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Chapter 9 Unit Operations Problems

1. Solubility of oxygen in water


By weight air is 23% oxygen and 77% nitrogen
Mol fraction of oxygen
=
(23/32)/ (23/32 + 77/28)
=
0.72(0.72 + 2.75)
=
0.21
Mol fraction of nitrogen
=
1-0.21
=
0.79
Assuming that the total pressure is 1 atm
P
=
Pxo
+ Pxn
1
=
0.21 + 0.79
Partial pressure of oxygen
po
=
0.21 atm
If xl = mol fraction of oxygen in the liquid, Ho = 3.64 x 10 atm mole fraction-1
From Henrys Law
po
=
Hox
0.21
=
3.64 x 104 xl
xl
=
0.21 / 3.64 x 104
=
0.056 x 10-4
Solubility of oxygen in water when pressure of air is 1 atm. = 0.056 x 10-4 mol fraction
Also
xl
=
(wo /32)/ (w /32 + wH20 /18)
But wH20 /18 >> wo /32
xl
=
(wo /32)/ (wH20 /18)
=
(18/32) (wo/wH20)
(wo/wH20)
=
0.056 x 10-4(32/18)
=
0.103 x 10-4
=
0.00103 %
Solubility of oxygen in water when pressure of air is 1atm = 0.00103%
2. Removing taints from cream
Mass balance
Inlet cream taint concentration = 10ppm
= xa
Outlet cream taint concentration = 0.3ppm
= xn
Inlet steam taint concentration = 0ppm
= yn+1
Assume a cream flow rate of 100 arbitrary units,
= L
so steam flow rate
V
= 100
L/V
=1
If y1 is the outlet steam taint concentration,
Total taint into equipment
= total taint out of equipment.
100(10)
= 100y1 + 100(0.3)
100(10 - 0.3) = 100y1

Therefore

y1

= 9.7 ppm = ya

From eqn. (9.6)


yn+1

= xn L/V + ya - xa L/V

yn+1

= xn x1 + 9.7 10 x 1
= xn + 0.43

Operating line: yn+1


= xn + 0.43
Equilibrium condition: yn = 7.5xn
When the operating and equilibrium lines are plotted respectively yn+1 against xn, and yn
against xn it can be seen that from three contact stages, assuming 100% efficiency, the
outlet taint level is 0.05ppm
3. Washing of casein
100kg of curd contain 60kg solution. The 60kg of solution contain 4.5kg of lactose. There is
also 35.5kg insoluble solids (i.e. not lactose).
Water is added at twice the weight of curd, in first wash 200kg
In the first wash
There is (200 + 60) = 260kg of solution containing 4.5kg lactose.
After draining there is 80% water in curd, therefore 20% solids
There is 35.5kg solids, therefor total weight of curd = 177.5kg and there is 142kg solution
In 142 kg of solution remaining there will be (142/260) x 4.5 = 2.46 kg of lactose.
In the second wash
There will be 177.5kg curd and 355kg water will be added
2.46 lactose in 355 + 142kg water = 497 kg water
In drained curd there is 142kg water
Lactose in curd = (142/497) x 2.46
= 0.703 kg
In the third wash
There will be 177.5kg curd and 355kg water will be added
0.703 kg in 355 + 142kg water = 497
In drained curd there is 142 kg water
Lactose in curd = (142/497) x 0.703
= 0.201 kg
So, after washing and drying 0.201kg of lactose will remain with 35.5kg dry casein so that
lactose content of the product

= 0.201/35.7
= 0.56% on a dry basis

which is less than 1%


4. Osmotic pressure of sucrose solution
In the van't Hoff equation (9.17):
= MRT
in which (pi) is the osmotic pressure (kPa), M the molar concentration (moles m-3), T the
absolute temperature (K), and R the universal gas constant (kPa m3mole-1 oK-1).

For sucrose, molecular weight = 342


And for 20% sucrose solution density is 1081kgm-3
20% solution =
=
=
=
M
=
R
=
T
=
=

=
Osmotic pressure
=

20kg 100kg-1
20 x 1081/100
216 kg m-3
216/342 mols m-3
0.632 mols m-3
8.314 kPa m3mole-1 oK-1
273 + 20
293
0.632 x 8.314 x 293
1540kPa

5. Crystallization of sugar
0.3% non-sucrose solids are in the original sugar solution..
Base 1000kg sucrose in original solution and there is 3 kg of non-sugar solids
Nonsugar
Effect 1
Effect 2
Effect 3
Effect 4
Effect 5
Effect 6

% yield

Sugar In

66.7
60
60
50
50
33

1000
333
133.2
53.3
26.6
13.3

Sugar crystallized

667.0
199.8
79.9
26.7
13.3
4.4
991.1
(a) In mother liquor there are 8.9 + 3 = 11.9kg solids
% of non-sugar solids
= 25%
(b) Proportion of original sugar in molasses = 0.89%

Sugar in liquor
333.0
133.2
53.3
26.6
13.3
8.9
8.9

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

6. Skim milk concentration by ultrafiltration


Concentration ratio of protein: lactose in skim milk is x
Concentration ratio of protein: lactose in retentate is 7x
Flow is 570 kgm-2 h-1 of skim milk. Assume that this is flow rate through the membrane
If concentration ratio is reduced to 2:1, then flow will be increased proportionally.
For this problem, assume that the resistance to flow across the interface is concnetrated in the
molecular build-up at the interface, and so equation 9.19 can be applied.
Giving
And so

So flow rate
F1
F2

= KA ln( ci/co)
= KA ln(7)
= KA ln(2)

F1/ F2 = ln(7)/ln(2)
F2

= 570 x (1.946/0.693)
= 1600 kgm-2 h-1

(a) Plant capacity is 1600kgm-2 h-1


Since the protein concentration is doubled, the quantity of water in it is halved and this is
close to half the total flow. This would imply 800 kgm-2 h-1 of filtrate and 800 kgm-2 h-1of
skim milk retentate.
(b) So 50% of the water in the skim milk is removed by the ultrafiltration