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DAMODARAM SANJIVAYYA NATIONAL LAW

UNIVERSITY
VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P., INDIA

SOCIOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF JURISPRUDENCE

JURISPRUDENCE- I

Prof. R.B.G. BHAGAWATH KUMAR & ARVINDNATH TRIPATHI

G. NAGA LAHARI
ROLL NO: 2013048
V SEMESTER

PLAGARISM

CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I consider myself lucky that I got the chance to do a work on this topic that was to
Sociological School of Jurisprudence.
I thank the subject teacher, R.G.B. Bhagawath Kumar & Arvindnath Tripati, for letting me
choose the topic.

ABSTRACT

The historical jurisprudence of the earlier part of the 19th century became subject to the
influence of the developing social sciences, which attempted to explain law in its social
context. The result was the emergence of a sociological school of jurisprudence. Sociological
School started with a new concept, meaning and function of law totally different from that of
its earlier formal and conceptual character. Sociological Jurisprudence therefore stands for
tested, probable and concrete legal solutions to pressing social problems and aspirations
which require urgent solution. Its theory and thinking is concerned about how the law
actually works rather than how it ought to work or what it is. Its orientation towards law is
functional, pragmatic and realistic judging law exclusively from its results, social
consequences and effects upon society. It rejects the traditional idealistic, dogmatic or
logical notion of law as dysfunctional, anti-social and a clog undermining social harmony,
social justice and social equilibrium. It is therefore, maintained that law cannot shut its eyes
to the complex social problems and thereby it becomes essentially a healer, reconciler and
above all a guarantor of social reforms and peaceful change consistent with the principles of
humanity, equality and liberty. Law thus becomes a substitute for revolution and conflicts for
achieving social good - the ultimate quest of sociological jurisprudence.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEGEMENT
ABSTRACT
1. OBJECTIVES
2. INTRODUCTION
3. HYPOTHESIS
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
5. MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF
SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE
6. GROWTH OF SOCIOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF
JURISPRUDENCE
6.1.
Future of Sociological School of
Jurisprudence

PAGE NO.
02
03
04
08
08
09
09
09
10
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7. VIEWS OF DIFFERENT JURISTS RELATED


TO THIS APPROACH

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8. SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE IN INDIAN


CONTEXT
9. IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL
JURISPRUDENCE IN GROWTH OF
LEGISLATURE & JUDICIARY SYSTEM IN INDIA
10. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL
JURISPRUDENCE ON JUDICIARY SYSTEM OF
INDIA
11. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL
JURISPRUDENCE ON LEGISLATIVE SYSTEM
OF INDIA
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
References
Articles
Websites

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14

14

16

17
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LIST OF CASES
1) Keshavanand Bharti v State of kerala, AIR 1973 SC 1461
2) Minerva Mills v. Union of India, 1980 SC 1789
3) Waman Rao v. union India ,AIR 1980 SC 271)
4) Indira sawhney v. Unionj of India, AIR 1993 SC 447(634)
5) S.R Bommai v. Union of India, AIR 1994 SC 1918
6) Kuldip Nayyar v. Union of India,AIR 2007 SC 3127

1. OBJECTIVES
To understand and analyze various principles of Sociological School of Jurisprudence
2. INTRODUCTION
Sociological jurisprudence is a term coined by the American jurist Roscoe Pound (1870
1964) to describe his approach to the understanding of the law. Believes law is a means of
achieving and advancing certain sociological goals.1 Central to Pound's conception was the
very suggestive idea that in modern societies the law represents the principal means through
which divergent interests are brought into some sort of alignment with one another.
Unfortunately, perhaps because he was a jurist rather than a sociologist, he did not combine
this insightful conception with a developed understanding of how these interests were formed
and why some of them came to be privileged over others within the legal system. A
sociologically informed account of Pound's work, which places it in the context of the
historical development of the sociology of law, will be found in Alan Hunt, The Sociological
Movement in Law, 1978.2 The sociological questions in jurisprudence are concerned with the
actual effects of the law upon the complex of attitudes, behaviour, organization, environment,
skills, and powers involved in the maintenance of a particular society. Conversely,
sociological jurisprudence is also concerned with the effects of social phenomena on both the
substantive and procedural aspects of law, as well as on the legislative, judicial, and other
means of forming, operating, changing, and disrupting the legal order. The fact that people in
a given time and place hold particular ideas and values, including ideals of justice, is itself a
fact the relation of which to law must be studied; but the focus is sharply different from that
in the study of theories of justice. Its focus is descriptive, not normative; it is concerned with
what is or with what goes on, not with what ought to be or ought to go on.3

Sociological jurisprudence is one of the most important schools of legal thought in the
twentieth century. Its major proponent in the United States was ROSCOE POUND (1870
1 https://archive.org/details/jstor-1324094, last visited on 8 th October, 2015 at 7 PM
2 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1324094, last visited on 6th October, 2015 at 6 PM
3 Sociological school of jurisprudence, http://www.britannica.com/topic/philosophy-of-law, last
visited on 6th October, 2015 at 6 PM
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1964), a prolific writer who was dean of the Harvard Law School from 1916 to 1936. A
number of other legal educators and judges also contributed in varying degrees to the theory
or practice of sociological jurisprudence. The movement for a sociological jurisprudence
emerged during the Progressive era. Pound interpreted it as the "movement for pragmatism as
a philosophy of law," the purpose of which was to facilitate legal reform and social progress.
Although legal change should take place under the leadership of lawyers, the agenda of
sociological jurisprudence did not focus on changes in legal institutions. Rather, it stressed
reform of prevailing conceptions of the study, interpretation, and application of law.
3. HYPOTHESIS
The Sociological questions in jurisprudence are concerned with the actual effects of the law
upon the complex of attitudes, behaviour, organization, environment, skills, and powers
involved in the maintenance of a particular society. Conversely, Sociological jurisprudence is
also concerned with the effects of social phenomena on both the substantive and procedural
aspects of law, as well as on.

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1.
Research Questions
1) What are the meaning, scope and interpretation of sociological Jurisprudence?
2) What are the views of different jurists related to the approach?
3) What is the importance of sociological jurisprudence on legislative and judiciary
systems in India?
4.2.
Sources of Data
The primary sources of data are internet source and books.
4.3.

Method of Writing

The research paper is in theoretical in nature.


4.4.

Mode of Citation

The mode of citation used in this paper is Harvard Blue Book Citation.
5. MEANING AND INTERPRETATION OF SOCIOLOGICAL
JURISPRUDENCE
Sociological School of jurisprudence has emerged as a result of synthesis of various juristic
thought. The exponent of this school considered law as a social phenomenon. They are
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chiefly concerned with the relationship of law to other contemporary social institutions. They
emphasize that the jurists should focus their attention in social purposes and interest served
by law rather than on individuals and their abstract rights. According to this school the
essential characteristics of law should be to represent common interaction of men in social
groups, whether past or present, ancient or modern. The main concern of sociological jurist
is to study the effect of law and society on each other. They treat law as an instrument of
social progress. The relation between positive law and ideals of justice also effects the
sociology of law.
The main exponents of the sociological jurisprudence which has been characterised as
interest oriented, interest loaded, and interest directed were Auguste Comte, Herbert
Spencer, Rudolph Ihring, Eugen Ehrlich, Leon Duguit, Francois Geny, Dean Roscoe Pound
etc. In United States, Justice Oliver Windell Holmesand Benjamin Cardozo the distinguished
judges of the Supreme Court were also inspired by Dean Pounds Sociological theory of law.
6. GROWTH OF SOCIOLOGICAL SCHOOL OF JURISPRUDENCE
The most eminent pioneers and champions of 20th-century sociological jurisprudence
were Roscoe Pound in the United States and Hermann Kantorowicz in Europe. For both, the
task of sociological jurisprudence, though orientated mainly to practical administrative or
legislative problems, included that of framing hypotheses (as to the limits of effective legal
action, for example) on which to base general laws of the operation of law in society.
As with the social sciences, the principal methods available to sociological jurisprudence are
surveys, statistical analyses, comparative observations, and experimentation. The controls and
corrections available usually fall far short of those of the natural science models. Much work
in sociological jurisprudence merely brought to bear upon the law relevant findings from
other social sciences. But it may also generate its own findings, as it did in relation to traffic
laws,

control

of

money

lending, credit

unions, bankruptcy laws,

the

effect

of antitrust practices or of poverty on legal rights, the theory of appellate judicial decision
making, and a host of other matters. Examinations of the prehistory and after careers of
convicted criminals and of persons on probation or parole, probings of family and
environmental influences bearing on potential deviance, and attempts to identify decisive

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factors predictive of future deviance have been among the staples of sociological
jurisprudence.4
Sociological jurisprudence is confronted by the questions whether (and, if so, how and how
far) it is possible through empirical methods to approach central issues of social action that
involve value judgments. The fact that lawyers are necessarily involved with ideas of
obligation, values, and norms sharpens this confrontation. A second group of problems arises
from the high level of individuality of persons, groups, and societies, from the unending
variety of their emotions, roles, and expectations, and from the feedback effects on human
behaviour that the empirical observation and testing of that behaviour brings about.
These problems give central importance to efforts to develop frames of social knowledge that
give due place to both facts and values. Such inquiries show the great complexities of values
held and their intricate and dynamic relation to the physical and cultural environments.5
The study of law in society thus shares with anthropology and other social sciences a central
interest in roles and functions as basic meaningful categories and in certain mechanisms and
channels whereby conduct is thought to become socially meaningful. These notions are
thought to permit the analysis of complex social situations into more refined terms, such as
constituent goals, tasks, expectations, and allocated rights, powers, and duties.6
As to the mechanisms or channels through which conduct becomes socially meaningful,
earlier thought tended to explain social norms as built up from individual instances through
group usages and mores that then crystallize in institutions such as law. Insofar as this
suggests a cumulative movement or process, current thought would regard it as
oversimplified. The growth of socio-ethical convictions is rather to be seen in terms of
symbolic interaction between individuals. A particular society may be seen, in this light, as a
collection of individuals with a culture that has been learned by symbolic communication

4 James A. Gardner, The Sociological Jurisprudence of Roscoe Pound (Part I), 7 Vill. L. Rev. 1
(1961).
5 Available at: http://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/vlr/vol7/iss1/1, last visited on 5th October,
2015 at 6PM
6 Stone, A critique of Pound's Theory of Justice, 20 IowA L. Rzv. 531, 532-33(1935)
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from other individuals back through time, enabling members to gauge their behaviour to each
other and to the society as a whole.7
6.1.

Future of Sociological School of Jurisprudence

In his famous program of 191112, Pound formulated a series of rather practical objectives
for the movement, including making studies of the law in action, of the means of more
effective legislation and law enforcement (by creation of ministries of justice, for example),
of legal and judicial reasoning, of legal history in its social context, and of the role of
the legal profession. An early quip against the sociological school was that it was like a great
orchestra constantly tuning its instruments but never actually playing. Yet many practical
tasks have been performed, and the school continued to show a gathering momentum and a
widening range of concerns.8
The maladjustments and inadequacies of the law gave to early sociological jurisprudence an
intensely activist drive, directed to ad hoc remedies, and a great deal of the relevant work is
still of this nature. Especially since 1945, however, juristic work on the relations of law and
society has come into more fruitful contact with other social sciences, leading in turn to
greater stress on cognition of the social and economic orders in their complex unity.
Whatever the difficulties of designs for an overall analysis of the social system, some
adjustment toward them is inevitable for sociological jurisprudence. This is in part, no doubt,
a result of the waning of interest in many of the kinds of ad hoc problems with which it was
initially concerned. But the interest in sociological theory also results from growing
awareness that some problems require to be approached on a wider basis. This has created
new stirrings of the turn-of-the-20th-century ambition that the study of law in society
becomes a specific branch of social science, concerned with framing and testing general laws
governing law as a social phenomenon.9
7. VIEWS OF DIFFERENT JURISTS RELATED TO THIS APPROACH
7 Pound, The Need of a Sociological Jurisprudence, 19 GuxN BAG 607 (1907)
8 Pound, The Ideal Element in American Judicial Decision, 45 HARV. L. R~v. 136 (1931). 47. Id.
9 http://www.britannica.com/topic/philosophy-of-law/Philosophy-of-law-since-the-mid-20th-century,
last visited on 7th October, 2015 at 6 PM
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Montesquieu emphasised that law of a particular nation should be determined by its


national characteristics and must bear the relation to the climate of each country, the quality
of soil, the situation and extent, the principle occupations of the native, and above all, to the
religion of inhabitants, riches, commerce , manners and customs.
Auguste Comte applied scientific method to the study of sociology which he termed as
scientific positivism. According to him, society, like any other organism can progress when
it is guided by scientific principles.
Herbert Spencer gave a scientific exposition to the organic theory of society. Spencer
deduced four sources of law, namely:

Divine law having quasi religious sanctions.


The injunctions of the past leaders.
The will of the ruler.
Collective opinion in the society.

ROSCOE POUND is said to be the father of this approach. He said "The law must be stable,
but it must not stand still." Pound placed his sociological jurisprudence in opposition to what
he termed "mechanical jurisprudence," which he characterized as a common but odious
practice whereby judges woodenly applied precedent to the facts of cases without regard to
the consequences. For Pound, the logic of previous precedent alone would not solve
jurisprudential problems. His study of biology led him to believe that the law, like nature, was
a seamless web and that change in one part might produce totally unexpected and undesirable
results in a distant part.
Marxists criticize sociological jurisprudence for substituting superficial reasoning about the
social reality of the law for the materialistexplanation of law as the product of class society.
They also object to the schools vulgar empiricism and to the spread of the concept offree ju
dicial discretion, which serves to undermine the principle of legality.10
8. SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE IN INDIAN CONTEXT
For an appraisal of sociological jurisprudence in its Indian perspective it would be necessary
to survey the present as well as the pre-independence Indian law. The law during the British
Colonial rule in India was coercive and counter-productive to social needs of the Indian
10 http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/law/396-schools-of-jurisprudence-analyticalhistorical-a-sociological-school, last visited on 7th October, 2015 at 8 PM
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people. It was suppressive and insensitive to the sentiments and expectations of the Indians.
The British rulers paralysed the peace and prosperity of Indian by dividing Indians on the
basis of caste, creed, religion, language and occupation so as to perpetuate tension and
conflict between different communities to meet their self ends. Thus the law in India as it
stood before the Indian independence was formal, rigid, repressive, and punitive as
contemplated by Austinian conception of imperative theory of law. The legislature, executive
and judiciary- three organs of the government used to law to protect the interests of the
British in complete disregard of the aspirations and needs of the Indian masses who were
exploited and denied even the basic human rights. In strict Austinian sense sanctions were
imposed on Indians in name of justice is according to law. 11 The British residents in India
enjoyed many exemptions and special privileges under the then existing laws. Thus there was
one law for the ruler and other for the ruled
9. IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE IN GROWTH
OF LEGISLATURE AND JUDICIARY SYSTEM IN INDIA
With the introduction of sociological jurisprudence in India there has been a tremendous
growth in the Legislature and Judiciary functions of Indian constitution. Both these functions
of the Parliament of India advanced to great heights because of the introduction of this
context.
The sociological school of jurisprudence is largely a product of the 20th century. Its approach
to the analysis of law differs from that of the other schools in that it is concerned less with the
nature and origin of law than with its actual functions and end results. The proponents of
sociological jurisprudence seek to view law within a broad social context rather than as an
isolated phenomenon distinct from and independent of other means of social control. They
are concerned with practical improvement of the legal system and feel that this can be
achieved only if legislation and court adjudications take into account the findings of other
branches of learning, particularly the social sciences. The American jurist Roscoe Pound was
a prominent figure in the school of sociological jurisprudence.12

11 http://study.com/academy/lesson/schools-of-jurisprudence-theories-definitions.html, last visited


on 8th October, 2015 at 7 PM
12http://autocww2.colorado.edu/~toldy3/E64ContentFiles/LawAndCourts/Jurisprudence.html, last
visited on 9th October, 2015 at 9 PM
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Sociological jurisprudence evaluates the influence of society on laws themselves, as well as


on the procedural aspects of the legal system. This type of scrutiny compares the law with
other sociological fields of study, including religion, economics, and literature, in an effort to
bring enlightenment by sharing understanding between each sociological field.13
10. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE ON JUDICIARY
SYSTEM OF INDIA
With the wave of nationalism and awakening of intellectuals, demands for civil liberty and
basic human rights were persistently made but it fell on deaf ears and suppression,
oppression, and exploitation of the people continued unabated under the British Colonial
Rule. The lawyers and judges interpreted and applied law mechanically without considering
the felt needs of the people. The Indian National Leaders, notably, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit
Jawaharhar Lal Nehru and other were convinced that British Law had failed to meet the
needs of the Indian Society because of the rigid adherence to the Doctrine of precedent.
Pandit Nehru observed more than once that the nineteenth century dogmas and legal precepts
had little validity in the changed conditions of the twentieth century and therefore, undue
reliance on precedent was of little use as it may fail to give a new sociological approach to
law.
With the independence of India, a new constitution was adopted for the country for
embodying the social philosophy and economic values towards attainment of an egalitarian
welfare state. A separate chapter on fundamental rights including individual rights and
freedoms and a chapter on Directive Principles on State Policy comprising social rights has
been incorporated in constitution of India14 and the judges have endeavoured to harmonise the
individual rights with the social interests of the community through their judicial decisions.
The function of law is now to resolve the conflict between Fundamental Rights and Directive
Principles of state Policy as both are aimed at ushering a egalitarian society for the welfare of
the nation as a whole.15 The philosophy enriched in the preamble and the chapters on
13 http://legaldictionary.net/jurisprudence/, last visited on 10th October, 2015 at 9 PM
14 Part III of the Constitution of India relates to the Fundamental Rights and Part IV embodies the
Directive Principles of State Policy.
15 Keshavanand Bharti v state of kerala(AIR 1973 SC 1461: Minerva Mills v. Union of India, 1980
SC 1789.Waman Rao v. union India ,AIR 1980 SC 271)
15

fundamental rights, directive principles, fundamental duties16 , provisions relating to the


powers and functions judiciary and amendment of the Constitution amply demonstrate that
the entire focus is on the welfare of the Indian masses and making law responsive to the
social needs.
The developing trends in public litigation have opened new vistas for interpreting law in the
context of social settings. The contribution of judges notably, Dr. P.B Gajendragadkar, P.N
Bhagwati, D.A Desai, Krishna Iyer and others to the development of new Indian
jurisprudence based on hard realities of life further shows that law can be effectively be used
as a tool of social transformation for creating a new social order with primacy to social
justice.
In Indira sawhney v. Unionj of India,17Mr. Justice P.B Sawant observed:
The Constitution of India being essentially a political document has to be interpreted to meet
the felt necessities of time. Our constitution, unlike many others, incorporates in the
framework of the social change that is desired to be brought about. The change has to be
ushered in as expeditiously as possible but at the same time with the least friction and
dislocation in National life.
In S.R Bommai v. Union of India,18 a special nine Judge Bench of the Supreme Court passed a
landmark verdict on the issue of the secularism and held that the State is enjoined that to
award equal treatment to all religions and religious denomination. The court remarked:
Secularism is part of the fundamental law and the basic structure of the Indian Political
system to secure all its system to secure to all its people socio-economic needs essential for
mans excellence with material and moral prosperity and political justice.

16 Art. 51-A
17 AIR 1993 SC 447(634)
18 AIR 1994 SC 1918
16

In the case of Kuldip Nayyar v. Union of India,19 the Supreme Court held that the right to vote
is a statutory right and not a fundamental right. By this statement, the court implied that the
right to vote is subject to laws that may legitimately curtail it without altering or infringing
the basic structure of the Constitution of India.
11. INFLUENCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL JURISPRUDENCE ON
LEGISLATIVE SYSTEM OF INDIA
The welfare legislations enacted during the post-independence era amply demonstrate that the
British-Oriented Austinain concept of law has no place in modern Indian democracy and an
instrument of social change. The establishment of Human Rights Commission, Womens
Commission, Family Courts, Industrial tribunals, Administrative Tribunals, Ombudsman,
Panchayti Raj, Lok Adalats etc. are only a few illustrations to suggest that sole objective is to
make justice available to a common man and weaker sections of the society.
The laws relating to consumer protection, doery prohibition, abolition of bonded labour,
control of environmental pollution etc. have been enacted to provide social justice echoing
the hopes and aspirations of the people. Some of post independence socio-economic
legislations to meet the social meets the social needs and establish a social order as
contemplated by the constitution, are enumerated as follows:1. The Civil Rights Act, 1955
2. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act,1976
3. The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
4. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971
5. The Family Courts Act, 1984
6. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
7. The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987
8. The Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986
19 AIR 2007 SC 3127
17

9. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act,2000


10. The SC &ST Act, 1989
11. The Child Marriage Restraint (Amendment) Act, 1978
12. The National Commission for Women Act, 1990
13. The Public Liability Insurance Rights Act, 1993
14. FEMA,MRTP,COFEPOSA Acts etc.20
CONCLUSION
Rules derived by a process of logical deduction from pre-established conceptions of
contract and obligation have broken down before the slow and steady and erosive
actions of utility and justice. We see the same process at work in other fields. We no
longer interpret contracts with meticulous adherence to the letter when in conflict with the
spirit. We read covenants into them by implication when we find them in conflict
with them instinct with an obligation imperfectly expressed.
The law has outgrown its primitive stage of formalism when the precise word was the
sovereign talisman and every slip was fatal. There has been much debate among the
foreign jurists whether the norms of right and useful conduct, the patterns of social
welfare, are to be found by the judge in conformity with an objective or a subjective
standard His duty to declare the law in accordance with reason and justice is seen to
be a phase of his duty to declare it in accordance with custom. It is the customary
morality of right-minded men and women which he is to enforce by his decree.
The above two paragraphs of J. Cardozo clearly define the progress of the legal system while
also summarising the duty of the judge in the evolution of this social process. The role of the
judge, therefore, to ensure social progress rests undisputed. Evaluating the part played by the
Supreme Court in this role, it goes without saying that the Court have indeed came up to
the occasion almost whenever it was required to interpret and mould social norms and
practices in line with the social aim that it envisaged for the national strata.

20 The list is only illustrative and not exclusive.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Studies in Jurisprudence by Pranjapee, N.V


James A. Gardner, The Sociological Jurisprudence of Roscoe Pound
Stone, A critique of Pound's Theory of Justice
Pound, The Need of a Sociological Jurisprudence

References:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Zykov, P. G. Krizis sovremennoi burzhuaznoisotsiologiiprava, Moscow, 1963.


Ivanenko, O. F. Pravovaia ideologiia amerikanskoi burzhuazii. Kazan, 1966.
Tumanov, V. A. Burzhuaznaia pravovaia ideologiia. Moscow, 1971.
Lukovskaia, D. I. Sotsiologicheskoe napravlenie vo frantsuzskoi teoriiprava. Leningra
d, 1972

Articles:
1) Pound, The Ideal Element in American Judicial Decision, 45 HARV. L. R~v. 136
(1931). 47. Id.
Web Sites
1) https://archive.org/details/jstor-1324094
2) http://www.jstor.org/stable/1324094
3) Sociological school of jurisprudence, http://www.britannica.com/topic/philosophy-oflaw,
4) http://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/vlr/vol7/iss1/1
5) http://www.britannica.com/topic/philosophy-of-law/Philosophy-of-law-since-the-mid20th-century,
6) http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/law/396-schools-of-jurisprudenceanalytical-historical-a-sociological-school,
7) http://study.com/academy/lesson/schools-of-jurisprudence-theories-definitions.html
8) http://autocww2.colorado.edu/~toldy3/E64ContentFiles/LawAndCourts/Jurisprudence
.html
9) http://legaldictionary.net/jurisprudence/

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