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Ali Shehryar

Problem 4.6
Solution
For Elastic modulus we use the initial straight line portion. Point (0.384, 268)
appears to be in the elastic range and on the straight line. So using the basic
formula of stress over strain

(2 6 80 ) 106
E=
( 0.3840.0 ) /100
E=69.79 109 Pa69.79GPa
For 0.2% offset yield strength we draw a parallel line from 0.2% strain

So

Yield strength= y =300 MPa


For ultimate tensile strength we follow the second curve and look for the maximum
stress which comes out to be

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UTS =323 MPa
For percentage elongation we use basic formula

pf = f

f
100
E

pf = 14.59

223(106 )
100
69.79(109 )

pf =14.597
Similarly for percentage reduction in area

RA=

d 2i d 2f
d 2i

100

( 10 )2( 8 )2
RA =
( 10 )2

%RA=36

Problem 4.12
Solution
For Elastic modulus we use the initial almost straight line portion. Point (1.365, 39.5)
appears to be in the elastic range and on the almost straight line. So using the basic
formula of stress over strain

E=

( 39.50 ) 106
( 1.3650.0 ) / 100

E=2893772894 Pa2.89GPa GPa


For 0.2% offset yield strength we draw a parallel line from 0.2% strain

Ali Shehryar

So

Yield strength= y =48 MPa


For ultimate tensile strength we follow the second curve and look for the maximum
stress which comes out to be

UTS =55.5 MPa


For percentage elongation we use basic formula

pf = f

f
100
E

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6

pf = 48.0

32.4 (10 )
2.8 9 (109)

pf =47.99
Similarly for percentage reduction in area

RA=

Ai A f
100
Ai

.02)( 9 .5)(2 .02)


( (14 .5)(4(14.5)(4.02)
)100

RA=

%RA=67.1

Problem 4.35
Discussion
The two tests are three-point bending and four-point bending and are Illustrated in
diagrams shown below:-

Fig (a) shows three-point bending test and fig (b) shows four-point bending test.
The shear and bending moment diagrams of three-point test are

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And for four-point test

It can be seen that the deflection of the beam is similar in both the cases however
the difference is in shear and bending moment diagrams.
It is clear from the above diagrams that in four-point test we obtain a region of zero
shear and constant bending moment which is considered positive aspect in the test
and does not exist in three-point test.

Problem 4.39
Discussion
In ski lift, weight in chairs is always acting at different points along the length of the
cable.
Since these loads are always causing the ski lift steel cable to bend so in fact
bending tests (three-point, four-point, multi-point etc.) are needed for testing and
judging the suitability of the a given steel for this purpose.

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The characteristics needed for the material such a wire are:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

High
High
High
High
High

Tensile strength
Fatigue resistance
Abrasion resistance
Crushing strength
Corrosion resistance