreported is the effects sex trafficking has on the victims.
Although the justice of having the traffickers jailed, Im sure feels good, they still have to live
with the psychological and physical trauma.
1.4 Health Problems
The act of trafficking and the attendant human rights violations can have very
serious consequences for the victim. Women who have been trafficked may
suffer from serious physical and mental health problems. Service providers who
work with victims should be aware of the severe and interrelated health
consequences that result from trafficking.
Trafficking victims often suffer from serious physical abuse and physical
exhaustion, as well as starvation. Typical injuries can include broken bones,
concussion, bruising or burns, as well as other injuries consistent with assault.
Some of these serious injuries can cause lasting health problems and may

require long-term treatment. Because women who have been trafficked have
been subjected to multiple abuses over an extensive period of time, they may
suffer health consequences similar to those of victims of prolonged torture.
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with physical and emotional effects on the
victim. Sexual assault is any sexual activity between two or more people in which
one person is involved against his or her will. The sexual activity involved in an
assault can include many different experiences. Women can be the victims of
unwanted touching, grabbing, oral sex, anal sex, sexual penetration with an
object, and/or sexual intercourse. Trafficking victims are often made to
participate in sexual activities through, for example, pressure from someone with
authority over them, bribery or manipulation, or impairment from alcohol or
drugs. After experiencing sexual assault, a woman may experience a range of
physical consequences and emotional reactions, including severe stress and
depression. More information on reactions women have to sexual assault can be
found in the section entitled Sexual Assault.
Women who work in the commercial sex trade are vulnerable to sexual and
reproductive health complications, including sexually transmitted diseases
(STDs) (most notably HIV/AIDS) and other gynaecological problems. Women who
have been trafficked into the sex trade often may not have access to, or are not
allowed to use, condoms or other methods of birth control, and may only have
irregular gynaecological examinations. Such women face the risk of unwanted
pregnancies and miscarriages. Women who work as prostitutes experience high
rates of abortion, sterilization and infertility.
This type of physical and sexual abuse leads to severe mental or emotional
health consequences, including feelings of severe guilt, post-traumatic stress
disorder, depression, anxiety, substance abuse (alcohol or narcotics) and eating
disorders. In extreme cases, the mental anguish can lead to self-mutilation or
suicide. Victims of trafficking often need psychological care as part of standard
medical treatment.
A Kvinnoforum resource book, Crossing Borders against Trafficking in Women and
Girls (1999), contains a list of the common reactions women have after being
trafficked as well as a description of the general psychological support needed by
victims. The list was compiled by Nadejda Kostadinova, a psychotherapist with
the Animus Association, a Bulgarian NGO. Ms. Kostadinova also advises that
"[w]omen need sessions with a therapist in order to share their problems in a
secure environment. . . . The role of the consultant is to listen to the woman and
to direct the session. She/he encourages the woman to step firm on the ground,
to remember her capabilities and to recognize the strength, which helped her to

In addition, women's rights groups that provide services for trafficked women
have identified behaviours in trafficking victims that stem from a psychological
survival strategy known as the "Stockholm Syndrome." The Stockholm syndrome

describes a situation in which a victim, usually a captive, develops an emotional

bond with a captor. According to experts, the condition develops in response to
four specific situations:
A person threatens to kill another and is perceived as having the capability to do
so. The other cannot escape, so her or his life depends on the threatening
The threatened person is isolated from outsiders so that the only other
perspective available to her or him is that of the threatening person.
The threatening person is perceived as showing some degree of kindness to the
one being threatened.
From Women Helping Battered Women (citing Jeri Martinez, Domestic Violence
Response Training Curriculum, and November 1991).
While originally used to describe a hostage situation, the strategies employed by
the victims exhibiting the Stockholm syndrome have also been documented in
cases of domestic violence and sexual assault. In the case of trafficking in
women, it has been found that, in order to cope with their situation of
helplessness, threats, and abuse, victims have entered into relationships with
traffickers. They may begin to work with traffickers and pimps and eventually
become complicit in the trafficking process through such activities as supervising
other trafficking victims and even engaging in the recruitment of women into the
commercial sex industry.
It is important for both service providers and law enforcement officials to
understand this phenomenon. It may not be immediately apparent that such
women can require the same kind of support and assistance offered to trafficking


2. Discussion about various NGOs

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the globe are engaged in combating
trafficking engaged in a variety activities including prevention, prosecution, protection,
rescues/raids, reintegration, and repatriation. NGOs often work with few resources yet can be
effective in complimenting the activities of governments, or even taking the place of
government efforts. This section will list resources and information to make it easier for
NGOs to do the important work of combating human traffickin Due to the multifarious nature
of the realms of NGOs operations, several acronyms have been coined to categorize the
BINGO: Business-friendly International NGO
TANGO: Technical Assistance NGO
TSO: Third Sector Organization
GONGO: Government Operated NGOs
DONGO: Donor Organized NGO
INGO: International NGO
QUANGO: Quasi-Autonomous NGO
National NGO: A non-governmental NGO that exists only in one country
CSO: Civil Society Organization
ENGO: Environmental NGO such as Greenpeace and WWF
NNGO: Northern NGO
PANGO: Party NGO i.e. NGO set up by parties and used as a front for political matters.
SNGO: Southern NGO
SCO: Social Change NGO
TNGO: Transnational NGO
GSO: Grassroots Support Organization
MANGO: Market Advocacy Organization
NGDO: Non-governmental Development Organization


3. Study about other NGOs

ABC Nepal,- governmental organisation working in Nepal on trafficking of girls and minors
across Indian subcontinent and Arabian countries, founded by Durga Ghimire.
Abeni is an Orange County, CA 501(c)3 non-profit that exists to create a safe, confidential
place for those working in the Orange County sex trades, as well as those being domestically
sex trafficked.
Anti-Slavery International, Anti-Slavery International works at local, national and
international levels to eliminate all forms of slavery around the world
8th Day Centre for Justice, a Roman Catholic non-profit organization based in Chicago,
A Better World, an organization that is based in Lacombe, Alberta, Canada
A21 Campaign, a 501 non-profit, non-governmental organization that works to fight human
ACT Alberta, a Canadian coalition of Government of Alberta representatives, nongovernmental organizations, community organisations, and the Royal Canadian Mounted
Agape International Missions, a non-profit organization in Cambodia


Animus Association, is a non-profit organization in Bulgaria that supports trafficking victims

through rehabilitation, counselling and psychotherapy, lobby and prevention activities, and
service provider training.
Anti-Trafficking League against Slavery, (ATLAS) began as an initiative to combat human
trafficking under the Office of the U.S. Nevada, LV
Arizona League to End Regional Trafficking, a coalition representing partnerships with law
enforcement, faith-based communities, non-profit organizations, social service agencies,
attorneys and concerned citizens.
Asian and Pacific Islander Women and Family Safety Centre, APIWFSC is a direct service
provider to victims of human trafficking. APIWFSC co-leads a 24 hr. Human Trafficking
Response Team, providing culturally specific advocacy and outreach to victims in 19
languages and dialects.
Awareness against Human Trafficking (HAART) is non-governmental organization fighting
against human trafficking in Kenya.
Ban Ying is a specialised counselling centre in Berlin, Germany that works to combat human
trafficking by offering advice and counselling services to migrant women and transgender
individuals in Berlin and other parts of Germany.
Bishop Outreach, a non-profit, non-governmental organization involved in rescuing those
enslaved in human trafficking.

Breaking Free, a non-profit organization based in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States that
provides various services to prostitutes, such as help finding a place to live and a job outside
the sex industry
California against Slavery, a human rights organization directed at strengthening California
state laws to protect victims of sex trafficking
Called to Rescue, a non-profit worldwide organization based in Vancouver, Washington given
to rescuing minor children from sex trafficking, violence and abuse.
Centre to End All Sexual Exploitation, a non-profit organization that helps human trafficking
victims, sex workers, and the homeless by providing them with resources
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, a non-profit organization that helps human
trafficking victims by providing Social Services, Legal Services, and Outreach and Training[
Chab Dai, a coalition founded by Helen Swornthat connects Christian organizations
committed to ending sexual abuse and trafficking.


Challenging Heights, an organization founded by James Kofi Annan that promotes youth and
family empowerment and childrens rights to education and freedom from forced labour in
Child hope Asia Philippines, an international, non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian
organization whose principal purpose is to advocate for the cause of street children
throughout the world
Children of the Night is a non-profit organization that operates a 24-hour hotline and
shelter/home for children ages 1117 who have been involved in prostitution.
Children's Organization of Southeast Asia (COSA) is an International Organization which
works towards the prevention of child human trafficking and sexual exploitation within the
Northern regions of Thailand, especially among hill-tribe communities.
Civil Society, St Paul, Mn.
Coalition Against Human Trafficking, works to increase community awareness of human
trafficking and coordinate the identification, assistance and protection of victims through
community education, advocacy, provision of culturally and linguistically sensitive victim
services, and efforts to ensure the investigation and prosecution of human traffickers.
Coalition against Trafficking in Women, an international non-governmental organization
opposing human trafficking, prostitution, and other forms of commercial sex
Connectcity provides housing and wrap around services to adult victims of sex trafficking in
Central Florida.
Coordination Centre Human Trafficking, is a Dutch non-governmental organization that
maintains a human trafficking helpdesk, coordinates shelter networks and victim placement,
and provides return and reintegration support.
The Freedom Project (An organisation targeting slavery and prostitution in many countries)
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, a Los Angeles-based anti-human trafficking
Crowns of Hope provides financial assistance and Christian therapy for female victims of
human trafficking and sexual abuse in Central Texas.
Deborah's Gate, a human trafficking victims safe house run by The Salvation Army in
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada that opened in 2009
Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, a collective of 65,000 sex workers in West Bengal
ECPAT, an international non-governmental organisation and network headquartered in
Thailand which is designed to end the commercial sexual exploitation of children


The Emancipation Network, an international organization dedicated to fighting human

trafficking and modern-day slavery
EVE, an advocacy group based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Face to Face Bulgaria, an organization whose primary mission is to prevent cases of forced
prostitution and human trafficking in Bulgaria
Florida Coalition against Human Trafficking, (FCAHT) is an entity within The Immigrant
Rights Advocacy Centre, Inc.
Florida Abolitionist, a non-profit, non-governmental organization opposing human trafficking
in Florida, United States
Florida Freedom Partnership, (FFP) provides a rapid-response, comprehensive support
system for trafficked persons while building the capacity of the South Florida community to
better understand and respond to the needs of trafficked persons.
Florida Trafficking Initiative Centre for the Advancement of Human Rights, Florida State
University, and The Florida Trafficking Initiative is a project of The Centre for the
Advancement of Human Rights at Florida State University.
Freedom Network, USA, is a national alliance of experienced advocates working with
survivors of all forms of human trafficking to ensure that trafficked persons have access to
justice, safety, and opportunity.
FIZ - Fachstelle Frauenhandel und Frauenmigration is an independent, non-governmental
organisation based in Zurich (Switzerland) that offers direct support for victims of trafficking,
as well as political and educational work
Free the Slaves, is dedicating to ending Slavery Worldwide
Freeset, an organization whose primary mission is to provide sustainable employment and
economic empowerment to victims of sex trafficking in South Asia.
Fundacin Esperanza, Organization in Colombia and Ecuador dedicated to promote and fight
for the Rights of people in contexts of migration and mobility. The organization works
through advocacy, prevention, Assistance, legal advice, political and economic
empowerment, publications, among others.
GABRIELA, a leftist Filipino organization that advocates for women's issues
Gender Perspectives, a La Strada International member in Belarus that advocates for gender
equality between women and men and stronger anti-trafficking laws.
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, a network of more than 100 non-governmental
organisations from all regions of the world, who share a deep concern for the women,
children and men whose human rights have been violated by the criminal practice of
trafficking in persons

Global Relief Association for Crises & Emergencies is dedicated to eradicating trafficking
through prevention. This organization particularly works in Southeast Asia, but is working to
HAGAR International is an international faith-based organisation dedicated to the recovery of
extreme human rights abuses, particularly human trafficking, gender-based violence, and
sexual exploitation. We do whatever it takes for as long as it takes to restore life in all its
HEAL International, an international volunteer-based nonprofit dedicated to empowerment
for trafficked children, awareness, and prevention through evidence-based programs.
Partnership with Arizona State University.
Historian Against Slavery, a group of scholars who fight modern forms of coerced labor by
furthering understanding of slavery's deep historical and economic roots.
Hope for Justice Hope for Justice identifies and rescues victims, advocates on their behalf,
provides restorative care which rebuilds lives and trains frontline professionals to tackle
Human Trafficking Awareness Partnerships, Inc., Human Trafficking Awareness Partnerships
is dedicated to bringing the issue of human trafficking to the forefront of public
consciousness through local community action and the sharing of resources among
communities and organizations. Sanibel, FL 33957
Ing Makababaying Aksyon, a feminist service institution that seeks to empower women and
work for a society that genuinely recognises and upholds women's rights
International Justice Mission, a U.S.-based non-profit human rights organization that operates
in countries all over the world to rescue victims of individual human rights abuse
International Institute of New Jersey, Anti-Trafficking Initiative, supported by grant from the
Office of Refugee Resettlement, Administration for Children & Families.
International Women's Rights Center works in the field of prevention of trafficking in
persons, especially women and children, the elimination of all forms of discrimination and
violence in society, promotion and protection of human rights, gender equality and children's
International Women Rights Protection and Promotion Center, is one of the leading actors
within the Moldovan anti-trafficking community, and engages in prevention, public
education, and lobbying to fight vulnerability to trafficking.
LEF is a non-governmental organization in Vienna, Austria that provides support to migrant
Latin American women and girls and trafficking victims. LEF IBF (Intervention Centre for
Trafficked Women) offers direct assistance to women affected by trafficking (including legal,
social, and psychological counselling and advice, and advocacy).


La Strada International Association, is the leading European Network Against Trafficking in

Human Beings.
LifeWay Network combats human trafficking in the New York metro area by providing safe
housing for women who have been trafficked, and offering education about trafficking to
raise awareness of the general public.
London Anti-Human Trafficking Committee, a London, Ontario, Canada-based non-profit
organisation opposing human trafficking by means of advocacy and education
Love 146 - Vision- The abolition of child trafficking and slavery, nothing less.
Maiti Nepal, a non-profit organization in Nepal dedicated to helping victims of sex
MANNA Freedom is the human trafficking prevention arm of MANNA Worldwide and
provides awareness, resources and homes for at-risk children and teens.
Men Against Sexual Trafficking, a London, Ontario, Canada-based organisation that opposes
human trafficking by educating men on the issue and encouraging them to stop buying sexual
services provided by human trafficking victims
Mongolian Gender Equality Center, a non-governmental organization based in Ulaanbaatar,
NASHI, a Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada-based organisation that opposes human
trafficking by raising awareness through education
Not for Sale Campaign, a non-profit organization based out of California
On the Road is a non-profit organization in Italy that provides support and assistance to
national and foreign sex workers, trafficked persons, asylum seekers and migrants in need
through structured services.
Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons, a government agency responsible for coordinating
efforts to address human trafficking in British Columbia, Canada
Open Gate - Women Lobby and Action against Violence and Trafficking in Women is a nongovernmental organization that provides long-term care for victims of trafficking, operates a
24-hour toll-free national SOS line, and engages in other prevention and lobbying activities.
Physicians for Human Rights
Polaris Project, a nonprofit, non-governmental organization that works to combat and prevent
modern day slavery and human trafficking
PREDA Foundation, a charitable organization that was founded in Olongapo City, Philippines
in 1974


Prerana is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that works in the red-light districts of

Mumbai, India to protect children vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation and
trafficking. The organization runs three night care centres for children at risk, as well as
shelter homes and a residential training centre for girls rescued from the trafficking trade.
Rahab Ministries Thailand, a Christian non-governmental organization that provides outreach
for sexually trafficked women and children in Thailand
Ratanak International, an organisation that rescues children from sexual slavery and then
provides them with education, rehabilitation, and safety
Kingdom Invest Nepal- KI Nepal is a non-profit, on-governmental organization to combat
against human trafficking from Nepal with (holistic) approach, programs like border
surveillance, counseling,safe home operations, follow up and community development.
Reaching out Romania, a non-governmental charitable organization in Romania that helps
girls ages 13 to 22 exit the sex industry
Redlight Children Campaign, a non-profit organization created by New York lawyer and
president of Priority Films Guy Jacobson and Israeli actress Adi Ezroni in 2002 to combat
worldwide child sexual exploitation and human trafficking
Ricky Martin Foundation, an organization with the mission to advocate for the well-being of
children around the world
Ride for Refuge, a cycling event that raises awareness and funds for displaced persons,
including human trafficking victims
Run for Courage, a non-profit organization that combats human trafficking
Safe Horizons, is the largest victims' service agency in the United States, offering a hotline,
shelter, legal advocacy, and crisis support to victims of violence and trafficking.
Sex Workers Outreach Project, Sacramento, is a California State social justice network
dedicated to reducing harm, improving healthcare, and upholding both civil and human rights
of sex workers and their communities. Our focus is on ending violence and stigma through
education and advocacy, while addressing the health and wellbeing of both trafficking victims
and those who engage in survival sex.
Shared Hope International, non-profit organization which exists to rescue and restore women
and children in crisis
Slavery Footprint, a non-profit organization based in Oakland, California that works to end
human trafficking and modern-day slavery
The SOLD Project is a non-profit organization working in Northern Thailand that prevents
child trafficking through culturally relevant programs for vulnerable children and shares their
stories to inspire compassionate, creative people to act.

Stop Child Trafficking Now, an organization founded by Lynette Lewis, an author and public
Stop the Traffic, a campaign coalition which aims to bring an end to human trafficking
MAB TATTS- A non-Profit organization that REMOVES branding tattoos on victims of
Human Trafficking by using an all-natural method
Streetlights, mission is to transition adolescent girls from trauma to triumph. Focus on direct
care, prevention, and awareness. Active especially in Arizona and the South-western United
SUPER BOWL Prayer Party, annual worldwide prayer movement to help create awareness
and combat human trafficking as it often surrounds large events like the Super Bowl
Third World Movement against the Exploitation of Women, an organization directed towards
the liberation of women from all kinds of oppression and exploitation based on sex, race or
Tiny Hands International, a Christian non-profit organization dedicated to helping orphaned
and abandoned children and fighting sex trafficking in South Asia
Truckers Against Trafficking, a non-profit organization that trains truck drivers to recognize
and report instances of human trafficking
UNIAP, United Nations On-Line Resource Centre for the Inter-Agency Project on Human
Trafficking (UNIAP). UNIAP was established in 2000 with a central focus on trafficking in
persons and a mandate to facilitate a stronger and more coordinated response to trafficking in
persons in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS).
UN-ACT, United Nations Action for Cooperation against Trafficking in Persons. UN-ACT
was established in 2014 to ensure a coordinated approach to more strategically and
effectively combat trafficking in persons in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) and
beyond. The project builds upon the work previously undertaken by the United Nations InterAgency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP).
Visayan Forum Foundation, a non-profit, non-stock and tax-exempt non-government
organization in the Philippines established in 1991
Vital Voices, an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization that works with
women leaders in the areas of economic empowerment, women's political participation, and
human rights.
Women's Support Network of York Region, a nonprofit organization that serves the Regional
Municipality of York in Ontario, Canada, operating with an anti-oppressive, anti-racist,
feminist philosophy


World Orphans, an organization that funds the creation of orphanages in developing countries
ZOE International, is a nonprofit organization that fights human trafficking in Thailand with a
three tier approach of prevention, rescue, and restoration.
Wings of Refuge; a nonprofit organization in Iowa providing housing and restoration to
survivors of commercial sexual exploitation.

The Budapest Summit requested the Secretary General "to make a Study on how participation
of NGOs can be further enhanced". To prepare the study a team was composed of: Dr. Piotr
as the team co-ordinator, Ms. Elizabeth Winship (ODIHR), Ms. Marjut Kuokkanen
(Secretariat/CPC) and Mr. Rob Zaagman (HCNM Office). Twenty participating States
contributed to the study
Providing, in particular, their experience in co-operation with NGOs.
The missions in the field also contributed to the study. The study team co-ordinator
approached over 600 NGOs with a request to submit their views and proposals. He conducted
Consultations with the NGOs participating at the ODIHR Civic Society Seminar in Warsaw
(4-7 April 1995). Proposals and Suggestions submitted by NGOs on earlier occasions,
including Those made at the Budapest Review Conference, have also been Considered. The
study team members examined in detail all contributions. They have done the preparatory
work, including the conclusions. I wish to express my appreciation for their work. The study
recommends a number of proposals for operational Measures which I believe would enhance
NGO participation in OSCE Activities. Having consulted the Troika on my report, I hereby
submit it for consideration by the OSCE States. I suggest Discussion and approval by the
Permanent Committee.

Since the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 there has been a close Connection between the
CSCE/OSCE and NGOs. For many NGOs the CSCE/OSCE objectives and provisions have
been the point of Reference in their activities to promote human rights, democracy and the
rule of law. Many NGOs have struggled hard to achieve the realization of OSCE values.
Some made decisive contributions to the fundamental changes in Central and Eastern Europe;
for These NGOs the CSCE/OSCE commitments provided some protection against
discrimination and even persecution. "NGO" in the CSCE/OSCE understanding of the term
has come To mean any organization declaring itself as such. The NGO community is thus a
very diverse group. "Cause-oriented" activist groups defend general, "objective" values such
as human rights and fundamental freedoms rather than specific political interests. Other
NGOs represent specific interests (e.g., minority organizations). Another group of NGOs
have specialized in conflict-prevention and crisis-management; they are also active "on the

ground" through mediation and confidence-building. NGOs also include research and
educational institutions. Traditionally, the CSCE/OSCE has concentrated on contacts with
NGOs active in the Human Dimension. Now, with the OSCE's rapidly expanding conflict
prevention and crisis management tasks, contributions by NGOs in this field have become
very important.
The NGO community is heterogeneous in terms of what individual NGOs can do. Some
NGOs are well-established, large institutions, with an international dimension. Some are
small and based on the enthusiasm of a few or just one person. The conditions in which
NGOs work can also be very different. Some work in full independence under the legal
protection and based on traditions of well established "rule of law" States. Others receive
financial and operative support from Governments. There are, however, still places in the
OSCE area where, with the Human Dimension just taking root, NGOs encounter serious
bureaucratic and also political obstacles in their activities.
NGOs also differ in terms of their status
Government. While some distance themselves from the Government as much as possible,
other are believed to be strongly supported, if not actually controlled, by the Government
(GONGOs). The OSCE does not make any formal distinction among NGOs and has always
taken a non-discriminatory approach. In principle, the OSCE can benefit from contributions
of all of them, however much they may differ. The potential contributions to OSCE work of
the NGOs that maintain contacts with the OSCE and on the basis of data stored at the
ODIHR, can be described as follows:
1. They can promote OSCE goals, objectives and provisions, they can raise awareness of the
OSCE's work and win public support for it.
2. They can add to the OSCE's fund of ideas and support its normative work.
3. They can monitor the implementation of OSCE commitments, in particular those relating
to the Human Dimension.
4. They can undertake co-operative activities in the Human Dimension (election monitoring,
legislation advice, etc.) and other fields.
5. They can engage in conflict prevention and crisis management tasks, in particular through
"non-official" mediation and communal dialogue. They can assist in the training of OSCE
staff and in the provision of information and background material.
6. They can provide scientific expertise in all areas of OSCE work: military aspects of
security, political and economic affairs, Human Dimension.
7. Co-operation with NGOs in these areas could contribute additional financial,
organizational and personnel capacities to the implementation of OSCE tasks. There are,
however, limits in developing the OSCE-NGO link. The OSCE is an intergovernmental
organization. The place of the

NGOs is, by definition, distinct: outside governmental structures. There are areas e.g.,
decision-making, that are not open to NGO participation.
The OSCE, especially in recent years, has accumulated a body of provisions and measures
relating to NGO involvement.
These provisions make the OSCE accessible, in principle, to all NGOs that declare
themselves as such. The participating
States committed themselves to "recognise as NGOs those which declare themselves as such,
according to existing national Procedures" (Moscow HD Meeting 1991:( 43)). Thus all NGOs
can establish contacts with the OSCE. The only restrictive provision, which was adopted at
the 1992 Helsinki Summit, stipulates that the Summit's corresponding provisions not be
applied to "persons and organizations which resort to the use of violence or publicly condone
terrorism or the use of violence"
Increasing the openness of the CSCE/OSCE institutions and Structures. In particular, the
Chairman-in-Office was mandated
to arrange briefings on the political consultation process and the other OSCE institutions
were requested to provide information on their activities. NGOs, in particular, should be
notified of the dates and agendas of OSCE meetings and of the activation of mechanisms.
Each institution was to designate an "NGO liaison
List of top ten NGOs in India
1. SAMMAAN FOUNDATION (established January 25, 2007): Originally established to link
the poor to the mainstream through education, training and financial support, the current
project of this NGO involves the rickshaw pullers to help them earn a better livelihood. This
NGO also has notable contribution in areas like children education, health services and
welfare of women.
2. GOONJ: A recipient of the NGO of the Year award in 2007 at the India NGO Awards,
this NGO aims at solving the clothing problems of the downtrodden. Goonj also provides
relief during Rahat floods in West Bengal, Assam and Bihar.
3. AKSHAYA TRUST: The sole aim of this NGO is to restore human dignity. Operating in
Madurai, this NGO offers rehabilitation, healthy food and care to the street destitute.
4. Suvarna FOUNDATION: The main aim of this NGO is the rehabilitation of the
underprivileged by providing them education and healthcare services, thereby converting
them into productive assets. It is run by a group of corporate professionals.
5. UDAAN WELFARE FOUNDATION: The main aim of this NGO is to help the destitute,
the main area of stress being women, children and senior citizens and also environmental
welfare. One of their main projects is a cancer chemotherapy center.

A famous Indian NGO, Chintan was the first in India to receive the US Innovation Award for
Empowerment of Women and Girls, for its outstanding contribution in this field. The award
was received by Chintans founder Bharati Chaturvedi from the US Secretary of State,
Hillary Clinton. A further aid of USD 5,00,000 was announced by the US Secretary of State
to facilitate Chintans endeavor to continue its noble efforts. The Award is funded by the
Rockefeller Foundation through the Secretarys International fund for Women and Girls.
India was estimated to have had around 3.3 million operational NGOs in 2009. The figure has
no doubt increased in 2013. The best part about Indian NGOs is that they dont blow their
own trumpets and do their work seriously and sincerely. They contribute more than their fair
shares for the upliftment of the society and enrichment of the lives of hapless and
downtrodden people of India. Without their contribution, it would have come as no surprise if
the picture of India was as grim as those of sub-Saharan countries.

4. Background about NGO "SMILE FOUNDATION

Prerana works to end intergenerational prostitution and to protect women and children from
the threats of human trafficking by defending their rights and dignity, providing a safe
environment, supporting their education and health and leading major advocacy efforts.
Prerana strives to ensure optimum protection of children. This is reflected in the broad
spectrum of interventions that provide a continuum of care by addressing issues of child
sexual abuse in parallel with anti-human trafficking. Since its establishment in 1986,
Preranas pioneering efforts have been instrumental in supporting victims through the entire
cycle from prevention to repatriation.

Prerana, has been accredited with several path-breaking, social interventions that address
elimination of intergenerational prostitution and ensure a continuum of care for protecting
children from sexual abuse and assault. Prerana has an innovative 3-pronged interventional
approach focusing on Night Care Shelters, Education Support and Institutional Placement.

Prerana runs a childrens home to provide long term residential care and protection to female
children who are at risk and/or are victims of sexual abuse and trafficking. Preranas AntiTrafficking Center is a knowledge hub focusing on verticals like research, publications,
advocacy and policy in context with the broad Anti-Human Trafficking issue. Preranas
Aarambh initiative focuses on tackling child sexual abuse by supporting communities
through trainings, sharing of knowledge and on ground case managment.

Prerana is a leader in India in the space of anti-human trafficking. We are a civil society
organization that started working in the red light areas of Mumbai in 1986. Prerana serves the
actual and potential women and children victims of commercial sexual exploitation &
trafficking (CSE&T). We noticed one of the greatest horrors in the red light areas which was
the ultimate plight of children born to prostituted women and the childrens inescapable
recruitment into the organized sex trade. In response to the situation Prerana pioneered
several path-breaking interventions, monitored the success stories out of each intervention
and disseminated them for mainstreaming.

At the heart of Preranas work is a globally acclaimed model for the elimination of second
generation trafficking (ESGT) that comprises of a Night Care centre, Educational Support
Program and Institutional Placement Program for children of commercial sex workers. Since
inception more than 13,000 children and women have benefitted from our direct services.

5. Details about "Smile FOUNDATION

Prerana, has been accredited with several path-breaking social interventions including ESGT
the elimination of second generation trafficking. One of them is the innovative 3-pronged
approach that provides a comprehensive method of successfully eliminating second
generation trafficking into prostitution in India.


This model, which has been deployed by Prerana since 1986, has:

Influenced government policy that incorporated this model into the first National Policy
against child trafficking - Plan of Action, 1998
Been acknowledged as a best practice and been invited to present to the UN General
Assembly Congress as Best Practice model and
Seen as replicable and has been shared with NGOs from India, Nepal and Bangladesh

In the past Prerana has maintained impactful and enriching partnerships with local and
international corporations (see below), that have contributed to Preranas programs to help
the children of the red light district grow and break the vicious cycle of deprivation and
exploitation in the flesh trade. If your company is interested in supporting these children
through Prerana through sponsorships, potential collaborative programs or volunteering,
please contact us at: contactprerana@gmail.com

At Prerana, we have had a very mutually enriching experience while interacting with the
corporate sector. Some of our sustained collaborations are with Goldman Sachs Pvt. Ltd.,
Mastek Ltd., The Oberoi Group of Hotels, The Taj Group of Hotels, The Western Union
Foundation, Larsen and Tubro Ltd., and Johnson & Johnson Ltd. Just to name a few. Here are
some highlights from our past corporate partnerships:

Goldman Sachs, as part of their Community Team works activity, Goldman Sachs has been
collaborating with Prerana on one-day projects for the past 3 years now. They support us in
organizing events like Sports Day, in educational visits and also contribute their time in
activities like cooking meals, laying tiles and the like.
The Blue Star Foundation through J K Singhaniya, has collaborated with Prerana to sponsor
200 children with a health insurance policy.
The Taj Group of Hotels visited the Kamathipura Centre to teach Preranas Nutrition
Committee how to prepare different types of nutritional food for the children. The staff
learned about kitchen administration and hygiene rules. Additionally, the Taj Group provided
a special recipe book which was written by the Taj staff for the Prerana Nutrition Committee
to help Prerana continue to cook with these different nutritious recipes. A group of Preranas
beneficiaries underwent training at Taj Lands End at Bandra to learn about Food and
Beverage Services and House-keeping. From this training, a few of Preranas beneficiaries
were able to secure positions with the hote
Here's a list of some of Prerana partners.

Creating awareness in the society

Prerana works to end second generation prostitution and to protect women and
children from the threats of human trafficking by defending their rights and
dignity, providing a safe environment, supporting their education and health, and
leading major advocacy efforts.

Activity Planning
CSE&T is an acronym for Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking
To women and children who are victims of or vulnerable to human trafficking, Prerana wants
to be a trusted partner who will empower them to dream of and eventually realize a dignified
life where they can make informed choices without fear of being judged, exploited or
endangered in any way.

To those who would like to volunteer, Prerana is a place where passion to make a difference
is harnessed in the form of hands-on field experience. This, in turn, leads to a deeper
understanding of the issues and formulation of creative solutions.
To those who would like to contribute financially, Prerana offers complete transparency in
how your money is being used with the hope that you will trust us to identify areas of our
operation that need help on a priority basis.
In order to fulfil this goal Prerana works through the following objectives:

To create conditions whereby the actual and potential victims of CSE&T can choose
an alternative life from among various options, as this is their right.
To create Awareness among the victims of trafficking and commercial sexual
exploitation of their human and civil rights and to empower them through programs
that address HIV/AIDs.
To take up Advocacy work on behalf of victims wherever required.
To make consistent efforts for affecting appropriate Changes in the Legislation,
Policy, and Programmes pertaining to trafficking and prostitution domestic, and
To undertake Research & Documentation and provide Consultations in the field of
To undertake Sensitization and Training Programmes (STP) for government
Organizations, non-profits, international, non-government organizations, UN
agencies, the police and other agencies to further the anti-trafficking work.
To set up and run a Resource Centre with information in the field of CSE&T.
To establish and run a Network of organizations working for the cause of the
VOCSET (Victims of CSE&T) and against Trafficking.

Execution of Working Mission

Anti-Trafficking Center
External agencies including The Department of State for the US Government encouraged
Prerana to start an Anti-Trafficking Centre (ATC), a specialized resource centre on trafficking
problems and anti-trafficking. As there was no such centre of its kind, Prerana knew a space
where all stakeholders and anyone passionate about anti trafficking could come together on
issues had to be created. The modestly decked ATC opened in 1999 and immediately began
receiving high accomplishments. A few of the services provided by ATC are training and
sensitization, research and documentation, policy consultancy, advocacy, information
dissemination, amongst others.
Most official rescues in India until the recent past resulted into the re-trafficking of the
rescued victims. That was because of the absence of any official mechanisms including
policies, protocols, programmes, provisions, budgets, politico-administrative will, sensitivity,
and capacity, on the part of the state. Prerana devised the concept of professional and
comprehensive follow up of the rescue operations to its logical end the reintegration of the
victims of CSE&T with oneself and the society coupled with the restoration of justice to the
victims. Prerana intervened at all levels such as policy making, administrative, legislative,
judicial, and networking. It took up concrete projects at the ground level by collaborating
with the state agencies, widely networked in South Asia for a better understanding about the
family and social background of the victims, provided material and non-material assistance to
the victims including high quality psycho social counselling, facilitated victim witness


protection, provided legal assistance to the victims, helped property recovery through the
police, and prepared the victims for a long term rehabilitation programme.

Post Rescue Operation (PRO) refers to the recommended professional intervention which
ideally occurs after victimization. The PRO begins immediately after rescue of a traffic
victim and continues up to the stage of repatriation and/or social reintegration. For a PRO
program to be effective many services are needed including but not limited to - legal aid,
emergency aid, property recovery, trainings for internal and external partners, and livelihood
opportunities. A proper post rescue operation is often what will determine the success of a
police investigation, as well as ultimately led to a prosecution. More important in many ways
is that the post rescue operation works to ensure that the victims are not victimized a second
time within a system that is meant to bring justice to them. Prerana, has pioneered a
comprehensive PRO in South Asia that is a model for the world.

Resources required

PRO Activities: Following is a list of activities that are conducted and has facilitated with
respect to the PRO model that Prerana uses.
Case Management: Documents prepared well in advance and discussed with concerned
Probation Officer (PO) for comments and suggestions.
Legal Guidance: Adv. Adenwala appointed in April, 2008 visits twice a month giving legal
inputs in cases referred directly to Prerana and other cases where legal queries crop up.
Legal Aid: Case presentations made before CWC, representations made in higher Courts
ensuring victim witness protection.

Property Recovery: In networking with police help recover any tangible property left behind
in the brothels.
Psychosocial Counseling: Counselor appointed in November 2008 visits Govt. Shelter home
twice a week.
Emergency Aid: Provided as and when required by the Home; e.g. phone, LPG and
photographer bills, goody bags for girls soap, oil, etc.


Felicitations/Alumini Meets: To provide platform for interaction and sharing of experiences

that will lead to motivation.
Networking: Involved in all phases of PRO with NGOs, the Govt. bodies as well as the
corporate sector.
HIR: Base document in order to further the Child Welfare Committees decision on custody
of victim. Done directly or in networking with NGOs.
Livelihood Options: Through Pratishtha Training Centre fashion designing, beauty care,
catering and hospitality services.
SWOT Analysis: Implementation of minimum standards of institutional care Add-On
Menu, Recreational Services, Staff Trainings.
Add-On Menu: Committee of 10 volunteer girls prepares 5 6 special meals (palak paneer,
gajar halwa, idli sambhar, eyc.) in a month using items provided by Prerana that supplement
the Govt. ration. Participatory process girls and Home staff invloved in the process.
Recreational Activities: Promoted through formation of a Cultural Committee, celebration of
events every month, counter burnout staff parties, residential camps, etc.
Staff Trainings: At least one every semester held in the Govt. home premises for the staff
besides other external training sessions. E.g. Life Skills Education, Crisis Management,
workshop on Minimum Standards of Care and Support Services.
Quarterly Review Meets: Between Special Home staff and Prerana Team providing services
in the Special Home. Helps review our services and provide a platform to discuss future
interventions with the Home authorities.es a platform to discuss future interventions with the
Home authorities.

Challenges of the NGO

The social work department is the critical link between Smile, the parents, and the
community. Social workers conduct regular home visits to keep track of developments in the
childrens lives, maintain good relationships with their families, understand their struggles,
make sure children attend both Smile and their formal schools regularly, and follow up in
case of any issues. Through all this they make sure of each childs wellbeing and control
dropouts from the system.

Smile Social workers catalyse social change

Social workers catalyse social change
Within the parent community just as an Smile centre strives to do so for the children. Parent
meetings are conducted through the year covering informational and general awareness.
Through these regular meetings the parents are also kept engaged by the sharing of the
childrens progress. Topics include:
Garbage management
Good parenting
Involvement of fathers in childrens lives
Celebration of women on womens day
Swine flu awareness
Junk food
The Empowerment Program, conducted by the Social Work team is for adolescent children,
and aims to help them deal with negative influences
Social work helps children deal with negative influences
Such as alcoholism, substance abuse; discuss social issues such as gender inequality, early
marriage, and issues related to sex and sexuality.
Total number of students part of the program: 400
Another important role of the social work department is to ensure the health of all Smile
children. The Medical Program covers free check-ups and treatments if required for all Smile
children. Smile also supports its children in case of any medical emergencies.



Based on all the facts and figures mentioned above about the NGO "Smile FOUNDATION,
the organisation is presently doing really well and has made life changing stories come true
for the elderly citizens. The contribution provided by them has made many children believe in
living with. Not just that, live with full support from peers and enjoy at the latter stage of life.
The pace at which the organisation is helping overcome the problems of the elderly is selfexplanatory in itself.
I would only like to recommend them that the way they have taken up the initiative and
carried on with their work in support of social cause of up-liftment of elderly; to kindly carry
on further in the years to come with the same dedication and enthusiasm and let many
volunteers join the noble cause.