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JULY 19TH, 2013

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This is a guest article by Mr.Dipak Singh.


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Today well see how to find the maximum value (greatest value ) or the minimum value (least value) of a trigonometric function
without using differentiation. Take a pen and note-book, keep doing the steps while reading this article.
First Remember following identities:

1. sin2 + cos2 = 1
2. 1+ cot2 = cosec2
3. 1+ tan2 = sec2
how did we get these formulas? Already explained, click me

Min value Max value Can be written as


sin , sin 2, sin 9 . sin n
cos , cos 4 , cos 7 cos n

-1

+1

-1 Sin n 1
-1 Cos n 1
Can be written as

sin , sin 4 , sin 9 sin n

+1

cos2 , cos2 3 , cos2 8 cos2 n


Sin Cos

0 Sin2 n 1
0 Cos2 n 1

-1/2

+1/2

-1/2 Sin Cos

observe that in case of sin2 and cos2, the minimum value if 0 and not (-1). Why does this happen? because (-1)2=+1

Sin (- ) = Sin ()
Cos (-) = Cos ()

1. a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + }

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2. a sin b sin = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + }


3. a cos b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + }
4. Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n

Let A ,B are any two numbers then,


Arithmetic Mean (AM)= (A + B) / 2 and
Geometric Mean (GM) = (A.B)
Hence, A.M G.M ( We can check it by putting any values of A and B )
Consider the following statement My age is greater than or equal to 25 years .
What could you conclude about my age from this statement ?
Answer : My age can be anywhere between 25 to infinity means it can be 25 , , 50 ,99, 786 or 1000 years etc but it can
not be 24 or 19 or Sweet 16 . Infact it can not be less than 25, strictly.
Means, We can confidently say that my age is not less 25 years. Or in other words my minimum age is 25 years.
Showing numerically, if Age 25 years ( minimum age = 25 )
Similarly, If I say x 56 ( minimum value of x = 56 )
If, y 77 ( minimum value of y = 77 )
If, x + y 133 ( minimum value of x + y = 133 )
If, sin 1 ( minimum value of Sin = -1 )
If, tan + cot 2 (minimum value of tan + cot = 2 ) ]]
Sometimes, we come across a special case of trigonometric identities like to find min. value of sin + cosec or tan + cot or
cos2 + sec2 etc. These identities have one thing in common i.e., the first trigonometric term is opposite of the second term or
vice-versa ( tan = 1/ cot , sin = 1/ cosec , cos2 = 1/ sec2 ).
These type of problems can be easily tackled by using the concept of
A.M G .M
Meaning, Arithmetic mean is always greater than or equal to geometric mean. For example:

(theyll not ask maximum value as it is not defined. )


We know that tan2 = 1/ cot2 , hence applying A.M G.M logic, we get
A.M of given equation = (4 tan2 + 9 cot2) / 2 . (1)
G.M of given equation = (4 tan2 . 9 cot2 )
= 4 * 9 # ( tan2 and cot2 inverse of each other, so tan x cot =1)
= 36 = 6 . (2)
Now, we know that A.M G. M
From equations (1) and (2) above we get,
=> (4 tan2 + 9 cot2) / 2 6
Multiplying both sides by 2
=> 4 tan2 + 9 cot2 12 ( minimum value of tan2 + cot2 is 12 )

Consider equation a cos2 + b sec2 ( find minimum value)


As, A.M G.M

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(a cos2 + b sec2 / 2 ) (a cos2 . b sec2 )


a cos2 + b sec2 2 (ab) ( minimum value 2 ab )
So, we can use 2 ab directly in these kind of problems.

While using A.M G.M logic :


Term should be like a T1 + b T2 ; where T1 = 1 / T2
Positive sign in between terms is mandatory. (otherwise how would you calculate mean ? )
Directly apply 2ab .
Rearrange/Break terms if necessary -> priority should be given to direct use of identities -> find terms eligible for A.M
G.M logic -> if any, apply -> convert remaining identities, if any, to sine and cosines -> finally put known max., min. values.

The reciprocal of 0 is + and vice-versa.


The reciprocal of 1 is 1 and -1 is -1.
If a function has a maximum value its opposite has a minimum value.
A function and its reciprocal have same sign.
Keeping these tools (not exhaustive) in mind we can easily find Maximum or Minimum values easily.

What is The minimum value of sin2 + cos2 + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2
A.
B.
C.
D.

1
3
5
7

We know that sin2 + cos2 = 1 (identitiy#1)


Therefore,
(sin2 + cos2 ) + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2
= (1) + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2
Using A.M G.M logic for tan2 + cot2 we get ,
= 1 + 2 + sec2 + cosec2
changing into sin and cos values
( Because we know maximum and minimum values of Sin , Cos :P and by using simple identities we can convert all
trigonometric functions into equation with Sine and Cosine.)
= 1 + 2 + (1/ cos2 ) + (1/ sin2 )
solving taking L.C.M
= 1 + 2 + (sin2 + cos2 )/( sin2 . cos2 )..eq1
but we already know two things
sin2 + cos2 =1 (trig identity #1)
Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n (Ratta-fication formula #4)

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Apply them into eq1, and we get


= 1 + 2 + (sin2 + cos2 )/( sin2 . cos2 )
= 1 + 2 + (1/1/4) = 1+2+4
= 7 (correct answer D)

A.
B.
C.
D.

1
2
3
5

We can solve this question via two approaches

Break the equation and use identity no. 1


= 2 sin2 + 2 cos2 + cos2
=2(sin2 + cos2 ) + cos2 ; (but sin2 + cos2 =1)
= 2 + cos2 ;(but as per min-max table, the minimum value of cos2 =0)
= 2 + 0 = 2 (correct answer B)

convert equation into one identity ,either sin or cos


first convert it into a sin equation :
= 2 sin2 + 3 (1- sin2 ) ;(because sin2 + cos2 =1=>cos2 =1- sin2 )
= 2 sin2 + 3 3 sin2
= 3 sin2
= 3 ( 1) = 2 (but Min. value of sin2 is 0 confusing ???? )
As sin2 is preceded by a negative sign therefore we have to take max. value of sin2 in order to get minimum value .
Converting into a cos equation :
= 2 sin2 + 3 cos2
= 2 (1- cos2 ) + 3 cos2
= 2 2 cos2 + 3 cos2
= 2 + cos2
= 2 + 0 = 2 ( correct answer B )

A. 2
B. 1/ 2

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C. 1
D. 2
Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1
a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + }
in the given question, weve to find the max value of
Sin x + cos x
= + (12+ 12 )
= 2 ( correct answer A )

A.
B.
C.
D.

-1
5
7
9

Solution:
Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1
a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + }
in the given question, weve to find the max value of
3 Sin x 4 Cos x
= + (32+ 42 )
= 25
= 5 ( correct answer B )

A.
B.
C.
D.

2, 6
4, 5
-4, -5
4, 6

Solution:
We know that, -1 Sin nx 1
= -1 Sin 4x 1
Adding 5 throughout, 4 Sin 4x +5 6
Therefore, the minimum value is 4 and maximum value is 6 ( correct answer D )

A.
B.
C.
D.

Do not exist
-1, 1
Sin -1 , Sin +1
- Sin 1 , Sin 1

We know that, -1 Sin nx 1


= Sin (-1) Sin x Sin (1)
= Sin 1 Sin x Sin 1 ; [Sin(-) is same as Sin ]

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Therefore, Minimum value is Sin 1 and maximum is Sin 1 ( correct answer D)


The key to success is Practice! Practice! Practice!
Drop your problems in the comment box.
For more articles on trigonometry and aptitude, visit mrunal.org/aptitude

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121 comments to [Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made Easy
without differentiation

Older Comments 1

lucky
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what was the last year cut off for auitor general category for tier 1 + tier 2?

lucky
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what was the last year cut off for auditor general category for tier 1 + tier 2?

UD
Reply to this comment
in the question 4 tan2 + 9 cot2
why wont they ask the maximum value.. can u please explain sir..

Deepak Singh
Reply to this comment
tan x doesnt have a minimum or
maximum value.
That would be a silly question.

UD
Reply to this comment

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ok so u mean sir that we dont refer infinity as numbers..


ok
thank u sir

UD
Reply to this comment
-1 Sin nx 1
= Sin (-1) Sin x Sin (1)
= Sin 1 Sin x Sin 1 ; [Sin(-) is same as Sin ]
can someone explain, how did we reach the 2nd step..??

Deepak Singh
Reply to this comment
that is a typing mistake,
we know
-1 Sin nx 1
take sin throughout in question youll get
= Sin (-1) sin Sin x Sin (1)

UD
Reply to this comment
ty sir
please explain this one
sir if i solve..
4sec^2x + 9cosec^2x
4+4tan^2x+9+9cot^2x
now using AM>=GM
13+(2*(4*9)^1/2)
25
did i solve it wrongly???
please explain the difference in answer.

Deepak Singh
Reply to this comment
youre right. Priority order wise this solution is correct.

UD
thank u sir..:)

Akhilesh
cant we do it like this
=4/cos^2x + 9/sin^2x
=(4sin^2x + 9cos^x)/ sin^2x cos^2x
={(4sin^2x + 4cos^x) + 5 cos^2x}/ sin^2x cos^2x
= (4+ 5 cos^2x)/ sin^2x cos^2x
= 4/1/4 coz the min value of cos^2x = 0 and sin^2x cos^2x=1/4
=16
plz rply if i am wrong.

rohan
Reply to this comment
I m confused with the min value of 4sec^2a+9cosec^2a..

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Ans 21

Deepak Singh
Reply to this comment
4sec^2x + 9cosec^2x
=4+4tan^2x+9+9cot^2x
now using AM>=GM
13+(2*(4*9)^1/2)=
25

nishant
Reply to this comment
4.Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n
I guess there is a mistake in this one. Instead it should be (-)n

GAYUR HASAN
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thanks bro for providing almost everything we need to crack competitive exams. i m really inspired the way u have helped
aspirants. thanks again

Kanak
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What is the least value of 4 cosec^2@ + 9 sin^2@?
Please provide the solution too.

lucky
Reply to this comment
is it 12?

Kanak
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Yes it is 12. But can u provide the solution plz?

lucky
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just apply am gm rule

Sagar Singh
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I have lost my roll number but My registration id is 51150218659. Please let me know how can I get my roll number. I want to know
my result.
Thanks,
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Kshitiz
Reply to this comment
what will be the maximum value of cos x sin x ?

Tarak N

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Reply to this comment


root2 yaar simple haa

ravi
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but ans is 1 given in quantum cat

Prateek Aggarwal
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Thanks sirvery well explained

ravi
Reply to this comment
hi.
small dought
maximum value of cosx-sinx
ans root 2
1
1/2
root (1/2)
according to ratta-fication +root(1+1)=root 2
but ans is 1 according to quantum cat

ravi
Reply to this comment
hi.
small doubt
maximum value of cosx-sinx
ans root 2
1
1/2
root (1/2)
according to ratta-fication +root(1+1)=root 2
but ans is 1 according to quantum cat

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Manish Singh
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priyadarshi kumar
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sin10.sin20.sin40.sin60=?

Older Comments 1

1/21/2014 11:50 PM