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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

ISSN:- 2349283X

Three-phase Voltage Source PWM Rectifier Control


with Discrete 12 Pulse Generator
1Rajendra

Singh
Department of Electrical Engineering,
M.M.M. University of Technology
Gorakhpur, U.P, India.
Email: raja03ee4444@outlook.com

2Avinash

Maurya
Department of Electrical Engineering,
M.M.M. University of Technology
Gorakhpur, U.P, India.
Email: avinashideal007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a simulation study of pulse width modulation rectifier control with
discrete 12-pulse generator. It works as an AC / DC rectifier. It gives DC voltage and current. To improve
the voltage and current quality, A PID Controller is used. It reduced the harmonics of the input and output
quantities. A 12-pulse generator used a yyd transformer that suppresses fifth and seven harmonics of
currents. For improving the results low pass filter is used. Power electronics switches as thyristor family,
transistor family, diodes, VSR switches, etc. are used for improving the level of switching. But best result
gives GTOs. A GTO is a fully controlled device. ACSR conductor is improved magnetizing current and flux
characteristics. Transformer losses decrease at low frequency and increase in high frequency. Corona loss
limit increase with diameter of conductor. It works continuous and discontinuous mode of operation.
Power factor, efficiency, THD, etc. parameters is also improved.
Index TermsThree-phase Controlled Voltage Source, Boost Inductors, 3-lags Bridge, Capacitors, Scaling
gain, Logic Gates, Discrete space vector PWM generator, Discrete time Integrator, lookup table.
Keywords: PWM RECTIFIER, Controller performance, Load voltage and load current, Control signal.
1. INTRODUCTION
The future scope of the SVPWM rectifier is
varied and all-inclusive owing to the coherent
usage of power in the rectification process, and
the load voltage is constant. The Three-phase
rectifier has six switches that are switched using
space vector technique. In general, the operation
of a converter explained in the input signals,
output signals, and the switching method used
to obtain the desired output. The switching
method of the switches in the converter is
obtained in accordance with the digital
electronic method. When V_CC supply connects
to the switch enable. Grounds show the off
position of the switch. All types power devices
used in the rectifier circuit. [1]- [5]. In a threeThree-phase rectifier, the input AC voltages are

defined and the output DC voltage is dependent


on the input quantities as well as the switching
pattern of the rectifier. The switching pattern for
any converter expressed as a function that is a
mathematical representation of the switching
pattern, called an existing function. The
repetition of the switching patterns to obtain the
desired output in a converter results in an
existing function having intermittent ON and
OFF periods, as the on-state is assumed to be a
value 1, the pulses of the existence function have
unit magnitude. The operating modes of the
boost rectifier are the same as that of a threeThree-phase voltage source inverter. It operates
eight different switching modes as boost
rectifier. As explained earlier the ON and OFF
states are assigned the values 1 and 0,
respectively. [5]- [9].

PWM RECTIFIER

Fig.1. Basic circuit of pulse with modulation rectifier

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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

ISSN:- 2349283X

Fig.2 Line to line voltages and currents

Fig.3 Line to line inductance voltages and currents

The pulse width modulation rectifier is the new


approach of rectification of voltages. Basically,
IGBTs, MOSFETs, GTOs are used in rectifier.
These power switches get the best performance.
The power switches, switch at the different
instant of time. The transmission line is
equivalent a voltage source in series with an
impedance. These voltage sources are
and
the common impedance z is combined
of
and . The subscripts indicate source
voltage and source impedance. The three
symmetrical line chokes of the resistance Ra and

the induction La. Switches, switching sequence


are (6,1), (1,2), (2,3), (3,4), (4,5), and (5,6).
Every one switch at the interval of 60 . At this
moment, one switch is commuted and another
switch is fired. When the operation is
performed, the body MOSFET switch gets the
continuous pulse at the different instant of time.
This instant time decided by the space vector.
, This is the phases equation that is
converted time in the degree. The space vector
PWM do six operating vector and two nonoperating vector. [10] [12].

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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

ISSN:- 2349283X

Fig.4 PID Controller performance


The input source voltages describe below
=
=

sin ( t + )
sin ( t + - 120o)

sin ( t + - 240o)

(3)

(1)

And line to line voltages

(2)

Vm sin ( t + 30)

(4)

Fig.5 Load voltage and load current

Vm sin ( t -90o)

(5)

Vm sin ( t + 90o)

(6)

- Modulator Voltage Component in the


Stationary Coordinate
- Firing Angle (deg)

vdc =

Vm cos
Where

(7)
is firing angle.

as...bs cs- Phases of three-phase system


1 2 0 - positive, negative, zero sequence
rms - root mean square

LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 sequence of GTOs

A. Special Symbols

S Source
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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

- Angular Frequency (rad)


Fundamental Frequency (

ISSN:- 2349283X

C. Subscripts
The space vector pulse width modulator
generates six pulses. These controlling pulses
control the six switches.

- Phase Angle (deg)


-Voltage Signal of Phase A, B, C
B. Units
..H...F- Units of Resistance, Inductance,
Capacitance
MW- Unit of Power
kV kA- Unit of Voltage, Current

These switches make an AC/DC converter. Each


pulse width Modulation period makes a
reference voltage that is the average of two
adjacent
space
vectors
e.g.
.
Everyone takes some period of time. The
remaining period takes the non-operating
period. The discrete SVPWM generator operates
in the eight modes. Every mode has eight
vectors. Each mode has changed by sequence.

Fig.6 Control signal voltage & current


D. Abbreviations and acronyms

magnitude of the base vector must be 0 and 1.


For setting the

E. AC Alternating Current
F. DC Direct Current
G. PWM Pulse Width Modulation
H. SVPWM Space Vector Pulse Width
Modulation
I. PID Proportional, Integral, Differentiator
J. T Time Period

component, the base vector taken as


inputs to the
-transformation.
B. Sequence for switching

E. General Symbol
Phase Voltages
Line Voltages
Transmission
Line
Resistance,
Inductance
- Snubber Resistance, Capacitance
DISCRETE 12-PULSE GENERATOR

For every 60 periods, only one Three-phase


voltage must be higher. Complete period is
divided into six periods. During the every
period, two switches are operated. One switch
operates for positive highest voltage and
another for the negative highest voltage. This
sequence is given in the GTO Bridge and
Snubber circuit. The Gate Turn-off Thyristor
snubber circuit prevents the unwanted rate of
rise voltage and to limit the rate of current rise.
So, switching frequency of bridge increased and
switching time reduced. [12] Snubber circuit has

A. Input vector
The input vectors are taking to set the
magnitude of the angle in the radian. The

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R_Sn>2
T_S/C_Sn
(8)
C_Sn=P/(2f1000 V_ab^2 )

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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

In Simulation,
R_S=1e^05
R_ON=1e^03
C_S= F

ISSN:- 2349283X

T_S=2e^(-06)
f =50 H_Z

Fig.7 Flux and current characteristics of transmission line


TABLE.1. TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS

Repeated in the eight times in a


complete period.
C. Control Signal frequency (Hz)
Control signal frequency is calculated
by the pulse width modulation
frequency that is determined by the
period of PWM rectifier.
(9)

D. Rectified Voltage
These parameters are determined from the line
to line voltage. Modulation index is varying to 0
and 1, Three-phase angle are calculated in the
radian and frequency in the Hz.

(10)
V. OPERATING MODES OF THE CIRCUITS
The body MOSFET controlling states
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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

ISSN:- 2349283X

Every switch has the two states: on-stage and


off-stage. On-state occurs when switching
voltage becomes zero and off-state occurs when
switching currents becomes zero.

TABLE.3 FOR OVERLAPPING

The pulse width modulation rectifier has three


operating modes: Discontinuous Conduction
Mode, Conduction Mode and Overlap Mode. In
the discontinuous mode, all upper side body
MOSFET are open/closed at a time. In this way,
all body diode is then switched off.
In the conduction mode, two bodies MOSFET
switched-on at the instant when one positive
and one negative line to line voltages becomes
higher. In this way, everyone makes six modes
(6 1), (1 2), (2 3), (3 4), (4 5) and (5 6). In
conduction mode, switching loss becomes
reduced.
In overlapping mode, three bodies MOSFET
switch-on at the instant when positive and a
negative voltage goes to the highest. In this way,
everyone makes six modes are (6 1 2), (1 2 3), (2
3 4), (3 4 5), (4 5 6) and (5 6 1).
The equations that govern an operating Threephase are the same whatever we work on a
diode rectifier or a controlled rectifier.

VI. DESIGN OF SWITCHING PULSES

Let
Solve truth table for pulses By the K-map
for conduction

Transmission Line Parameter are


=359.26 0
=359.26 -120
=359.26
Base Power per Phase (VA) =100
PQ Tolerance (PU) = 1
Max Iteration = 50
Swing Bus is used.

TABLE.4 SWITCHING VOLTAGE AND


SPACE VECTOR

Let
Solve truth table for pulses By the Kmap for conduction

,
,

S5=A

TABLE.2 FOR CONDUCTION PHASE

MW

Resistance Matrix R (

Inductance Matrix L (H/km)


[

Capacitance Matrix (F/km)


[
Sequence Resistance Matrix

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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

](
=[
=[
Sequence Inductance Matrix
](
=[
=[

ISSN:- 2349283X

Sequence Capacitance Matrix


](
=[
=[

)
]

)
]

Fig.8 Discrete synchronized 12-pulse generator with PWM rectifier

V. SIMULATED OBSERVATIONS
To get the best rectifier performance, to use the
programmable voltage source and short
transmission line. The parameter for simulation
used 10 ohm, 10 mH, source parameters, DC
side low pass filter 0.01 F, and it controls the
ripples of DC voltage, current. Integrator
controller controls transient and the steady
states responses as rise time, delay time, peak
overshoots, errors, stability. The DC output
voltage variation does not affect. The space
vector control every 60 degree width, all vector
control in a sequence in every sector, every
sector have different sequences of vector
operating periods.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents the real-time application of
pulse width modulation rectifier control with
discrete 12-pulse generator. The compensation
of the load current has been short out to using a
controlled AC/DC converter. The advantage of
the pulse width modulation rectifier short out
rapid change in load current in rapid time. The
switching frequency of the PWM rectifier is fast
about 5 KHz.

Transient response and Steady-state response of


the DC link voltage has been improved. The
operation of PWM reciter has been successful in
the mat lab software. Low pass filter is about 1 F
for successful DC operation. PWM generator
generates 12-pulse. In all pulses 6-pulse are
stopped because each is useless for this
experiment. The harmonics presents in this
operation
. The disadvantage of this
operation, low pass filter are more sensitive and
effective.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research is supported by the Dr.A.N.Tiwari.
Currently, he is a Professor of electrical
engineering with the Madan Mohan Malaviya
University of Technology, Gorakhpur, (UP)India. He is actively involved in teaching,
researching and lecturing in Power Electronics.
He has published more than 50 technical papers.
Many people have contributed to this paper and
suggestions based on their classroom
experience as a professor or student. I would
like to all persons.

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GJESR RESEARCH PAPER VOL. 1 [ISSUE 7] AUGUST, 2014

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