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27/07/2016

HazardousAreaClassificationGuidelines|ProcessandHSEEngineering

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HazardousAreaClassificationGuidelines

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HazardousAreaClassificationGuidelines
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Purpose:
ThescopeofthisguideistodrawntheguidelinesofseveraldifferentRecommendedpractice(s)fortheArea
Classificationofaprocessplant.Theareaclassificationisrequiredfortheinstallationoftheelectrical
equipmentwiththerelatedspecificprotectionkindwithinaprocessarea.Thebasicdefinition,andthe
followingmodificationsisbasedmainlyonthe1996NFPA70,ThenationalElectricalCode(NEC)andtheAPI
505RecommendedPractice(APIRP505).Oncethatalocationhasbeenclassified,requirementsforelectrical
equipmentandassociatedwiringshouldbedeterminatefromapplicablepublications(e.g.NFPA70andAPI
RecommendedPractice14F(APIRP14F)andlocalregulations.
Thefinalscopeofthedocumentistoachievetheclassificationofbothpermanentlyandtemporarilyinstalled
electricalequipment.Theapplicationisdesignedinrelationtotheirpotentialriskofignitionsourceinpresence
ofanignitablemixtureoffuel,oraflammable/ignitiblesubstance,andOxygen(Air)undernormal
atmosphericconditions.

ReferenceAtmosphericConditions
Pressure
Temperature

101.3Kpa
20C(293.15K)

14.7Psia
68F

Thedocumentprovidesthatisnorelevantchangesrelatedtothechangeoftheatmosphericconditionsfromthe
referencepoint.Onthebasisprovidedearlier,theguideisdevelopedontherecommendedpracticebasedonthe
petroleumfacilityzones(whereignitableliquids,gases,andvaporsareprocessed,handledandloaded).

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References,CodesandReferenceStandards:
Actually,therearemanyReferencestandardsandindustrialcodesasreferencefortheplantareaclassification.
Partofthemaredevelopedonthesamebasis,othersareveryparticularandappliedinspecificplanttype(e.g.
DrillingFacilities,Petroleumandpetrolchemicalplants).
TheHazardousAreaClassificationpresentsinthisguideisbasedonthefollowingitemsasreference:
API:
APIRP505RecommendedPracticeforClassificationofLocationsforElectricalInstallationatPetroleum
FacilitiesClassifiedasClassI,Zone0,Zone1andZone2(2002).

APIRP500RecommendedPracticeforClassificationofLocationsforelectricalInstallationatPetroleum
FacilitiesClassifiedasClassI,Division1andDivision2.

IEC:
IEC6007910ElectricalApparatusforexplosivegasatmospheresPart10:ClassificationsofhazardousArea.

IEC6007912ClassificationofMixturesofGasesorvaporswithairaccordingtotheirmaximumexperimental
Gaps(MEGs)andminimumignitioncurrentsratio(MIC).

IEC6007920ElectricalApparatusforexplosivegasatmospheresPart20:Dataforflammablegasesand
vapors,relatingtotheuseofelectricalapparatus.
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NFPA:

NFPA30:FlammableandCombustibleLiquidsCode

NFPA70:NationalElectricalCode

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NFPA325:GuidetofireHazardPropertiesofFlammableLiquids,Gases,andvolatileSolids
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NFPA497:RecommendedpracticefortheClassificationofFlammableLiquids,GasesorVaporsandof
Hazardous(classified)LocationsforElectricalInstallationsinChemicalProcessAreas. Sign me up

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BasicDefinitions:

Thefollowinglistofdefinitionisbasedonthereferencecodesandpracticeguidelinelistedbefore.The
referencestandardisassignedtoeachdefinition.
BoilingPointThetemperatureofaliquidboilingatthereferenceatmosphericconditions.(IEC7910,Mod.)
AreaClassificationSeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
ClassI,Zone0SeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
ClassI,Zone1SeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
ClassI,Zone2SeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
CombustibleLiquid(s)SeeFlammableLiquid(s)definition.
EnclosedAreaAthreedimensionalspaceenclosebymorethantwothird(2/3)ofthepossibleprojectedplane
surfaceareaandofsufficientsizetoallowtheentryofpersonnel.Foracommonbuilding,thiswouldrequired
twothird(2/3)ofthewalls,ceiling,and/orfloorbepresent.
ExplosivegasatmosphereAmixturewithair,underthereferenceatmosphericconditions,ofaflammable
materialintheformofgasorvaporwhich,afterignition,combustionspreadsthroughouttheunconsumed
mixture.(API5053.2.20)
FlammableCapableofaneasyignition,burningintenselyorspreadingflamerapidly.
Flammable(Explosive)limit(s)Thelower(LFL)andupper(UFL)percentagesbyvolumeofconcentrationof
gasingasairmixturethatwillformanignitiblemixture.(NPFA325)
FlammableLiquid(s)SeeFurtherparagraphnamed(FlammableliquidClassification).
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FlashPointTheminimumtemperatureofaliquidatwhichsufficientvaporisgiveofftoformanignitible
mixturewithair,nearthesurfaceoftheliquid,orwithinthevesselused,asdeterminatebythetestprocedure
andapparatusspecifiedinNFPA30.
GradeofReleaseTherearethreebasicgradeofrelease,aslistedbelow,inorderofdecreasinglikelihoodof
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theexplosivegasatmospherebeingpresent.(1)
1Continuous
2Primary

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3Secondary

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Othergradesofreleasemaybepossiblebycombinationofthebasiconeslisted.(IEC7910,Mod.)
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(1)Itisimportanttounderlinethatthereisntanyrelationshipwiththetypeofreleasediscussedearlierlike
puffandplume.
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GradeofRelease:ContinuousSeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
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GradeofRelease:PrimarySeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).
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GradeofRelease:SecondarySeeFurtherparagraphnamed(AreaClassificationandDefinition).

GasGroup(s)FortheClassification,theignitiblegasesorvaporsareclassifiedinseveraldifferentgroups.
Thesubdivisionofthegasesisrelatedtothegasesphysicalandchemicalproperties.
Hazardous(classified)Location(s)Alocationwherefireandexplosionhazardsmayexistduetoflammable
gasesorvapors,flammableliquids,combustibledusts,orignitiblefibersofflyings.(API5053.2.10.5)
HeavierthanairGasesofVaporsFormallythosegasesofvaporswitharelativedensityabove1.2astobe
regardedasHeavierthanairgases.(IEC7910,Mod.)
Highlyvolatileliquid(s)(HVL)SeeFurtherparagraphnamed(FlammableliquidClassification).
Ignitible(Flammable)MixtureAgasairmixturethatiscapableofbeingignitedbyanopenflame,electric
arcorspark,ordeviceoperatingabovetheignitiontemperatureofthegasairmixture.(SeeFlammable
(Explosive)Limits)(API5053.2.32)
Ignition(Autoignition)Temperature(AIT)Thelowesttemperatureofaheatedsurfaceatwhich,under
specificconditions,theignitionofaflammablesubstance,ormixtureintheformofgasorvaporwilloccur.
(IEC7910,Mod.)
LighterthanairGasesorVaporsFormallythosegasesorvaporwitharelativedensitybelow0.8astobe
regardedasLighterthanairsubstances.(IEC7910,Mod.)
MaximumExperimentalSafeGap(MESG)Themaximumgapofthejointbetweenthetwopartsofthe
interiorchamberofatestapparatusthat,whentheinternalmixtureisignitedandunderspecificconditions,
preventstheignitionoftheexternalgasmixturebypropagatingthrougha25mm(984mils)longjoint,forall
concentrationsofthetestedgasorvaporinair.(API5053.2.38)
MinimumIgnitionCurrent(MIC)Theminimumcurrentthat,inaspecifiedsparktestapparatusandunder
specificcondition,iscapableofignitingthemosteasilyignitiblemixture.(API5053.2.39)
MinimumIgnitionCurrentRatio(MICRatio)Theminimumenergyrequiredfromacapacitivespark
dischargetoignitethemosteasilyignitiblemixtureofagasorvapordividedbytheminimumcurrentrequired
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fromandinductivesparkdischargetoignitemethaneunderthesametestconditions.(NFPA497)
NormalOperation(s)Thesituationwhentheequipmentisoperatingwithinitsdesignparameters.(IEC7910,
Mod.)
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ProtectedFireVesselAnyfiredvesselthatisprovidedwithequipment(suchflamearresters,stack
temperatureshutdown,forceddraftburners,withsafetycontrols,andsparkarresters)designedtoeliminatethe
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airintakeandexhaustassourcesofignition.(API5053.2.48)

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Release,SourceofApointorlocationfromwhichaflammablegas,vapororliquidmaybereleasedintothe
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atmospheresuchthatanignitiblegasatmospherecouldbeformed.(IEV42603.06,Mod.)
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ReleaseRateThequantityofflammablegasorvaporemittedperunittimefromthesourceofrelease.(IEC
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7910,Mod.)
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VaporPressureThepressureexertedwhenasolidorliquidisinequilibriumwithitsownvapor.Itisa
substancepropertieslinkedtotheenvironmentconditionanddeterminatebyASTMD32382.(IEC7910,
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Mod.)
VaportightBarrierIsawall,orbarrierthatwillnotallowthepassageofsignificantquantitiesofgasor
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vaporatatmosphericpressure.(API5053.2.54)
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VentilationNaturalorartificialmovementofairanditsreplacementwithfreshair.

Ventilation,AdequateVentilationthatissufficienttopreventtheaccumulationofenoughquantitiesofan
ignitiblemixtureintoaspecificlocation.
VolatileFlammableLiquidAflammableliquidwhosetemperatureisaboveitsflashpoint,oraClassII
combustibleliquidhavingavaporpressurenotexceeding276Kpa(40Psia)at37.8C(100F)whose
temperatureisaboveitsflashpoint.(API5053.2.58)

BasicConditionforFire(s)andExplosion(s):
Asdiscussedearlier,tooccur,afireand/orandexplosionneedsthreebasicelements,withoutanyofthem,or
specificconditionsforeachofthem,theeventcannotoccur.Thethreemainelementsare:(1)Afuel,not
necessaryancommoncombustible(e.g.Dust,orMillDust),(2)acombustible(e.g.AirorOxygen).(3)An
ignitersourcewithenoughenergytoignitetheflammablemixture(e.g.Electricalequipment,freeflames,orhot
surfaces).Otherthanthepresenceofeachoftheseelements,therearetwoadditionalconditionsneededto
obtainafireoranexplosion:(4)Theconcentrationofthefuelwithinthemixturemustbebetweenitsown
UpperandLowerFlammableLimit.(5)Thethreebasicelementsmustbeinsamelocation,ortheymusthavea
positionthatallowsthemtocompletetheirownrole.
Inclassifyingaparticularlocation,thelikelihoodofthepresenceofaflammablegasesorvaporisasignificant
factorindeterminatethezoneclassification(SeeFurtherparagraphnamedAreaClassificationand
Definition).Otherwiseadistinctionmustbemade:thepresenceoftheflammablemixturecouldbe
distinguishedbetweennormalconditionsandextraordinarycondition.Thetermextraordinarycondition
doesntmeanonlyacatastrophiceventlikeaviolentbreakageofanitemorsimilar,butalsoanordinary
maintenanceoperation.Thereisobviouslyanobjection:Ifanitem,oralocation,needsafrequentmaintenance,
theactitselfwillgounderthenormalcondition.(API505.4.2referstotheseconditionadoptingthephrase
NormalandAbnormalCondition).
Assaid,themixture,tooccurintoanexplosionand/orafire,musthaveaconcentrationwithinitsrangeof
flammability.Itisquiteimportanttoknowortoreachanapproximationofthequantitiesofflammablemixture
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arepresentinsidethedifferentlocation,todeterminatetheextensionofthearea.Asmorethereleasedquantities
arehigh,asmoretheareaaffectedbythehazardiswide.
Anotherrelevantparametertotakeintoaccountistheventilation.Theventilationofaspecificlocationcan
reducesensiblythehazardconnectedtoaignitiblesubstancerelease,eveninmajorcase.Agoodventilation,
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naturaland/orartificial),especiallyinsideenclosedlocation,isthefistmeasuretoadopttoreducetheriskof
Fires.

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Especiallyforpreliminarystudies,evenbeforetheengineeringstarts,wheretheknowledgeoftheplantandthe
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areaisalmostunknown,foundevenandapproximateformoftheseparameters(Likelihood,Concentration,and
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Ventilationofaspecificarea)couldbereallyhard,andinthebestcasetheapproximationistotallyalooffrom
reality.Infact,thehazardousareaclassificationiscommonlymadeduringtheentiredevelopmentoftheplant,
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reviewingcontinuouslythedataandtheareaclassification.
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SafetyPrinciples:

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Theareaclassificationmustbecarriedoutwhentheinitialprocessandinstrumentlinediagram(P&ID)are
availableandwillbefrequentlyupdatedtillthestartupoftheplant.Evenduringthelifeoftheplant,the
classificationmustbeperiodicallyupdated,totakeintoaccountpotentialchangestotheoriginalplat,ornew
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releasesource(s).Thehazardousareaclassification,especiallyitsfirstapplication,duringtheprocessdesign,
mustbemainlyaffectedfromtheinhertlydesignprinciples.Tostarttheareaclassification,itmustbeidentified
thoseareacontaininghazardoussubstance,examiningthoseareaandidentifyingthepotentialsourcesorpoints
ofleakage.ThefirstquestiontheoperatorshouldaskhimselfisCanthesesourcesbereplaced?,avoiding
sourceoranyreleasepointitcouldbethebeststrategytoadopt,especiallywhentheengineeringoftheplant
evenhadstarted.Ifthesourcecannotbeavoided,therateoftherelease,oritsfrequency,oritslikelihoodcan
bereduced?thehazardarearelatedtoareleaseisaslowasthequantityreleased,thetimeofthereleaseand
itslikelihoodislow.

Flammableliquid(s)Classification:
Substanceshandledbyanyprocessfacilitiesincludeflammableandcombustibleliquids,flammablehighly
volatileliquids(HVLs)andflammablegasesandvapors.Whenclassifyinglocationsforelectricalinstallations,
theappropriateclassandgroup(s)shouldbedeterminateforallflammablesubstances.Eachgroup,andclass,
isrelatedtothephysicalandchemicalfeaturesofthesubstance.RefertoNFPA325or497forthepropertiesof
specificflammableliquids,gases,vaporsandvolatilesolids.Thevolatilityofflammableandcombustibleliquids
isdefinedinNFPA30.
Flammable(ClassI)Liquids,suchagasoline,aredefinedasanyliquidhavingaclosedcupflashpointbelow
thethresholdof37.8C(100F)andavaporpressurenotexceeding276Kpa(14Psia).Combustible(ClassII
andIII)liquidsaredefinedasliquidshavingaclosedcupflashpointatorabovethethresholdof37.8C
(100F)andbelow60C(140F).ClassIIIliquidsarethoseliquidshavingaclosedcupflashpointabovethe
thresholdof60C(140F).

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FlammableandCombustibleLiquid(s)

Class

II

<37.8

37.860

FlashPoint
Range(C)

III

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>60

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Vapor
Pressure(Kpa) >276

N.a.

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N.a.

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AcommonerroristoconfusetheseclassesandliquidsgroupwiththeClassesofTheNationalElectricalCode,
theyarenotsynonymous.(NFPA70).
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ClosedCupFlashPointandAutoignitiontemperature:
AnotherspreaderroristoconfusetheFlashpointwiththeautoignitiontemperature.

FlashPointTheminimumtemperatureofaliquidatwhichsufficientvaporisgiveofftoformanignitible
mixturewithair,nearthesurfaceoftheliquid,orwithinthevesselused,asdeterminatebythetestprocedure
andapparatusspecifiedinNFPA30.

Theautoignitiontemperature(AIT)instead,isthetemperature,abovetheflashpoint,whichallowtheignition
oftheflammablemixturewithoutanyignitionsource.AdoptingthedefinitionoftheIEC:

Ignition(Autoignition)Temperature(AIT)Thelowesttemperatureofaheatedsurfaceatwhich,under
specificconditions,theignitionofaflammablesubstance,ormixtureintheformofgasorvaporwilloccur.
(IEC7910,Mod.)

ThetermClosedCupbehindtheflashpointdefinitionisreferredtothestandardapparatusadoptedforits
assessment.Therearetwobasictypesofflashpointmeasurement:opencupandclosedcup.
Inopencupdevicesthesampleiscontainedinanopencupwhichisheated,andatintervalsaflameisbrought
overthesurface.Themeasuredflashpointwillactuallyvarywiththeheightoftheflameabovetheliquid
surface,andatsufficientheightthemeasuredflashpointtemperaturewillcoincidewiththefirepoint.Thebest
knownexampleistheClevelandopencup(COC).
Therearetwotypesofclosedcuptesters:nonequilibrium,suchasPenskyMartenswherethevapoursabove
theliquidarenotintemperatureequilibriumwiththeliquid,andequilibrium,suchasSmallScale(commonly
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knownasSetaflash)wherethevapoursaredeemedtobeintemperatureequilibriumwiththeliquid.Inboth
thesetypesthecupsaresealedwithalidthroughwhichtheignitionsourcecanbeintroduced.Closedcup
testersnormallygivelowervaluesfortheflashpointthanopencup(typically510C)andareabetter
approximationtothetemperatureatwhichthevaporpressurereachesthelowerflammablelimit(LFL).
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Theflashpointisanempiricalmeasurementratherthanafundamentalphysicalparameter.Themeasuredvalue
willvarywithequipmentandtestprotocolvariations,includingtemperatureramprate(inautomatedtesters),
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timeallowedforthesampletoequilibrate,samplevolumeandwhetherthesampleisstirred.

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Methodsfordeterminingtheflashpointofaliquidarespecifiedinmanystandards.Forexample,testingbythe
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PenskyMartensclosedcupmethodisdetailedinASTMD93,IP34,ISO2719,DIN51758,JISK2265and
AFNORM07019.DeterminationofflashpointbytheSmallScaleclosedcupmethodisdetailedinASTM
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D3828andD3278,ENISO3679and3680,andIP523and524.
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Flashpoint,andautoignitiontemperatureexamplesarereportedabove.ForfurtherinformationaboutFlash
pointtest,anddatarefertoNFPA30.

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FlammableHighlyVolatileLiquid(s):

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TheHVLssuchbutane,propane,propylene,etc,arethoseflammableliquidsofthefirstclass,withavapor
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pressureexceeding276Kpa(40Psia)at37.8C(100F).
Thoseliquids,haveahighvolatilityandalowFlashpoint,allowingthemtoproducealargevolumeofignitible
mixture.Alltheprecautionsmustbetakenifhandledinsidetheprocessplant,andtheymustbetreatedwithad
overconservativelymethod.Usuallythemixturegeneratedhasadensitylowerthanair,allowingquick
movementandwidedistancecovered.Thoseattitudesarethemostdangerousandresultintoawideprocess
areadesignedwithstrictlysafetyapplications.

ClassILiquids:
ClassIliquids,withthelowestFlashPointrange,areusuallyhandledattemperatureabovethesafetyrange,
consequentlycanproduceaflammableatmosphere.Especiallywhenreleasedintotheatmosphere,mayproduce
alargevolumeofvapors(rarelygases),especiallynearthesourceofrelease.EveniftheClassIliquidsare
generallyrelatedtothehighesthazard,thelessvolatileliquidsofthisclassreleasevaporsslowlyandthe
ignitionispossibleonlyiftheigniter(ortheignitionsource)isplacedneartheliquidpool(See.Poolfire).

ClassIILiquids:
WithclassIIliquids,thelikelihoodofignitionismuchlowerthanClassIliquids,dueto
theirhigherflashpoint,onlyfewofthemareusuallyhandledattemperatureabovetheirflashpoint.Theignition
ofaliquidoftheClassIIusuallyistakenintoaccountwhenexposedtoafire,inthiscasetheriskanalysisis
behindthecommonthresholdofOneemergencyonly.
Eveniftheygeneratevapors,themusuallyarequiteheavyandtheycannotmovetofarfromthesource.The
transitionstateoftheignitiblemixturefromHeavierthanairtolighterthanairisquiteslow.
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APIRP505referstotheClassIIliquidsasDonotproducevaporsofsufficientquantitytobeconsideredfor
electricalclassification(5.2.3.2)

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ClassIIILiquids:

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SimilartotheClassIIliquids,theClassIIIhasalowerlikelihoodtoproduceanignitibleatmospheredueto
theirhighestflashpointandlowestvolatility.Ifheatedbeyonditsflashpoint,aClassIIIliquidproduceasmall
and HSE
amountofvapor,localizednearthepointofrelease.
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Apartiallistofflammableliquids,withtherelatedClass,groupsandcategoryarereportedintothefollowing
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CrudeOils:

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Aspecificclassificationforthecrudeoilsisimpossible,itscompositionistoocomplexanddiversifiedthateven
itscommonphysicalpropertiesaregeneric.HowevercrudeoilisgenerallyclassifiedasClassIflammable
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liquidanditsflashpointrange,generallyaccepted,is6.732.2C(2090F).
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GasGroups:

Asdoneforthehazardousliquids,alsothegasesaredividedintoseveraldifferentgroupsandsubclasses.The
firstsubdivisionistheclassificationintotwogroups:(1)GroupIUndergroundGasesand(2)GroupII
AbovegroundGases.Thefirstclass,isreferredtodescribeatmospherescontainingfiredamp(amixtureofgases,
composedmostlybymethane,foundusuallyinmines).ForthisreasonthegroupIofflammablegasesarenot
usedduringtheHazardousareaclassification.Thesecondgroupisusedtodescribeallthegasesfoundabove
groundandissubdividedintoIICIIBandIIAaccordingtothenatureofthegasorvapor.Thelastthree
categoriesofgasesaredefinedbytwophysicalpropertiesofthesubstance:Maximumexperimentalallowable
gap(s)(MEGS)andtheMinimumIgnitionCurrentratio.

MaximumExperimentalAllowableGap:

TheMESGisdefinedasfollow:
MaximumExperimentalSafeGap(MESG)Themaximum Benzene
gapofthejointbetweenthetwopartsoftheinteriorchamber
ofatestapparatusthat,whentheinternalmixtureisignited
andunderspecificconditions,preventstheignitionofthe
EthylAlcohol
externalgasmixturebypropagatingthrougha25mm(984
mils)longjoint,forallconcentrationsofthetestedgasor
vaporinair.(API5053.2.38)
Gasoline
Themaximumexperimentalsafegapofflammablegasesand
vaporsisthelowestvalueofthesafegapmeasuredaccording NButane
toIEC6007911byvaryingthecompositionofthemixture
(flamepropagationinthemostignitibiemixture).Thesafe
gapisthegapwidthatwhichinthecaseofagivenmixture
NHexane
composition,aflashbackjustfailstooccur.Thetestprocedure
anditsparametersarefullydescribeinIEC6007911.
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FlashPoint

AIT

12

560

55

365

45

280

76

405

54

225
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IButane

117

462

MinimumIgnitionCurrentRatio(MICRatio):
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TheMICRATIOisdefinedasfollow:

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MinimumIgnitionCurrentRatio(MICRatio)Theminimumenergyrequiredfromacapacitivespark
dischargetoignitethemosteasilyignitiblemixtureofagasorvapordividedbytheminimumcurrentrequired
and HSE
fromandinductivesparkdischargetoignitemethaneunderthesametestconditions.(NFPA497)Forfurther
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informationabouttheMICRatiorefertoIEC600793.
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GasGroupIIA:

AtmospherescontainingAcetone,Ammonia,EthylAlchol,Gasoline,Methane,propaneorflammablegas,
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flammableliquidproducedvapor,orcombustibleliquidmixedwithairthatmayburnorexplodehavingeithera
MESGvaluegreaterthan0.90mmoraminimumignitingcurrentratio(MICRatio)greaterthan0.80(NFPA
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497orIEC6007910)

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GasGroupIIB:

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Atmospherescontainingacetaldehyde,hydrogen,offlammablegas,flammableliquidproducedvapor,or
combustibleliquidproducedvapormixedwithairthatmayburnorexplodehavingeitheramaximum
experimentalsafegape(MESG)greaterthanto0.50mm(20mils)andlessthanorequalto0.90mm(35mils)
oraminimumignitingcurrentratio(MICRatio)greaterthan0.45andlessthanorequalto0.80(NFPA497).

GasGroupIIC:
Atmospherescontainingacetylene,hydrogen,offlammablegas,flammableliquidproducedvapor,or
combustibleliquidproducedvapormixedwithairthatmayburnorexplodehavingeitheramaximum
experimentalsafegape(MESG)greaterthanorequalto0.50mm(20mils)oraminimumignitingcurrentratio
(MICRatio)lessthan0.45(NFPA497).

GroupII

IIA

MESG(mm) >0.90
MICRatio >0.80

IIB

IIC

0.50<<0.80 <0.50
<0.45
0.45<<0.80

ForthemostgasesandvapoursitissufficienttomakeonlyonedeterminationbetweentheMESGandMIC
Ratiotorelatethegastoitsowngroup.Therearesomecaseswhichbothdeterminationarerequired:
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a)WhenMICRatioiswithintherange0.80.9.
b)WhenMICRatioiswithintherange0.450.5.
c)WhenMESGiswithintherange0.50.55

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Inthosecases,thesecondparameterwillclassifythegasanditsgroup.TheIECprovidesacompletelistof
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commonsubstanceswiththeirowngroupandpropertiesinsidetheIEC6007912(1978).

HazardousAreaClassification
GeneralCriteria:

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Thechoiceofclassifyanareaisbasedontheassumptionthatflammablegas(es),vapor(s)orignitibleliquid(s)
maybepresent.Thechoicestartsfromtwobasicassumption:
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a)ThereisanHazardousSubstance.
b)ThereisapotentialSourceofRelease.

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Possiblesourceofreleaseinclude:vents,flanges,controlvalves,pumpandcompressorsealing,fittings,and
floatingroofseals.Itisobviousthatthepresenceofthoseelementsinsideaprocessplatissospreadandwide
thatusuallynoteachofthemmustbeconsideredduringtheareaclassificationasapotentialsourceofignitible,
ogenerally,hazardoussubstances.Thefollowingparagraphswillexplainwhichofthemaresignificantand
havearelevanceinsidetheclassificationstudy.Oncethatthesubstancesareidentifiedandthepotentialsource
localized,beforetheareaclassification,otherfactorsmustbetakeninaccountlikethegradeofrelease,grade
ofventilationandthetopographyoftheplant.

Commonly,thegradeorreleaseisdistinguishedintothreedifferentcategory:
Continuous.
Primary.
Secondary
Eachofthesecategoriesleadsnaturallytoonespecifickindoflocation,butthereisnofirmrules(see
ClassificationPrecautions9.10.VI).Howeverthegradeofreleaseisstrictlyconnectedtothetimeofrelease:
Gradeof
Release

Continuous
Primary
Secondary

FlammableMixturetimeof
release

1000ormoreHours/year
10<Hours/year<1000
10<Hours/year

Oncethatthetypeofreleasehasbeenindentified,theventilationassessmentofthespecificareaisrequired.The
ventilationassessmentisthelaststeptoclassifyaspecificarea.Toevaluatetheextensionofaspecificareaa
greatnumberofinformationmustbegathered,especially:
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Volatilityoftheflammableliquid
Flashpoint
LiquidTemperatureatrelease
LFLandUFL
Vaporandliquiddensity
Geometryofthesourceofrelease
QuantityReleased
PotentialReleaseRate

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Concentrationandstartingconditions
Ventilation
ProcessPlantTopography

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ClimaticConditions

Lookingatthegreatnumberofinformationrequired,itissimplynoticethathaveanaccurateestimateofthe
hazardousareaisreallyhardtoget.ManycodesandRecommendedpracticesuggestseveraldifferentexamples
andsuggestionstoachieveacorrectsafetylevels,notunderestimatingthepotentialhazard(APIRP505or
NFPA497).

AreaClassificationandDefinition:
Theareaclassification,especiallytheareadefinition,isthesameforseveraldifferentcodesandstandardslike:
APIIEC.NFPA.NationalElectricalCode(NFPA70),etc.
ThefollowingparagraphisdevelopedontheAPIRP505basis,andtheareadefinitionarereportedfromit.

ClassI,Zone0:
ClassI,Zone0presentsthefollowingfeatures:
(1)Isalocationinwhichapresenceofignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsis
continuous
Or
(2)Inwhichanignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsispresentforalongtime.

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Thislocationsusuallyincludeslocationsinsideventedtanksorvesselscontainingvolatileflammableliquids
thevolumebetweentheinnerandtheouterroofsectionofafloatingrooftankcontainingvolatileflammable
liquidsinsideopenvessels,tanksandpitsandinsideinadequatelyventilatedenclosurescontainingnormally
ventinginstrumentsutilizingoranalyzingflammablefluidsandventingtheinsideofenclosures.
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ClassI,Zone1:
ClassI,Zone1presentsthefollowingfeatures:

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(1)Isalocationinwhichapresenceofignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsare
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likelytoexistundernormaloperatingconditions
your Inbox.

Or

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(2)inwhichanignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsmayexistsfrequently
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becauseofrepairorrepairmaintenanceoperationsorbecauseofleakage
Or

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(3)Inwhichequipmentisoperatedorprocesscarriedon,ofsuchnaturethatequipmentbreakdownorfaulty
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operationscouldresultinthereleaseofignitibleconcentrationsofflammablegasesorvaporsandalsocause
simultaneousfailureofelectricalequipmentinamodetocausetheelectricalequipmenttobecomesourceof
ignition.
Or
(4)IsadjacenttoaClassI,Zone0locationwhichignitibleconcentrationsofvaporscouldbecommunicated,
unlesscommunicationispreventedbyadequatepositivepressureventilationformsourcesofcleanairand
effectivesafeguardsagainstventilationfailurehasbeentaken.

Thisclassificationusuallyincludeslocationswhereflammableliquidsorliquefiedflammablegasesare
transferredfromonecontainertoanotherinadequatelyventilatedpumproomsforflammablegasorfor
volatileflammableliquidstheinteriorofrefrigeratorsandfreezersinwhichvolatileflammablematerialsare
storedintheopen,lightlystoppered,oreasilyrupturedcontainersandotherlocationswhereignitible
concentrationsofflammablevaporsandgasesarelikelytooccurinthecourseofnormaloperationbutnot
classifiedaszone0.

ClassI,Zone2:
ClassI,Zone2presentsthefollowingfeatures:
(1)Isalocationinwhichapresenceofignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsare
notlikelytooccurundernormaloperatingconditionsandifthedooccurwillexistsforashortperiodoftime
Or
(2)inwhichanignitibleconcentration,orflammablegases,orcombustibleliquidsarehandled,loaded,
unloaded,processed,orused,butinwhichtheliquids,gases,orvaporsnormallyareconfinedwithinclosed
containersofclosedsystemfromwhichtheycanescapeONLYasaresultofaccidentalruptureorbreakdownof
thecontainersorsystem,orasresultoftheabnormaloperationoftheequipmentwithwhichthesubstancesare
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handledorprocessed
Or
(3)Inwhichignitibleconcentrationsofflammablegasesorvaporsnormallyarepreventedbypositive Follow
mechanicalventilation,butwhichmaybecomehazardousasaresultoffailureorabnormaloperationofthe
ventilationequipment

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(4)IsadjacenttoaClassI,Zone1locationwhichignitibleconcentrationsofvaporscouldbecommunicated,
unlesscommunicationispreventedbyadequatepositivepressureventilationformsourcesofcleanairand
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effectivesafeguardsagainstventilationfailurehasbeentaken.
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Thezone2classificationusuallyincludeslocationswherevolatileliquids,orflammablegasesorvaporsare
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used,butthatwouldbecomehazardousonlyincaseofanaccidentorofsomeunusualoperatingcondition.

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ZoneConsiderations:

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ThewordNormalarecommonlyusedinsidethezonedefinitions,butisnotsynonymousofeverythingis
workingproperly.Forinstance,aprocessmaybesosensitivetocontrolthattheactivationofsafetyvalvesor
otherpressurereliefequipment,ogenerallysafetyequipment,isfrequently,andthatshouldbeconsidered
normal.
Thefrequencyofthemaintenanceorrepairisrelevanttodefinethenormalandabnormalsituation:ifthe
maintenanceisrequiredfrequentlytheoperationsaretoevaluateasNormal,howeverifthemaintenance
frequencyislow,itsoperationsareincludedintotheabnormalcategory.
Zone1locationareusuallyplacedasborderlineofeachZone0locationtoseparateZone0andZone2
locations(CalledTransitionzone(s)).TopreventtheextensionofanZone1locationasborderoftheZone0
location,itcanbeusedavaportightbarrier(seedefinitions)toavoidthespreadingofthehazardous
substances.
ClassI,Zone2locationsarethoseareawhenabnormalconditionswillgeneratearelease.Forinstance,a
leakagefromasealingisquiterare,andcanbeconsideredabnormal.Alsothesimultaneousruptureofthe
equipmentandtheelectricalinstallationisquiterare.
Zone2locationareusuallyplacedasborderlineofeachZone1location(CalledTransitionzone(s)).To
preventtheextensionofanZone2locationasborderoftheZone1location,itcanbeusedavaportightbarrier
(seedefinitions)toavoidthespreadingofthehazardoussubstances.
ClassificationPrecautions:
Thereisanaturalrelationshipbetweenthegradeofreleaseandthetypeofzone.
Zone

Flammable
Mixture
presence

(Hour/year)GradeofRelease0

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1000ormore
Continuous1
101000
Primary2
110
SecondaryUnclass.
Lessthan1

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Thegradeofrelease,andthekindofzonearenotsynonymous,infactacontinuousgradeofreleasenaturally
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leadstoaconstantpresenceoftheflammablemixtureinthearea.Butaspecificassessmentshouldbetakenfor
eachspecificplace.
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UnclassifiedZones:

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Manyprocessplantlocationsmayremainsunclassifiedattheendoftheclassification,why?Becausethe
experiencehasshownthat,regardlessthegradeofventilationofthelocation,thelikelihoodofanaccidental
leakageandtheconsequentreleaseofhazardousmaterialarequiterare.
Inthoseareacategoryareincluded:
1)Locationswhereflammablesubstancesarecontainedinallweldedclosedpipingsystemswithoutvalves,
flangesorsimilardevice.
2)Locationswhereflammablesubstancesarecontainedincontinuousmetallictubingwithoutvalves,flanges
orsimilardevice.
3)Adequateventilatedlocationsurroundedbyprocessitemswithcontinuousflamesources(e.g.flaretips)
4)Locationswithanynonelectricignitionsources(flaretips,freeflame,etc).
Ventilation:
Inthemajorpartofthecases,theventilationisoneofthemostimportantparameterfortheclassificationofan
area.Eventuallygasorvaporsleakedtotheatmospherecanbedilutedbydispersionordiffusionintotheair
droppingtheirconcentrationbelowtheLFLconcentrationthreshold.Theventilation,naturalorartificial,leads
tothecontinuousreplacementoftheairofaspecificzonewithfreshair.Thefreshairmustcomefroman
unclassifiedorZone2locationtobeefficientandpositive.
Suitableventilationratescanalsoavoidpersistenceofanexplosivegasatmosphere,thusinfluencingthetypeof
zone(IEC6007910.Mod.).
AnAdequateVentilationisdefinedasventilation(naturalorartificial)thatissufficienttopreventthe
accumulationofaconcentrationofflammablesubstancesoverthetwentyfivepercent(25%)ofthe
concentrationLFLthreshold.RefertoNFPA30foradditionaldetails.
VentilationAssessment:
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Theassessmentoftheventilationsystem(s)canbedoneevaluatingthehypotheticalvolumereleasedandthe
timeofresidencyofthesame.Thefollowinganalyticalmethodissubjecttoseverallimitations,butadopting
suitablesafetyfactors,theerrorresultedisonthesideofsafety.
Tostarttheassessment,itmustbeknowthemaximumreleaserateofthesubstance(G)

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Thefirststepistoevaluatetheminimumvolumetricflowoffreshair(Vair)neededtodilutethehazardous
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mixture:

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Where:

k=0.25(SafetyFactor)forprimaryandcontinuousgradeofrelease,0.50forsecondarygradeofrelease.
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LFL=LowerFlammablelimitofthemixture
T=AmbientTemperature(inKelvins)

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3
GenerallyLFLareexpressedas(Vol%),toconvertitto(Kg/m )usethefollowingformula:

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Where:
MW=MolecularMassofthesubstance(Kg/mol).

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Nowweneedtosetthenumberofcyclesofchange,fortheair,pertimeunitC(S1),andthepotential
hazardousvolumearoundthesourcecanbeestimated:
Where:
Vz=PotentialHazardousVolumenearthereleasesource(m3).
f=isanadditionalsafety(andquality)factorequalto15thatdenotesthequalityoftheventilationsystem.
Thegreatestvalue(5)meansthattheairflowisnotfreshorisimpeded.
OncethatVzisestimated,itidentifythevolumewithintheignitiblemixtureconcentrationisatleast25or50%
(relatedtothekvalueadopted)ofitsownLFL.
ForanEnclosedArea(which2/3oftheoutsidesurfaceofthevolumeiscovered)thenumberofcyclesof
changesofairperunitoftimeisdefinedbythefollowingformula:
Vtot=isthetotalvolumeoftheairflowrate.
Vo=isthetotalvolumeoftheenclosedarea.
Inanopenairsituation,evenwiththelowestwindspeed,thenumberofcyclesofchangeairarehigh.Usuallyis
adoptedaCequalto0.03s1(relatedtoawindspeedof0.5m/s).However,thismethodisquiteconservative,
oversizingthehazardousarea.
Oncethatthehazardousvolumehasbeendefined,thenextsteptoestimatethegradeofventilationistoachieve
thePersistenceTime(t)oftheflammablemixture.Thetimerequiredfortheaverageconcentrationtofallfrom
thestartingvalueofXototheLFLmultipliedbykafterthereleasehasstoppedcanbeestimatedfrom:
tisestimatedinthesametimeunitofC.AparticularattentionmustbeadoptedfortheXovalue:insidethe
hazardousvolume,theconcentrationoftheflammablesubstancevarysensiblybetweenthe100%(inthewhole
areanearthesourceofrelease)andthe25%oftheLFL.HoweverthepropervalueofXoshouldbeestimated
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foreachcase.
Theresidencetimeestimated,isntaquantitativevaluefortheareaclassification,itgivesadditionalinformation
abouttheabnormalprocess,andmustbecomparedtothetimescaleofthespecificprocess.Anacceptabletime
ofdispersiondependsbythetimeandfrequencyoftherelease.
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ThevolumeVzcanbeusedtoprovideameansofratingtheventilationas:High,Medium,orlow.The
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persistencetimecanbeusedtoprovideameansofratingtheventilationrequiredtocomplywiththedefinition
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ofArea0,1or2.

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Inparticularventilationcanberatedas:

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HighwhenVzissmall,almostnegligible.

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MediumwhentheVzvolumecanbecontrolled.
LowwhentheVzvolumecannotbecontrolled.

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ThecodeIEC6007910relatethevalueofVztotherateoftheventilation:

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VentilationRate
High
Vz(m3)

<0.1

Medium
0.1<Vz<Vo

Low(2)
>Vo

2)LowVentilationcannotoccurinopenspacecases.
WithHighVentilationGrade,theventilationissoefficientthattheHazardousvolumecanbeconsidered
negligibleandtherelatedareamyremainunclassified.AnhighgradeofVentilationcanbeassignedonlyin
casesofArtificialVentilation,intosmallenclosedarea.
AnotherrelevantparametertoconsideristheVentilationavailability.Theavailabilityneedstobetakeninto
accountduringtheareaclassificationthetypeofzone.Thelevelofavailabilityarethefollowing:

AGoodVentilationispresentvirtuallycontinuously.
BFairVentilationispresentduringnormaloperation.
CPoorDoesntmetthefeatureofgoodandFair,butdiscontinuitiesarenottobeexpectedtooccurfor
longperiodsoftime.
Inopenspacecases,thewindactionisincludedundertheGoodcategoryevenatthelowestspeed(0.5m/s).
Theeffectoftheventilationtotheareaclassificationissummarizedinthefollowingtable.
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Gradeof
Release

Degree
Medium

High

Primary
Secondary

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Low

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Availability
Continuous

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Ventilation

Good
Fair
Poor
Good Fair
(Zone0NE) (Zone0NE) (Zone0NE) Zone0 Zone0
+2
(Zone1NE) (Zone1NE) (Zone1NE) Zone1 Zone1
+2
(Zone2NE) (Zone2NE) Zone2
Zone2 Zone1

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PoorEnter your
Good,Fair,Low
email address
Zone0
Zone0
+1
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Zone1
Zone1or0
+2
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Zone2
0

TheZonedefinitionNEindicatesatheoreticalzonethatwouldbenegligibleextentundernormaloperating
conditions.Thesymbol+adoptedmeansSurroundedby.
Multiplesource:
Anenclosedarea,oingeneral,aspecificzonecouldhaveseveraldifferentreleasesources.HowcanIassess
theventilation?IEC6007910presentsasimplemethodtoevaluatetheventilationinamultisourcezone.The
valueoftoadopt,duringthecalculation,dependsfromthegradeofrelease.Thefollowingtableshowsthe
valuetoadoptforeachgradeofreleasecategory.

GradeofRelease

Actiontobetakenwith

Continuously
Primary

Summateallvaluesforeachsourceandusetheresult.
Inaccordancetothefollowingtable,summatetherequisitenumberofthelargest
valueofandapplytheresultingtotal.
Secondary
Useonlythelargestvolumeofthesourcesofthesamearea.
NOTE:Differinggradeofreleasearenotrequiredtobesummated.

Numberofprimary

Numberofprimary

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gradereleases

gradesreleasestobe
usedinaccordance
withtheprevious
table
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3to5

6to9

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10to13

14to18

19to23

24to27

28to33

34to39

10

40to45

11

46to51

12

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9.11.IIICalculationExamples:

ExampleN1:
Characteristicsofthe
release

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FlammableMaterial
SourceofRelease
LEL
Gradeofrelease
SafetyFactor,k
ReleaseRate,G

HazardousAreaClassificationGuidelines|ProcessandHSEEngineering

Propane(gas)
Canfillingnozzle
0.0039[Kg/m3]
Primary
0.25
0.005[kg/s]

Minimumvolumetricflowrateoffreshair:
EstimationofHypotheticalVolumeVz:
Timeofpersistencet:

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Ventilation

Characteristics and HSE
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Numberofair
20perhour
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Qualityfactor,f
1
Ambient
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35C(308K)
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Temperature,T
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Conclusion:ThehypotheticalvolumeVzissignificantbutitcanbecontrolled.ThedegreeofventilationIs
consideredasmediumwithregardtothesourcebasedonthiscriterion.Withapersistencetimeof0.26h,the
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conceptofClassI,Zone1maynotbemetiftheoperationisrepeatedfrequently.
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ExampleN2:
Characteristicsofthe
release
FlammableMaterial
SourceofRelease
LEL
Gradeofrelease
SafetyFactor,k
ReleaseRate,G

Ammonia(gas)
EvaporatorValve
0.105[Kg/m3]
Secondary
0.50
[kg/s]

Ventilation

Characteristics
Indoorsituation

Minimumvolumetricflowrateoffreshair:
Numberofair
15perhour
changes,C
EstimationofHypotheticalVolumeVz:
Qualityfactor,f
1
Ambient
20C(293K)
Timeofpersistencet:
Temperature,T
Conclusion:ThehypotheticalvolumeVzisnegligible.Howevertheitemsadjacenttothevalveshouldbe
classifiedasZone2.

ExampleN3:
Characteristicsofthe
release
FlammableMaterial
SourceofRelease
LEL
Gradeofrelease

Toluen(vapor)
Flange
0.046[Kg/m3]
Continuos

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SafetyFactor,k
ReleaseRate,G

HazardousAreaClassificationGuidelines|ProcessandHSEEngineering

0.25
[kg/s]

Minimumvolumetricflowrateoffreshair:
EstimationofHypotheticalVolumeVz:
Timeofpersistencet:

Ventilation

Characteristics
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Numberofair
onceperhour
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Qualityfactor,f
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20C(293K)
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Temperature,T

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Thetimeofpersistencecannotbeestimateforcontinuousrelease.Conclusion:ThehypotheticalvolumeV
zis
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negligible.HowevertheitemsadjacenttotheflangeshouldbeclassifiedasZone2.

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AdjacentArea:

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Fortheareaadjacenttotheclassifiedone,particularattentionmustbeadopted.Therethreedifferentcases:

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1)Anonclosedadequatelyventilatedareathatisadjacenttoaclassifiedarea,andthatisNOTseparated
fromtheclassifiedareabyvaportightbarrier,shouldbeclassifiedtotheextentdesignated.

2)Aenclosedareathatisadjacenttoaclassifiedarea,thatisseparatedfromtheclassifiedareabyavapor
tightbarrier,isunclassified,consideringonlytheexternalsources.

3)Anenclosedareathatisadjacenttoaclassifiedarea,andthatisNOTseparatedfromtheclassifiedarea
bythevaportightbarrier,shouldbeclassifiedthesameasthehighestclassificationincluded.(APIRP505).

Extentofthehazardousarea:
Theextentofaparticularzone,isfunctionofseveralfactorsandparameters.TheAPIRP505suggeststhe
extentofareageneratedbydifferentpotentialreleasesources(e.g.Vents,Rupturedisk,etc.).
RefertoAPIRP505,NFPA497forthesinglesource.Inthosecases,theextentofthesingleareaisdetermined
onlybythelocationofpotentialsourcesofreleaseofflammableliquids,gasesorvapors,andnotbythe
locationoftheigniters(electricalandnonelectrical).
Toestimatetheextentofthespecificarea,especiallyforparticularcasesnotrevisedbythecommonstandards,
therearemanydispersionmodel,evensoftwaresuitable.

AnalternativemethodfortheareaClassification:
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APIRP505suggestsanalternativemethodfortheareaclassification.Themethodisbasedontheconceptof
PointSource,involvingthecreationofspecificboundariesforeachindividualsource.Attheendofthe
specificclassification,anextendedareaclassificationismadebythecompositionoftheadjacentdifferentarea.
Theextentoftheareaisrelatedto:1)thegradeandvelocityoftherelease2)andthevolatilityofthesingle
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substances.(thevolatilityofamixtureisequaltothehighestvolatilityofitscomponents).

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TheHazardRadiusisadirectfunctionofvolatilityandrateofrelease,thatmeansthatasoneofthelast
parameterisreduced,theextentofthehazardousareatendtobereduced.
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Therateorthespeedoftherelease(thequantityreleased)isdividedintothreedifferentcategories:High,
MediumandLow.

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ReleaseVelocity
Low

Medium

10ft/s

10<<50ft/s

3m/s

3<<15m/s

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High
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50ft/s

15m/s

AreleasewithHighspeedflowhasagreaterhazardradiusduetothemistingtransition.Amist,orspray,has
usuallyadensitylighterthanair,thatmeansthatevenatlowwindspeedthedispersionisquickandcovera
widearea.
Thesecondparameteradoptedinthismethodisthesubstancevolatility.Thevolatilityofthemostcommon
flammableliquidsandflammablegasesorvapors,arepresentintoNFPA30:Flammableandcombustible
liquidCode.Theprocessgroupsallhazardoussubstancesintofivedifferentvolatilitycategories.

CategoryG:FlammablesubstanceshandledandprocessedasGasesandvapors.
Category1:Materials,includingLPGs,withavaporpressure,attheoperatingtemperature,above70psia
(0.483MPa).Thosematerial,oncereleased,vaporizeinaveryshorttime,evenifprocessedliquefied.
Category2:MaterialsareallClass1AFlammableliquidswithavaporpressureoforlessthan70psiaandall
otherflammableandcombustibleliquidswithavaporpressurebetween14.7psiaand70psiaatoperating
conditions.
Category3:MaterialsareallClass1BFlammableliquidswithavaporpressureoforlessthan14.7psiaand
allotherflammableandcombustibleliquidswithavaporpressurelessthan14.7psiawhentheoperating
conditionsareabovetheirownflashpoint.
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Category4:MaterialsofClassIIandheaviermaterialsthatareoperatedbelowtheirflashpoint
Forfurtherinformationaboutthevolatility,andflashpointrefertoNFPA30,325and497
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Oncethatthematerialcategoryhasbeenfound,itshazardradiusisonlyfunctionofthematerialreleaserate
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andthedispersionrateofgasesandvapors.

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ApplicationtoNonEnclosedadequatelyventilatedlocationscontainingHeavierthanairgasesorvapor:
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Theextentofthehazardradius,foreachpotentialsource,canbeestimatedbythefollowingmatrix.Those

method,basedonAPIRPexperience,isusuallyadoptedforthosetypeofsourceusuallynotrevisedbythe
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standardsandcodes.
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Foreachsubstancecategory(G4),andforaspecificrateofrelease,theradiuscanbeestimated.The
applicationofthoseradiusshallbedonewiththefollowingprecautions.Wheretheextentofanhazardradius
hasbeenindentified,itmustberevisedbythegoodengineeringsafetyjudgment.Thepresenceofphysical
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barrier,insidethehazardradiusestimated,shallbeconsideredtomodifytheareaextent.Inmanyparticular
cases,thedispersion,especiallyformixtures,mustbeevaluatedusingsuitablesoftwareormodels.Inthose
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cases,whichthedispersionisntsubjectatanyexternalinfluence(e.g.Wind,Internalventilation,etc.)thecloud
dispersionistobeconsideredsymmetricanduniformly.
HazardRadius
Category1
Category2
Category3
Category4

525

2550

50100

35

525

2550

35

525

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Low

Medium

High

<10Gal(US)/min

1050Gal(US)/min

50100Gal(US)/min

MassRelease
Forexample,acategory2fluid,withamassreleaseof13gal(US)/min(0.82litri/s),thehazardradiusis
estimatedwithintherangeof525ft(1.57.6m),withanadequateknowledgeofthesource,anditsarea,the
specificvaluecanbeestimated.

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