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Catastrophism is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in contrast to uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism), in which slow incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth's geological features. Uniformitarianism held that the present is the key to the past, and that all things continued as they were from the indefinite past. Since the early disputes, a more inclusive and integrated view of geologic events has developed, in which the scientific consensus accepts that there were some catastrophic events in the geologic past, but these were explicable as extreme examples of natural processes which can occur. Catastrophism held that geological epochs had ended with violent and sudden natural catastrophes such as great floods and the rapid formation of major mountain chains. Plants and animals living in the parts of the world where such events occurred were killed off, being replaced abruptly by the new forms whose fossils defined the geological strata. Some catastrophists attempted to relate at least one such change to the Biblical account of Noah's flood. The concept was first popularized by the early 19th-century French scientist Georges Cuvier, who proposed that new life forms had moved in from other areas after local floods, and avoided religious or metaphysical speculation in his scientific writings.

Creationism

is the

that the

and

originated "from specific

and Genesis

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For

the

and Genesis For the As the acts of <a href=biblical literalist the 18th century on, various views aimed at reconciling the Abrahamic of evolution . developed from scientific theory divine creation ." and the rejection of interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative history of evolutionary thought young Earth creationists , this includes a " id="pdf-obj-0-54" src="pdf-obj-0-54.jpg">

As the

acts of

the 18th century on, various views aimed at reconciling the Abrahamic

of evolution.

developed from

and the rejection of

interpretation of the

young Earth creationists, this includes a

with

that

and other

Western culture. Those holding

developed in

had been created separately (such as

in 1857) were generally

over time, the term "anti-evolutionists" became common. In 1929 in the United States,

called "advocates of creation" but were also called "creationists," as in private

evolutionary creationists, who hold different concepts of creation, such

although this usage was contested by other groups, such as

THEORIES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION

Catastrophism

and biological evolution as understood by

the term "creationism" first became associated with

TRANSFORMISM

specifically with their rejection of

Creationism

correspondence between

controversy developed

as the acceptance of the

and his friends. As the

and belief in a

<a href=age of the Earth Catastrophism is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in contrast to uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism ), in which slow incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth's geological features. Uniformitarianism held that the present is the key to the past, and that all things continued as they were from the indefinite past. Since the early disputes, a more inclusive and integrated view of geologic events has developed, in which the scientific consensus accepts that there were some catastrophic events in the geologic past, but these were explicable as extreme examples of natural processes which can occur. Catastrophism held that geological epochs had ended with violent and sudden natural catastrophes such as great floods and the rapid formation of major mountain chains. Plants and animals living in the parts of the world where such events occurred were killed off, being replaced abruptly by the new forms whose fossils defined the geological strata. Some catastrophists attempted to relate at least one such change to the Biblical account of Noah's flood . The concept was first popularized by the early 19th-century French scientist Georges Cuvier , who proposed that new life forms had moved in from other areas after local floods, and avoided religious or metaphysical speculation in his scientific writings. Creationism religious belief is the Universe that the and originated "from specific life and Genesis For the As the acts of biblical literalist the 18th century on, various views aimed at reconciling the Abrahamic of evolution . developed from scientific theory divine creation ." and the rejection of interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative history of evolutionary thought young Earth creationists , this includes a species biology with that and other sciences Western culture . Those holding developed in had been created separately (such as in 1857) were generally Philip Gosse over time, the term "anti-evolutionists" became common. In 1929 in the United States, called "advocates of creation" but were also called "creationists," as in private evolutionary creationists , who hold different concepts of creation, such although this usage was contested by other groups, such as THEORIES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION Catastrophism and biological evolution as understood by the term "creationism" first became associated with TRANSFORMISM specifically with their rejection of Creationism correspondence between controversy developed as the acceptance of the Christian fundamentalists , scientific community . and his friends. As the human evolution Charles Darwin and belief in a creationists old Earth and the young Earth " id="pdf-obj-0-163" src="pdf-obj-0-163.jpg">

and

the

Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find out how it works, imagine a population of beetles:

their full potential. In this example, green beetles tend to to reproduce less often than brown beetles do.

Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find

Natural selection is one of the basic mechanisms of evolution, along with mutation, migration, and genetic drift.

The surviving brown beetles have brown baby beetles

For example, some beetles are green and some are

  • 2. There is differential reproduction.

Natural selection

  • 1. There is variation in traits.

  • 3. There is heredity. The more advantageous trait, brown coloration, which offspring, becomes more common in the population. If individuals in the population will be brown.

  • 4. End result:

because this

brown.

Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find

Transformism is a mechanistic doctrine which explains the appearance of living

 

beings by the sole action of natural causes, working without any kind of direction,

and without any end in view.

 
Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find
Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find
Darwin's grand idea of evolution by natural selection is relatively simple but often misunderstood. To find

Since the environment can't support unlimited population growth, not all individuals get t

get eaten by bi

tra

allows the beet this process c

selection. The traits that confer an advantage to those individuals who leave more offspring are called adaptations. In order for natural selection to operate on a trait, the trait must possess heritable variation and must confer an advantage in the competition for resources. If one of these requirements does not occur, then the trait does not experience natural selection. (We now know that such traits may change by other evolutionary mechanisms that have been discovered since Darwin’s time.) Natural selection operates by comparative advantage, not an absolute standard of design. “…as natural selection acts by competition for resources, it adapts the inhabitants of each country only in relation to the degree of perfection of their

associates” (Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 1859). During the twentieth century, genetics was integrated with Darwin’s mechanism, allowing us to evaluate natural selection as the differential survival and reproduction of genotypes, corresponding to particular phenotypes. Natural selection can only work on existing variation within a population. Such variations arise by mutation, a change in some part of the genetic code for a trait. Mutations arise by chance and without foresight for the potential advantage or disadvantage of the mutation. In other words, variations do not arise because they are needed.

suited for the struggle for local resources will contribute more offspring to the next generation. From one generation to the next, the struggle for resources (what Darwin called the “struggle for existence”) will favor individuals with some variations over others and thereby change the frequency of traits within the population. This process is natural

  • 1. Variation. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. These variations may involve body size, hair color, facial markings, voice properties, or number of offspring. On the other hand, some traits show little to no variation among individuals—for example, number of eyes in vertebrates.

  • 2. Inheritance. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. Such traits are heritable, whereas other traits are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and show weak heritability.

  • 3. High rate of population growth. Most populations have more offspring each year than local resources can support leading to a struggle for resources. Each generation experiences substantial mortality.

If you have variation, differential reproduction, and heredity, you will have evolution by natural selection as an outcome. It is as simple as that.

The Process of Natural Selection

  • 4. Differential survival and reproduction. Individuals possessing traits well

Darwin’s process of natural selection has four components.