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AN1556

Blood Pressure Meter Design Using Microchips Analog


Devices and PIC24F Microcontrollers
Author:

Zhang Feng,
Microchip Technology Inc.

INTRODUCTION
A Blood Pressure Meter (BPM) is a non-invasive
device used to measure blood pressure. This
application note demonstrates the implementation of a
digital blood pressure meter using Microchips
MCP6N16
instrumentation
amplifier
and
a
PIC24FJ128GC010 microcontroller.

FIGURE 1:

BLOCK DIAGRAM
Power Supply

5/6V

Battery AAA 1.5V x 4

Voltage
Regulator
MCP1802

USB 5V 500mA

3.3V VDD
Microcontroller
PIC24FJ128GC010
Analog Signal Conditioning

Air Pump Control


Measurement

Pressure Sensor

Instrumentation
Amplifier
MCP6N16

ADC1

OPA1
Internal Op-Amp
High-pass Filter

ADC2

Solenoid Valve
Control
DAC
CTMU
I/O
PWM 1
LCD

User Interface

Buzzer

Touch Pads
Debugging

Communication

PICkit Serial

LCD Driver
PWM2

CTMU I/Os
UART

Wi-Fi Module
RN171
SPI/UART
Bluetooth
Module RN42

Data Logging

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

Computer

USB

DS00001556B-page 1

AN1556
ANALOG FRONT-END SIGNAL
CONDITIONING CIRCUIT
DESCRIPTION

is also displayed on the LCD panel by using the


microcontrollers Real-Time Clock and Calendar
module that can operate in Deep Sleep mode.

As shown in Figure 1, the MCP6N16-100 single


Instrumentation Amplifier (INA) is used to condition the
analog signal acquired from the Wheatstone bridge
type of air pressure sensor. The overall INA gain is set
at 101 V/V. The output signal of the MCP6N16 is split
into two paths. One path, representing the cuff
pressure, is connected to the ADC1 channel of the
microcontroller. Another path is passed through a 2pole active high-pass filter with cutoff frequencies of
0.48Hz and 4.8Hz, and a gain of 92. The high-pass
filter is formed by one of the microcontrollers internal
operational amplifiers. The output of the high-pass
filter, representing the oscillation signal, is sent to the
ADC2 channel of the microcontroller.

POWER SUPPLY

PIC24FJ128GC010
MICROCONTROLLER
The microcontroller provides a 12-bit high-speed
pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). The cuff
pressure signal and the oscillation signal are both
sampled at 250 Hz by the 12-bit ADC.
As described in the previous section, the demo system
uses one of the microcontrollers internal operational
amplifiers to build the analog high-pass filter. It also
utilizes one of the internal 10-bit Digital-to-Analog
Converters (DAC) with buffered output voltage to
provide an adjustable DC offset level as the bias for the
operational amplifier.
Microchips mTouch sensing solution is implemented
in the firmware for the capacitive touch pads utilizing
the microcontrollers Charge Time Measurement Unit
(CTMU). Meanwhile, the air pressure sensor requires a
stable supply current of 100 uA DC, which is also
provided by the CTMU.
The demo system utilizes the microcontrollers PulseWidth Modulation (PWM) module to drive the air
pumps motor in fast or slow speed mode. The noise
generated by a running motor can interfere with the
pressure measurement while inflating. The circuit
design, firmware and Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
layout are intended to reduce the motor noise.
The results for blood pressure and pulse rate can be
sent to a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panel, USB
interface and wireless interface. The microcontroller
has an integrated LCD controller that generates the
data and timing control required to directly drive a static
or multiplexed LCD panel. The demo system utilizes
the microcontrollers USB On-The-Go interface for data
communication as well as the 5V main power source.
For wireless communication, the microcontrollers SPI
or UART port connects to a Microchip RN42 Bluetooth
module or an RN171 Wi-Fi module. A real-time clock

DS00001556B-page 2

The main input power is supplied by either four 1.5V


AAA alkaline batteries or the USBs VBus line. The
MCP1802 LDO converts the 5V or 6V main input
voltage to 3.3V VDD.

SPECIAL FEATURES
A 2-pass moving average filter with a cutoff frequency
of 3.5 Hz is implemented in the firmware. It filters the
raw ADC samples acquired from each ADC channel.
This demo system uses a custom algorithm for blood
pressure calculation that was developed based upon
published academic papers available in the public
domain (see Appendix D: References).

MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY
A digital blood pressure meter measures systolic and
diastolic pressures by oscillometric detection.
Microchips digital blood pressure meter demo can
measure blood pressure and pulse rate during inflation.
The Measurement While Inflating (MWI) principle
reduces overall measuring time, which in turn reduces
discomfort caused by the pressure in the cuff.
After the motor pumps the pressure up to 30 mmHg in
fast mode, the motor changes to slow mode gradually
and linearly inflating the cuff. When the pressure in the
cuff gets high enough to just begin constricting the flow
of blood, the arterial pulse becomes detectable by the
pressure sensor. At this point, the waveform captured
from the ADC2 channel (the output of the analog highpass filter) starts to show the onset of the blood
pressure oscillation signal (see Figure 2). The
oscillation signal is then filtered by a 2-pass moving
average filter. The Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is the
cuff pressure which corresponds to the maximum
oscillation signal. Based on the custom algorithm for
blood pressure calculation, the Systolic Pressure
(SYS) and the Diastolic Pressure (DIA) can be
determined using the MAP value and a lookup table of
empirical formulas (see Figure 3). The inflation process
is automatically terminated when the pressure reaches
a specified value. The Pulse Rate (PR) can be
calculated based on ADC sample rate and sample
numbers obtained in multiple consecutive pulses.

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

AN1556
FIGURE 2:

RAW ADC DATA OF THE OSCILLATION SIGNAL ACQUIRED FROM THE ADC2 AT
250 SAMPLES/SECOND

FIGURE 3:

THE PLOT OF ADC DATA FOR DIGITALLY FILTERED OSCILLATION SIGNAL AND
CUFF PRESSURE SIGNAL

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

DS00001556B-page 3

AN1556
PROGRAM FLOWCHART
Figure 4 shows the firmware process flow.

FIGURE 4:

FIRMWARE PROCESS FLOWCHART

Start

Initialization
Main Loop
Checking Push
Buttons
Start Button Pressed
Inflating Cuff

Enable ADC sample list 1


interrupt for taking ADC
samples from CH1 and
CH2 channels

Processing ADC data

Release Air

Calculating blood pressure


and pulse rate

Display Result

DS00001556B-page 4

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

AN1556
APPENDIX A:

BPM DEMO BOARD

This appendix shows the BPM demo board.

FIGURE 5:

BPM DEMO BOARD

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

DS00001556B-page 5

AN1556
APPENDIX B:

SCHEMATICS

This appendix shows the Blood Pressure Meter


schematics.

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DS00001556B-page 7

AN1556
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2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

AN1556
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DS00001556B-page 9

AN1556
APPENDIX C:

WARNINGS,
RESTRICTIONS AND
DISCLAIMER

This demo is intended solely for evaluation and


development purposes. It is not intended for medical
diagnostic use.

DS00001556B-page 10

APPENDIX D:

REFERENCES

Wang Wei-Wei, Pu Bao-Ming, He Bao-Yue, Li ShengJin. Design and


Realization
of Electronic
Sphygmomanometer Based on Inflation Measurement.
Journal of Computer Systems & Applications,
2012,21(2):150-153,97.

2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

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Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.

Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
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ISBN: 978-1-63277-318-0

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== ISO/TS 16949 ==
2013-2015 Microchip Technology Inc.

Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide


headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
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DS00001556B-page 11

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China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889

Boston
Westborough, MA
Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088

China - Chongqing
Tel: 86-23-8980-9588
Fax: 86-23-8980-9500

Chicago
Itasca, IL
Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Cleveland
Independence, OH
Tel: 216-447-0464
Fax: 216-447-0643
Dallas
Addison, TX
Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Novi, MI
Tel: 248-848-4000
Houston, TX
Tel: 281-894-5983
Indianapolis
Noblesville, IN
Tel: 317-773-8323
Fax: 317-773-5453
Los Angeles
Mission Viejo, CA
Tel: 949-462-9523
Fax: 949-462-9608
New York, NY
Tel: 631-435-6000
San Jose, CA
Tel: 408-735-9110
Canada - Toronto
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509

China - Dongguan
Tel: 86-769-8702-9880
China - Hangzhou
Tel: 86-571-8792-8115
Fax: 86-571-8792-8116

Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44

India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-3019-1500
Japan - Osaka
Tel: 81-6-6152-7160
Fax: 81-6-6152-9310

Germany - Pforzheim
Tel: 49-7231-424750
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781

Japan - Tokyo
Tel: 81-3-6880- 3770
Fax: 81-3-6880-3771

Italy - Venice
Tel: 39-049-7625286

Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302

Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340

China - Hong Kong SAR


Tel: 852-2943-5100
Fax: 852-2401-3431

Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934

China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470

Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur


Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859

China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205

Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068

China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066

Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069

China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393

Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850

China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8864-2200
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760

Taiwan - Hsin Chu


Tel: 886-3-5778-366
Fax: 886-3-5770-955

China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118

Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-213-7828

China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256

Poland - Warsaw
Tel: 48-22-3325737
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
Sweden - Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-5090-4654
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5800
Fax: 44-118-921-5820

Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2508-8600
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
01/27/15

DS00001556B-page 12

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