2 vues

Transféré par Gunjan Trivedi

Self balancing robot

- MicromouseControl Report
- Process Control-Thomas E Marlin
- pole placement MATLAB toolbox help and example
- Position Control of High Performance Hydrostatic Actuation System
- Implementation of Integrated Fuzzy Logic Controller for Servomotor System
- All about engineering_ PID Controller
- Shoaib Thesis Final 2011-12-15
- Intelligent Control in Two-wheel Self-Balanced Robot
- EI6801 CCP Syllabus
- A Classification of Techniques for the Compensation of Time Delay
- [IJET-V1I4P6] Authors :Galal Ali Hassaan
- Pid Controllers
- che521Syllabus
- control system
- Tunning starts
- CH4 Control System
- 7 Steps to Writing a Great Research Paper
- PID presentaion.pptx
- Chapter 12
- 1-s2.0-S1474667016434087-mainknhlkn

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Shenzhen, China, December 2013

Wei An and Yangmin Li*, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractA two-wheeled self-balancing robot is a special

mobility [12]. The two-wheeled robot is the combination of

wheeled mobile robot and inverted pendulum system. It also

brings the concept of creating a transporter for human. The

inverted pendulum is not actuated

by itself, it uses the gyroscopes and accelerometers to sense

the inclination off the vertical axis. In order to overcome the

inclination, the controller generates torque signals to each

motor for preventing system from falling down to the

ground. It is a control model in which the object can be

controlled only by adding loads on it. This kind of novel

challenge is implemented and such controller has attracted

interests of many researchers.

Although there are many research works in this field [14][17], only few of them have developed the big human

transporter vehicles [2], [7], [10]. Even though some

researches focus on the human transporter vehicles, but none

of them made clear comparisons between the PID and the

LQR control methods [13]. The following discussions will

be around these topics. Based on the dynamic theory, we

will analyze self-balance system, establish the mathematical

model, and explain both the proportional-integral-derivative

(PID) and linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control theories

in detail. Eventually, the simulation will be performed,

which demonstrates that LQR has a better performance in

controlling this kind of system.

research topic due to its unstable state for controlling. In this

paper, human transporter model has been established.

Kinematic and dynamic models are constructed and two

control methods: Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and

Linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) are implemented to test

the system model in which controls of two subsystems: selfbalance (preventing system from falling down when it

moves forward or backward) and yaw rotation (steering

angle regulation when it turns left or right) are considered.

PID is used to control both two subsystems, LQR is used to

control self-balancing subsystem only. By using simulation

in Matlab, two methods are compared and discussed. The

theoretical investigations for controlling the dynamic

behavior are meaningful for design and fabrication. Finally,

the result shows that LQR has a better performance than PID

for self-balancing subsystem control.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, two-wheeled inverted pendulum robot has

been developed quickly. Self-balancing robot like the

Segway has been absolutely recognized and used as a human

transporter especially for policeman. It is an ideal object of

mechatronics, which includes electronic device and

embedded control. A small mobile inverted pendulum called

JOE [1] is controlled by a joystick, which can be kept in

balance whenever moving and turning. A feedback control

educational prototype HTV [2] is developed, which can

move either on the ground or on the sloped surface. It has

great robust and matured mechanical structure. But it is a

little bit of less comfortable compared to Segway. Segway

[7] is fabricated as a first human transporter. Lego company

designed a LegWay robot [8]. In Legway robot, the

differential driven method has been brought into design. So

the robot could move either on inclined plane or irregular

surface by using remote control operation. A simple selfbalancing robot with Lego is constructed, which includes

AVR controller and some sensors [9]. A low cost selfbalancing vehicle has been developed in Brno university

[10]. An intelligent two-wheeled robot called Balance Bot

[11] is made. Then the obstacle function can be

implemented. Many researchers and engineers are working

on that because of its unstable nature, high order multi-

In this model, the structure of a self-balancing robot is exp

ressed. The robot is able to afford a maximum 100kg load. If

a big load is added to the robot, it will have a large inertial.

This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation

of China (Grant No. 61128008), Macao Science and Technology

Development Fund (Grant NoS. 016/2008/A1 and 108/2012/A3), Research

Committee of University of Macau under Grant Nos.: MYRG183(Y1L3)FST11-LYM and MYRG203(Y1-L4)-FST11-LYM).

W. An and Y. Li are with Department of Electromechanical

Engineering, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao SAR, China.

Y. Li is also with School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University

of Technology, Tianjin 300191, China. *Corresponding author e-mail:

ymli@umac.mo.

ratio. The two motor controllers with 24V power supply

export currents with the maximum of 30A to control the two

DC motors through PWM signal. The motors and tires are

combined together through chain transmission. It must be

sure that the axes of them are parallel. We adopt

Atemega128A (AVR series 8-bit RISC MCU) for

456

data transfer and low cost.

In mechanical structure design, the lowerr part is consisted

of wheels, motors, wheel brackets and plattform. The upper

part is steer bar which is used to turn the boody system. In the

mathematic model, the variables are definedd as follows:

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

Center of mass: c

Mass of body system:

Mass of wheel:

Wheel radial: r

Distance between center mass of thee body and wheel

axle: L

Motor gear ratio: n

Pitch angle: b

Distance between two wheels: d

Angle velocity of left wheel: lw

Angle velocity of right wheel:

(b)

Fig. 2. (a) Free body diagram of the oveerall system, (b) Free body

diagram of the wheel.

w

rw

of wheel (z-axis):

Momentum of inertia of the body rrotating along yaxis:

Momentum of inertia of wheels rotatting along y-axis:

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

Momentum of inertia of the rotor of thhe motor:

Friction coefficient between wheel annd ground:

Friction coefficient in wheel axle:

Yaw angle:

Motion of lower part:

Angle of the left wheel with referencee to ground:

(a)

V2 z = sin

V3 x =

)

(6)

r lw rw

L sin b sin

d

(7)

(8)

V3 y = 0

V3 z = L sin b cos

= lw b

r lw +lw

2

r lw rw

2

(9)

= rw b

um of those three-axis

system should be described as the su

components: V , V , and V .

HE ROBOT

III. KINEMATICS MODEL OF TH

The motion of the overall system can be ddescribed as three

parts: inclination speed V1 caused by the opperator, rotation

speed V2 along Y axis acted by operator andd physical speed

V3 caused by wheel rotation. Each part can bbe decoupled

into three directional axis x, y, z as shown inn Fig. 2.

V1x = Lb cos b cos

(1)

V1 y = Lb sin b

(2)

(3)

os

V = V + V + V = L b cos co

1x

2x

3x

x

b

r lw +rw

r lw rw

s

+

+

L sin sin

b

2

2

V y = Lb sin b

n

V = V + V + V = L cos sin

z

1z

2z

3z

b

b

r lw +rw

r lw rw

+ sin

+ L sin cos

b

2

2

(10)

(11)

(12)

r lw +rw

cos

V2 x =

2

V2 y = 0

The body of the robot system iss composed of the lower

and the upper part. Since motors arre mounted on the body,

the mass of body is actually the sum

m of body mass and motor

masses.

(4)

(5)

457

) (

w

1

2 + 1 m r 2 ( ) 2

m r 2 + J y 2 +rw

lw rw

lw

2 w

4 w

)(

(13)

G=

wheel, K is the translational kinetic energy of the right

wheel. The rotational kinetic energies for each wheel are

K and K . K and K are the kinetic energies of the

left wheel and the right wheel respectively when the wheels

rotate along the z-axis.

The total kinetic energy of the body can be expressed as:

1

2

2

+k +k

= m r +

k =k

v

vm

vy

vw 8 w ( lw rw )

1

1

+ mv L2 + J vwc 2 + mv Lrb lw +rw cosb

b 2

2

1 R2

2

+

m L2 sin 2 b + J vy (lw rw )

2 D2 v

(14)

b

b

=A +Bu

b

b

(15)

The total kinetic energy k of overall system can be

divided into three parts: the wheel kinetic energy kw , the

0

0

A=

A41

A

51

A61

the motor k m .

(16)

2 2

m mv L sin b + Jvy 1

1

1

k = mwr2 + J z + r2 w +

+ Jmn2mwr2

16

2

2 2

D2

1

1

2

2

(23)

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

0

1

0

,B =

,

A46

B41 B42

B

A46

B52

51

B61 B62

A66

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0

A44 A45

A54 A55

A64 A65

u = l .

r

(17)

(21)

where

lw b = , rw b = .

(20)

right wheel respectively. Substitute (18), (19), and (20) into

(21). Then the nonlinear equation is linearized by Setting

( )2 =0 , b ( ) =0 , b2 =0 , sin b =b , cosb =1 . (22)

k = km + kv + k w

k U G

d k

+

+

= ( l + r )

(

)

dt b b b b

2

2

1

km = J m n 2 lw b + rw b

2

) (

d k k U G

+ = l

( ) +

dt

d k k U G

+

= r

( ) +

dt

rotates along the center of wheel, K is the kinetic energy of

the body when it rotates along the y- axis, and K is the

kinetic energy of the lower part when it rotates along the yaxis.

The kinetic energy of the rotor of the motor is:

1

2 + 2 + 2 + b + 2b +

2 2

1

2 1

2

+ 2

2 2

2

(19)

U = mv gL cos b

The control methods applied to this robot system are PID

and LQR. In self-balance control, three output variables are

to be considered. But in yaw control, only one variable is to

be considered. We use both two methods to test the selfbalance control but just apply PID in yaw control. After

simulating the dynamic robot system by using those two

control methods, their performances can be observed.

(18)

2 2

m mv L sin b + Jvy

1

+ mwr2 r2 w +

2

4

D2

PID control method has been widely used in the feedback

control system. It is a very typical way of control strategy in

industry. PID is composed of three parts: (1). The

proportional part which is used in the purpose of error

Potential energy of the whole system is

458

B. LQR Control

The linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) is to run a dynamic

system under optimal solution. We assume that the robot

system has the state equation

past error. (3). The derivative part is to predict the further

error through past error variation. The final control value

can be calculated by simply adding these three terms

together

u = k p e ( t ) + ki e ( t ) dt + kd

de ( t )

.

dt

( )

(24)

and designing three gains. There are many methods of

choosing suitable values of the three gains to achieve the

satisfied system performance.

cr

the sample time T equal to 0.05s. We denote as the control

value which is calculated from PID controller and further

decoupled it into and (the input torques for right and left

is

motors respectively) for controlling the two motors.

is used in yaw control.

used in self-balance control and

,

are transformed to

,

in the process called

decoupling:

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

de ( t )

, t = kT .

dt

(k )actual (k )) +

(

p desire

k (desire (k )actual (k )desire (k 1)+actual (k 1))

d

2

(33)

0

(26)

(35)

Then we set

(36)

The (35) can be changed to

(27)

when operator steers the handle bar. We denote the actual

and desired yaw rates as

. Our

yaw rates as

target is to make the actual yaw rates from sensors approach

to the target yaw rates as soon as possible through the

control system. Eventually error term between input and

feedback signal can be eliminated by selecting certain values

and .

of

For the control theory, we use the PD control again:

u =k

order to calculate , we assume that there exists a constant

matrix P such that

(

(

)

)

(34)

(25)

and

gyroscopes are integrated to get the tilt angle

velocity . With those data, u1 can be further calculated by

u = k ( k ) k ( ( k ) ( k 1))

1

p b

d b

b

(31)

In this case, the overall system can be divided into selfbalancing subsystem and yaw control subsystem. The

control theory used in two different subsystems here is the

PD control method.

u = k p e ( t ) + kd

Here we assume

0 . In order to find the optimum

control vector ( ) under two chosen constants Q and R, the

function

)

(

(32)

must be minimum. Where Q is positive semi-definite

0) and R to be positive definite (

0). In

(

this robot system, we use output as feedback signal.

(29)

the dynamics model. And this state equation can also be

explained as

(30)

Substituting (30) to (29), the state equation becomes

b

cl

input(t )

( )

(37)

Finally ( ) can be calculated in the following equation:

(38)

and minimum can be reached.

The whole LQR control process is shown in Fig.4. We

can see that three output values have been chosen as

feedback which can be compared with reference input. And

after multiplication by vector K, the control input is sent to

physical system.

(28)

459

U'

(c)

Fig. 5. (a) PID simulation diagram for self-balancing control,

(b) Result of tilt angle, (c) Result of tilt angle rate.

the inclined angle velocity in self-balance control. While the

rider is moving forward and backward, PD controller

outperforms a relative fast steady-state response.

The yaw control subsystem is:

Both PID with LQR are tried and compared in the aspects

of the performance of the control system. Then the better

one is adopted in our robot system and a more accurate and

fast system response can be achieved. Essentially, system

can be stable within 4s. Otherwise, the operation will be

failed and cause physical injury to human.

A. Simulation of PID Control

The self-balancing subsystem described by

x1 = A1 x1 + B1u1 , Y1 = C1 x .

x 2 = A2 x2 + B2u 2

which is =

43 0.17 1.075

Y1 b =

b

], where

A =

2

0.4

, c1 = 1 0 0

0 1 0

( 1 + 2 )

= 0.12,

r2

2

2

2( mwr + J z + 2

J vy + J m n )

d2

r

= 0.07.

B =

2

r2

d (2 mwr 2 + J z + 2

J vy + J m n 2 )

d2

(39)

which is in detail as

1

0

b 0

0

= 25 1.85 19 x + 0.3 +

b

1

[ l r]

s

(40)

(a)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 6. (a) PD simulation diagram for yaw control, (b)

Simulation result of yaw angle rate.

(b)

460

circumstance. The subsystem has relatively slow steady-state

by using PD controller.

a precise feedback signal of tilt an

ngle if PID is used. The

advantage of LQR is that it can integrate

i

all output state

variables (tilt angle, tilt angle rate, position) to calculate the

c still get stabilization

control value. The robot system can

from other output state variables signal even though one of

T allows robot to hold

state output variables is inaccurate. This

the stabilization in a desired time. We have found that the

time to achieve the steady state off robot by LQR is faster

than by PID.

After trying the values of Q and R for many times, we

conclude that associated with inclinationn angle would be

either positive or negative. However, to approach stable

can never be negative. If setting a high R

system, ,

value, the response time of system will bbe relatively low

because that would reduce the control abiility of the motor.

And in the other way, the response time off system would be

faster with a lower R value. So we sett R equals to 1.

Essentially, how to choose a suitable Q

Q, represented by

0 0

matrix 0

0 , must be taken into conssideration. Where

0 0

a is associated with tilt angle, b is associatted with tilt angle

rate and c is associated with system displlacement. Setting

larger a in the matrix can lead to quick incclination response

of the system. In our system, the performannce will almost be

the same whatever the value of a is taken rranging from 2 to

50 times more of b, or c. Therefore we set the value of Q as

VII. CONCLUSSION

In this paper, based on mechanicaal structure and dynamic

models, the modeling and analysiss of self-balancing robot

are discussed by using Lagrangee equation and energy

conservation principle, PID and LQ

QR control algorithms are

tried. It is concluded that LQR has a better performance than

PID in self-balancing control. In our

o future work, we will

use LQR method to control a physiccal two-wheeled robot to

further verify the controllers perform

mance.

References

[1]

200 0 0

0

0 10

[2]

We obtain the simulation result as shown inn Fig.7 (b).

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

(a)

[13]

[14]

[15]

(b)

Fig. 7. (a) LQR simulation diagram, ((b) LQR control

simulation.

[16]

[17]

LQR has a better performance than PID in self-balancing

control. Since PID can only use one feeedback signal to

461

mbi, JOE: A mobile, inverted

pendulum. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 49, pp. 107114, 2002.

S.-C. Lin and C.-C. Tsai, Develop

p of a self-balancing human

transportation vehicle for the teaching

g of feedback control, IEEE

Trans. Education, vol.52, no.1, pp.157--168, 2009.

T. Tomai, A. Demetlika, M. Crnekov

vi, Self-balance mobile robot

tilter, Transactions of FAMENA, vol.36

6, no.3, pp.23-32, 2012.

F. L. Lewis, Linear Quadratic Regu

ulator (LQR) State Feedback

Design, 1998.

T. Takei, R. lmamura, S. Yuta, Baggag

ge transportation and navigation

by a wheel inverted pendulum mob

bile robot, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Electron., no.56, pp.3985-3994, 2009.

L. Sun, J. Gan, Researching of two

o-wheeled self-balancing robot

based on LQR combined with PID,, International Workshop on

Intelligent systems and Applications, pp

p.1-5, 2010.

http://www.segway.com.

http://www.teamhassenplug.org/robot/leegway.

H. Ferdinando, H. Khoswanto, S. Tjok

kro, Design and evaluation of

two-wheeled balancing robot chassis, IEEE International Conference

on Communications, Computing and Control Applications, pp.1-6,

2011.

Grepl, R., Zouhar, F., tpnek, J., Horrk, P. , The development of a

self-balancing vehicle: A platform fo

or education in mechatronics,

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

http://www.art-of-invention.com/roboticcs

S. Kim, S. Kwom, SDRE based nonliinear optimal control of a twowheeled balancing robot, Journal off Institute of Control, Robotics

and Systems, pp.1037-1043, 2011.

Y. Yun and Y. Li , Active vibration control based on a 3-dof dual

compliant parallel robot using LQR

L

algorithm, IEEE/RSJ

International Conference on Intelligen

nt RObots and Systems (IROS),

October 11 - 15, 2009, St. Louis , MO, USA , pp.775-780.

J.-G. Wang and Y. Li, Analysis on

n the Interaction between the

Nonholonomic Mobile Modular Robott and the Environment, IEEE

International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics(ROBIO),

December 18-22, 2009, Guilin, Guangx

xi, China, pp.86-91.

J.-G. Wang and Y. Li , Kinematic an

nalysis of a mobile robot with

two-body frames, IEEE Internationa

al Conference on Information

Automation(ICIA) , June 20-23, 2008, Hunan,

H

China, pp.1073-1078.

Y. Liu and Y. Li, Dynamics and model-based control for a mobile

modular manipulator, Robotica, vol. 23, pp. 795-797, 2005.

J.-G.Wang and Y. Li, Static Force An

nalysis for a Mobile Humanoid

Robot Moving on a Slope, IEEE International Conference on

Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Baangkok, Thailand, February 2225, 2009, pp.371-376.

- MicromouseControl ReportTransféré parQueron Williams
- Process Control-Thomas E MarlinTransféré parDhini Cibilz
- pole placement MATLAB toolbox help and exampleTransféré parRuchit Pathak
- Position Control of High Performance Hydrostatic Actuation SystemTransféré parEngr Waheed Ur Rehman
- Implementation of Integrated Fuzzy Logic Controller for Servomotor SystemTransféré parIra Ismail
- All about engineering_ PID ControllerTransféré parFungisai Nota
- Shoaib Thesis Final 2011-12-15Transféré parSaurab Devanandan
- Intelligent Control in Two-wheel Self-Balanced RobotTransféré parAnonymous Xk9YzNs17p
- EI6801 CCP SyllabusTransféré parKotteeswaran Rangasamy R
- A Classification of Techniques for the Compensation of Time DelayTransféré parAnonymous WkbmWCa8M
- [IJET-V1I4P6] Authors :Galal Ali HassaanTransféré parInternational Journal of Engineering and Techniques
- Pid ControllersTransféré pardebnathsuman49
- che521SyllabusTransféré parTaniadi Suria
- control systemTransféré parMohamad Jamal
- Tunning startsTransféré parEduardo Melo
- CH4 Control SystemTransféré parMahmoud Yassein
- 7 Steps to Writing a Great Research PaperTransféré parR!0
- PID presentaion.pptxTransféré parbigbang
- Chapter 12Transféré parVijay Rajaindran
- 1-s2.0-S1474667016434087-mainknhlknTransféré parRifka Annisa Girsang II
- li2011Transféré parMạnh Tuấn
- Optimized tuning of Internal Model Control for Level ProcessTransféré parIRJET Journal
- Summary + IntroductionTransféré parEeHuey Choo
- Optimal Tuning PidTransféré parfraiche
- Modeling and Control of an Electric Arc FurnaceTransféré parChristopher Lloyd
- 2012 - R Duma - Embeddedapplicationoffractionalordercontrol[Retrieved-2016!03!14]Transféré parMiguel D. Diaz H.
- Design of a Controller for MIMO System by using Approximate Model Matching (AMM) MethodTransféré parIJEMR Journal
- LMVCTransféré parrehan_sadiq1991
- PID ArduinoTransféré parmathsantos
- Rr311304 Process ControlTransféré parSrinivasa Rao G

- Aircraft Material CompositionTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- T3-5_Suspension_system.pdfTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Research Paper Engineering Plastic InjecTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- BK99PUB26 Table of ContentTransféré parSyed Mujtaba Ali Bukhari
- QDS-09BajaSAECatalogTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Aircraft Material CompositionTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Self Balancing Two Wheeled Robot ReportTransféré parnetlvr0
- Vu_DungTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Self Balancing BotTransféré parshivimshr
- 1-s2.0-S1474667015306224-main.pdfTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Final Report Plastic Injection MoldingTransféré parGunjan Trivedi
- Baja SAEINDIA 2013 Registration GuidelinesTransféré parJynt Rj
- Diagnostic TestTransféré parFayas Fami

- Old Buck Owners ManualTransféré parmllemd
- HS Instructor ManualTransféré parJames Cojab Sacal
- RelNotes-524_MSM3x4x_MAP3x6xTransféré parArmando
- Outotec Flotation Cells - Dimensions and Metallurgical Variables 2010-05-31.pdfTransféré parcesareag
- 1. Mangila v. Court of AppealsTransféré parKristina Cueto
- WA200-5 AESS643-00Transféré paralsief1951
- 4_Principles of EcologyTransféré parshanujss
- Mckinsey Quarterly Issue 42011Transféré parDaniel Koo
- ''Several Thousand'' vs. ''Several Thousands of'' (Ell.stackexchange.com)Transféré parThriw
- UntitledTransféré parapi-233604231
- Barghest Building Performance Wins 2016 Frost & Sullivan Award for ‘Energy Management Solutions Entrepreneurial Company of the Year’Transféré parWeR1 Consultants Pte Ltd
- Laboratory Exercise 002Transféré parDarius Manalo
- Sep 2010 Tinity Church Honley NewsletterTransféré parTrinity Methodist and United Reformed Church
- Beyond Lean Operational Excelence in MroTransféré parSkyales
- Hotpoint HV8B 593 ManualTransféré pardjsmithy05
- Al-Zahrawi Great Andalusian SurgeonTransféré parMelissa Roberts
- 1Transféré paraparajita8
- Alphabet Soup CopyrightTransféré parDon Andres Escobar
- 225-Manual-Fall 2016.pdfTransféré parRichard Oletsky
- Corporate BankingTransféré parJanani Ganesh
- The Lords of Avaris David RohlTransféré parLeandro Prata
- Waste ManagementTransféré parBernadette Dela Cruz Palanca
- Russian Military Industrial ComplexTransféré parAbiy Kassu
- 18_ftp.pdfTransféré parAnonymous hzPLHR
- 3.5 in. 15.50# EU X-95 R2 XT39 (5.0 x 2.6875) - 10P.15BTransféré parIng. Luis A. García Córdova
- Ultrasonography Evaluation of Pelvic MassesTransféré parThiago Murakami
- Corepad_review_04-2006.pdfTransféré paraghorbanzadeh
- Chapter 8Transféré parRobbie
- Corporate Social Responsbility, CSRTransféré parrahulsinghal06
- thanks for the memories presentation-1Transféré parapi-284780915