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Alexander the Great

This article is about the ancient king of Macedon. For aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of
other uses, see Alexander the Great (disambiguation).
the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century and the
presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC 10/11 Anatolia until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary
as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he feaJune 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the
Great (Greek: , Alxandros ho tures prominently in the history and mythic traditions of
both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the meaMgas [a.lk.san.dros ho m.gas] ), was a King (Basileus)
of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a mem- sure against which military leaders compared themselves,
academies throughout the world still teach
ber of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, and military
He is often ranked among the most inAlexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne
in human history, along with his teacher
at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years
on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and
northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created
one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.[1][2] He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys
most successful military commanders.[3]

1 Early life
1.1 Lineage and childhood

During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age of 16. After Philips assassination in 336 BC, Alexander succeeded his father to
the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship
of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers
Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest
of Persia.[4][5] In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid
Empire, ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the power
of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the
battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the
Achaemenid Empire in its entirety.[b] At that point, his
empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
Seeking to reach the ends of the world and the Great
Outer Sea, he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops.
Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city he planned
to establish as his capital, without executing a series of
planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of
civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several states
ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals and
Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diusion his
conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He
founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most
notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexanders settlement of
Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization,

Bust of a young Alexander the Great from the Hellenistic era,

British Museum

Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek

month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to
20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is not known,[8]


Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders

of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia
to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away,
attending the birth of Alexander.[14] Such legends may
have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at
his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and
destined for greatness from conception.[12]
In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse,
Lanike, sister of Alexanders future general Cleitus the
Black. Later in his childhood, Alexander was tutored
by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by
Lysimachus of Acarnania.[15] Alexander was raised in the
manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read,
play the lyre, ride, ght, and hunt.[16]

Aristotle tutoring Alexander, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris

When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from

Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he oered to sell
for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted and
Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the
horses fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse,
which he eventually managed.[12] Plutarch stated that
Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition,
kissed his son tearfully, declaring: My boy, you must
nd a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon
is too small for you, and bought the horse for him.[17]
Alexander named it Bucephalas, meaning ox-head. Bucephalas carried Alexander as far as India. When the animal died (due to old age, according to Plutarch, at age
thirty), Alexander named a city after him, Bucephala.[18]

in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.[9] He

was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his 1.2 Adolescence and education
fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I,
king of Epirus.[10] Although Philip had seven or eight
When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a
wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time,
tutor, and considered such academics as Isocrates and
likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.[11]
Speusippus, the latter oering to resign to take up the
Several legends surround Alexanders birth and post. In the end, Philip chose Aristotle and provided the
childhood.[12] According to the ancient Greek biographer Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. In return
Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristoof her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was tles hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and
struck by a thunder bolt, causing a ame that spread to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who
far and wide before dying away. Some time after the were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.[19]
wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream,
Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and
securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a
the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy,
lions image.[13] Plutarch oered a variety of interpretaHephaistion, and Cassander. Many of these students
tions of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before
would become his friends and future generals, and are ofher marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or
ten known as the 'Companions. Aristotle taught Alexanthat Alexanders father was Zeus. Ancient commentators
der and his companions about medicine, philosophy,
were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias
morals, religion, logic, and art. Under Aristotles tutepromulgated the story of Alexanders divine parentage,
lage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of
variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that
Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him
she dismissed the suggestion as impious.[13]
an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his
On the day Alexander was born, Philip was prepar- campaigns.[20]
ing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of
Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that
his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian
and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the 2 Philips heir
Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the



Regency and ascent of Macedon

Regency and ascent of Macedon

Demosthenes, voted to seek alliance with Thebes against

Macedonia. Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to
Main articles: Philip II of Macedon and Rise of Macedon win Thebes favor, but Athens won the contest.[23] Philip
At age 16, Alexanders education under Aristotle ended. marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request
of the Amphictyonic League), capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the citys
surrender. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a nal
oer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected

Philip II of Macedon, Alexanders father.

Philip waged war against Byzantion, leaving Alexander

in charge as regent and heir apparent.[12] During Philips
absence, the Thracian Maedi revolted against Macedonia. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from
their territory. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded
a city named Alexandropolis.[21]
Upon Philips return, he dispatched Alexander with a
small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander
is reported to have saved his fathers life. Meanwhile, the
city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to
Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek aairs. Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army
for a campaign in Greece. Concerned that other Greek
states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though
he was preparing to attack Illyria instead. During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only to be repelled
by Alexander.[22]
Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they
marched south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. They went
on to occupy the city of Elatea, only a few days march
from both Athens and Thebes. The Athenians, led by

Statue of Alexander in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked him

near Chaeronea, Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle
of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and
Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philips
trusted generals. According to the ancient sources, the
two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the
untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their
line. Alexander was the rst to break the Theban lines,
followed by Philips generals. Having damaged the enemys cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them. With the Athenians lost,
the Thebans were surrounded. Left to ght alone, they
were defeated.[25]


After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander

marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by
all cities; however, when they reached Sparta, they were
refused, but did not resort to war.[26] At Corinth, Philip
established a Hellenic Alliance (modeled on the old
anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which
included most Greek city-states except Sparta. Philip
was then named Hegemon (often translated as Supreme
Commander) of this league (known by modern scholars
as the League of Corinth), and announced his plans to
attack the Persian Empire.[27][28]


Exile and return

In the following year, the Persian satrap (governor) of

Caria, Pixodarus, oered his eldest daughter to Alexanders half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.[32] Olympias and
several of Alexanders friends suggested this showed
Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir.[32] Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth,
to tell Pixodarus that he should not oer his daughters
hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander.
When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations
and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride
for him.[32] Philip exiled four of Alexanders friends,
Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius, and had the
Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains.[34]

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and

married Cleopatra Eurydice, the niece of his general 3
Attalus.[29] The marriage made Alexanders position as
heir less secure, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice
would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexander was
only half-Macedonian.[30] During the wedding banquet, a
drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the gods that the union
would produce a legitimate heir.[29]






Alexander ed Macedon with his mother, dropping her

o with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in
Dodona, capital of the Molossians.[32] He continued to
Illyria,[32] where he sought refuge with the Illyrian king
and was treated as a guest, despite having defeated them
in battle a few years before. However, it appears Philip
never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son.[32] Accordingly, Alexander returned to
Macedon after six months due to the eorts of a family friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two


At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip

fell in love with and married, she being much
too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his
drink desired the Macedonians would implore
the gods to give them a lawful successor to
the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated
Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his
head, You villain, said he, what, am I then
a bastard?" Then Philip, taking Attaluss part,
rose up and would have run his son through;
but by good fortune for them both, either his
over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk,
made his foot slip, so that he fell down on
the oor. At which Alexander reproachfully
insulted over him: See there, said he, the
man who makes preparations to pass out of
Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from
one seat to another.
Plutarch, describing the feud at Philips

King of Macedon





The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC.

In summer 336 BC, while at Aegae attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to Olympiass brother,
Alexander I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the
captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias.[e] As Pausanias
tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by
his pursuers, including two of Alexanders companions,
Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander was proclaimed
king by the nobles and army at the age of 20.[35][36][37]

3.2 Consolidation of power

Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals
to the throne. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas
IV, executed.[38] He also had two Macedonian princes
from the region of Lyncestis killed, but spared a third,
Alexander Lyncestes. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice
and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive. When
Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander
also ordered the murder of Attalus,[38] who was in com-

mand of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor lyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulanti were in open
and Cleopatras uncle.[39]
revolt against his authority. Marching west into Illyria,
Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demos- Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers
With these victories, he secured
thenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. to ee with their troops.
Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatras murder, Alexander may have considered
him too dangerous to leave alive.[39] Alexander spared
Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled,
possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.[35][37][40]

While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and

Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately
headed south.[49] While the other cities again hesitated,
Thebes decided to ght. The Theban resistance was ineective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its
territory between the other Boeotian cities. The end of
Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily
at peace.[49] Alexander then set out on his Asian campaign, leaving Antipater as regent.[50]

News of Philips death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes
north of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached
Alexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use
diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. He found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus
and Mount Ossa, and ordered his men to ride over Mount 4 Conquest of the Persian Empire
Ossa. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they
found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, Main articles: Wars of Alexander the Great and
adding their cavalry to Alexanders force. He then con- Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great
tinued south towards the Peloponnese.[41]
into Asia
Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Athens sued for peace and
4.1 Asia Minor
Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter
between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred
Further information: Battle of the Granicus, Siege of
during Alexanders stay in Corinth. When Alexander
Halicarnassus, and Siege of Miletus
asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosoAlexanders army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with
pher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the
side, as he was blocking the sunlight.
This reply apparently delighted Alexander, who is reported to have
said But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like
to be Diogenes.[43] At Corinth, Alexander took the title of Hegemon (leader) and, like Philip, was appointed
commander for the coming war against Persia. He also
received news of a Thracian uprising.[44]


Balkan campaign

Main article: Alexanders Balkan campaign

Map of Alexanders empire and his route

Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard

his northern borders. In the spring of 335 BC, he
advanced to suppress several revolts. Starting from
Amphipolis, he traveled east into the country of the Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces
manning the heights.[45] The Macedonians marched into
the country of the Triballi, and defeated their army near
the Lyginus river[46] (a tributary of the Danube). Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the
river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to
retreat after the rst cavalry skirmish.[47]

approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a eet

of 120 ships with crews numbering 38,000,[49] drawn
from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia,
and Illyria.[51] (However, Arrian, who used Ptolemy as a
source, said that Alexander crossed with more than 5,000
horse and 30,000 foot; Diodorus quoted the same totals,
but listed 5,100 horse and 32,000 foot. Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which
Polyaenus, in his Stratagems of War (5.44.4), said numbered 10,000 men.) He showed his intent to conquer the
entirety of the Persian Empire by throwing a spear into
Asian soil and saying he accepted Asia as a gift from the
gods.[49] This also showed Alexanders eagerness to ght,
in contrast to his fathers preference for diplomacy.[49]

News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Il-

After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle

of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the

Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he then
proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and
democracy to the cities. Miletus, held by Achaemenid
forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian
naval forces nearby. Further south, at Halicarnassus, in
Caria, Alexander successfully waged his rst large-scale
siege, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary
captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of
Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea.[52] Alexander left
the government of Caria to a member of the Hecatomnid
dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander.[53]


Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and

most of the coast of the Levant.[53] In the following year,
332 BC, he was forced to attack Tyre, which he captured
after a long and dicult siege.[58][59] Alexander massacred the men of military age and sold the women and
children into slavery.[60]

4.3 Egypt

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into moun- Further information: Siege of Gaza
tainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on
over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.
From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports
and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.[54] At
the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander undid the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to
await the future king of Asia".[55] According to the story,
Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot
was undone and hacked it apart with his sword.[56]


The Levant and Syria

Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written
from right to left), c. 330 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.

the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. A later tradition

recorded his entry into Jerusalem: according to Josephus,
Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel's prophecy,
presumably chapter 8, which described a mighty Greek
king who would conquer the Persian Empire. He spared
Jerusalem and pushed south into Egypt.[61] However,
Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold
was heavily fortied and built on a hill, requiring a siege.
Detail of Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the When his engineers pointed out to him that because of
House of the Faun, Pompeii.
the height of the mound it would be impossible this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt.[62]
Further information: Battle of Issus and Siege of Tyre After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but
(332 BC)
not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder
wound. As in Tyre, men of military age were put to
and the women and children were sold into
In spring 333 BC, Alexander crossed the Taurus into Cili- the sword
cia. After a long pause due to illness, he marched on
towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius sig- Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where
nicantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he was regarded as a liberator.[64] He was pronounced
he defeated Darius at Issus. Darius ed the battle, caus- son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in
ing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his the Libyan desert.[65] Henceforth, Alexander often retwo daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous ferred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his
treasure.[57] He oered a peace treaty that included the death, currency depicted him adorned with rams horn as
lands he had already lost, and a ransom of 10,000 talents a symbol of his divinity.[66] During his stay in Egypt, he
for his family. Alexander replied that since he was now founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the
king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial di- prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his


Fall of the Empire and the East


Assyria and Babylonia

Greece, or shall I set you up again because
of your magnanimity and your virtues in other

Further information: Battle of Gaugamela

Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander marched eastward
into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and again defeated Darius, at the Battle of Gaugamela.[68] Darius once 4.6
more ed the eld, and Alexander chased him as far as
Arbela. Gaugamela would be the nal and decisive encounter between the two. Darius ed over the mountains
to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), while Alexander captured Babylon.[69]


Fall of the Empire and the East


Silver coin of Alexander wearing the lion scalp of Herakles,

British Museum.

Alexander then chased Darius, rst into Media, and then

Parthia.[75] The Persian king no longer controlled his own
destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian
satrap and kinsman.[76] As Alexander approached, Bessus
had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius successor as Artaxerxes V, beSite of the Persian Gate; the road was built in the 1990s.
fore retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla
campaign against Alexander.[77] Alexander buried DarFurther information: Battle of the Persian Gate
ius remains next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a regal funeral.[78] He claimed that, while dying, Darius had
From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne.
Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury.
He The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have
sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial cap- fallen with Darius.
ital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road. Alexander Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to dehimself took selected troops on the direct route to the feat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned
city. He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates (in into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded
the modern Zagros Mountains) which had been blocked a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including
by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria EsPersepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.[70] chate (The Furthest) in modern Tajikistan. The camOn entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to
loot the city for several days.[71] Alexander stayed in
Persepolis for ve months.[72] During his stay a re broke
out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest
of the city. Possible causes include a drunken accident
or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of
Athens during the Second Persian War by Xerxes I.[73]
Years later upon revisiting the city he had burnt, Alexander would regret the burning of Persepolis. Plutarch recounts an anecdote in which Alexander pauses and talks
to a fallen statue of Xerxes the Great as if it were a live
Shall I pass by and leave you lying there
because of the expeditions you led against

paign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West

Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central
Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan),
and Scythia.[81]
Spitamenes, who held an undened position in the satrapy
of Sogdiana, in 329 BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy,
one of Alexanders trusted companions, and Bessus was
executed.[82] However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion by a
horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt.
Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle
of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against
Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai. After
the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who
then sued for peace.[83]

own royal pages. His ocial historian, Callisthenes of
Olynthus, was implicated in the plot; however, historians
have yet to reach a consensus regarding this involvement.
Callisthenes had fallen out of favor by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis.[87]

4.8 Macedon in Alexanders absence

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater, an experienced military and political
leader and part of Philip IIs Old Guard, in charge of
Macedon.[50] Alexanders sacking of Thebes ensured that
Greece remained quiet during his absence.[50] The one
exception was a call to arms by Spartan king Agis III in
331 BC, whom Antipater defeated and killed in the battle
of Megalopolis.[50] Antipater referred the Spartans punishment to the League of Corinth, which then deferred to
Alexander, who chose to pardon them.[88] There was also
considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias,
and each complained to Alexander about the other.[89]

The killing of Cleitus, Andr Castaigne 18981899


Problems and plots

During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of

Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom
of proskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or
prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their
social superiors.[84] The Greeks regarded the gesture as
the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant
to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it.[85]
A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his ocers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. The death of the son necessitated the death of the
father, and thus Parmenion, who had been charged with
guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated at
Alexanders command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.
Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man
who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black, during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda (modern
day Samarkand in Uzbekistan), in which Cleitus accused
Alexander of several judgemental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in
favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.[86]
Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot
against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his

In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexanders campaign in Asia.[90] Alexander
sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated
the economy and increased trade across his empire.[91]
However, Alexanders constant demands for troops and
the migration of Macedonians throughout his empire depleted Macedons manpower, greatly weakening it in the
years after Alexander, and ultimately led to its subjugation by Rome.[16]

5 Indian campaign
Main article: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great

5.1 Forays into the Indian subcontinent

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Raoxshna in Old Iranian) to cement relations with
his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent. He invited the chieftains of the former
satrapy of Gandhara, (a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan) to come to him
and submit to his authority. Omphis (Indian name
Ambhi), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended
from the Indus to the Hydaspes (Jhelum), complied, but
the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi
and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian
texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to
submit.[92] Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander of his
apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his disposal. Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but
he also presented him with a wardrobe of Persian robes,
gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1000 talents in


Forays into the Indian subcontinent

test ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander was
wounded in the shoulder by a dart, but eventually the
Aspasioi lost. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who
fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos.[92]
The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of
bloody ghting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius, Not only did
Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but
also did he reduce its buildings to rubble.[94] A similar
slaughter followed at Ora. In the aftermath of Massaga
and Ora, numerous Assakenians ed to the fortress of
Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured
the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.[92]

The phalanx attacking the centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes

by Andr Castaigne (18981899)

gold. Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces,

and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund
(Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship
and the most liberal hospitality.
On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5000 men and took
part in the battle of the Hydaspes River. After that victory
he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he
was charged to oer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the
personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the eet on
the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. A considerable accession of power was granted him
after the death of Philip, son of Machatas; and he was
allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander
himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition
of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC.

Alexanders invasion of the Indian subcontinent

After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought

and won an epic battle against King Porus, who ruled
a region lying between the Hydaspes and the Acesines
(Chenab), in what is now the Punjab, in the Battle of
the Hydaspes in 326 BC.[95] Alexander was impressed
by Porus bravery, and made him an ally. He appointed
Porus as satrap, and added to Porus territory land that
he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to
the Hyphasis (Beas).[96][97] Choosing a local helped him
control these lands so distant from Greece.[98] Alexander founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes
In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led river, naming one Bucephala, in honor of his horse, who
a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar died around this time.[99] The other was Nicaea (Victory),
valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the As- thought to be located at the site of modern-day Mong,
sakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.[93] A erce con- Punjab.[100]




Revolt of the army

East of Porus kingdom, near the Ganges River, were

the Nanda Empire of Magadha and further east the
Gangaridai Empire (of modern-day Bengal region of
the Indian subcontinent). Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexanders army mutinied at the Hyphasis
River (Beas), refusing to march farther east. This
river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexanders
As for the Macedonians, however, their
struggle with Porus blunted their courage and
stayed their further advance into India. For
having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently
opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which,
as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its
depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on
the further side were covered with multitudes
of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.
For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with
eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six
thousand war elephants.[102]
Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther,
but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his
opinion and return; the men, he said, longed to again see
their parents, their wives and children, their homeland.
Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching
along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the
Malhi (in modern-day Multan) and other Indian tribes
and sustained an injury during the siege.[103]
Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern
southern Iran) with general Craterus, and commissioned
a eet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral
Nearchus, while he led the rest back to Persia through the
more dicult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert
and Makran.[104] Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC, but
not before losing many men to the harsh desert.[105]

Last years in Persia

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed
several of them as examples on his way to Susa.[106][107]
As a gesture of thanks, he paid o the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send over-aged and
disabled veterans back to Macedon, led by Craterus. His
troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the
town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized

Alexander, left, and Hephaestion, right

his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian ocers and soldiers into Macedonian

Painting of Alexander the Great at the desecrated tomb of Cyrus

the Great

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back

down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the
army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units. The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness,
which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for
several thousand of his men at which he and they ate
together.[109] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony
between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, Alexander held a mass marriage of his senior ocers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those
marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year.[107]
Meanwhile, upon his return to Persia, Alexander learned
that guards of the tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae
had desecrated it, and swiftly executed them.[110] Alexander admired Cyrus, from an early age reading Xenophons
Cyropaedia, which described Cyruss heroism in battle and governance as a king and legislator.[111] During his visit to Pasargadae Alexander ordered his architect Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the sepulchral
chamber of Cyrus tomb.[111]
Afterwards, Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve
the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion, died of illness or poisoning.[112][113] Hephaestions death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an
expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree


After death


for public mourning.[112] Back in Babylon, Alexander

planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an
invasion of Arabia, but he would not have a chance to
realize them, as he died shortly thereafter.[114]

all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned.

Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication,[120]
while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.[118][121] The
accounts were nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed as Macedonian viceroy,
7 Death and succession
and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged
plot. Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death
Main article: Death of Alexander the Great
sentence,[122] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and
On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the
Philotas,[123] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexanders wine-pourer.[121][123] There was even a suggestion
that Aristotle may have participated.[121]

A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323322 BC) recording the

death of Alexander (British Museum, London)

19th century depiction of Alexanders funeral procession based

on the description of Diodorus

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the

fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.[124] However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of Alexander, Leo Schep
from the New Zealand National Poisons Center proposed that the plant white hellebore (Veratrum album),
which was known in antiquity, may have been used to
poison Alexander.[125][126][127] In a 2014 manuscript in
the journal Clinical Toxicology Schep suggested Alexanders wine was spiked with Veratrum album, and that
this would produce poisoning symptoms that match
the course of events described in the Alexander Romance.[128] Veratrum album poisoning can have a prolonged course and it was suggested that if Alexander
was poisoned, Veratrum album oers the most plausible cause.[128][129] Another poisoning explanation put forward in 2010 proposed that the circumstances of his
death were compatible with poisoning by water of the
river Styx (modern-day Mavroneri in Arcadia, Greece)
that contained calicheamicin, a dangerous compound
produced by bacteria.[130]
Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A 1998 article in the
New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to
typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.[131] Another recent analysis suggested
pyogenic (infectious) spondylitis or meningitis.[132] Other
illnesses t the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus.[133][134] Natural-cause theories
also tend to emphasise that Alexanders health may have
been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and
severe wounds. The anguish that Alexander felt after
Hephaestion's death may also have contributed to his declining health.[131]

palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32.[115]

There are two dierent versions of Alexanders death and
details of the death dier slightly in each. Plutarch's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander
entertained admiral Nearchus, and spent the night and
next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.[116] He developed a fever, which worsened until he was unable to
speak. The common soldiers, anxious about his health,
were granted the right to le past him as he silently waved
at them.[117] In the second account, Diodorus recounts
that Alexander was struck with pain after downing a large
bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Heracles, followed by
7.1 After death
11 days of weakness; he did not develop a fever and died
after some agony.[118] Arrian also mentioned this as an al- See also: Tomb of Alexander the Great
ternative, but Plutarch specically denied this claim.[116]
Alexanders body was laid in a gold anthropoid
Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to sarcophagus that was lled with honey, which was in
assassination,[119] foul play featured in multiple accounts turn placed in a gold casket.[135][136] According to Aelian,
of his death. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where



7.2 Division of the empire

Main article: Diadochi
Alexanders death was so sudden that when reports

Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus.

Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 281 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom

(dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon
(orange), and Macedonia (green). Also shown are the Roman
Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and
the Kingdom of Epirus (red).

Alexander was laid to rest would be happy and unvanquishable forever.[137] Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol
of legitimacy, since burying the prior king was a royal of his death reached Greece, they were not immediprerogative.[138]
ately believed.[50] Alexander had no obvious or legitimate
IV by Roxane being born after
While Alexanders funeral cortege was on its way to heir, his son Alexander
to Diodorus, AlexanMacedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to
deathbed to whom
His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelhe
reply was ti
phus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it
remained until at least late Antiquity. Ptolemy IX Lathyros, one of Ptolemys nal successors, replaced Alexanders sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert
the original to coinage.[139] The recent discovery of an
enormous tomb in northern Greece, at Amphipolis, dating from the time of Alexander the Great [140] has given
rise to speculation that its original intent was to be the
burial place of Alexander. This would t with the intended destination of Alexanders funeral cortege.

Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal
story.[144] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin oered the more
plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring
to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating

Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb

in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally
knocked the nose o. Caligula was said to have taken
Alexanders breastplate from the tomb for his own use.
Around AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed
Alexanders tomb to the public. His son and successor,
Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his
own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxanes baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.
However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager,
rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded
from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexanders half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two
sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he
and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name

The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus", discovered near

Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is
so named not because it was thought to have contained
Alexanders remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict
Alexander and his companions ghting the Persians and
hunting. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of
Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the
battle of Issus in 331.[141][142] However, more recently,
it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than
Abdalonymus death.

Dissension and rivalry soon aicted the Macedonians,

however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the
Partition of Babylon became power bases each general
used to bid for power. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40
years of war between The Successors (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable
power blocks: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia
and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III
were murdered.[146]






Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written

instructions to Craterus some time before his death.[147]
Craterus started to carry out Alexanders commands, but
the successors chose not to further implement them, on
the grounds they were impractical and extravagant.[147]
Nevertheless, Perdiccas read Alexanders will to his
The testament called for military expansion into the
southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western
populations. It included:
Construction of a monumental tomb for his father
Philip, to match the greatest of the pyramids of

The Battle of Issus, 333 BC

was due to use of terrain, phalanx and cavalry tactics,

Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, bold strategy, and the erce loyalty of his troops.
Dium, Amphipolis, and a monumental temple to Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa, a spear 6
metres (20 ft) long, had been developed and perfected
Athena at Troy[50]
by Philip II through rigorous training,[150] and Alexander
Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean used its speed and maneuverability to great eect against
larger but more disparate Persian forces.[150] Alexander also recognized the potential for disunity among his
Circumnavigation of Africa[50]
diverse army, which employed various languages and
weapons. He overcame this by being personally involved
Development of cities and the transplant of popuin battle,[72] in the manner of a Macedonian king.[149]
lations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the In his rst battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used
largest continent to common unity and to friendship only a small part of his forces, perhaps 13,000 infantry
with 5,000 cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of
by means of intermarriage and family ties.[148]
40,000. Alexander placed the phalanx at the center and
cavalry and archers on the wings, so that his line matched
the length of the Persian cavalry line, about 3 km (1.86
8 Character
mi). By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. This ensured that Alexander would not
8.1 Generalship
be outanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes,
had a considerable advantage over the Persians scimitars
and javelins. Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians.[151]
At Issus in 333 BC, his rst confrontation with Darius,
he used the same deployment, and again the central phalanx pushed through.[151] Alexander personally led the
charge in the center, routing the opposing army.[152] At
the decisive encounter with Darius at Gaugamela, Darius equipped his chariots with scythes on the wheels to
break up the phalanx and equipped his cavalry with pikes.
Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center
advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore
down and then reforming. The advance was successful
and broke Darius center, causing the latter to ee once
When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar ghting
techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, AlexanAlexander earned the epithet the Great due to his un- der adapted his forces to his opponents style. Thus, in
paralleled success as a military commander.[49] He never Bactria and Sogdiana, Alexander successfully used his
lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered.[49] This javelin throwers and archers to prevent outanking moveThe Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC



ments, while massing his cavalry at the center.[152] In Inhis garments were lled with it, this we have
dia, confronted by Porus elephant corps, the Macedoread in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus.[153]
nians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and
used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the ele- Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus
phants handlers.[109]
'Xenophon' c. 86160) described Alexander as:


Physical appearance

[T]he strong, handsome commander with

one eye dark as the night and one blue as the
The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests
that Alexander suered from heterochromia iridum: that
one eye was dark and the other light.[156]
British historian Peter Green provided a description of
Alexanders appearance, based on his review of statues
and some ancient documents:
Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was
very short, though stocky and tough. His beard
was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute
Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His
neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His
eyes (one blue, one brown) revealed a dewy,
feminine quality. He had a high complexion
and a harsh voice.[157]

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased

with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he
forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.[158]
Lysippos had often used the contrapposto sculptural
scheme to portray Alexander and other characters such
Lysippos sculpRoman copy of a herma by Lysippos, Louvre Museum. Plutarch as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros.
to a stier,
reports that sculptures by Lysippos were the most faithful.
more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful
Greek biographer Plutarch (c. 45120 AD) describes depiction.
Alexanders appearance as:

8.3 Personality
The outward appearance of Alexander is
best represented by the statues of him which
Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone
that Alexander himself thought it t that he
should be modelled. For those peculiarities
which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of
the neck, which was bent slightly to the left,
and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist
has accurately observed. Apelles, however,
in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt,
did not reproduce his complexion, but made it
too dark and swarthy. Whereas he was of a fair
colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into
ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his
face. 4 Moreover, that a very pleasant odour
exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his esh, so that

Some of Alexanders strongest personality traits formed

in response to his parents.[157] His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny
to conquer the Persian Empire.[157] Olympias inuence
instilled a sense of destiny in him,[161] and Plutarch tells
us that his ambition kept his spirit serious and lofty in
advance of his years.[162] However, his father Philip was
Alexanders most immediate and inuential role model,
as the young Alexander watched him campaign practically every year, winning victory after victory while ignoring severe wounds.[38] Alexanders relationship with
his father forged the competitive side of his personality;
he had a need to out-do his father, illustrated by his reckless behavior in battle.[157] While Alexander worried that
his father would leave him no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world,[163] he also downplayed his fathers achievements to his companions.[157]


Personal relationships

countrymen.[176] However, Alexander also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the diculties of ruling culturally disparate peoples, many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine.[177] Thus, rather than
megalomania, his behavior may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire together.[178]

Alexander (left) ghting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus

(detail). 3rd century BC mosaic, Pella Museum.

According to Plutarch, among Alexanders traits were

a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature,[164] which
undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.[157]
Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond
well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned
debate.[165] He had a calmer sideperceptive, logical,
and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge,
a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader.[166] This
was no doubt in part due to Aristotles tutelage; Alexander was intelligent and quick to learn.[157] His intelligent
and rational side was amply demonstrated by his ability
and success as a general.[164] He had great self-restraint
in pleasures of the body, in contrast with his lack of self
control with alcohol.[167]
Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and
sciences.[162][166] However, he had little interest in sports
or the Olympic games (unlike his father), seeking only the
Homeric ideals of honor (tim) and glory (kudos).[168] He
had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader.[143][164] His unique
abilities were further demonstrated by the inability of any
of his generals to unite Macedonia and retain the Empire after his death only Alexander had the ability to do
During his nal years, and especially after the death
of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs
of megalomania and paranoia.[122] His extraordinary
achievements, coupled with his own ineable sense of
destiny and the attery of his companions, may have combined to produce this eect.[169] His delusions of grandeur
are readily visible in his testament and in his desire to conquer the world,[122] in as much, he is by various sources
described as having boundless ambition,[170][171] an epithet, the meaning of which, has descended into an historical clich.[172][173]

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as
Ares and Aphrodite.

8.4 Personal relationships

Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander the

Alexander married three times: Roxana, daughter of the

Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes, out of love;[179] and the
Persian princesses Stateira II and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III and latter a daughter of
Artaxerxes III, for political reasons.[180][181] He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon of Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress
Barsine. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried
He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least at Babylon.[182][183]
sought to deify himself.[122] Olympias always insisted to
him that he was the son of Zeus,[174] a theory apparently Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend,
Hephaestion, the son of a Maceconrmed to him by the oracle of Amun at Siwa.[175] He general, and bodyguard
Hephaestions death devastated
began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon.
may have contributed to
Alexander adopted elements of Persian dress and cusAlexanders
mental state durtoms at court, notably proskynesis, a practice of which
Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform.
This behavior cost him the sympathies of many of his Alexanders sexuality has been the subject of specu-


lation and controversy.[186] No ancient sources stated

that Alexander had homosexual relationships, or that
Alexanders relationship with Hephaestion was sexual.
Aelian, however, writes of Alexanders visit to Troy
where Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and
Hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter riddling that
he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way
as Patroclus was of Achilles.[187] Noting that the word
eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning, Alexander may have been bisexual, which in his time was not controversial.[188]
Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient
sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in
women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of
his life.[157] However, he was relatively young when he
died, and Ogden suggests that Alexanders matrimonial
record is more impressive than his fathers at the same
age.[189] Apart from wives, Alexander had many more female companions. Alexander accumulated a harem in the
style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly;[190]
showing great self-control in pleasures of the body.[167]
Nevertheless, Plutarch described how Alexander was infatuated by Roxana while complimenting him on not
forcing himself on her.[191] Green suggested that, in the
context of the period, Alexander formed quite strong
friendships with women, including Ada of Caria, who
adopted him, and even Darius mother Sisygambis, who
supposedly died from grief upon hearing of Alexanders



9.1 Hellenistic kingdoms

Main article: Hellenistic period
Alexanders most immediate legacy was the introduction
of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. At
the time of his death, Alexanders empire covered some
5,200,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi),[193] and was the largest
state of its time. Many of these areas remained in Macedonian hands or under Greek inuence for the next 200
300 years. The successor states that emerged were, at
least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are
often referred to as the Hellenistic period.[194]





Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

The eastern borders of Alexanders empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.[143] However, the power
vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent
directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history, the Maurya Empire. Taking advantage
of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to
in Greek sources as Sandrokottos), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and with that power
base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.[195]

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map

of Eratosthenes (276194 BC), incorporating information from
the campaigns of Alexander and his successors.[192]

Alexanders legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and
trade between East and West, and vast areas to the
east were signicantly exposed to Greek civilization and
inuence.[16] Some of the cities he founded became major cultural centers, many surviving into the 21st century.
His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the
areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the

9.2 Founding of cities

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded
some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them
east of the Tigris.[85][196] The rst, and greatest, was
Alexandria in Egypt, which would become one of the
leading Mediterranean cities.[85] The cities locations reected trade routes as well as defensive positions. At
rst, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more
than defensive garrisons.[85] Following Alexanders death,
many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to
Greece.[85][196] However, a century or so after Alexanders death, many of the Alexandrias were thriving, with




elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that

included both Greek and local peoples.[85]



Main article: Hellenistic civilization

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann

Alexanders empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.

Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language,

culture, and population into the former Persian empire
after Alexanders conquest.[194] That this export took
place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria, Antioch[197]
and Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad).[198] Alexander
sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and
attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture. This
culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a
distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor
The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the
conquests was essentially Athenian.[200] The close association of men from across Greece in Alexanders army
directly led to the emergence of the largely Attic-based
"koine", or common Greek dialect.[201] Koine spread
throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua
franca of Hellenistic lands and eventually the ancestor
of modern Greek.[201] Furthermore, town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals,
evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as
Hellenistic.[197] Aspects of Hellenistic culture were still
evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the
mid-15th century.[202]
Some of the most pronounced eects of Hellenization can be seen in Afghanistan and India, in the region of the relatively late-rising Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
(250 BC-125 BC) (in modern Afghanistan, Pakistan,
and Tajikistan) and the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC
- 10 CE) in modern Afghanistan and India.[203] There
on the newly formed Silk Road Greek culture appar-

The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st2nd century AD,

Gandhara, ancient India. Tokyo National Museum.

ently hybridized with Indian, and especially Buddhist

culture. The resulting syncretism known as GrecoBuddhism heavily inuenced the development of Buddhism and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art. These
Greco-Buddhist kingdoms sent some of the rst Buddhist
missionaries to China, Sri Lanka, and the Mediterranean
(Greco-Buddhist monasticism). Some of the rst and
most inuential gurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues
of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.[203] Several Buddhist traditions may have been inuenced by the ancient
Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes,[204] and some Mahayana
ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts of owers,
and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced
by the ancient Greeks; however, similar practices were
also observed amongst the native Indic culture. One
Greek king, Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and
was immortalized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'.[203]
The process of Hellenization also spurred trade between
the east and west.[205] For example, Greek astronomical
instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in
the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day
Afghanistan,[206] while the Greek concept of a spherical



earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually

supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief
of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around
a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a
ower.[205][207][208] The Yavanajataka (lit. Greek astronomical treatise) and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the
inuence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.


Inuence on Rome

The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. 200180 BC),

wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexanders legacy in the
east by again invading India, and establishing the Indo-Greek
kingdom (180 BC10 AD).

This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the inuence of Alexanders memory. Walters Art Museum,

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.[209] Polybius began his
Histories by reminding Romans of Alexanders achievements, and thereafter Roman leaders saw him as a role
model. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet Magnus
and even Alexanders anastole-type haircut, and searched
the conquered lands of the east for Alexanders 260-yearold cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.[209]
Julius Caesar dedicated a Lysippean equestrian bronze
statue but replaced Alexanders head with his own, while
Octavian visited Alexanders tomb in Alexandria and
temporarily changed his seal from a sphinx to Alexanders
prole.[209] The emperor Trajan also admired Alexander, as did Nero and Caracalla.[209] The Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briey ascended to the imperial throne, kept images of Alexander
on their persons, either on jewelry, or embroidered into
their clothes.[210]

The coronation of Alexander depicted in medieval European style

in the 15th century romance The History of Alexanders Battles

republican values.[211] Alexander was used by these writers as an example of ruler values such as amicita (friendship) and clementia (clemency), but also iracundia (anger)
and cupiditas gloriae (over-desire for glory).[211]

9.5 Legend
Main article: Alexander the Great in legend

Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the

Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably
On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly encouraged by Alexander himself.[212] His court histoRepublican gures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale rian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawof how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by ing back from him in proskynesis. Writing shortly after


In ancient and modern culture


Alexanders death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen
of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus read this
passage to his patron, Alexanders general and later King
Lysimachus reportedly quipped, I wonder where I was
at the time.[213]
In the rst centuries after Alexanders death, probably
in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance,
later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known
as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent numerous
expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the
Middle Ages,[214] containing many dubious stories,[212]
and was translated into numerous languages.[215]


In ancient and modern culture

Main articles: Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great

and Alexander the Great in the Quran
Alexander the Greats accomplishments and legacy have

Alexander the Great depicted in a 15th-century Persian miniature


Alexander the Great depicted in a 14th-century Byzantine


been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has gured in

both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to
the present day. The Alexander Romance, in particular,
has had a signicant impact on portrayals of Alexander
in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to
modern Greek.[215]
Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient gure.[216] The colloquial form of his name in modern Greek (O Megalexandros) is a household name, and he is the only ancient
hero to appear in the Karagiozis shadow play.[216] One
well-known fable among Greek seamen involves a solitary mermaid who would grasp a ships prow during a
storm and ask the captain Is King Alexander alive?".
The correct answer is He is alive and well and rules the
world!", causing the mermaid to vanish and the sea to
calm. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn
into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.[216]

In pre-Islamic Middle Persian (Zoroastrian) literature,

Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak, meaning accursed, and is accused of destroying temples and
burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.[217] In Islamic
Iran, under the inuence of the Alexander Romance (in
Persian: Iskandarnamah), a more positive portrayal of Alexander emerges.[218] Firdausi's Shahnameh
(The Book of Kings) includes Alexander in a line of
legitimate Iranian shahs, a mythical gure who explored
the far reaches of the world in search of the Fountain
of Youth.[219] Later Persian writers associate him with
philosophy, portraying him at a symposium with gures such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, in search of
The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays
him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed
to the one true God.[218] In Egypt, Alexander was portrayed as the son of Nectanebo II, the last pharaoh before the Persian conquest.[220] His defeat of Darius was
depicted as Egypts salvation, proving Egypt was still
ruled by an Egyptian.[218]
The gure of Dhul-Qarnayn (literally the Two-Horned
One) mentioned in the Quran is believed by some scholars to represent Alexander, due to parallels with the
Alexander Romance.[218] In this tradition, he was a heroic
gure who built a wall to defend against the nations of
Gog and Magog.[220] He then traveled the known world



in search for the Water of Life and Immortality, eventually becoming a prophet.[220]
In Hindi and Urdu, the name Sikandar, derived from
Persian, denotes a rising young talent.[221] In medieval
Europe he was made a member of the Nine Worthies,
a group of heroes who encapsulated all the ideal qualities
of chivalry.



Main article: Alexander the Great in historiography

Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.[16] Contemporaries who wrote accounts
of his life included Alexanders campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexanders generals Ptolemy and Nearchus;
Aristobulus, a junior ocer on the campaigns; and
Onesicritus, Alexanders chief helmsman. Their works
are lost, but later works based on these original sources
have survived. The earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus
(mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian (1st to 2nd century
AD), the biographer Plutarch (1st to 2nd century AD),
and nally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th
century.[16] Of these, Arrian is generally considered the
most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy and Aristobulus
as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus.[16]

2. ^ By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire, adding it to Macedons European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known
to the ancient Greeks (the 'Ecumene').[223][224] An
approximate view of the world known to Alexander can be seen in Hecataeus of Miletus's map; see
Hecataeus world map.
3. ^ For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general;[225] Julius Caesar wept
on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had
achieved so little by the same age;[226] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander';[227] the young
Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons
with Alexander.[228]
4. ^ The name derives from the
Greek verb (alex) ward o, avert,
defend[229][230] and - (andr-), the stem of
(anr) man,[231][230] and means protector
of men.[232]
5. ^ There have been, since the time, many suspicions
that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip.
Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias and
even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius
III. All three of these people had motive to have
Philip murdered.[233]

14 References




See also

Alexander the Great in the Qur'an

Chronology of European exploration of Asia
Diogenes and Alexander
List of people known as The Great
The Mahabharata Quest: The Alexander Secret



1. ^ Macedon was an Ancient Greek polity. The

Macedonians were a Hellenic (Greek) tribe. Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the
Great was Greek.[222]


Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila S. (2009) The

Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture: Mosul to Zirid, Volume 3. (Oxford University
Press Incorporated, 2009), 385; "[Khojand, Tajikistan]; As the easternmost outpost of the empire of
Alexander the Great, the city was renamed Alexandria Eschate (furthest Alexandria) in 329 BCE.
Golden, Peter B. Central Asia in World History (Oxford University Press, 2011), 25;"(...) his campaigns in Central Asia brought Khwarazm, Sogdia
and Bactria under Graeco-Macedonian rule. As
elsewhere, Alexander founded or renamed a number of cities, such as Alexandria Eschate (Outernmost Alexandria,, near modern Khojent in Tajikistan).

[2] Alexander the Great (356323 BC)". UK: BBC.

[3] Yenne 2010, p. 159.
[4] Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A., eds. (2009).
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[5] Burger, Michael (2008). The Shaping of Western Civilization: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment. University of
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[6] Yenne 2010, p. viii.


[7] Guardian on Time Magazines 100 personalities of all

[8] The birth of Alexander the Great. Livius. Retrieved
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Alexander born in Pella. The exact date is not known, but
probably either 20 or 26 July.
[10] McCarty 2004, p. 10, Renault 2001, p. 28, Durant 1966,
p. 538
[11] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 171.

[36] Renault 2001, pp. 6162

[37] Fox 1980, p. 72
[38] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 190.
[39] Green 2007, pp. 56
[40] Renault 2001, pp. 7071
[41] McCarty 2004, p. 31, Renault 2001, p. 72, Fox 1980, p.
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[42] Stoneman 2004, p. 21.
[43] Dillon 2004, pp. 187188.
[44] Renault 2001, p. 72, Bose 2003, p. 96

[12] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 188.

[45] Arrian 1976, I, 1

[13] Plutarch 1919, III, 2

[46] Arrian 1976, I, 2

[14] Renault 2001, p. 28, Bose 2003, p. 21

[47] Arrian 1976, I, 34, Renault 2001, pp. 7374

[15] Renault 2001, pp. 3334.

[48] Arrian 1976, I, 56, Renault 2001, p. 77

[16] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 186.

[49] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 192.

[17] Plutarch 1919, VI, 5

[50] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 199

[18] Durant 1966, p. 538, Fox 1980, p. 64, Renault 2001, p.

[19] Fox 1980, pp. 6566, Renault 2001, p. 44, McCarty
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[20] Fox 1980, pp. 6566, Renault 2001, pp. 4547, McCarty
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[21] Fox 1980, p. 68, Renault 2001, p. 47, Bose 2003, p. 43

[51] Arrian 1976, I, 11

[52] Arrian 1976, I, 2023
[53] Arrian 1976, I, 23
[54] Arrian 1976, I, 2728
[55] Arrian 1976, I, 3
[56] Green 2007, p. 351

[22] Renault 2001, pp. 4749.

[23] Renault 2001, pp. 5051, Bose 2003, pp.
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[24] Renault 2001, pp. 51, Bose 2003, p. 47, McCarty 2004,
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[57] Arrian 1976, I, 1112

[58] Arrian 1976, II, 1624
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[26] History of Ancient Sparta.
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[63] Arrian 1976, II, 2627

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[64] Ring et al. 1994, pp. 49, 320

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[65] Bosworth 1988, pp. 7174.

[30] McCarty 2004, p. 27.

[66] Dahmen 2007, pp. 1011

[31] Plutarch 1919, IX, 1

[67] Arrian 1976, III, 1

[32] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 180.

[68] Arrian 1976, III 715; also in a contemporary Babylonian

account of the battle of Gaugamela

[33] Bose 2003, p. 75, Renault 2001, p. 56

[34] McCarty 2004, p. 27, Renault 2001, p. 59, Fox 1980, p.

[69] Arrian 1976, III, 16

[70] Arrian 1976, III, 18



[71] Foreman 2004, p. 152

[105] Morkot 1996, p. 9

[72] Morkot 1996, p. 121.

[106] Arrian 1976, VI, 27

[73] Hammond 1983, pp. 7273.

[107] Arrian 1976, VII, 4


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[78] Arrian 1976, III, 22.

[112] Arrian 1976, VII, 14

[113] Berkley 2006, p. 101

[79] Gergel 2004, p. 81.

[114] Arrian 1976, VII, 19

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[116] Plutarch 1919, LXXV, 1

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[117] Wood 2001, pp. 226770.

[84] Arrian 1976, VII, 11

[118] Diodorus Siculus 1989, XVII, 117

[85] Morkot 1996, p. 111.

[119] Green 2007, pp. 12.

[86] Gergel 2004, p. 99.

[120] Plutarch 1919, LXXVII, 1

[87] Heckel & Tritle 2009, pp. 4748

[121] Arrian 1976, VII, 27

[88] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 201

[122] Green 2007, pp. 2324.

[89] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 202

[123] Diodorus Siculus 1989, XVII, 118

[90] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 203

[124] Fox 2006, chapter 32.

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[186] Ogden 2009, p. 204.

[213] Plutarch 1919, LXVI, 1

[187] Aelian, 7, Varia Historia XII

[214] Stoneman 1996, passim

[188] Sacks 1995, p. 16.

[215] Roisman & Worthington 2010, p. 117.

[189] Ogden 2009, p. 208: "...three attested pregnancies in [216] Fermor 2006, p. 215
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[224] Stoneman 2004, p. 2.

[198] Waterman, Leroy; McDowell, Robert H.; Hopkins, Clark [225] Goldsworthy 2003, pp. 32728.
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[227] Holland 2003, pp. 17683.

[200] Green 2007, pp. 5659, McCarty 2004, p. 17

[228] Barnett 1997, p. 45.

[201] Harrison 1971, p. 51.

[229] Plutarch 1919, IV, 57: .

[202] Baynes 2007, p. 170, Gabriel 2002, p. 277

[230] Liddell & Scott 1940.

[203] Keay 2001, pp. 1019.

[231] Plutarch 1919, IV, 57: .

[204] Luniya 1978, p. 312

[232] Alexander. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 11

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[205] Pingree 1978, pp. 533, 554f

[206] Cambon, Pierre; Jarrige, Jean-Franois (2006).
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[210] Holt 2003, p. 3.
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[233] Fox 1980, pp. 7273.

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15.1 Primary sources
Arrian (1976). de Slincourt, Aubrey, ed. Anabasis
Alexandri (The Campaigns of Alexander). Penguin
Books. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Quintus Curtius Rufus (1946). Rolfe, John, ed.
History of Alexander. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 28 April 2015.


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Siculus, Diodorus (1989). Library of History. CH

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Durant, Will (1966). The Story of Civilization: The

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Plutarch (1919). Perrin, Bernadotte, ed. Plutarch,

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Fermor, Patrick Leigh (2006). Mani: Travels in the

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Plutarch (1936). Babbitt, Frank Cole, ed. On the

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Towering Exploits of Historys Greatest Conqueror as
Told By His Original Biographers. Penguin. ISBN

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Strategy. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN

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Faith, eds. (2005). Medieval Science, Technology,
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Reign of Alexander the Great. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Salvatore, eds. The Classical Tradition. Harvard
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Connerney, R. D. (2009). The upside-down tree: Indias changing culture. Algora. p. 214. ISBN 087586-649-2.

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Hellenistic Age. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-07538-2413-9.

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Forgotten empire: the world of ancient Persia. University of California Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-52024731-0.

Gunther, John (2007). Alexander the Great. Sterling. ISBN 1-4027-4519-2.

Dahmen, Karsten (2007). The Legend of Alexander the Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 0-415-39451-1.

Hammond, NGL (1983). Sources for Alexander the

Great. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521-71471-6.
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Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: Triumph and

Tragedy in the Roman Republic. Abacus. ISBN 9780-349-11563-4.

Holt, Frank Lee (2003). Alexander the Great and
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of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23881-8.
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cities in the fourth century BC. Taylor & Francis. p.
54. ISBN 0-415-00340-7. Retrieved 28 December
Morkot, Robert (1996). The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece. Penguin.
Narain, A. K. (1965). Alexander the Great: Greece
and Rome12.
Ogden, Daniel (2009). Alexanders Sex Life. In
Heckel, Alice; Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence
A. Alexander the Great: A New History. WileyBlackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3082-2.
Pingree, D. (1978). History of Mathematical Astronomy in India. Dictionary of Scientic Biography 15. pp. 533633.
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Stoneman, Richard (2004). Alexander the Great.
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31932-3.
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The Novel in the Ancient World. Brill. pp. 60112.
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Heckel, Waldemar; Tritle, Lawrence A, eds.
(2009). Alexander the Great: A New History. WileyBlackwell. pp. 4748. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0.
Wood, Michael (2001). In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great: A Journey from Greece to Asia.
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-52023192-4.
Worthington, Ian (2003). Alexander the Great: A
Reader. Routledge. p. 332. ISBN 0-415-29187-9.
Yenne, Bill (2010). Alexander the Great: Lessons
From Historys Undefeated General. Palmgrave
McMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61915-9.

16 Further reading
Badian, Ernst (1958). Alexander the Great and the
Unity of Mankind. Historia 7: 425444.
Beazley, JD; Ashmole, B (1932). Greek Sculpture
and Painting. Cambridge University Press.
Bowra, Maurice (1994). The Greek Experience.
Phoenix. ISBN 1-85799-122-2.

Renault, Mary (2001). The Nature of Alexander the

Great. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-139076-X.

Burn, AR (1951). Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire (2 ed.). London: English Universities

Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M; Berney, KA;

Schellinger, Paul E, eds. (1994). International dictionary of historic places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 19941996. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6.

Curtius. Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the

Great (in Latin). U Chicago. Retrieved 16 November 2009.

Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 1-4051-7936-8.
Sabin, P; van Wees, H; Whitby, M (2007). The
Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare:
Greece, the Hellenistic World and the Rise of Rome.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78273-2.
Sacks, David (1995). Encyclopedia of the Ancient
Greek World. Constable & Co. ISBN 0-09-4752702.

Cartledge, Paul (2004).


Alexander the Great.

Doherty, Paul (2004). The Death of Alexander the

Great. Carroll & Graf.
Engels, Donald W (1978). Alexander the Great and
the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Fawcett, Bill, ed. (2006). How To Lose A Battle:
Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders. Harper.
ISBN 0-06-076024-9.

Fuller, JFC (1958). The Generalship of Alexander
the Great. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. ISBN

Stoneman, Richard (2008). Alexander the Great: A

Life in Legend. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300-11203-0.

Green, Peter (1992). Alexander of Macedon: 356

323 BC. A Historical Biography. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.

Tarn, WW (1948). Alexander the Great. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Greene, Robert (2000). The 48 Laws of Power.

Penguin. p. 351. ISBN 0-14-028019-7.

Wheeler, Benjamin Ide (1900). Alexander the

Great; the merging of East and West in universal history. New York: GP Putnams sons.

Hammond, NGL (1989). The Macedonian State:

Origins, Institutions, and History. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 0-19-814883-6.

Wilcken, Ulrich (1997) [1932]. Alexander the

Great. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN 0393-00381-7.

Hammond, NGL (1994). Alexander the Great:

King, Commander, and Statesman (3 ed.). London:
Bristol Classical Press.

Worthington, Ian (2004). Alexander the Great: Man

And God. Pearson. ISBN 978-1-4058-0162-1.

Hammond, NGL (1997). The Genius of Alexander

the Great. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Mercer, Charles (1962). The Way of Alexander the
Great (1 ed.). Boston: American Heritage Inc.
McCrindle, J. W. (1893). The Invasion of India by
Alexander the Great as Described by Arrian, Q Curtius, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Justin. Westminster:
Archibald Constable & Co.
Murphy, James Jerome; Katula, Richard A; Hill,
Forbes I; Ochs, Donovan J (2003). A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 17. ISBN 1-880393-35-2.
Nandan, Y; Bhavan, BV (2003). British Death
March Under Asiatic Impulse: Epic of Anglo-Indian
Tragedy in Afghanistan. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya
Bhavan. ISBN 81-7276-301-8.
O'Brien, John Maxwell (1992). Alexander the
Great: The Invisible Enemy. London: Routledge.
Pomeroy, S; Burstein, S; Dolan, W; Roberts, J
(1998). Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19509742-4.
Prevas, John (2004). Envy of the Gods: Alexander
the Greats Ill-Fated Journey Across Asia (3 ed.). Da
Roisman, Joseph, ed. (1995). Alexander the Great
Ancient and Modern Perspectives. Problems in European Civilization. Lexington, MA: DC Heath.
Savill, Agnes (1959). Alexander the Great and His
Time (3 ed.). London: Barrie & Rockli.
Stewart, Andrew (1993). Faces of Power: Alexanders Image and Hellenistic Politics. Hellenistic Culture and Society 11. Berkeley: University of California Press.

17 External links
Delamarche, Flix (1833), The Empire and Expeditions of Alexander the Great.
Romm, James; Cartledge, Paul, Two Great Historians On Alexander the Great, Forbes (conversations) Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6.
Alexander the Great at DMOZ
Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary
sources, Livius.
The Elusive Tomb of Alexander the Great, Archology.
Alexander the Great and Sherlock Holmes, Sherlockian Sherlock.
In Our Time: Alexander the Great BBC discussion with Paul Cartledge, Diana Spencer and Rachel
Mairs hosted by Melvyn Bragg, rst broadcast 1 October 2015.





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