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7/28/2016

OutcomesBasedEducationandtheGuaranteeofAcademicFreedom

OutcomesBasedEducationandtheGuaranteeofAcademic
Freedom
OutcomesBasedEducationandtheGuaranteeofAcademicFreedom
By:Dr.CharlemagneG.Lavina,DeanCollegeofITEducation
AcademicFreedom
WhenIwasstilltheDeanofPamantasanngCabuyaoin2004,amotherofonetransfereestudentpolitely
askedme,Sir,nakatwoyearsnapoanganakkosaPerpetualBinanatmagtethirdyearna.Paglipatpoba
nyaditoeh3rdyearnarinsiya?Ialsoansweredherpolitely,Malamangpoeh,2ndyearlangdependepoa
curriculumngPerps.Afterthemotherleftmyoffice,mystudentassistant(SA)whoislisteningtoour
conversationalsoinquire,Sirbakitdinnalanggawinangcurriculumnapareparehoparangsahighschool
parapaglipatoklangIreplied,Sangayon,dikopaalamangdahilan.
In2011,duringoneofthepublichearingsoftheCommissiononHigherEducation(CHED)re:
formulatingatemplateregardingthesisforComputerScience,mostITEinstructors/professorsaswellasDeans
hadshowedandsuggesteddifferentmannersonhowtowritethesisinITE.Theforumhasturnedtobeashow
ofintelligenceamongthedeansandinstructorsfromdifferentcollegesanduniversitiesuntiloneofthe
participantssuggests,Batdinalangkayosirs(referringtoDr.JimmyCaroandDr.Sioson)anggumawang
templateparaparepareho.Dr.CarodidNOTacceptthesuggestionbutdidNOTgivethereasonswhy.This
time,Iknowtheanswer.
Art.XIV,Section5ofthe1987ConstitutionprovidesthatAcademicfreedomshallbeenjoyedinall
institutionsofhigherlearning.
Section5(2),ArticleXIVoftheConstitutionguarantiesallinstitutionsofhigherlearningacademicfreedom.This
institutionalacademicfreedomincludestherightoftheschoolorcollegetodecideforitself,itsaimsand
objectives,andhowbesttoattainthemfreefromoutsidecoercionorinterferencesavepossiblywhenthe
overridingpublicinterestcallsforsomerestraint(MiriamCollegeFoundation,Inc.v.CourtofAppeals,401Phil.
431,455456(2000),citingTangonanv.Pao,G.R.No.L45157,June27,1985,137SCRA245,256
257).Accordingtopresentjurisprudence,academicfreedomencompassestheindependenceofanacademic
institutiontodetermineforitself(1)whomayteach,(2)whatmaybetaught,(3)howitshallteach,and(4)who
maybeadmittedtostudy(Reginov.PangasinanCollegesofScienceandTechnology,G.R.No.156109,
November18,2004,443SCRA56.The"fouressentialfreedomsofauniversity"wereformulatedbyMr.Justice
FelixFrankfurteroftheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtinhisconcurringopinionintheleadingcaseofSweezyv.
NewHampshire,354US234,1L.Ed.2d1311,77S.Ct.1203emphasissupplied.)
ThisisthereasonwhycollegesanduniversitiescannotbecompelledbyCHEDtoadoptacommon
curriculumbecausethe2ndessentialfreedomwhichiswithintheambitoftheacademicfreedomgives
institutionsofhigherlearningtodeterminewhatmaybetaught.
IfCHEDrequirestheimplementationofOBE,willtherebeaviolationoftheguaranteeofAcademic
Freedom?
OBEmeansclearlyfocusingandorganizingEVERYTHINGinaneducationalsystemonwhatis
essentialforallstudentstobeabletodosuccessfullyattheendoftheirlearningexperiences(Spady,
1994).
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7/28/2016

OutcomesBasedEducationandtheGuaranteeofAcademicFreedom

EvenifyouaskedaseasonedlawyeroranexpertinConstitutionalLaw,thisquestioncannotbe
answeredrightaway.Anypersonwhowillattempttodefendorattacktheconstitutionalityofthemandatory
implementationofOBEwillhavetobefamiliarwiththeintricaciesofOBE,suchasformulationofProgram
EducationalObjectives(PEOs)andStudentOutcomesanddoinganOutcomesBasedTeachingandLearning
(OBTL).
ProgramEducationalObjectives(PEOs)arebroadstatementsthatdescribewhatgraduatesare
expectedtoattainwithinafewyearsofgraduation.PEOsmustbealignedwiththeinstitutionsmission
statement(ABETCriteriaforAccreditingComputingPrograms20132014cycle).Nowletsthinkforawhile,did
CHEDimposedaparticularPEOand/ormissionstatementforeducationalinstitutions?Theanswerisinthe
negative.ItonlymeansthatCHEDisaffordingtheschoolstodecideforitself,itsownmissionstatementfrom
whichthePEOsarealignedwhichisCONSISTENTwiththeprinciplesofacademicfreedom.Unfortunately,the
criticsofOBEmerelyassertsthatCHEDCMO46s.2012(aCHEDMemorandumOrderwhichrequiresthe
implementationofOBE)withoutprovidingbasisandexplanationofhowthesaidCMOviolatestheprinciplesof
AcademicFreedom.
Onemayasked,maybetheidentificationofSOsviolatesacademicfreedom?
Studentoutcomesdescribewhatstudentsareexpectedtoknowandbeabletodobythetimeof
graduation.Theserelatetotheknowledge,skills,andbehaviorsthatstudentsacquireastheyprogress
throughtheprogram(ABETsupra).AssumingthathavingSOsforaparticulardegreeprogramviolatesthe
principleofacademicfreedom,thenitfollowsthatalmostallCMOswillbeunconstitutional!Why?Thisis
becauseSOsisnotnew.WecalledthisProgramObjectiveswhichenumeratethecompetencieswhichthe
studentmayattainuponfinishingaparticulardegreeprogram.Thus,CMO60s.1996,thefirstpoliciesand
standardsforInformationTechnologyhadalreadyincludedinSection1MissionStatementandObjectivesthe
studentoutcomesofITEPrograms.
HowaboutOutcomesBasedTeachingandLearning(OBTL)?OBTLisaconstructivealignmentofintended
learningoutcomeswithappropriateoutcomesbasedassessmentmethod(orassessmenttasksATs)and
teachingandlearningactivities(TLAs).ThisisOBEappliedintheclassroomlevel
Simplystated,inOBTL,theteachingandlearningactivitiesareanchoredtowardstheattainmentof
courseoutcomes.Forexample,ifyouwanttoteachyourchildtotiehisshoes,thisisyourcourseoutcomes.
Soiftheteacherwantstoassess,allthatOBTLrequiresisyoumeasuredirectlyhowthestudentcantiehis
shoes.Intheend,itisuptotheschoolorprofessorhowtoformulatehisintendedlearningoutcomesandthe
TLAs,alltheseinconsonancewiththeprinciplesofAcademicFreedom.
WhileitistruethatthesaidCMOisNOTperfectlikeallotherlaws,itisNOTabasistosaythatsuchis
unconstitutionalandfreeourselvesfromcomplyingthereto.ThereisNOdebate,thereisNOargumentaboutit
thatAcademicfreedomshallbeenjoyedinallinstitutionsofhigherlearning.Allofusaresupporting
academicfreedomandif,atall,CHEDwillformulateaCMOwhichisagainsttheConstitution,Iamthefirstone
whowillopposeit.Atanyrate,CMO46enjoysthepresumptionofconstitutionalityandhewhoinvoke
unconstitutionalityhastheburdenofprooftoadduceevidencetoproveit.MereassertionswillNOTsuffice.

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