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isolated small power systems using coefficient

diagram method

ARTICLE in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL POWER & ENERGY SYSTEMS MARCH 2014

Impact Factor: 3.43 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.11.002

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Yaser Qudaih

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Yasunori Mitani

Kyushu Institute of Technology

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Retrieved on: 21 March 2016

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

systems using coefcient diagram method

Raheel Ali b, Tarek Hassan Mohamed a,, Yaser Soliman Qudaih b, Y. Mitani b

a

b

Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 July 2013

Received in revised form 30 October 2013

Accepted 6 November 2013

Keywords:

Load frequency control

Coefcient diagram method

Heat pump and plug-in hybrid electric

vehicle

a b s t r a c t

This paper applies the Coefcient Diagram Method (CDM) as a new robust controller design of heat pump

(HP) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV) for frequency control in an isolated small power system

powered by diesel generator and renewable photovoltaic PV power source. In order to reduce frequency

uctuation resulted from the uctuating power generation from renewable energy sources, the smart

control of power consumption of HP and the power discharging of EV in the customer side can be

performed.

The CDM technique has been designed to enhance the performance and robustness against system

uncertainties. Simulation studies conrm the superior robustness and frequency control effect of the

proposed HP and EV controllers in comparison to other conventional controllers of HPs and EVs like

the conventional PID controllers optimized using practical swarm controllers based a specied-structure

mixed H2/H1 control design.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Increasing concern about environmental problems and the

shortage and rising costs of fossil fuels have promoted a growing

interest in massive integration of renewable energy sources in

power systems. Power supplied by renewable sources is

intermittent and cannot be easily predicted. These oscillations in

the primary power supply can produce instantaneous differences

in the necessary balance between generation and demand. As consequences, continuous variations in frequency and voltage levels

which negatively affect the electric power system stability usually

appear. To tackle these problems there are different Distributed

Generation (DG) technologies described as small isolated power

systems connected to the grid, are implemented to support and

regulate the system voltage and frequency at rural application,

large commercial areas and process industries. In most isolated

small power system, electrical power is supplied by diesel generators. Additionally, wind generation and photovoltaic generation

have gained attention as green energy in most of the small isolated

power systems. However, due to intermittent power generations

from wind power (WP) and PV, the unbalance between generation

and load demand also causes the large frequency uctuation

problem in the small isolated power system. Consequently these

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: raheelali@yahoo.com (R. Ali), tarekhie@yahoo.com (T.H.

Mohamed), yaser_qudaih@yahoo.com (Y.S. Qudaih), mitani@ele.kyutech.ac.jp (Y.

Mitani).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.11.002

problems are also serious in small size isolated grids, and therefore

a continuous control on the instantaneous power supplied by the

renewable energy sources is required [1,2].

Recently various utilities including buildings and electric vehicles appeared as a result of increasing demand of electric power

sources which can increase the chances for rapid uctuations in

loads. However, there are upward trends to install the controllable

loads such as HP and EV in isolated grids [3,4]. In [5,6], the HPs and

EVs are installed in residential areas for frequency control in the

smart microgrid (MG) system.

The practical controller structures such as the proportional

integral PI controller, is widely employed in the load frequency

control (LFC) application [6]. But this type is considered as a xed

parameters controller which designed at nominal operating points

and may no longer be suitable in all operating conditions. For this

reason, adaptive gain scheduling approaches have been proposed

for LFC synthesis [79].

In [10], the practical swarm optimization based-mixed H2/H1 is

presented to enhance the performance and robustness against system uncertainties. Despite to the fact that this controller succeeded

in its target, but the door is still opened to more techniques to improve the system frequency in face of system renewable power

uctuations and random load disturbances.

On the other hand, a new robust control strategy involving

Coefcient Diagram Method (CDM) has been introduced. Basically,

CDM is an algebraic approach applied to a polynomial loop in the

parameter space, such special diagram called coefcient diagram,

111

Nomenclature

DPg

DPd

Df

DPL

DPc

DPPV

DPEV

DPHP

UEV

UHP

M

D

R

THP

the diesel power change

the frequency deviation

the load change

supplementary control action

the photovoltaic power change

discharging power of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

power consumption of heat pump

control signal of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

control signal of heat pump

equivalent inertia constant

equivalent damping coefcient

speed droop characteristic

time constant of heat pump

Tg

Td

N(s)

D(s)

F(s)

B(s)

Abbreviations

TEV

time constant of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

CDM

coefcient diagram method

EV

plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

HP

heat pump

PID + H2/H1 PID controller optimized using practical swarm

optimization based mixed H2/H1 presented in [10]

which is used as the vehicle to carry the necessary design information, and as the criteria of good design [11].

The CDM is fairly new and not well-known, but its basic

principle has been known in industry and in control community

for more than 40 years with successful application in servo control,

steel mill drive control, gas turbine control, and spacecraft attitude

control [12]. In this paper, CDM controller design of HPs and EVs

for the load frequency control in an isolated small area power system has been presented. The parameters of the polynomials of

CDM technique have been designed based on the dynamic model

of the power system.

The power system with the proposed CDM technique has been

tested through the effect of uncertainties due to system parameters variation and load disturbance using computer simulation.

The simulation results proved that the proposed controller can

be applied successfully to the application of power system load

frequency control. In order to demonstrate the robustness and

performance of the proposed controllers, the proposed CDM controllers of HP and EV are compared with the (PID + H2/H1) presented in [10]. Simulation studies based on the MATLAB program

show the superiority robustness and frequency control effect of

the proposed HP and EV controllers.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the

system dynamics and the employed models of the proposed an

isolated small power system with the PVEVHP as well as proposed CDM controller. Section 3 describes the General consideration about CDM and its Structure. Section 4 presents three

congurations for case studies of the proposed an isolated small

Power system and analyzes time-domain simulated results of

three studied cases of proposed controller with an isolated small

Power system under various operated conditions is presented.

And nally Specic conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

2. System dynamics

Fig. 1 illustrates an isolated small power system, where PV is

used as renewable energy source beside the diesel generator and

HPs and EVs are used in this system.

In this section, a simplied frequency response model for an

isolated small power system with diesel generator and PV is described [1].

The overall generatorload dynamic relationship between the

supply error DPd Dp0L and the frequency deviation Df can be expressed as:

Df

1

1

D

DP d

Dp0L

Df

M

M

M

turbine time constants

numerator polynomial

denumerator polynomial

reference numerator polynomial

feedback numerator polynomial

where Dp0L DP L DP EV DP HP DP PV , as shown in Fig. 3.The dynamic of the diesel generator can be expressed as:

DP d

1

1

DP g

DP d

Tt

Tt

DP g

1

1

1

DP c

Df

DP g

Tg

R Tg

Tg

dP

; dPdtd ; dtg respectively, and the

dt

block diagrams of the past equations are included in Fig. 3.

The heat pump (HP) and the electric vehicle (EV) are modeled as

a rst order lag systems [3,4] as shown in Figs. 2, while Appendix A

shows a description of the used simplied photo voltaic PV

The block diagrams of the past equations are included in Fig. 3.

3. Coefcient diagram method

In general, the classical control and modern control are mainly

used in control design. Additionally, there is a third approach

generally called as algebraic design approach [12]. The Coefcient

Diagram Method (CDM) is one of the algebraic design approaches,

where the coefcient diagram is used instead of Bode diagram, and

the sufcient condition for stability by Lipatov constitutes its theoretical basis [10].

The CDM is a technique to arrange the poles of a closed loop

transfer function, in order to get wanted response in the time domain [11,13].

In CDM, the design specications parameters are equivalent

time constant (s), stability indices (ci). These parameters have certain relationship with each other which is explained in the design

part with the controller polynomials. Coefcient diagram provides

to know the stability, time response and robustness characteristics

of systems in a single diagram, which is important for systems with

large characteristic polynomial degree. Coefcient diagram is accurate and easy to design. The diagram which provides the designer

to make a stable decision about the process of the design, cannot

be found in other design methods. In coefcient diagram, logarithmic vertical axis shows the coefcients of characteristic polynomial (ai), stability indices (ci) and equivalent time constant (s)

whereas the horizontal axis shows the order i values corresponding

to each coefcients. The degree of convexity obtained from coefcients of the characteristic polynomial gives a measure of stability,

whereas the general inclination of the curve gives the measure of

the speed of response. The shape of the ai curve due to plant

parameter variation gives a measure of robustness [11].

112

The standard block diagram of the CDM for single input single

output (SISO) system is shown in Fig. 4. Here y is the output, r is

the reference input, u is the control and d is the external

disturbance signal. N(s) and D(s) are the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer function of the plant respectively.

The output of the control system can be described as:

Ptarget

"(

!

)

#

n

i1

X

Y

1

i

o

a

ss ss 1

j

i2

j1

cij

113

11

Also, the reference numerator polynomials F(s) can be calculated from:

Fs Psjs0 =Ns

the CDM controller of area (i), where the output of HPi or EVi is

the

main

input

of

the

power

system,

while

Dp00L PL P PV Pd participation of the rest of HP and EV units.

NsFs

AsNs

r

d

Ps

Ps

closed-loop system and is dened by

Ps AsDs BsNs

are the reference numerator and the feedback numerator polynomials of the controller transfer function.

A(s) and B(s) are considered as the control polynomial and is dened as

As

q

P

X

X

li si and Bs

ki si

i0

i0

Since the transfer function of the controller has two numerators, thus it is resembled to a two-degree of freedom (2DOF) system structure. A(s) and B(s) are designed as to satisfy the desired

transient behavior. The pre-lter F(s) is used to provide the steady-state gain. Better performance can be expected when using a

2DOF structure, because it can focus on both tracking the desired

reference signal and disturbance rejection. Also, it is avoided from

unstable pole-zero cancellation and using more number of integrators in implementation with this structure [12-14].

For practical realization, the condition p P q must be satised.

To get the characteristic polynomial P(s), the controller polynomials from (6) are substituted in (5) and is given as

9

q

P

X

X

>

i

i

>

Ps

li s Ds

ki s Ns >

>

=

i0

i0

and Ps

n

X

ai si ;

ai > 0

i0

>

>

>

>

;

a2i

;

ai1 ai1

a1

a0

ci

ci1

i 2 1; n 1;

c0 cn 1

Computer simulations have been carried out in order to validate

the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The Matlab/Simulink

software package has been used for this purpose. An isolated small

area power system shown in Fig. 1 consists of 20 MW diesel generator, 6 MW photovoltaic, 17 MW load, 1.62 MW HP and 2.38 MW

PHEV. System has the following nominal parameters [10] listed below in Table 1.

The CDM controllers are set as follows:

For the HPs units where CD1 = CD2 = CD3.

The time constant can be taken as s = 2 s, and from (11).

the stability indices (ci) have been chosen as:

And the stability limits ci are:

And choosing k0 = 1, then

A 2S 80S2

For the EVs units where CD4 = CD5.

The time constant can be taken as s = 2 s, and from (11).

the stability indices (ci) have been chosen as:

CDM needs some design parameters with respect to the characteristic polynomial coefcients which are the equivalent time constant (s) (which gives the speed of closed loop response), the

stability indices (ci) (which give the stability

and the shape of

the time response), and the stability limits ci . The relations between these parameters and the coefcients of the characteristic

polynomial (ai) can be described as follows:

ci

12

And the stability limits ci are:

And choosing k0 = 1, then

A 2S 80S2

In order to validate the proposed controller, system with CDM

controllers has been tested at 3 cases.

ci1

i 2 1; n 1

10

{2.5, 2, 2. . .2}. The above ci values can be changed by the designer

as per the requirement. Using the key parameters (s and ci), target

characteristic polynomial, Ptarget (s) can be framed as

Fig. 5. The block diagram of the power system used to design the CDMi controller.

114

Table 1

Parameters and data of an isolated small area power system.

D (pu/Hz)

H (pu s)

R (Hz/pu)

Tg (s)

Td (s)

0.12

THP1 (s)

0.1

THP2 (s)

3.00

THP3 (s)

0.1

TEV1 (s)

0.4

TEV1 (s)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

Case 1: In this case, nominal parameters of the system are supposed, and the system is tested in presence of PV output uctuations and random changes of the load as shown in Fig. 6. In

addition, a comparison between the proposed CDM controller

and (PID + H2/H1) control technique presented in [10] has been

made. System response of this case is illustrated in Fig. 7. From

Fig. 7a, it is clear that the frequency deviation of the system with

proposed CDM controller is less than 0.0015 Hz while system

with (PID + H2/H1) can give frequency deviation about 0.005 Hz,

which means that with proposed CDM, frequency response of the

system is improved.

Fig. 7b indicates that system proposed CDM succeeded to decrease the needed power from diesel generator DPd 0.065pu

(for system with CDM and DPd 0.065pu for system with

(PID + H2/H1). Fig. 7c shows that EVs power is greatly discharged

by the proposed CDM controllers DPEV 0.055 pu (for system with

CDM and DPEV 0.015 pu for system with (PID + H2/H1). From

Fig. 7d, when (DPhp 0.015 pu for system with CDM and DPhp 0.08 pu for system with (PID + H2/H1) it is obviously that the

consumed power of HPs in case of the proposed CDM controllers

is less than those of the compared with (PID + H2/H1).

Case 2: In this case the robustness of the proposed system

against parameters uncertainty is validated. Both of the governor

and diesel turbine time constants are increased to Tg = 0.14 s and

Td = 7 s., respectively. D is changed from 0.12 puMW/Hz (positive

damping) to 0.24 puMW/Hz (negative damping). In addition,

the units HP1 and EV1 Are assumed to be disconnected at t = 0 s.

Also, the random changes in the load and PV power are assumed

to be as described in the rst case. Fig. 8 depicts the system frequency response with proposed CDM and (PID + H2/H1) in this

case of study. It has been shown that the frequency deviation of

the system with proposed CDM controller is less than 0.002 Hz

while system with (PID + H2/H1) can give frequency deviation

about 0.0065 Hz, this result supports that the system response

is more convenient with CDM controllers.

Case 3: in this case, system has been tested in multiple operating conditions, it is assumed that Tg, Td, THP1, THP2, THP3, TEV1, TEV2

are increased by 40% from the nominal values, D is changed from

0.12 puMW/Hz to 0.3 puMW/Hz at t = 950 s. which means system is changed to unstable mode at t = 950 s. The random changes

in the load and PV power are assumed to be as described in the rst

case. In addition, HPs and EVs are connected under the supposed

multiple operating conditions in Table 2.

115

(PID + H2/H1) control method.

The presence of HP, PV and EV systems have been addressed as

important application and implementation of the renewable

energy in the power system showing that the role of these systems

is positively acting with the proper arrangement of the CDM control scheme.

Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the

proposed CDM methodology. It was shown that the system with

the proposed CDM controller is robust against load change and

parameter perturbation and has desirable performance in comparison of (PID + H2/H1) control design in all of the performed test

cases. Such a promising result gives a clear perspective on utilizing

robust but simple algorithms for load frequency control.

Appendix A

Table 2

Multiple operating conditions of CDM1 to CDM5.

Controller

Controller

Controller

Controller

Controller

Controller

of

of

of

of

of

HP1

HP2

HP3

EV1

EV2

Start

Stop

Start

Stop

0s

750 s

0s

0s

450 s

750 s

952 s

1200 s

451 s

850 s

950 s

850 s

1200 s

1200 s

output (in Watts) of a PV array which varies with irradiance and

cell-surface temperature of a PV system is given by [15]. The

output power of the studied PV system is determined by Ppv = SUg{10.005(Ta + 25)}.

The transfer function of PV can be given as:

Gpv

K pv

T pv 1

PV array, (S =4084 m2) is the measured area of the PV array, (U

=1 kW/m2) is the solar radiation, and Ta is ambient Temperature

in degree Celsius. The value of Ppv depends on Ta and U because

g and S are constant. In this paper, Ta is kept at 25 C and Ppv is

linearly varied with U only. In addition, DP PV Ppv-rated P pv .

References

CDM and (PID + H2/H1) in this case of study, From the gure, comparing with (PID + H2/H1), It has been shown that the frequency

deviation of the system with proposed CDM controller is less than

0.002 Hz while system with (PID + H2/H1) can give frequency

deviation about 0.0065 Hz, this result indicates that a desirable

performance response has been achieved using the proposed

CDM controllers.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a new method for robust frequency control design

of HP and EV in an isolated small power system with PV power

source using the coefcient diagram method CDM has been proposed. System with the proposed method was tested with random

load change, parameters change and unexpected controller outage

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