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Contents
1 Survey and Exploration
1.1 Flora Botanical Survey of India (BSI)

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Nodal Agency
Minister
State

of

Shri Prakash Javadekar

1.3 Forests Forest Survey of India (FSI)


2 Conservation, Protection & Welfare
2.1 Forest Conservation

(Ind. Charge)
Objectives

1.2 Fauna Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

The main objectives of the Ministry are survey of ora and


fauna, forests and wildlife, their conservation and protection of
environment. Besides, the Ministry undertakes prevention and
regeneration efforts like afforestation through community
participation.

2.1.1 National Forestry Action Programme


& National Forest Policy
2.1.2 Mangroves
2.2 Wildlife conservation, protected area
networks and institutions
2.2.1 Project Elephant Division

Functions

Policy
framework

The Ministry functions as the nodal agency for implementation


of Indias environment and forests policies and programmes
related to conservation of natural resources, biodiversity,
ensuring welfare of animals and prevention in abatement of

2.2.2 Wildlife division & Wildlife Crime


Control Bureau

pollution in a sustainable way. The Ministry also functions as the


nodal agency for United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme
(SACP), International Centre for integrated Mountain
development (ICIMOD), United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED). The Ministry also
coordinates with multi-national agencies like SAARC, GEF,
ESCAP ETC.

2.2.4 Recovery Program for Critically


Endangered Species and Habitats

National Forest policy 1988, Natural Conservation Strategy And


Policy Statement on Environment and Development 1992,
Biological Diversity Act 2002, National Environment Policy 2006

2.2.3 Autonomous Bodies

2.3 Marine & Wetland Conservation


2.3.1 Corals
2.3.2 River & Wetland Conservation
2.3.2.1 National River and Lake
Conservation Plan
2.3.2.2 Wetland conservation in the
country
2.4 Biodiversity Conservation
2.4.1 Protected area Network
2.4.2 Biodiversity conservation

Survey and Exploration


BSI
ZSI
FSI

Flora Botanical Survey of India (BSI)


Botanical Survey of India is the Research organisation in the country which overlooks taxonomic and
oristic studies of wild plant resources. Although it was established with an economic virtue in 1890, it
was reorganised in 1954 with a scienti;c motive. The botanical survey of India has its main objective of
research and conservation of threatened species. The mandate of BSI ranges from inventory

2.4.2.1 Convention on Biological


Diversity
2.4.2.2 Biological Diversity Act 2002 &
National Biodiversity Authority
2.4.2.3 Cartagena Biosafety Protocol
2.4.2.4 Genetic Engineering Appraisal
Committee
3 Prevention & Regeneration
3.1 Policy framework to combat pollution
3.2 Central Pollution Control Board

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management, strategy development for conservation, research on fragile ecosystems and protected
areas, documentation of traditional knowledge about plans and above all creating and maintaining a
national database management.

Fauna Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)


The Zoological Survey of India is a nodal agency responsible for survey, exploration and research of the
faunal diversity of the country. ZSI was set up in 1916 with its headquarters at Kolkata and has 16
regional centres located across the country. Currently, the logical survey of India has classi;ed its survey
programs under six categories- survey of fauna in states, conservation areas and important
ecosystems, status of endangered species, ecological studies/environmental impact assessments
survey and ;nally computerisation dissemination of data. The zoological survey of India in partnership
with Wildlife Institute in Dehradun prepares the list of endangered species. The organisation also
involves in digitisation, mapping, taxonomic studies and maintaining ex-situ conservation sites.

Forests Forest Survey of India (FSI)


The Forest Survey of India was established in 1981 as a successor to Pre-Investment Survey of Forest
Resources (PISFER). While the main objective of PISFER was the assessment of availability of raw
materials for wood-based industries, Forest Survey of India has its mandate to conduct regular survey of
Forest resources the country.
MoEF (Major Divisions)
Animal Welfare(AW), Forest Protection (FPR), Clean Technology (CT, Forest Services
(FS), Climate Change Division (CCD), Hazardous Substances Management (HSM),
Deserti;cation Cell, International Cooperation and Sustainable Development (IC&SD),
Conservation & Survey (CS), Montreal Protocol & Ozone Cell (OC), Control of Pollution
(CP), National Afforestation & Eco-Development Board (NAEB), Climate Change (CC),
National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), Environment Education (EE), North
East Cell (NEC), Environment Research (RE), Project Elephant (PE), Environmental
Impact Assessment (IA), Project Tiger (PT), Environmental Information (EI), Research
& Training (Forestry) (RT), Externally Aided Projects (EAP), Survey & Utilization (SU),
Forest Conservation (FC), Trade & Environment (T&E), Forest Policy (FP) and Wildlife
(WL)

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3.3 Waste management


3.4 National Afforestation Programme
4 Institutional setup
4.1 National Green Tribunal
4.2 Environmental Research
4.3 Awards and fellowships
4.4 Environmental Information/Organisations
4.5 International cooperation
5 Climate Change
5.1 National Action Plan on Climate Change
5.2 Kyoto protocol to Lima-COP 20! Long way
to Paris-2015
5.2.1 The Indian Stand
5.3 IPCC assessment report

Topics in Current Affairs


Culture & Heritage
Development & Related Issues
Economy
Environment, Biodiversity & Climate Change
Geography
India and the World
International-Meets-Summits & Conferences
Persons in News & Awards
Polity and Governance

Conservation, Protection & Welfare


Forests Mangroves
Wildlife PA-Institutions
Marine Corals Rivers
Biodiversity conservation

Science and Technology


Security
Sports
Uncategorized
World Watch

Forest Conservation
National Forestry Action Programme & National Forest
Policy
India has initiated National Forestry Action Programme in line with the National Forest Policy, 1988 to
bring one-third area of the country under forest/tree cover and to arrest deforestation for achieving
sustainable development of forests. India has laid down its National Forest Policy in 1988 with the
following objectives:
National Forest Policy 1988 Objectives
Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of the ecological
balance
Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests
Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchments areas of rivers, lakes, reservoirs
Checking the extension of sand-dunes in the desert areas of Rajasthan and along the coastal
tracts

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Increasing substantially the forest/tree cover in the country through massive afforestation and
social forestry programmes
Meeting the requirements of fuel-wood, fodder, minor forest produce and small timber of the
rural and tribal populations
Increasing the productivity of forests to meet essential national needs
Encouraging ef;cient utilisation of forest produce and maximising substitution of wood
Community participation and development of mass movements

The Forest Conservation Act 1980, regulates the diversion of forestlands to non-forestry purposes with
an intention to balance between the developmental needs of the country in the conservation of the
natural heritage. With many revisions procedures have been simpli;ed, delays have been cut down and
the process has been made transparent in proper implementation of the act. The Central government
has furthered the policy by initiating Intensi;cation of Forest Management Scheme (IFMS) to strengthen
the Forest protection missionary of the states as well as the union territories. The scheme promotes and
supports area speci;c forest management interventions on a cost sharing basis with improved support
to north-eastern and special category states-Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Intensi+
Intensi +cation of Forest Management Scheme (IFMS) Mandate
Forest ;re control and management
Strengthening of infrastructure
Survey and demarcation
Working plan preparation
Protection and conservation of sacred groves
Conservation and restoration of unique vegetation and ecosystems
Control and eradication of Forest invasive species
Management of bamboo forests

Mangroves
Mangroves-plants with aerial root system/pneumatophores constitute a symbiotic link or bridge
between terrestrial and maligned ecosystems. They survive high salinity, tidal regime, strong wind
capacity, high temperature and muddy anaerobic soil. Normally they are found in the intertidal zones of
sheltered shore, estuaries, creeks, backwaters, lagoons, marshes and mud ats. Indian has mangroves
all along its coastal states with West Bengal having the maximum mangrove cover in the country.
Sunderbans is home to almost half of the whole of mangrove cover in India. Gujarat and Andaman and
Nicobar Islands also have signi;cant presence of mangrove forests.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests highly prioritise conservation and management of mangrove
forests the country particularly after they were found to be effective against the tsunami waves. The
Coastal Regulation Zone Noti;cation 1991 under the Environmental Protection Act 1986 was the ;rst
initiative before the impact of tsunami which recognised the mangrove areas as ecologically sensitive.
The noti;cation categorised the mangrove forests across the country under CRZ-I (i) so as to record
highest priority in conservation activities. The government has been identi;ed 38 mangrove areas which
cover almost 4662 km. Indian is also participating country in the Mangroves for Future program
coordinated by IUCN.
Mangrove Sites in India
State

Region

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Nicobar
North Andamans

Andhra Pradesh

Coringa
East Godavari

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Krishna
Goa

Goa

Gujarat

Gulf of Khambat
Gulf of Kutchh

Karnataka

Coondapur
Dakshin Kannada/Honnavar
Karwar
Mangalore Forest Division

Kerala

Kannur
Vembanad

Maharashtra

Achra-Ratnagiri
Devgarh-Vijay Durg
Kundalika-Revdanda
Malvan
Mumbra-Diva
Shreevardhan
Vaitarna
Vasai-Manori
Veldur
Vikroli

Odisha

Bhaitarkanika
Chilika
Devi
Dharma
Mahanadi
Mangrove Genetic
Resources Centre
Subarnarekha

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Tamil Nadu

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Kazhuveli
Muthupet
Pichavaram
Pulicat
Ramnad

West Bengal

Sunderbans

State of Forests Report 2013- Key Highlights


The forest cover continues to stand at 21% of the country's geographical area
The has been a marginal increase of less than 1% in India's forest cover- 0.92% which amounts to 587 1 km
The total forest area has been maintained at 69788 8 km-21.23% of geographical area
Very Dense Forests have increased by 31 km while moderately dense forests decreased by 199 1 km
Open Forest however have increased by 783 1 km
India's carbon stocks have increased by 4.07%
The report says 48% of our record forest area has regeneration capacity
West Bengal and Orissa have the highest increase in forest cover followed by Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar and Tamil Nadu
There was a decrease in the forest cover of north-eastern region which accounts for one fourth of India's green cover,
predominantly due to shifting cultivation practices particularly in Nagaland, Tripura and Manipur
Degraded forests account for 8% of country's total cover.
Madhya Pradesh has the highest forest cover with 77522 square kilometre in terms of area
followed by Arunachal Pradesh with a false cover of 6732 1 km.
In terms of percentage of Forest to geographical area, Mizoram has 90.38% followed by Lakshadweep with 84.56%.

Forest Cover in States/UT in India ISFR 2013

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States/UT

Geo.
Area

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2013 Assessment Method


Very
Dense
Forest

Open
Forest

Total
Forest

Dense
Forest

%
(Geo.
Area)

Change
from
2011

%
Change

Scrub

Andhra
Pradesh

2,75,069

850

26,079

19,187

46,116

17

-273

-0.100

10,465

Arunachal
Pradesh

83,743

20,828

31,414

15,079

67,321

80

-89

-0.110

121

Assam

78,438

1,444

11,345

14,882

27,671

35

-2

0.000

82

Bihar

94,163

247

3,380

3,664

7,291

446

0.470

115

Chhattisgarh

1,35,191

4,153

34,865

16,603

55,621

41

-53

-0.040

117

Delhi

1,483

49

124

180

12

0.240

Goa

3,702

543

585

1,091

2,219

60

0.000

Gujarat

1,96,022

376

5,220

9,057

14,653

34

0.020

1,492

Haryana

44,212

27

453

1,106

1,586

-22

-0.050

150

Himachal
Pradesh

55,673

3,224

6,381

5,078

14,683

26

0.010

298

2,22,236

4,140

8,760

9,638

22,538

10

0.000

2,105

Jharkhand

79,714

2,587

9,667

11,219

23,473

29

496

0.620

670

Karnataka

1,91,791

1,777

20,179

14,176

36,132

19

-62

-0.030

3,216

Kerala

38,863

1,529

9,401

6,992

17,922

46

622

1.600

29

Madhya
Pradesh

3,08,245

6,632

34,921

35,969

77,522

25

-178'

-0.060

6,389

Maharashtra

3,07,713

8,720

20,770

21,142

50,632

16

-14

0.000

4,157

Manipur

22,327

728

6,094

10,168

16,990

76

-100

-0.450

Meghalaya

22,429

449

9,689

7,150

17,288

77

13

0.060

372

Mizoram

21,081

138

5,900

13,016

19,054

90

-63

-0.300

Nagaland

16,579

1,298

4,736

7,010

13,044

79

-274

-1.650

Odisha

1,55,707

7,042

21,298

22,007

50,347

32

1,444

0.930

4,424

Punjab

50,362

736

1,036

1,772

0.020

37

Rajasthan

3,42,239

72

4,424

11,590

16,086

-1

0.000

4,211

Jammu
Kashmir*

&

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Sikkim

7,096

500

2,161

697

3,358

47

-1

-0.010

311

Tamil Nadu

1,30,058

2,948

10,199

10,697

23,844

18

219

0.170

1,212

Tripura

10,486

109

4,641

3,116

7,866

75

-111

-1.060

66

Uttar
Pradesh

2,40,928

1,623

4,550

8,176

14,349

11

0.000

806

Uttarakhand

53,483

4,785

14,111

5,612

24,508

46

12

0.020

262

West Bengal

88,752

2,971

4,146

9,688

16,805

19

3810#

4.290

111

A&N Islands

8,249

3,754

2,413

544

6,711

81

-13

-0.160

57

Chandigarh

114

10

17

15

0.230

Dadra
&
Nagar Haveli

491

114

99

213

43

0.410

Daman & Diu

12

2.920

Lakshadweep

32

17

10

27

85

0.190

Puducherry

480

35

15

50

10

0.010

Grand Total

32,87,263

83,502

3,18,745

2,95,651

6,97,898

21

5,871

0.180

41,383

* Includes Jammu & Kashmir area outside LOC that is under illegal occupation of Pakistan and China.
# The negative change in forest cover of Madhya Pradesh as compared to previous assessment is mainly attributed
due to inclusion of some non-forest area as forest cover. Similarly in West Bengal the change in forest cover in present
assessment is due to exclusion of some areas as forest cover in the previous assessment due to poor quality satellite
data.

Wildlife conservation, protected area networks and


institutions
The policy framework for wildlife conservation activities is laid out by the National Board for Wildlife
chaired by the Prime Minister. In congruence with the policy, the National Wildlife Action Plan (2002 to
2016) adopted in 2002 emphasised upon community participation in wildlife conservation. The
signi;cance of these measures vis--vis the provisions of Constitution is re ected in the philosophy of
identifying and protecting representative while habitats across the country. At the administrative level,
the Federal Ministry issues directions and plays an advisory role whereas the implementation is
delegated to Forest departments at the grassroots level.
MoEF-Wildlife Wing-Organisation Structure
Project
elephant
division

Wildlife division
National Zoological Park
Wildlife Crime Control
Bureau

Autonomous bodies
Wildlife Institute of India
Central zoo authority
National

Tiger

conservation

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authority

The Ministry of environment and forests structurally has two divisions-Project Elephant Division and
Wildlife Division. The Ministry also acts as the nodal authority for autonomous institutions like Wildlife
Institute of India (Dehradun), Central zoo authority and National Tiger Conservation Authority. Further in
order to prevent crimes related to wildlife, Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been constituted with ;ve
regional of;ces in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur.

Project Elephant Division


Project elephant is a centrally sponsored scheme initiated in 1991-92 to promote the welfare of
domesticated as well as wild elephants. The scheme envisages protection of elephants and their
habitats corridors through ;nancial and technical support provided to states and union territories. In
view of the increasing man animal con ict with the burgeoning population the division has extended its
activities to 16 states and union territories including all the southern states, the north-eastern states
except Sikkim and Manipur, all the Eastern States, Maharashtra at the Centre and Uttar Pradesh and
Uttarakhand in the North. Recently the Indian Railways has decided to realign its operation considering
the elephant corridors the country.

Wildlife division & Wildlife Crime Control Bureau


The Central government has initiated schemes like Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies
for Special Tasks under which the wildlife division provides technical and ;nancial support to states and
union territories. The grants in aid to the Central zoo authority at wildlife Institute of India are the main
;nancial sources For the Scheme. The National Zoological Park in New Delhi Is a Part of the Wildlife
Division. The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau was constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 as a
statutory body in 2007.WCCB is a multidisciplinary body integrating the ranks of police, Forest
departments and customs. WCCB has its headquarters at Delhi and ;ve regional of;ces in the metros
and Jabalpur.

Autonomous Bodies
Autonomous/Statutory Bodies
Wildlife
India

Institute

of

1986

Central Zoo authority


1992

National
Conservation
Authority
1972

Tiger

Established in 1986, the W II at Dehradun serves as the previous training


and research institution in the ;eld of wildlife and protected area
management in South and Southeast Asia. W I I access an advisory
body to the state and union Territories apart from generating and
disseminating quality information related to wildlife science.
CZA was established in 1992 under the Provisions of Wildlife Protection
Act 1972. With Minister of State, environment and forests as its
ex-of;cial chairman, the Central zoo authority is the 12 member body
constituted to oversee the functioning of zoos in the country.
The National Tiger Conservation Authority monitor Project Tiger
launched in 1972 to ensure conservation and maintenance of a viable
population of Tigers in India. Project Tiger was mooted to enhance
scienti;c, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values. Sites are
the project late signi;cance for preservation of areas of biological
importance as National heritage for the bene;t, education and
enjoyment of the people. Over span of 42 years of its establishment,
project Tiger could stall the extinction of the species although the
increase in the population has not been signi;cant. However the Tiger
population has increased from 1411 in 2006 to 1706 in 2011 and ;nally
about 2200 in 2014. NTCA conducts Tiger survey every four years
scienti;cally with camera Traps, pug Mark identi;cation and double
sampling.

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for

The NBWL is a statutory Board constituted on 22nd September


2003 under Section 5 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The NBWL
is chaired by the Honble Prime Minister. The NBWL has 47 members
including the Chairman.

Animal Welfare Board


of India

The Animal Welfare Board of India was established in 1962 under


Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. AWBI is a
statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal
welfare in the country. It provides grants to Animal Welfare
Organizations and advises the Government of India on animal welfare
issues.

National
Wildlife

Board

2002

1962

Recovery Program for Critically Endangered Species and


Habitats
Under the programme, 16 species have been identi;ed initially including Snow Leopard, Bustard
(including Floricans), Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine Turtles, Dugongs, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Asian
Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet, Indian
Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdons Courser.
List of Tiger Reserves in India
Sl no

Name
of
Reserve

Nagarjunsagar-

Tiger

State

Year of

Area

Establishment

(Sq. Km.)

AP/Telengana

1982-83

4896.510

Srisailam
2

Kawal

AP/Telengana

2012-13

2019.120

Namdapha

Arunachal Pradesh

1982-83

2052.820

Pakke

Arunachal Pradesh

1999-2000

1198.450

Manas

Assam

1973-74

3150.920

Nameri

Assam

1999-2000

344.000

Kaziranga

Assam

2006

1173.580

Valmiki

Bihar

1989-90

899.380

Indravati

Chhattishgarh

1982-83

2799.070

10

Udanti-Sitanadi

Chhattishgarh

2008-09

1842.540

11

Achanakmar

Chhattishgarh

2008-09

914.017

12

Palamau

Jharkhand

1973-74

1129.930

13

Bandipur

Karnataka

1973-74

1456.300

14

Bhadra

Karnataka

1998-99

1064.290

15

Nagarhole

Karnataka

1999-2000

1205.760

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16

Dandeli-Anshi

Karnataka

2007

1097.514

17

Biligiri-Ranganathan
Temple

Karnataka

2011-12

574.820

18

Periyar

Kerala

1978-79

925.000

19

Parambikulam

Kerala

2008-09

643.662

20

Kanha

Madhya Pradesh

1973-74

2051.791

21

Pench

Madhya Pradesh

1992-93

1179.632

22

Bandhavgarh

Madhya Pradesh

1993-94

1536.938

23

Panna

Madhya Pradesh

1994-95

1578.550

24

Satpura

Madhya Pradesh

1999-2000

2133.308

25

Sanjay Dubri

Madhya Pradesh

2008-09

1674.502

26

Melghat

Maharashtra

1973-74

2768.520

27

Pench

Maharashtra

1992-93

741.220

28

Tadoba-Andhari

Maharashtra

1993-94

1727.591

29

Sahyadri

Maharashtra

2009-2010

1165.570

30

Bor

Maharashtra

2014

138.000

31

Nawegaon-Nagzira

Maharashtra

2012-13

653.000

32

Dampa

Mizoram

1994-95

988.000

33

Simlipal

Orissa

1973-74

2750.000

34

Satkosia

Orissa

2008-09

963.870

35

Ranthambhore

Rajasthan

1973-74

1411.291

36

Sariska

Rajasthan

1978-79

1213.342

37

Mukundara Hills

Rajasthan

2012-13

417.000

38

KalakadMundathurai

Tamil Nadu

1988-89

1601.542

39

Annamalai

Tamil Nadu

2007

1479.870

40

Mudumalai

Tamil Nadu

2007

688.590

41

Satyamangalam

Tamil Nadu

2012-13

1408.400

42

Dudhwa

Uttar Pradesh

1987-88

2201.775

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43

Amangarh

Uttar Pradesh

2012

80.000

44

Pilibhit

Uttar Pradesh

2012

1074.000

45

Corbett

Uttarakhand

1973-74

1288.310

46

Sunderbans

West Bengal

1973-74

2584.890

47

Buxa

West Bengal

1982-83

757.904

Marine & Wetland Conservation


Corals
The Ministry of environment and forests has prioritised the conservation of coral reefs in four major
designated areas- Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kutch, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands. The
Ministry has initiated intensive conservation management programme with emphasis upon preventive
aspects through monitoring and surveillance. The Ministry has also oated many education and
awareness initiatives apart from supporting research and development activities related to corals
biodiversity. The Marine biodiversity management initiatives include corals, their management and
dealing with pollution in such areas.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has set up a National Coral Reef Research Centre at Port Blair
to conduct research and development activities. India with a Reef area of about 2375 km is also a
participant in the International Coral Reef initiative (ICRI). In order to address the concerns of coral
bleaching the Ministry has identi;ed six CRZ-I (i) category areas. They are located along the coastal
areas of Kerala, Goa, Gulf of Kutch, Lakshadweep islands, Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. When the Gulf
of Mannar and Palk Bay are homes to fringing reefs, Lakshadweep islands has Atoll reefs. Reefs in
patches/Archipelago are found along Ratnagiri & Malwan coast. Fringing and barrier reefs are found in
Andaman and Nicobar islands.

River & Wetland Conservation


National River and Lake Conservation Plan
The National River Conservation Plan and the National Lake conservation plan are implemented by the
National River Conservation Directorate for the conservation of water bodies. The plants are prepared
with an intention to improve the water quality of rivers and lakes through pollution abatement efforts.
Such efforts include prevention of ow of raw sewage owing into the river through open drains and
subsequent treatment in sewage treatment plants. The plan further envisages construction of low-cost
sanitation toilets to prevent open defecation on river banks. Similarly construction of Electric
Crematorium, Riverfront the Allotment, Afforestation and Community Participation Are other key
features of the plan.

Wetland conservation in the country


The National Wetland Conservation Program initiated in 1987 intends to promote Conservation and
Management of the Wetlands through Financial Assistance, Constant Monitoring and Inventory
Management. Wetlands Conservation and Management Rules-2010 was noti;ed by the Central
government under which the Central Wetlands Regulatory Authority was constituted. CW RA has a
mandate of identi;cation of new wetlands, implementation of the rule and granting clearances for
related activities the wetlands. CWRA has an advisory role to the states for preservation and wise use of
wetlands. The authority further maintains a list of wetlands and monitors the prohibited in the little
activities under the rules. India has identi;ed more than 115 wetlands in concurrence with the world
initiatives in protecting the wetlands.
De+
De + nition of wetland-Ramsar Convention

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Ramsar convention de;nes wetlands as areas of marsh fen, peat land or water, whether arti;cial or
natural, permanent or temporary, with the water static or owing, brackish or salt, including marine
areas, depth of his thus not exceed 6 m. Thus the term wetland by Ramsar Convention includes
mangroves, corals, estuaries, creeks, bass, sea grasses, Lakes, lagoons et cetera.

India has rati;ed the Ramsar Convention on wetlands in 1982. In 1987, the Ministry launched a scheme
on Conservation and Management of Wetlands, Mangroves and Coral Reefs. So far 26 sites have been
designated as Ramsar sites in the country as in 2013. Indian is a partner to the Himalayan initiatives as
well. Strategic plan 2009-2015 lays out Indias plans for partnerships and synergies with multilateral
environmental agreements, their views and sociocultural issues, linking conservation with poverty
eradication and relation of harmful pesticides consequent to the suggestions on climate change.
Sl no

Ramsar Wetland

Date

State

Deepor Beel

19 August 2002

Assam

Pong Dam Lake

19 August 2002

Himachal Pradesh

Sasthamkotta Lake

19 August 2002

Kerala

Vembanad-Kol Wetland

19 August 2002

Kerala

Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary

19 August 2012

Tamil Nadu

Kolleru Lake

19 August 2002

Andhra Pradesh

Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary

24 September 2012

Gujarat

Chandertal Wetland

08 November 2005

Himachal Pradesh

Renuka Wetland

08 November 2005

Himachal Pradesh

10

Wular Lake

23 March 1990

Jammu & Kashmir

11

Tsomoriri

19 August 2002

Jammu & Kashmir

12

Hokera Wetland

08 November 2005

Jammu & Kashmir

13

Surinsar-Mansar Lakes

08 November 2005

Jammu & Kashmir

14

Ashtamudi Wetland

19 August 2002

Kerala

15

Bhoj Wetland

19 August 2002

Madhya Pradesh

16

Loktak Lake

23 March 1990

Manipur

17

Chilika Lake

01 October 1981

Orissa

18

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

19 August 2002

Orissa

19

Harike Lake

23 March 1990

Punjab

20

Kanjli

22 January 2002

Punjab

21

Ropar

22 January 2002

Punjab

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22

Keoladeo National Park

01 October 1981

Rajasthan

23

Sambhar Lake

23 March 1990

Rajasthan

24

Rudrasagar Lake

08 November 2005

Tripura

25

Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)

08 November 2005

Uttar Pradesh

26

East Calcutta Wetlands

19 August 2002

West Bengal

Biodiversity Conservation
Protected area Network
Wildlife sanctuarys
National parks
Biosphere reserves
So far a network of sudden 68 protected areas has been established extending over 16122 1.57 km
with 102 national parks, 515 wildlife sanctuaries, 47 conservation reserves and 4 community reserves.
India has initiated extensive conservation of ecological units and corridors which enumerates the
principle of Trans boundary Protected Areas, with participation of neighbouring countries. A wildlife
sanctuary or a national Park is an area of adequate ecological, faunal, oral, natural, geomorphology kill
or zoological signi;cance. An area is declared as a wildlife sanctuary or a National Park with an objective
to protect, propagate and develop wildlife and its environment. However when the forest dwellers are
accorded partial rights within the wildlife sanctuary, no such rights are given inside National Parks. The
State Governments in line with the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 aim at providing a larger landscape as a
collaboration of smaller ones connected through corridors and in such an endeavour may declare an
area they own as a conservation reserve. Declaration of the conservation reserve does not affect the
rights of the people living there. While the conservation reserves are declared on land owned by the
state, community reserves are declared on community or private lands when a community or an
individual come forward voluntarily to conserve wildlife and its habitat. While the community reserves
intend to protect the ora and fauna and traditional or cultural aspects, the rights of the people living
inside remains intact.
India has extended its protected area network to include biosphere reserves-internationally recognised
within the framework of Man and Biosphere programme of UNESCO. Biosphere reserves are declared
with an objective to conserve the biological diversity, promote research and to provide models of
sustainable development with effective local community participation. The biosphere reserves facilitate
consideration of representative landscapes and immense biological diversity and cultural heritage which
foster economic and human development in a sustainable way.
Biosphere Reserves in India
Sl.No

Biosphere Reserve

Area sq.km

Year

Bio Geographic Region

Location

Gulf of Mannar

10500

1989

Coastal

Tamil Nadu

Simlipal

4373

1994

Deccan Peninsula

Odisha

Sunderbans

9630

1989

Delta, Mangroves

West Bengal

Sheshachalam

4755

2010

Eastern Ghats

Andhra Pradesh

Nokrek

820

1988

Eastern Himalayas

Meghalaya

Manas

2837

1989

Eastern Himalayas

Assam

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Dibru Saikhowa

765

1997

Eastern Himalayas

Assam

Dehang-Debang

5112

1998

Eastern Himalayas

Arunachal Pradesh

Kanchanjunga

2620

2000

Eastern Himalayas

Sikkim

10

Great Nicobar

885

1989

Island/Coastal

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

11

Panchmari

4926

1999

Semi-Arid

Madhya Pradesh

12

Achanakmar Amarkantak

3835

2005

Semi-Arid

Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh

13

Rann of Kachchh

12454

2008

Semi-Arid

Gujarat

14

Panna

NA

2011

Semi-Arid

Madhya Pradesh

15

Nilgiri

5520

1986

Western Ghats

Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

16

Agasthyamalai

1701

2001

Western Ghats

Kerala

17

Nanda Devi

5861

1988

Western Himalayas

Uttarakhand

18

Cold Desert

NA

2009

Western Himalayas

Himachal Pradesh

Biodiversity conservation
Biodiversity Conservation
Biodiversity

Biosafety

CBD
NBA

Cartagena Protocol
GEAC

Convention on Biological Diversity


The Convention on biological diversity is a key agreement adopted during the Earth Summit held in Rio
de Janeiro in 1992. The main three objectives of CBD are conservation of bioethical diversity, sustainable
use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of bene;ts arising out of the use of genetic
resources.

Biological Diversity Act 2002 & National Biodiversity Authority


In order to align the threefold objectives of CBD with its national policy, India has rati;ed CBD in 1994
and enacted Biological Diversity Act in 2002 under which National Biodiversity Authority was constituted
as an autonomous body in 2003 with its headquarters in Chennai. Further, under section 8 of the act
provisions were laid down for the State biodiversity boards at the state-level and Biodiversity
Management Committees at the local level. Under The Biological Diversity Act 2002, the Ministry of
Environment and Forests has noti;ed threatened species in various states (section 38), initiated projects
in participation with UNEP-GEF like Strengthening the Implementation of Biological Diversity Act and
Rules, Centre for Biodiversity Policy and Law (CEBPOL) and Strengthening the Enabling Environment for
Biodiversity Conservation and Management in India.

Cartagena Biosafety Protocol


CPB was adopted under the ages of CBD in 2000 with India as a party to the protocol. The main

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objective of the protocol that entered into force in 2003 is to ensure safe transfer, handling and use of
living modi;ed organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology. The protocol aims to prevent
the adverse effects of living modi;ed organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity and human health. India is also a party to the Nagoya protocol on Access and Bene;t Sharing
adopted in 2010.

Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee


Concerns about biosafety have led to development of regulatory regimes for research, testing, safe use
and handling of genetically modi;ed organisms (GMOs) and related products. India Ike many other
countries has established a Biosafety Regime under the Environment and Protection Act 1986. Ministry
of environment and forests noti;ed the rules for manufacture, use, import, export and storage of
hazardous microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells in 1989 which led to the creation
of Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee. GEAC is a statutory body and overlooks the approval of
activities involving large-scale use of other artists living microorganisms and recombinants in research
and industrial production. The institution is also responsible for the approval of proposals related to
release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment including experimental
;eld trials. Further the committee regulates the use of LMO/GMOs falling in the risk category three and
above in the manufacture or import of recombinant Pharma products or were the end product of the
recumbent Pharma product itself is a LMO/GMO.
World Environment Day
World Environment Day is Celebrated on June 05 every year. It was started by UN Gen assembly in
1972 at the Stockholm conference on human environment. This year the Moto was "racier voice, not
the sealevel". It is celebrated to give a human face to environmental issues, to empower people have
active agents of sustainable and equitable development, to encourage communities change attitudes
towards environmental issues and to advocate partnership for all nations to enjoy a safe future.

International conventions on Conservation


Ramsar Convention

1972

Convention biological diversity, Rio de Janeiro

1992

UN Convention to Combat Deserti;cation

1992

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to conservation and management of straddling Fish stocks and highly migratory Fish stocks, New York

1995

International tropical Timber agreement, Geneva

2006

Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and fair and equitable sharing of bene;ts, Japan

2010

Prevention & Regeneration


Pollution CPCB Waste management
Regeneration NAEB-EDF

Policy framework to combat pollution


With rising population migration to urban centres increases and at some point of time surpasses the
carrying capacity resulting in pollution. Needless to say, industrial pollution, shipping, aviation and other
vehicular emission add to the injury of already polluted urban centres. Discharge of industrial ef uence
and sewerage directly into the river course pollutes water resources besides the land and atmosphere. In
such a challenging situation the government has adopted the Policy for Abatement of Pollution in 1992

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which lays out multipronged strategies to combat the ill effects of pollution. The Policy for Abatement of
Pollution provides regulations, legislations, agreements, ;scal incentives and policies for control of
pollution at various levels. In addition to sustain the practice of reducing pollution, the government has
adopted National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development in
1992. Later in 2006, the government adopted National Environment Policy which effectively builds on the
former policies to extend the coverage and ;ll in the existing gaps.

Central Pollution Control Board


In order to control the water and air pollution, government had enacted the Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. The Central
pollution control board performs the functions mandated by these Acts apart from the advisory role to
Central government on matters concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution. In spite of
coordinating activities of the State pollution control board and pollution control committees, CPCB
provides technical assistance as well as guidance on prevention of pollution. CPCB also functions in
data generation and management and human resource development. Above all CPCB develops industry
speci;c environmental guidelines and comprehensive documents on requirements for corporate
responsibility for environmental protection in 17 major polluting industrial sectors and 88 other critically
polluted areas.

Waste management
Hazardous waste
e-waste
Solid waste
Biomedical waste

Domain

Legislation

Hazardous Chemicals

Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Rules, 1989


Chemical Accident (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996

Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000


Plastics (Manufacture, Usage and Waste Management) Rules, 2009
Hazardous Substances (Classi;cation, Packaging and Labelling) Rule, 2010

Bio Medical Waste

Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998

Hazardous Waste

Hazardous Waste Management Rules-2008

CPCB has permitted the utilisation of hazardous waste under Rule 11 of Hazardous Waste
Management Rules-2008 including land ;llable, incinerable and recyclable wastes. Permission was
granted for ethylene glycol residue, carbon slurry, high boiler residue, ef uent treatment plant sludge,
resin waste, spent chromic acid, spend acid containing molybdenum compound, spent anode butt,
surfer sludge, spent catalyst- containing precious metals and waste pickling acid. Besides, MoEF has
noti;ed e-waste management and handling rules in 2011. CPCB has issued guidelines for its
implementation for stakeholders like producers, consumers, collection centres, recyclers and other
regulatory agencies. Similarly, to manage municipal solid waste, MoEF has issued Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules 2000. The CPCB along with the Ministry monitors the
implementation of the rule constantly. Due to increased use of electronic equipment, particularly
television, computer and refrigerators the accumulation of e-waste even across the international
boundaries has posed signi;cant threat to the ecological sustenance. Besides, it has been noti;ed that
lead, cadmium, mercury and argon are some of the major pollutants widely used in paints, distemper,
pigments et cetera.
Management of biomedical wastes is another area where the Ministry has noti;ed instructions. CPCB,
SPCBs and PCCs monitor biomedical waste management through incinerators, autoclaves, microwaves,

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hydro-claves and shredders. Training is also imparted to personnel involved in handling of biomedical
waste with due consideration about individual healthcare. Government of India, recognising the
importance of impact of waste and treatment of waste, has noti;ed clean technologies and its
promotion as the main intent for reducing pollution. A grant in aid scheme on development and
promotion of clean technologies was initiated in 1994 to promote clean technologies that assist pollution
prevention in a sustainable way. Clean technologies rely upon reduced use of raw materials and energy
compared to conventional methods thereby leaving minimum pollution for treatment.
Mission Clean Ganga/ Namami Ganga
Rajeev Gandhi the then Prime Minister, in 1986 launched the Ganga action plan rejuvenate River
Ganga. Later by Minister Manmohan Singh declared Ganga as national River in 2009. He established
National Ganga River Basin Authority under his chairmanship and comprising of the Chief ministers
of Utarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal along with knowledge personalities.
In 2010 Clean Ganga was started with an objective ensuring that no untreated municipal sewage and
industrial ef uents would be discharged into Ganga. In 2011 World Bank approved a grant-cum-loan
package of US$ 1 billion for the mission. Construction and maintenance of sewage treatment plants,
creation of awareness, ensuring compliance with ef uent standards etc are among the objectives of
Mission Clean Ganga. Water quality monitoring, industrial pollution monitoring, wastewater
management, developing silt free barrages et cetera are among the key features of Ganga
rejuvenation plan/Mission clean Ganga currently known by the name Namami Ganga. The current
Government under Prime Minister Narendra Modi under its Swachch Bharat Mission has vowed to
eradicate the menace of open defecation by 2022. The government has planned for a zero liquid
discharge regime under which the entire industrial and municipal wastewater can be reused after
recycling without discharging a drop into any River. Meanwhile taking a note on a lag and
ineffectiveness of pollution control boards in cleaning Ganga the Supreme Court has entrusted
National Green Tribunal to oversee and constantly monitor the implementation of textural
requirements on discharge of untreated wastewater into the river. NGT has to ;le a report every six
months on the action taken in controlling the industrial pollution as per the instructions of Supreme
Court.

International conventions on Pollution


UN Convention on the Law of sea, Montego Bay

1982

Basel Convention on Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Substances

1989

Convention on the Law of non-navigational uses of international watercourses, New York

1997

Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade, Rotterdam

1998

Cartagena protocol on biosafety under CBD

2000

Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants, Stockholm

2001

International conference on environment pollution prevention

2013

Minamata conference related to addressing the pollution caused by notorious heavy-metal-Mercury, Japan

2013

National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board


National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB) was constituted in 1992 with an objective of
promoting afforestation and eco-restoration in the country. The board also overlooks regeneration of
degraded forest areas and lands adjoining forest areas, national parks, sanctuaries and other protected
areas as well as ecological the fragile areas like Western Himalayas, Aravallis, Western Ghats et cetera.

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National Afforestation Programme


It is a agship scheme of NAEB, which supports the three tier structure including Forest Development
Agencies (FDA), Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) and State Forest Development
Agencies (SFDAs) which collectively enhance local community participation in developing the forest
sector. The main aim of the programme is to improve the physical asset creation as well as capacity
building at the grassroots level the community participation for development of forest sector.
Eco-Development Forces Scheme
Eco-Development Forces Scheme (EDF) Scheme was established in 1980s and was implemented
through Ministry of defence. The scheme sought for ecological restoration of those terrains which are
inaccessible, severely degraded or with law and order problems. In achieving the objective, eco-task
force was created.

Institutional setup
National Green Tribunal
the National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010. It is a
court constituted for effective and expeditious disposal of cases related to environmental protection and
conservation of forests. The tribunal also looks into utilisation of natural resources including
enforcement of legal rights related to environment. Further NGT checks the relief and compensation for
damages to persons and property as well. As a body it is equipped with suf;cient power in dispute
management related to environmental matters. Guided by the principles of natural justice, the tribunal
has a mandate to provide speedy environmental justice and thereby assisting the higher courts in
reducing the litigation burden. Any application/appeal to NGT shall be cleared in six months from the
date of ;ling. NGT has its headquarters at New Delhi with other sittings set up in Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata
and Chennai.

Environmental Research
Ministry of environment and forests actively pursues research and development program since 1985.
The research and development program seeks to generate information for development of strategies
technologies and methodologies in effective management of environment. Besides resource
management, conservation and regeneration in some other domains in which research is carried out.
The R&D program also envisages infrastructure development in facilitating research and scienti;c
human resource development. The major research programs organised by the Ministry include
Environment Research Program, Ecosystem Research Scheme, Eastern and Western Ghats Research
Program. Some of the recent programmes initiated by the Ministry include-Institution of National
Environment Fellows Program, institution of Mahatma Gandhi chair for ecology and environment,
collaborative Research Program with CSIR and Institution of National Environment Protection Training
and Research Institute (NEPTRI).
Research
Scheme/Domain

Description

Natural
resources
management scheme

This scheme involves utilisation of remote sensing technology for


inventory management of resources including land water, forests,
minerals, oceans, ora etc. to monitor changes in the ecosystem

Research on wetlands
mangroves and coral
reefs

36 wetlands have been identi;ed and approved under the National


Wetland Conservation Program for support through ;nancial
assistance. The management action plans of those wetlands will be
implemented in the coastal states and union territories which will be
monitored by National committee of mangroves and coral reefs

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Indian
Council
of
Forestry Research and
Education (ICFRE)

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Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun


is authorised for the holistic promotion of forestry research. The
Council promotes need-based planning, conducts and coordinates
research education and extension covering all aspects of forestry. The
Council is head to af;liated research institutes and many other
advanced research centres.
Research Institutes under ICFRE

Location

Forest Research Institute

Dehradun

Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding

Coimbatore

Institute of Wood Science and Technology

Bengaluru

Tropical Forest Research Institute

Jabalpur

Rain Forest Research institute

Jorhat

Arid Forest Research Institute

Jodhpur

Himalayan Forest Research Institute

Shimla

Institute of Forest Productivity

Ranchi

Avanced Research Centers under ICFRE

Education
awareness

Center for Social Forestry and Eco-Rehabilitation

Allahabad

Centre for Forestry Research and Human Resource


Development

Chhindwara

Forest Research Centre

Hyderabad

and

MoEF has launched agship scheme for education and training on


interrelationship between man and the environment. The scheme
named Environmental Education, Awareness and Training seeks to
enhance the capabilities and skills of humans to improve and protect
the environment. The scheme undertakes programmes like National
Green Corps Program, National Environmental Awareness Campaign,
Mass Awareness, observance of Earth day and global learning and
observation to bene;t the environment.

of

The museum was opened in 1978 to create public awareness in


preservation and conservation of environment. The museum conducts
exhibitions, education programs, outreach activities related to

National Museum
Natural History

biodiversity and environmental aspects through its regional centers in


Mysore, Bhopal and Bhubaneswar.
Centers of Excellence

The Ministry of environment and forests since 1983 has set up 10


centres of excellence to strengthen awareness, research and training in
priority areas of environmental science and management.
Centre of Excellence

Location

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Centre for Environmental Education

Ahmadabad

CPR Environmental Education Centre

Chennai

Centre for Ecological Science

IISc Bengaluru

Centre for Mining Environment

ISM, Dhanbad

Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural


History

Coimbatore

Centre for Environment Management of


Degraded Ecosystem

University of Delhi

Madras School of Economics

Chennai

Foundation for Revitalization of Local


Health Traditions

Bengaluru

The Tropical Botanic Garden and Research


Institute

Thiruvananthapuram

Centre for Animals and Environment

Bengaluru

Awards and fellowships


Recognising the importance of acknowledgement and support to boost research and development
activities, the Ministry has constituted fellowships and awards. These include Indira Paryavaran
Puraskar, Indira Priyadarsini Vriksha Mitra Awards, Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award etc. While
Indira Priyadarsini Vriksha Mitra Award is given annually for recognition of efforts in afforestation and
wasteland development, Pitambar Pal National environment Fellowship is awarded to encourage and
recognise excellence for research related to environmental sciences annually. National awards for
prevention of pollution and Rajeev Gandhi Environmental Award for Clean Technology are other
recognitions awaiting pioneers in research and development. The Ministry has also instituted Amrita
Devi Bishnoi Wildlife Protection award which carries a cash reward of one lakh rupees for
institutions/individuals working for the rural communities. On the literature front, Medini Puraskar has
been set up to encourage authors of books in Hindi in the area of environment.
Environmental Impact Assessment
The question of development over environment has become relevant particularly after the
liberalisation of Indian economy. Environmental conservation is as important as development to
sustain the population. Hence, to minimise the adverse impact of developmental projects on the
environment, a management tool has been devised named Environmental Impact Assessment.
Assessment
EIA seeks to achieve sustainable development through timely, adequate, corrective and protective
mitigation measures. The government has constituted Expert Committees for projects in various
sectors including mining projects, industrial projects, thermal power, River Valley multipurpose
irrigation hydroelectric power projects, infrastructure development projects, nuclear power projects
and other miscellaneous projects. An amendment to EIA noti;cation 2009 simpli;ed procedure for
obtaining clearance without compromising or diluting the regulatory framework. The amendment
exempts biomass-based power plants up to 15 MW, power-plant on non-hazardous municipal solid
waste and power plants based on waste heat recovery boilers without using of auxiliary fuel from EC
process.

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Environmental Information/Organisations
Environmental Information System (ENVIS) was set up in 1983 with a mandate to collect information,
collate, store, retrieve and disseminate to various stakeholders including decision-makers, researchers,
academicians, research scientists et cetera.ENVIS has developed Indian State Level Basic
Environmental Information Database (ISBEID) in collaboration with National Informatics Centre. Further
State of Environment Reporting Scheme and NGOs cell have been initiated for management of activities
of various NGOs working in the ;eld of environment.

International cooperation
Ministry of Environment and Forests has entered into many multilateral agreements. The international
corporation sustainable development division of the Ministry of environment and forests coordinates
incorporates in the international environmental and sustainable development issues. It is also a nodal
division for United Nations and Environment Programme (UNEP), UNCP, World Bank, UNIDO, CSD,
Global Environment Facility (GEF) and other regional bodies like Economic and Social Commission for
Asia and Paci;c (ESCAP), South Asian Association for regional cooperation (SAARC), South Asia
Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP), Asian development bank (ADB) and European Union
(EU) apart from the bilateral and regional cooperation for environmental and sustainable development.

Climate Change
National Action Plan on Climate Change
National action plan on climate change seeks to protect the poor and vulnerable sections of the society
through inclusive and sustainable development strategy sensitive to climate change. The action plan
envisages devising ef;cient and cost-effective technologies for adaptation and mitigation of greenhouse
gases emissions. In doing so the action plan keeps an eye on national growth objectives for which it
devise a qualitative change within enhanced sustainability drive through innovative forms of market,
vegetarian voluntary mechanisms. Besides, the plan seeks to implement programs in public-private
partnership, with the participation of local government institutions and civil society. The plan identi;es
India's space in international cooperation for research and development, sharing and plans of
technologies under UN FCCC's funding and IPR regime.
Missions under NAPCC
National Solar Mission

Seeks to deploy 20000 MW of solar electricity capacity in the


country by 2020. The target has been revised now to 100GW by
2022.

National
Mission
for
Enhanced Energy Ef+
Ef +ciency

Creates new institutional mechanisms to enable the


development and strengthening of energy ef;ciency markets.
Various programmes have been initiated, including the PAT
mechanism to promote ef;ciency in large industries and the
Super-Ef;cient Equipment Programme (SEEP) to accelerate the
introduction of deployment of super-ef;cient appliances.

National
Mission
Sustainable Habitat

Promotes the introduction of sustainable transport energy


ef;cient buildings and sustainable waste management in cities.

on

National Water Mission

Promotes the integrated management of water resources and


increase of Mission water use ef;ciency by 20 per cent

National
Sustaining
Ecosystem

Mission
for
the Himalayan

Establishes an observational and monitoring network for the


Himalayan environment so as to assess climate impacts on the
Himalayan
glaciers
and
promote
community-based
management of these ecosystems

National Mission for Green


India

Seeks to afforest an additional 10 million hectare of forest lands


wastelands and community lands.

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for

Focuses on enhancing productivity and resilience of agriculture


so as to reduce vulnerability to extremes of weather, long dry
spells, Flooding and Variable Moisture availability.

National Mission on Strategic


on
Climate
Knowledge
Change

Identi;es challenges arising from climate change promotes the


development and diffusion of knowledge on responses to these
challenges in the areas of health demography migration and
livelihood of coastal communities.

National
Mission
Sustainable Agriculture

Kyoto protocol to Lima-COP 20! Long way to


Paris-2015
Kyoto protocol (1997), rati;ed in 2005 made it mandatory for 37 rich in industrialised countries to reduce
their greenhouse gas emissions from the 1992 levels by a speci;ed amount. Even though the ;rst
commitment period has expired in 2012, the protocol proved to be ineffective and inadequate in dealing
with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Later, on a mission to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the
Bali conference of 2007 identi;ed four basic elements or building blocks for a climate agreementMitigation or Emission Reduction, Adaptation, Transfer of Technology and Finance. Further the Cancun
meeting in 2010 called for the participation of all countries in the emission reduction regime. The Doha
conference of 2012 later took a decision that a global climate agreement should be reached by 2015
Paris conference. The 20th Conference of Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (1994) was held in Lima, Peru in December 2014. The discussions on Lima were primarily to
create the building blocks for the envisaged climate agreement to be signed in Paris 2015.

The Indian Stand


Indian is now the fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases behind China, United States and European
Union. The Kyoto protocol required emission cuts only from a few countries and India was exempted
then. Also the UNFCCC has mandated a Common but Differentiated Responsibility and Respective
Capabilities regarding the emission cuts. Although there is a growing concern about India's rising
emission India negotiates keeping CBDR and principal of equity in mind. Indian is vociferous against
mandatory emission cuts as it objects its responsibility for the current level of GHGs accumulated so in
last hundred years. Citing poverty and the need to uplift about one third of its population out of it, India
stands for more space in mitigating the emission through adoption of renewable energy methods. To do
so, India calls for transfer of technology and ow of funds from the developed nations on behalf of
developing countries.
International conventions on Climate change
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

1985

Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone Layer

1987

UN Framework convention on Climate Change

1992

Kyoto protocol to the UNFCCC

1997

Nairobi amendment to Annexure B of Kyoto protocol

2006

IPCC assessment report


The ;fth of assessment report of IPCC has emphasised upon the immediate need of adopting low or
zero carbon energy supply systems like renewables to limit the increase of temperature below 2C by the
end of the century. It has maintained that use of renewables should be tripled or quadrupled at the global
level. Imminent is a prospect of growth in renewable energy technology and products, from which India

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can bene;t on its path of growth. Multiple bene;ts including higher energy security and probable market
opportunities for Indian producers and marketers are on the anvil. Currently Indian has launched its
National Solar Energy Mission with a target of 20,000 MW of installed solar capacity in the decade and a
revised target of 100 GW by 2022.

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