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# Question Chapter 4, 5 and 6

SET 1
1. Briefly define B-spline curves and give two (2) types of B-spline curves available.
2. What are the two (2) general types of solid modelling representation available?
3. List down four (4) applications of solid models.
4. Briefly define Hybrid Modelling and give two (2) advantages of applying this type of
modelling.
5. Give two (2) advantages that an engineer benefits upon using software packages that
uses parametric modelling functions.
6. Differentiate between Bottom-up Assembly and Top-down Assembly?
7. From the Figure 3 below, generate a CSG tree that illustrates part modelling steps using
standard solid modelling primitives and Boolean operators.

SET 2
1. What are the three (3) principles of geometric models?
2. In a Bezier curve, how do you relate between the control points and the profiles
complexity?
3. Define B-spline curves and give three (3) types of B-spline curves available.
4. Briefly define Hybrid Modelling and give an example of a Hybrid Modelling application.
5. What is the difference between parametric modelling software and non-parametric
modelling software?
6. Give an example of a parametric modelling software and a non-parametric modelling
software that are available.
7. List down any of the three (3) assembly constraints that are available in 3D CAD
software.
8. Hybrid modeling combines digital shape sampling and processing with computer-aided
design (CAD) technology to provide an innovative solution for parametric reverse
engineering of complex parts.
9. In a parametric modelling software, changes or modifications of a certain CAD data are
possible to be made by changing the parameters defining the model and it will
automatically update the CAD data related to the changes or modifications done.
10. List down and draw five (5) solid modelling primitives that are available.

SET 3
1. Draw any five (5) solid modelling primitives and label them accordingly.
2. From Figure Q1 below, generate a CSG tree that illustrates part modelling
steps using standard solid modelling primitives and Boolean operators.

Figure Q1

## 3. What are the three (3) principal classifications of geometric models?

4. From Figure Q2 below, how can you relate between the number of control
points (vertices) and the curve generated?

Figure Q2
5. An engineer wants to determine
the drag produced upon a car spoiler

## system to be used and justify why.

6. List down the two (2) issues that must be taken into consideration to
create an assembly model.
7. Give three (3) functions of geometric modelling.
8. From Figure Q3 below, label the five (5) elements that build up a B-rep
model of a solid object.

Figure Q3

## 9. Why non-manifold modelling system is very convenient to engineers in

CAE area?
10.Why it is not that suitable to represent your complete product in a
wireframe modelling system? Suggest another modelling system that is
more suitable.
11.How hybrid modelling help an engineer to remodel a damaged front
bumper of a car that will be used for analyzing its cause of accident?
12.Name any four (4) feature creation facilities that are available in part
design application in CATIA software.
13.Give two (2) reasons why is it important to plan the hierarchy (sequence)
of an assembly model?
14.How can an aircraft engineer design a free form aerodynamic wing for his
aircraft by creating a better curvature sketch without influencing the
shape of the aircrafts fuselage? How is it possible?
15.What is the major difference between parametric modelling and nonparametric modelling technique? Give one (1) example of non-parametric
software.
16.Draw and label accordingly any two (2) of the free form surfaces that can
be used to create surface modelling.
17.Give two (2) reasons why is Bottom-up Assembly modelling approach is
much preferred to be used when creating an assembly model?
SET 4
1. In a Bezier curve, how do you relate between the control points and the
profiles complexity?
2. Briefly define Hybrid Modelling and give two (2) advantages of applying this
type of modeling
3. From Figure 1, generate a CSG tree that illustrates part modelling steps using
standard solid modelling primitives and Boolean operators.

## Figure 1: Isometric View of Part 1

4. List out features base creation facilities that are suitable to design the
product as shown in Figure 2.

(b)
(a)
Figure 2: Part 2; (a) Top View, (b) Right
View
5. Relate the two (2)
main functions of Tree Specification with CAD design stage.
6. Recognise the major difference between parametric modelling and nonparametric modelling technique? Give an example of non-parametric modelling
software that is available in market.
7. Explain the elements that should be considered by an engineer during product
design and development in order to reduce production cost of a product.
8. Why is Bottom-up assembly approach is much preferred to be used when
creating an assembly model? Give one advantage of applying Top-down
assembly approach.

9. From Figure 3, identify types of constraints that are suitable to assemble the
components? Demonstrate references to be selected to constraint them
together.

Solution
SET 1

## 1. B-spline curves are combination of several segments of Bezier curves that

are controlled by a number of control points while maintaining the
continuity between the segments.
Types of B-spline:
- Uniform cubic B-spline curve
- Non-Uniform B-spline curve
- Non-Uniform Rational B-spline curve (NURB)
2. - Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Model
- Boundary Representation (B-Rep) Model
3. -

Visualization
Mass property calculations
Product Assembly modelling and interference detection
Drafting and product documentation
Rapid prototyping
Structural analysis
Mechanism analysis
Tool Design & Analysis
CNC & CMM Part Programming & Simulation
Robotics & Simulation
Virtual Prototyping and Manufacture
Etc.

## 4. Hybrid modeling combines digital shape sampling and processing with

computer-aided design (CAD) technology to provide an innovative solution
for parametric reverse engineering of complex parts.
- Helps quickly create new designs
- Generates accurate results
- Saves a lot of time in geometric modelling
- Etc.
- Saves a lot of time in editing CAD model
- Reduce lead time in product development
- Etc.
6. Bottom-up assembly
- Most preferred approach for creating assembly models.
- Assembly created by adding existing parts and components to a base
using assembly
constraints.
Top-down assembly
- Parts and components are created in the assembly workbench before
being assembled
together.
- A bit complex especially product with a large number of parts and
components to be

assembled.
7.

S
Block

Cylinder

Block

Block

SET 2
1. a. Line model
b. Surface model
c. Solid or volume model

Wedge

2. The higher complexity of a profile is, the more control points there will be to
generate the complex profile.
3. B-spline curves are combination of several segments of Bezier curves that are
controlled by a number of control points while maintaining the continuity
between the segments.
Types of B-spline:
- Uniform cubic B-spline curve
- Non-Uniform B-spline curve
- Non-Uniform Rational B-spline curve (NURB)
4. Hybrid modeling combines digital shape sampling and processing with
computer-aided design (CAD) technology to provide an innovative solution for
parametric reverse engineering of complex parts.
Application example:

## Capture physical designs and prototypes

Reproduce legacy parts and tooling
Replicate complex and organic shapes
Prepare as-built models for CAE applications
Enable mass-customization of unique components (dental applications,
hearing aids, etc.)
Preserve historical and cultural artifacts
5. In a parametric modelling software, changes or modifications of a certain CAD
data are possible to be made by changing the parameters defining the model
and it will automatically update the CAD data related to the changes or
modifications done.
While in a non-parametric software, any changes or modifications that were
done only affects the CAD data being used and will not update other CAD data
that are related plus if the model is an explicit geometry.
6. Parametric modelling software: - CATIA
7. 1. Coincidence constraint
2. Contact constraint
3. Offset constraint

8.

Block

Wedge

Cylinder

Sphere

Pyramid

SET 3
1.

i.

Block

Cylinder

Sphere

Wedge

2.

Cone

Continue

S
Cylinder

S
Wedge

U
Cylinder

3.

## 1) Line model / wireframe model

2) Surface model
Block
3) Solid model / volume model

Block

4. The higher the number of control points, a more complex and smoother curve
can be generated.
5.

## Use surface modelling.

Using surface modelling system, the analysis will be much faster because it
only calculates the data regarding the surface of the model, not the entire
volume of the model.

6.

1) Hierarchy / Sequence
2) Mating conditions

7.

## 1) For generating 3D model and their engineering drawing

2) For designing and doing analysis on the geometric model
3) For generating CNC programs from the geometric model for manufacturing purpose

8.

Face
Handle

Edge

Vertex

## 9. Non-manifold modelling system uses an idealized model or a surface model

which will shorten the analysis time because it only calculates the data regarding
the non-manifold model, not the entire volume of the model.

10.
Wireframe modelling system produces an ambiguous model.
Solid modelling system is much better and clearer.
11.
The damaged front bumper will be scanned or digitized using a 3D
scanner or a digitizer.
The 3D scan data will be converted into a digital model that will be used for
analyzing the cause of accident.
12.1)
2)
3)
4)

Pocket
Shaft
Groove

13.1) If any assembly related problems are discovered in the assembly line, it
is too expensive to remedy.
2) To prevent from putting up a wrong assembly workstation layout that may
cause downtime in the assembly line.
14.
By using B-spline Curve.
By using this type of curve, the engineer has the ability to control local
points which only affect the points (vertices) around and not the whole
points in that curve.
15.
In Parametric modelling, any changes made in any workbench will be
automatically updated in other workbenches that are related because the
dimensional attributes of a modelled geometry are described by
parameters/variables.
16.

Net Surface

Loft Surface

## 17.1) It reflects the logical hierarchy of an assembly.

2) The assembly uses parts that have been modelled earlier.

SET 4

1. The higher complexity of a profile is, the more control points there will be to
generate the complex profile.
2. Hybrid modeling combines digital shape sampling and processing with
computer-aided design (CAD) technology to provide an innovative solution
for parametric reverse engineering of complex parts.
- Helps quickly create new designs
- Generates accurate results
- Saves a lot of time in geometric modelling, etc
3.

4.
5.
-

## Features base creation facilities:

Pocket
Chamfer
Corner/ Fillet
Hole
Main functions of Tree Specification:

6.

## For modification of Features

For modification of dimensions
For modification of design process sequential
- In Parametric modelling, any changes made in any workbench will be
automatically updated in other workbenches that are related because the
dimensional attributes of a modelled geometry are described by
parameters/variables.

## 7. Designers should consider: functionality, ease of manufacture of individual

components and parts and applying DFA principles.
8. - It reflects the logical hierarchy of an assembly.
- The assembly uses parts that have been modelled earlier.