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MEC4713 Design of Engineering Components and Systems

School of Engineering

Week 8

Lecture 8 - Rivet

RIVET
A short cylindrical bar with a
head integral to it
Used to make permanent
fastening between plates

Used widely for joining light


metals

TYPES OF RIVET HEAD

(i) General purposes (below 12 mm diameter)

TYPES OF RIVET HEAD

(c)

(ii) General purposes (12 mm to 48 mm diameter)

TYPES OF RIVET HEAD

(a)

(b)

(ii) Boiler work (12 mm to 48 mm diameter)

TYPES OF RIVET JOINT

(i) Lap joint one plate overlaps the other and the two plates are
then riveted together

TYPES OF RIVET JOINT

(a) Single riveted double


strap butt joint

(b) Double riveted double


strap butt joint

(ii) Butt joint main plates are kept in alignment butting each other and
a cover plate is placed either on one side or on both sides

TERMINOLOGY USED IN RIVET


JOINT
Pitch, p the distance from the center of one rivet to the center
of the next rivet measured parallel to the seam
Back pitch, pb the perpendicular distance between the center
lines of the successive rows
Diagonal pitch, pd the distance between the centers of the
rivets in adjacent rows of zig-zag rivet joint

Margin or marginal pitch, m the distance between the center of


rivet hole to the nearest edge of the plate

TYPES OF FAILURE
(1) Tearing of the plate at an edge

A joint may fail due to tearing of the plate at an edge. This can be
avoided by keeping the margin, m = 1.5 d

TYPES OF FAILURE
(2) Tearing of the plate across a row of rivets
Due to tensile stresses in the main plates, the main plate or cover
plates may tear off

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Pt = tearing resistance (N)


p = pitch of the rivets (mm)
d = diameter of rivet hole (mm)
t = thickness of the plate (mm)
t = permissible tensile stress for the
plate material (N/mm2)

TYPES OF FAILURE
(3) Shearing of the rivet (single shear)

P = shear resistance of rivet per pitch length (N)


d = diameter of rivet hole (mm)
= permissible shear stress for rivet material (N/mm2)
n = number of rivets per pitch length

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TYPES OF FAILURE
(3) Shearing of the rivet (double shear)

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TYPES OF FAILURE
(4) Crushing of the plate or rivets

The rivets do not shear off under tensile stress, but crushed. The rivet
hole becomes oval shape and hence the joint becomes loose

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Pc = crushing resistance (N)


d = diameter of rivet hole (mm)
t = thickness of the plate (mm)
n = number of rivets per pitch length
c = permissible crushing stress for
the rivet or plate material (N/mm2)

EFFICIENCY OF JOINT
Ratio of strength of riveted joint to the strength of unriveted
solid plate

,
=

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p = pitch of the rivets


t = thickness of the plate
t = permissible tensile stress of the plate material

DESIGN OF BOILER JOINTS

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The boiler has a longitudinal joint and a circumferential joint


Longitudinal joint join the ends of plate to get the required
diameter (butt joint with two cover plates)
Circumferential joint join to get the required length (lap joint)

DESIGN OF LONGITUDINAL
BUTT JOINT
Design code is according to Indian Boiler Regulations (I.B.R)
1. Thickness of the boiler shell, t

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t = Thickness of the boiler shell


P = Steam pressure in boiler
D = internal diameter of boiler shell
t = permissible tensile stress
l = efficiency of the longitudinal joint

Note!

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a) The thickness of the boiler shell should not be less than 7 mm


b) The efficiency of the joint may be taken from the following table

2. Diameter of rivet hole, d


Diameter of rivet hole may be determined based on the thickness of the
boiler shell
i. When t > 8 mm

=6
ii. When t < 8 mm
Diameter is calculated by equating shearing resistance, Ps to
crushing resistance, Pc

Back to slide 27

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The diameter should not be less than the thickness of the plate, there
will be danger of punch crushing

3. Pitch of rivets, p

Pitch of rivets is obtained by equating tearing resistance, Pt to shearing


resistance, Ps
i.

The pitch of rivets should not be less than 2d, which is necessary
for the formation of head

ii. The maximum value of the pitch for longitudinal joint of boiler is

max = + 41.28 mm
Value of constant C is given as

Back to slide 28

Note: If the pitch obtained from (i) is larger than (ii), then the value of (ii) is
taken

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t = thickness of the shell plate in mm


C = Constant

4. Distance between rows of rivets (pb)


a) For equal number of rivets in more than one row for lap joint or butt
joint, pb should not be less than
0.33p + 0.67d, for zig-zag riveting, and
2d, for chain riveting

c) For joints where number of rivets in outer row is half the number of
rivets in inner rows and if inner rows are zig-zag riveted, the distance
between the outer rows and the next rows should not be less than
0.2p + 1.15d
The distance between the rows in which there are full number of rivets
shall not be less than 0.165p + 0.67d

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b) For joints where number of rivets in outer row is half the number of
rivets in inner rows and if inner rows are chain riveted, the distance
between the outer rows and the next rows should not be less than
0.33p + 0.67 or 2d, whichever is greater
The distance between the rows in which there are full number of rivets
shall not be less than 2d

5. Thickness of butt strap, tl


a)
b)

tl, in no case, shall be less than 10 mm


tl = 1.125 t, for ordinary (chain riveting) single butt strap

= 1.125
, for single butt straps, every alternative rivet in
2

outer rows being omitted


tl = 0.625 t, for double butt-strap of equal width having ordinary
riveting (chain riveting)

= 0.625
, for double butt straps of equal width having
2

every alternate rivet in the outer rows being omitted


c) For unequal width of butt straps, tl are
tl = 0.75 t, for wide strap on the inside, and
tl = 0.625 t, for narrow strap on the outside

The margin is taken as m = 1.5 d

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6. Margin, m

DESIGN OF CIRCUMFERENTIAL
LAP JOINT
1. Thickness of the boiler shell and diameter of rivets
Same as for longitudinal joint

2. Number of rivets, n
Since it is a lap joint, therefore the rivets will be in single shear

where

n = total number of rivets


D = internal diameter of boiler shell
d = diameter of hole
P = pressure of steam
= shear stress

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3. Pitch of rivets, pl
If efficiency of the circumferential lap joint is c

=

4. Number of rows

Total number of rivets


Number of rows =
Number of rivets in a row

Given number of rivets in a row =

(+)

5. The type of joint (single rivet or double rivet) may be decided after
finding out the number of rows

7. Overlap of plate
Overlap = (no. of rows of rivets 1) pb + m

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6. Distance between rows of rivets, pb same as longitudinal joint

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EXAMPLE
A double riveted lap joint with zig-zag riveting is
to be designed for 13 mm thick plates. Assume
t = 80 MPa; = 60 MPa; and c = 120 MPa

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Predict how the joint will fail and find the


efficiency of the joint

SOLUTION
1. Diameter of rivet hole
Thickness of plate is greater than 8 mm, therefore

= 6 = 6 13 = 21.6 mm

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From table on slide 19, the standard size of rivet hole is 23 mm and
the corresponding diameter of rivet is 22 mm

2. Pitch of rivets
Double riveted lap joint -> n = 2
Tearing resistance,

= = 23 13 80 = 23 1040 N
Shearing resistance,

= 2 = 2
4

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60 = 49864 N

By equating Pt and Ps, p = 71 mm


The maximum of pitch is max = + 41.28 mm, from table on slide
20, C is 2.62. Hence

max = 2.62 13 + 41.28 = 75.28 mm

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Since pmax is more than p, therefore we shall adopt


p = 71 mm

3. Distance between the rows of rivets, pb


For zig-zag riveting
pb = 0.33 p + 0.67 d = 0.33(71) + 0.67(23) = 38.8 40 mm
4. Margin
m = 1.5 d = 1.5(23) = 34.5 35 mm

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5. Failure of the joint


Tearing resistance, = = 71 23 13 80 = 49920 N
Shearing resistance, Ps = 49864 N
Crushing resistance, Pc = ndtc = (2)(23)(13)(120) = 71760 N
The least out of these 3 is Ps. Hence the joint will fail due to shearing
of rivets

6. Efficiency of the joint


Strength of unriveted plate
P = ptt = (71)(13)(80) = 73840 N
Efficiency is

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49864
= =
= 0.675 = 67.5%
73840

THANK YOU!

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