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G(s) H(s) Σ

G f (s)

E(s) = W(s) F(s)

W E Y Σ G F H
W
E
Y
Σ G
F
H

F(s) = Y (s) H(s)

Y (s) = E(s) G(s)

Y (s)

=

(W (s) F (s)) G(s)

=

(W (s) Y (s) H(s)) G(s)

=

W(s) G(s) Y (s) H(s) G(s)

Y (s)

G(s)

1 + G(s) H(s) W (s)

Y (s) =

G f (s)

Y (s)

G(s)

W(s) =

1 + G(s)

H(s)

G(s) H(s)

G o (s)

E(s) F(s) = G(s) H(s)

H(s)

H(s) = 1, F(s) = Y (s)

G o (s) = Y E(s) (s)

= G(s),

G f (s) =

G o (s) (s) 1 + G o

Consigne Ecart Commande Perturbation v(t) Grandeur réglée w(t) e(t) u(t) x(t)
Consigne
Ecart
Commande
Perturbation
v(t)
Grandeur réglée
w(t)
e(t)
u(t)
x(t)
Σ
Régulateur
Actionneur
Processus
Comparateur
y(t)
Capteur
Grandeur réglée
mesurée
Système à régler

 

y(t) x(t)

w(t)

o

x(t)

y(t)

 

u(t)

v(t)

 

y(t)

e(t)

u(t) y(t)

V(s) W(s) Σ E(s) U(s) Y(s) G c (s) G a1 (s) Σ G a2
V(s)
W(s)
Σ E(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
G c (s)
G a1 (s)
Σ
G a2 (s)

G c (s) G a1 (s) v(t) G a2 (s) v(t)

G a (s) Y U(s) (s)

v(t)=0

=

G a1 (s) G a2 (s)

G o (s) Y E(s) (s)

boucle ouverte

=

G c (s) G a (s)

G w (s)

Y (s)

W(s)

v(t)=0

=

G o (s)

1 + G o (s)

w(t)

G v (s) V Y (s) (s)

w(t)=0

=

G a2 (s) 1 + G o (s)

y(t) w(t) v(t)

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.5

1

0.5

0

w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t)
y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)
w(t) y(t)

0 2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t)
v(t)
y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)
w(t) v(t) y(t)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

 

temps

w(t) v(t)

Y (s) = Y w (s) + Y v (s) = G w (s) W(s) + G v (s) V (s)

y(t) = y w (t) + y v (t)

K a G a (s)

W(s) Σ E(s) U(s) Y(s) G a (s) K a
W(s)
Σ E(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
G a (s)
K a

G a (s) Y U(s) (s)

=

1

1 +

G o (s) Y E(s) (s)

= K a

1

1 +

K a τ

G f (s)

Y (s)

W(s)

=

K a

1

1+

1

1 + K a

1+

=

K a

1 + K a +

G f (s)

G f (s) =

K a

1

1 + s

τ

1 + K a

1+K a

K a τ

K f =

K a

1 + K a

< 1,

τ f =

τ

1 + K a

< τ

G f (s)

p 1 = 1 + K a

τ

y(t)

y(t)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.

b.o.

0

1

2

3

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

K a = 4
K a = 4
K a = 4
K a = 4
K a = 4

0 1

2

3

K a = 8

K a = 8

K a = 8
K a = 8
K a = 8

0

1

temps

2

3

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

K a = 12
K a = 12

K a = 12

K a = 12
K a = 12

0 1

temps

2

3

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 K a = 4 0 1 2 3 K a =

Im

Re

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 K a = 4 0 1 2 3 K a =
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 K a = 4 0 1 2 3 K a =
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 K a = 4 0 1 2 3 K a =

-1/τ

0

K a p 1 K a

G a (s) Y U(s) (s)

=

1

s (1 + )

G o (s) Y E(s) (s)

= K a

1

s (1 + )

G f (s)

Y (s)

W(s) =

K a

1

s (1+)

1

1 + K a

s (1+)

=

K a

s 2 τ + s + K a

G f (s)

G f (s) =

1

1

1 + s K a + s 2

τ

K

a

=

1

1 + 2ζ

n +

s

ω

n 2

s

ω

G f (s)

1/s G o (s)

K f = 1

K a

ω n = K a

τ

K a

ζ =

ω n

=

2 K a

1

2 K a τ

y(t)

y(t)

15

10

5

0

1.5

1

0.5

0

b.o.
b.o.

0 5

10

15

1.5

1

0.5

0

K a = 0.2
K a = 0.2
K a = 0.2
K a = 0.2

0 5

10

15

K a = 1
K a = 1
K a = 1
K a = 1
K a = 1

K a = 1

1.5

1

0.5

0

K a = 4
K a = 4
K a = 4

K a = 4

K a = 4

0

5

10

15

0

5

 

temps

   
    Im

Im

p 1

p

1

 

p

2

 

p

1

Re

       
 
       
       
   
       
       
 

-1/τ

   

0

 
  p 2

p

2

temps

Re                 -1/ τ     0   p

10

15

K a ζ ζ < 1 ζω n

ζω n =

2 K a τ K τ a

1

=

1

2 τ

D(s) = s 2 + 2ζω n s + ω

2

n

p 1,2 = ζω n ± (ζω n ) 2 ω n = ζω n ± ω n ζ 2 1

2

ζ 1

K a

1

4 τ

p 1 = ζω n + ω n ζ 2 1 < 0

p 2 = ζω n ω n ζ 2 1 < p 1 < 0

ζ < 1

K a >

1

4 τ

p 1,2 = ζω n ± j ω n 1 ζ 2

τ bf =

1 1

|Re (p 1,2 )| = ζω n

= 2τ

ω p = |Im (p 1,2 )| = ω n 1 ζ 2

K a

K a

p 1,2

ζ 1 K a 1/(4τ ) 1

1

τ

< p 1,2 < 0

ζ < 1 K a > 1/(4τ ) K a

Re (p 1,2 ) = ζ ω n = 2τ 1

Im (p 1,2 ) = ± ω n 1 ζ 2 = ± τ τK a 1

4

1

ζ = 1/ 2

K a

G a (s) =

1

(1 + s τ 1 ) (1 + s τ 2 ) (1 + s τ 3 )

G o (s) Y E(s) (s)

= K a

1

(1 + s τ 1 ) (1 + s τ 2 ) (1 + s τ 3 )

K a τ 1,2,3

G f (s)

Y (s)

W(s)

=

=

=

K

a

1

(1+s τ 1 )(1+s τ 2 )(1+s τ 3 )

1 + K a

1

(1+s τ 1 )(1+s τ 2 )(1+s τ 3 )

K a

K a + (1 + s τ 1 ) (1 + s τ 2 ) (1 + s τ 3 ) K a

1 + K a + (τ 1 + τ 2 + τ 3 ) s + (τ 1 τ 2 + τ 1 τ 3 + τ 2 τ 3 ) s 2 + (τ 1 τ 2 τ 3 ) s 3

G f (s)

K f =

K a

1 + K a

K a

p 1,2,3 K a π/3

K a K a

K f

K f

K a

K a

y(t)

y(t)

Im p 1 p 3 Re 0 -1/τ 3 -1/τ 2 -1/τ 1 p 2
Im
p
1
p
3
Re
0
-1/τ 3
-1/τ 2
-1/τ 1
p
2
1.5
2
b.o.
K a = 1
1.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
0
0
0 2
4
6
8
10
0 2
4
6
8
10
2
4
K a = 4
K a = 12
3
1.5
2
1
1
0
−1
0.5
−2
0
−3

0

2

4

6

8

10

0

2

4

6

8

10

 

temps

temps

o

N = 14 η = 75% ±15

K mot τ mot K θ

K a

K mot , τ mot , K θ

y(t)

y(t)

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

K a = 15
K a = 15

K a = 15

K a = 15
K a = 15
K a = 15
K a = 15
K a = 15

0 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

K a = 45
K a = 45
K a = 45

K a = 45

K a = 45
K a = 45
K a = 45
K a = 45

0 0.05

0.1

temps [sec]

0.15

0.2

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30
K a = 30

K a = 30

K a = 30
K a = 30

0 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

K a = 60
K a = 60
K a = 60
K a = 60
K a = 60
K a = 60

K a = 60

0 0.05

0.1

temps [sec]

0.15

0.2

G c (s) G a (s)

G c (s) = 2 5 + s s

G a (s) =

1

1 + 2s + 3s 2

K a

s

 

G o (s)

±

 

 

 

 

τ k T k

K a = 1

G f (s)

 

z

p

1

1

p 2,3

=

=

=

2 [ ] 0.443 [ ] 0.1118 ± j 0.537 [ ]

τ 1

τ 2,3

t trans

T p,2,3

N osc

=

=

=

=

=

1/0.443 = 2.26 [ ] 1/0.1118 = 8.94 [ ] 5 τ 2,3 44 [ ] 2π/0.637 = 11.7 [ ] 5τ 23 /T p,2,3 = 3.8 [ ]

y(t 0) = s Y (s)| s = s 1

s

y(t → ∞) = s Y (s)| s0 =

G f (s)

s→∞

= 0.1333

s

3

s→∞

= 0

s 1 s G f (s)

s0

= 0.1333

0.1333

= 1

G c (s) y() K a

w(t)

 

 

 

K a

 

 

dy(t) / dt

y(t)

y(t)

y(t)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.

b.o.

b.o.
b.o.
b.o.
b.o.

0

10

20

temps

30

40

50

K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K = 0.2 a
K
= 0.2
a

0 10

20

30

40

50

K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K = 0.5 a
K
= 0.5
a

0 10

20

temps

30

40

50

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

b.f.: K a = 1
b.f.: K a = 1

b.f.:

K a = 1

b.f.: K a = 1
b.f.: K a = 1

0

10

20

temps

30

40

50

K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3
K a = 0.3

K a = 0.3

0 10

20

30

40

50

K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a
K = 0.65 a

K = 0.65

a

K = 0.65 a

0 10

20

temps

30

40

50

10 5 0 −5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 u 1 (t) u

10

5

0

−5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

u

1 (t)

u

2 (t)

u

3 (t)

u 1 (t) u 2 (t) u 3 (t)
u 1 (t) u 2 (t) u 3 (t)
u 1 (t) u 2 (t) u 3 (t)
u 1 (t) u 2 (t) u 3 (t)
u 1 (t) u 2 (t) u 3 (t)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 u 4 (t) 0 1 2 3 4
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
u 4 (t)
0 1
2
3
4
5
6

temps [ms]

ω 1 (t) u 1 (t) ω 2 (t) u 2 (t)

f m

f c

message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé

message

signal émis

U in, pll

U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
U out, pll
U
xor
message retardé
signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé
message signal émis U in, pll U out, pll U xor message retardé signal démodulé

0

1

2

3

temps [msec]

4

5

PCA in @ FREQUENCY f

(a)

INPUT

PCB in

R3

C2

9 SOURCE 10 SF out FOLLOWER VCO in R SF 14 EXTER NAL 9 PHASE
9 SOURCE
10 SF out
FOLLOWER
VCO in
R SF
14
EXTER NAL
9
PHASE
2 OR 13
4
VCO
VCO out
LOW–PASS
3 C OMPAR ATOR
@ FREQUENCY Nf
PC1 out
11
12
6
7
FILTE R
OR
CI
CI
A
B
PC2 out
R1
R2
CI
EXTER NAL
÷ N
COUNTER
Typical L ow–P ass Filters
Typically:
R3
(a)
6N
N
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
INPUT
R 4
C 2
f
2
f
max
2
1
f L
R4
2f C
100N
f
R 3
C 2
(R 3
3, 000
)
– R 4
C 2
f max 2
C2

f = f max – f min

= f

C 2

NO TE : S ometimes R 3 is s plit into two series res is tors each R 3 ÷ 2. A ca pa citor C C is then pla ced from the midpoint to ground. T he value for C C s hould be s uch that the corner frequency of this network does not s igni ca ntly a ect ω n . In F igure B , the ratio of R 3 to R 4 s ets the

da mping, R 4

(0. 1)(R 3) for optimum res ults .

De nitions:

PCA

in

PCB in

PC1 out

VCO in

L OW–PASS FILTE R