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Ages 16

EMC 4506

Day-care providers
Preschool teachers

En
h
E- an
bo c
e
ok d

Learn While Having Fun

Parents

Writing:
Content Editing:
Copy Editing:
Art Direction:
Cover Design:
Illustration:
Design/Production:

Jill Norris
Marilyn Evans
Cathy Harber
Cheryl Puckett
Cheryl Puckett
Cindy Davis
Carolina Caird

EMC 4506

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Never Too Young to Learn.................2


About Young Learners, Ages 16......3
Skills for Success ...............................9
Indoor Playtime ...............................10
Art Time ..........................................62
Mealtime..........................................92
Story Time ..................................... 140
Outdoor Playtime........................... 166
While-You-Wait Time .................... 231
Travel Time....................................256

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Never Too Young to Learn


Children learn from the moment they are born. What they learn and how they feel about
learning are up to the caregivers that spend time with them. The most important thing
you can do with young children is to interact with them. The intellectual and social
stimulation that you provide is vital to their growth. It is never too soon to start
providing experiences that build the skills necessary for success in school and in life.
Young children learn while they play. Play is childrens worksome of the most
important work they will ever do. In fact, play is the foundation for academic learning.
During play, children
develop coordination and fine-motor skills.
gain a sense of competency and control.
learn about how people and things work.
make connections between concrete things and abstract ideas.
The activities in this book demonstrate that any time of the day provides opportunities
for learning and growing.
Play a memory game while you are waiting in line.
Read a book and talk about it at bedtime.
Do a hands-on math problem in the grocery store or while setting the table.
Sing a song and do a dance any time at all.
Wherever you are and whatever youre doing, you can provide experiences that lay the
foundation for successful future learning.
The activities in this book are a valuable resource. Browse the suggested activities to
expand your repertoire. Choose an activity that matches the childs interest and abilities.
Read over the activity to familiarize yourself with the overall purpose and procedure.
Adapt it to fit the individual needs of the child. Then enjoy doing it. Learning should be
a joyous experience for you and the child.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

About Young Learners, Ages 16


All young children are individuals. They progress at different speeds and are interested in
different things. The following pages present some attributes common to children, ages 16.
Please use these pages as a general reference.

The One-Year-Old Child


One-year-olds may love to be independent.
Control their activities by controlling the environment.
One-year-olds can be tireless explorers.
Support their explorations, both physical and mental, by exploring alongside them.
One-year-olds may enjoy motion.
Strollers, backpacks, and wagons will make excursions more fun.
One-year-olds can entertain an audience.
Children appreciate applause as they demonstrate their latest accomplishments.

Safe Environment
One-year-olds do not think ahead about what they are going to do. Instead, they move around a
room almost at random, stopping to investigate briefly whatever they come in contact with.
Your job is to provide stimulating toys and objects, to find out what the child likes to do best,
and encourage him or her to do that often.

Opportunities to Explore
One-year-olds lug, tug, dump, push, pound, and move things.
They will endlessly shift their attention from a pull-toy to a chair,
to a stuffed rabbit, to pots and pans, to balls, to blocks, and to a
wagon. They fill pails with sand and then dump the sand out.
Provide as many opportunities as possible that emphasize
physical activity.

Conversation
Encourage one-year-olds to show you things
and then talk with them about what they show
you. Take them on a stroller ride and point
out interesting things along the
waydogs, babies, airplanes, and
mud puddles. Carry on conversations
to help them develop language and
understanding of their environment.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Two-Year-Old
Many two-year-olds love routine and repetition.
The order in which things are done, the way in which they are done, and the places in which
things are kept may be important to a two-year-old. Consistency in the large and confusing
world helps build self-confidence.
Two-year-olds vary tremendously.
The child of 24 months is very different from the same child at 30 months. Be prepared to
marvel at the changes. The third year of life is a time of tremendous growth. Remember that
two-year-olds develop according to their own timetables. Some two-year-olds are talking in
full sentences, while others have little to say.
Most two-year-olds love things.
Mine can be a key two-year-old word. A two-year-olds possessions are almost an
extension of self, and the need to protect them can get in the way of cooperation.

Safe Environment
Two-year-olds spend their days in exploration and investigation. They approach whatever
attracts them. They explore not only by touch, but also by taste and smell. Two-year-olds can
turn doorknobs, open drawers and cupboards, and move quickly. Arrange safe places where
there will be as few restrictions as possible.

Consistent Routine
Many two-year-olds like the feeling of having the same thing happen day after day. Their
demand for sameness helps them avoid the conflict of having to make choices. Morning and
bedtime rituals can be demanding for parents, but these routines provide the necessary security
as the child develops a secure sense of self.

Language
Everything is still new to two-year-olds. Show
them new things. Tell them new facts. Share
their interest in the things around them. Enjoy
their new ability to express desires and request
information. Respond to their questions with
simple, enthusiastic replies.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

TheThree-Year-Old
Three-year-olds want to please.
Typical three-year-olds want to do things correctly. They are highly susceptible to praise and
favorable comments. They also tend to be responsive to friendly humor.
Many three-year-olds have strong motor skills.
Three-year-olds are gaining command of their bodies. They walk well, run easily, and turn
sharp corners. They are unusually sure and agile.
Three-year-olds love new words.
In addition to their increased interest in books and storytelling, many three-year olds love
hearing new and different words. Introduce words and explain their meanings. The idea of
a surprise or a secret is especially intriguing to most three-year-olds.

Patience
Three can be a conforming age. Some three-year-olds enjoy doing things with other
children. However three-year-olds can also be stubborn. Be patient and stay out of
conflict when you can.

Rich Environment
It isnt necessary to provide expensive educational toys and materials in
order to provide a rich learning environment. Simple playthings like paint
and clay help children develop creativity. Three-year-olds will give you clues
about the kinds of experiences and play equipment that suits them. Listen
to the questions asked and notice interest or lack of interest. Remember,
the most important things in the childs environment are the adults
who care for them.

Language
Three-year-olds confirm what they are doing with
words. They ask for information, tell about their
experiences, and call attention to their
accomplishments. Reinforce their
language use by talking and
listening. Build on their
awareness of the different
sounds within words. Play
with sounds of languagemake up
silly words, create crazy rhymes,
and whisper. This language play is
an important step in prereading.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Four-Year-Old
Many four-year-olds love to have choices.
Have two or three activities ready. Let the child choose one.
Four-year-olds may love to repeat things.
Repeat favorite activities often.
Four-year-olds love to make up their own games.
Make up new activities using those in the book as a pattern.

Variety
Playing and learning should be like sampling a relaxed smorgasbord. As a caregiver, you
provide the balanced menu. The child is responsible for making the selection. Tempt the child
with exciting possibilities and spark interest in new areas, but dont force-feed activities that you
choose.

Hands-on Activities
You want to help the child think. Listening uses only a small part of the brain. Looking or
watching uses a bit more, while responding uses still more. Experiences where thinking,
feeling, and moving happen together require your child to use many parts of the brain at the
same time. These multilevel activities are especially important for young learners.

Spontaneity
Rules should be kept to a minimum. Make consistent
rules regarding safety and respect for others. Provide
plenty of room for movement. Have fun and enjoy
learning.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Five-Year-Old
Some five-year-olds look at things seriously.
Extend responsibilities. Taking on responsibility and imitating grown-up behaviors by
completing tasks gives five-year-olds pride in their accomplishments.
Some five-year-olds are good at selecting activities within their abilities.
Accept five-year-olds appraisals of what they can and cannot do. They are usually accurate
in their judgments.
Some five-year-olds want to please.
Enjoy five-year-olds enthusiasm and their consistent
positive attitudes.

Stimulating Environment
As a caregiver, you are responsible for organizing the
childs environment and providing stimulating materials.
Your job is to create the opportunities for learning where
the child can be both successful and challenged. The
childs job is to choose the experiences and activities.
Tempt the child with exciting possibilities and spark
interest in new areas.

Active Learning
Young children learn by doing. Provide experiences
that help them to be physically and mentally active.
Use real things from the environment to practice
counting and patterning. Solve real problems
together. Make connections to relate new
experiences and the childs previous experiences.

Language Play
Five-year-olds love to talk. They ask for
information, tell about their experiences, and
make their own generalizations. Reinforce their
language use by talking and listening to them.
Help them to expand their vocabularies by
extending the complexity of your explanations.
Continue to play with the sounds of language
make up silly words, create crazy rhymes, and
whisper. Practicing language play is an important
step to reading success.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Six-Year-Old
Six-year-olds can be the center of their own universe.
Recognize the egocentricity of the six-year-old. Accept his or her need to be first and best.
Understand the six-year-olds need for developing independence and maintaining close
relationships at the same time.
Six-year-olds can want it all.
Some six-year-olds seem to contradict themselves. They want both of any two opposites.
They find it hard to make a choice, and once the choice has been made, they may
immediately have an overpowering need for its opposite. Having the biggest piece is
important to six-year-olds.
Six-year-olds can be lively intellectually.
As the child gains maturity and independence, encourage new
activities that take advantage of these characteristics. Provide
opportunities that include setting up an experiment and playing
guessing games. Enjoy new adventures together.

Be Positive
Children are sensitive to criticism. Praise the child
whenever you can. Anticipate problem situations
and plan for them. Offer help and teach strategies
for success, rather than focusing on mistakes and
misconceptions.

Appreciate Creativity
Provide the materials and praise that will encourage
the childs creative spirit. Applaud the creative
process, not only the product. Challenge the
child to look at things in new ways.

Talk, Listen, Read


Many children love to talk. They ask for
information, tell about their experiences,
and make their own generalizations.
Reinforce their language use by talking
and listening to them. Listen as the child
plays word games, creates crazy rhymes,
learns the sounds that letters make,
and reads.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Skills for Success


Each page in Teaching Young Children is coded to tell which skill areas are developed by the
activity. Often a single activity addresses several different skills. These six important skills help
to lay the foundation for a childs success in school:

Large-Motor Development
walking, running, jumping, large-muscle movement

Coordination and Dexterity


small-muscle movements in the hands and fingers

Language Development
speaking, listening, and developing vocabulary

Creativity
imagining, exploring different materials, thinking in new ways

Problem Solving
finding alternative solutions, understanding cause and effect

Memory and Concentration


remembering, connecting different ideas

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Lets build a bridge,


A tower, a town.
Build it up high,
Then knock it down.
Put it together,
Then take it apart.
It helps me to learn.
Im getting so smart.
Im an engineer, a scientist,
A fashion designer, too.
Is there any special job
That I can do for you?
The work I do while I play
Helps me learn more every day.

Use these activities to:


develop a sense of independence
improve fine-motor coordination
imitate actual experiences
expand vocabulary
practice cutting
build self-awareness and confidence
follow simple directions
practice counting
match items
answer questions
find hidden objects
stack and build with blocks
copy a pattern
read a thermometer
make good decisions

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

use senses to identify familiar objects


learn about rhythm
take turns, roll dice, count spaces, make
choices, win, and lose
learn about balance
sort objects according to attributes
name categories
learn about time
build strong shapes
see how things work
learn about magnetism
measure objects and compare their sizes
create patterns
use imagination to solve problems

10

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Notes on Safe Indoor Play

The success of any childs play indoors depends largely


upon the presence of multiple, simple playthings and the
absence of hazards. Carefully evaluate toys and objects in
the childs environment for any hazards.

Light plugs should be either disconnected or covered.


Valuable or breakable objects should be removed from reach.

Make sure furniture is sturdy.


Install protective guards on sharp edges.
Store toys on a low shelf where the child can reach
them without climbing.

Put medicines and cleaning supplies in a locked cabinet.


Keep sharp utensils, plastic bags, and garbage out of reach.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

11

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children love to push things.

a large cardboard box with several heavy catalogs or phone books inside
(The books will give the box stability so that it wont tip over.
Dont add so many that it cant be moved.)

1. Put the box in an open area.


2. Put a stuffed animal in the box and push
it to show how it moves. The child
may want a ride, too.
3. Leave the box where the child
can choose to push it. Another
day move the box to a different
surface. When the child pushes it,
it will have a different feel.
Talk about the pushing.

Note: Make sure child-safe


gates are in place or doors are
closed so that the box cannot
be pushed down stairways.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

12

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This traditional game is always a favorite.

the rhyme in your head:


Peek-a-boo
I see you.

1. Hide your eyes behind your hand.


2. Lift your hand, smile, and repeat the rhyme.
3. Use fans, papers, cereal boxes, diapers, or
other objects in place of your hand.
4. Hide the childs eyes instead of yours.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

13

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Enjoy the fun of pushing a ball and watching it roll.

a soft rubber ball about the size of a soccer ball

1. Sit on the floor across from the child. Spread your


legs in a V shape.
2. Push the ball gently toward the child.
3. If your aim is good, the ball will roll into the
V of the childs legs and come to a stop.
4. The child pushes the ball to you.
5. Play as long as the child is interested.
Warning: This game can go on for a
long time.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

14

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Some young children enjoy following basic directions.

a focused moment

1. Sit close to the child facing him or her at the


same level.
2. Say, These are your ears, and touch the childs ears.
3. Say, Show me your ears.
4. The child responds by touching his or her ears.
5. Repeat using other body parts.
This is your nose.
Show me your nose.
Change the activity by saying,
This is my nose.
Touch my nose.
If the child gets tired of playing, stop.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

15

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make up and sing songs to count objects.

a group of objects

Sing an original version of Ten Little Indians to count a group of objects.


1. As you unpack the groceries,
one little, two little jars of baby food . . .
2. As you pick up toys,
one little, two little smiling animals. . .
3. As you fold the laundry,
one little, two little shirts for Scotty. . .
Dont expect the child to count. Just hearing you
count is an important learning experience.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

16

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Enjoy this beginning dress-up game.

a big mirror
several hats

1. Hold or sit the child in front of the


mirror. Make sure that the child sees
his or her image. Say,
Look at Mark in the mirror.
2. Put a hat on the child. Say,
See Marks hat.
Mark has a hat on.
3. Take the hat off. Say,
Wheres Marks hat?
4. Repeat with other hats. Encourage the
child to put on and take off hats.
If you and the child find a special look, you may
want a photograph to include in a scrapbook.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

17

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Pick blocks up. Put blocks down. Move blocks to a new place.

a set of blocks
You may want to use rubber or cloth blocks that are
easy to pick up. Wooden blocks should be smooth.
All blocks should be big enough so that they cant
be put in the mouth, but small enough to be easily
picked up and put down.

1. Provide the blocks. You may want to sit on the floor


and make a row of blocks. Put several blocks in a wagon,
pull the wagon, and unload the blocks in a new place.
Show the child how to stack blocks. Use words to
describe what you are doing.
2. Let the child explore using the blocks. Dont
expect towers or walls.
Share this exploration by sitting nearby, but not by
directing it.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

18

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Line up stuffed toys, cars, and trucks.

an assortment of stuffed toys and vehicles

1. Carry the assortment of toys to a large open area. Pick the


toys up, one at a time, and put them in a row.
2. Name the toys.
Mr. Bear, Little Dog, spinning top, truck, and ball
3. Put the toys back into a pile.
Dont be surprised if the child begins to demolish a row before it is
completed. The activity is just another way to suggest picking up,
carrying, ordering, and naming. You dont have to end up with an
orderly row.
Young children who enjoy listening to stories and looking at pictures
will enjoy hearing The Line Up Book by Marisabina Russo;
Greenwillow, 1986.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

19

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This is a beginning version of the traditional Hide and Seek game.

a big item of furniturean ottoman or a chair

1. One day when you see that the child is


behind a toy or a piece of furniture, partially
hidden from your view, pretend to look for
him or her.
2. Say,
Wheres the baby?
3. Look high and low, left and right,
then exclaim,
Heres the baby!
4. Lift the child and give him or her a hug.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

20

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children like to take things apart and put them back together.

Provide some or all of the following:


stacking toys

puzzle blocks

toy flashlight

sipper bottle

cars or trains that can be


taken apart and recombined

Duplo blocks

Remember, expensive toys are not essential.


Young children will enjoy taking an inexpensive
sipper bottle apart and then putting it back together.

1. Show the complete item and name it.


This is my sipper bottle.
2. Explain that it comes apart.
I can take it apart so that I can wash it or fill it.
3. Take it apart.
This is the lid. This is the straw. This is the bottle.
4. Then put the bottle back together. Make several take-apart,
put-together items available.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

21

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Put beginning puzzles together to practice perceptual skills.

a wooden puzzle with large pieces (the ones with knobs


to hold on to are particularly good for young children)

1. Sit on the floor next to the child.


Lift one puzzle piece out of the
puzzle. Then put it back to
demonstrate how it fits to make the
picture complete.
2. Have the child remove a puzzle piece and
put it back in.
3. Progress to dumping the entire puzzle and putting it
together. Let the child take the lead. Suggest solutions
if he or she is stumped.
Lets turn the piece around and see if it fits.
What does this piece show? Where could it go?
4. Enjoy more difficult puzzles together as the child is ready.

My son, Mark, was much better at puzzles than me.


He could dump and remake a puzzle in record time.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

22

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Playing house gives young children a


chance to relive daily life.

an area designated as the house


a doll or stuffed animal
a hat or two
a bed (see note below)
an old baby blanket

Your role in this dramatic play is directed by


the child.
1. Provide the playhouse area and then wait for the
child to begin.
2. Some children will begin playing house by acting
out bedtime routines. They put their dolls to bed,
carefully covering them with blankets. Bedtime play
sometimes includes changing diapers, reading books,
singing songs, and rocking to sleep.
3. Other children will enjoy cooking and eating
meals or going for a ride.

Note: Toy stores are full of child-sized equipmentdoll beds, strollers, kitchen sets,
tables and chairs. These props can add to dramatic play, but are not
necessary.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

23

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Sharpen perceptual skills with this easy-to-make toy.

half-gallon plastic juice container


with a narrow mouth
wooden clothespins
permanent markers

1. Use permanent markers to draw different faces and


hats on the clothespins.
2. Have the child put the clothespins in the mouth
of the juice container.
3. When all the pins are in, shake the container to
dump them out.
4. Tell the child which pin to put in the bottle.
Put the man with the blue hat in the bottle.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

24

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Since young children love to imitate grown-ups and imagine themselves in


grown-up situations, collect a few props to store in a special box or trunk.

box or trunk
several hats, shawls, vest, etc.

1. Store the clothing items in the trunk.


Put the trunk in a place that is
accessible to the child. (Whenever
you clean your closet, add a few new
items to the trunk.)
2. Join the child in imaginary play. Put
on a hat and adopt a new persona.
Let the child direct the play.
Daddy goes to work.
Dont forget your
lunch, Daddy.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

25

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Help young children to see time by using a large calendar to mark off the days.

large calendar with space by each day to


write or draw

1. Post the calendar in a highly visible spot,


such as a bulletin board, a door,
or a refrigerator.
2. Mark important days that are upcoming.
Draw small pictures to represent what
you did on specific days.
3. Each day, have the child circle the
current day and cross off the
previous day.
4. Encourage the child to suggest things
to record on the calendar.
Today were going to the park.
Lets draw a slide on the calendar.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

26

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A folding table and a sheet become a special place for make-believe.

folding table
flat sheet

1. Put up two legs of the table to


form the frame for the tent.
2. Cover the frame with
a sheet.
3. Furnish the tent with
several small pillows and
books. A flashlight
makes an especially fun addition.
4. Join the child for a read-aloud
time in the tent.
To accommodate a larger
crowd in the tent, extend
all four table legs.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

27

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

String large beads on a shoelace and then hang them nearby to admire.

a wide shoestring
large wooden beads

1. Tie one bead to the end of the shoestring to act as the knot.
2. Show the child how to hold a bead with one hand and push the
shoestring through the hole with the other hand.
3. When several beads are on the string, hang it from a hook and admire
the beads.
4. Name the beads or count them.
Red bead, red bead, blue bead.
One bead, two beads, three beads1, 2, 3.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

28

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a ball using a sock and then practice throwing it at a target.

socks
several small boxes

1. Starting with the toe, roll each sock up and slip


the cuff over the roll to form balls. Make several
sock balls.
2. Make a target using the small boxes.
Place the boxes in a line about three
feet from the child.
Tip the boxes toward the child by
placing a book under the back edges.
3. Throw the sock balls. Try to get them into
the boxes.
Sock balls are great for throwing and catching as
well as for target play.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

29

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make pairs from a pile of mismatched shoes.

several pairs of shoes


Begin with one pair of your shoes and one pair of the childs
shoes. Add more pairs (including pairs that are more similar) as
the child gains expertise.

1. Spread the shoes out on the floor.


2. Hold up one shoe. Have the child find its mate.
3. Repeat until all pairs are matched.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

30

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Its fun to drive a toy car across a new bridge.

set of blocksYou can purchase a set of wooden or


plastic blocks, or make your own from milk cartons.
several flat pieces of cardboard in various sizes

How to Make Milk Carton Blocks


1. Wash empty half-gallon milk cartons.
2. Open the lips and tear open the top flaps.
3. Tape the ends flat with clear tape.
4. Cover the milk carton blocks with contact
paper. (optional)

1. Sit on the floor with the child.


2. Stack several blocks on top of each other to
make one bridge tower. Build another
bridge tower about two feet away from
the first.
3. Use the cardboard pieces or long
blocks to form ramps going up the
towers and to form the actual span
of the bridge.
4. Drive a toy car across the bridge.
Extend the activity by:
designing more complicated bridges.
connecting several bridges with ramps.
making a child-size bridge using boxes and boards.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

31

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Challenge the child to sort buttons into two groups.

a bowl of buttons (include different button sizes and shapes)

1. Explain that you want to sort the buttons into


two pilesthe big buttons and the little buttons.
2. Work together to sort the buttons.
3. Change the categories and sort again.
Sample Button Categories
Two-hole
Four-hole
Colored
White
Round
Other shapes

I still have Grandmas blue button bag. It is filled


with buttons of every shape and size. My brothers
and I sorted and counted them as children, my three
children sorted them, and now my grandchildren
love looking at them and choosing their favorites.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

32

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Plan and build towers, fences, and block communities.

a set of blockspurchase a set of wooden or plastic blocks, or


make your own from milk cartons
Milk Carton Blocks
Wash empty half-gallon milk cartons.
Open the lips and tear open the top flaps.
Cut down the four corners and fold flat.
Tape the end with clear tape.
Cover the milk carton block with contact paper. (optional)

Sit on the floor with the child and begin.


To Build a Tower
1. Take turns stacking blocks.
2. After the tower collapses, change the tower by:
placing the foundation blocks in a different position
using several blocks for each layer
starting with several blocks at the bottom and using
fewer blocks on each level
To Build a Fence in a Pattern
1. Line up four blocks using a simple pattern.
2. Have the child copy the pattern to extend the fence.
3. Let the child create the pattern.
4. You extend the fence.
Try more complicated patterns as the childs expertise increases.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

33

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

See how tall you can make the paper cup tower.

paper cups
cardboard or posterboard
dividers (any size will do)
a flat surface

1. Put three cups upside down on the flat surface.


2. Lay a piece of cardboard on top of the cups.
3. Put three more cups on top of the cardboard.
4. Continue alternating cups and cardboard. Say,
How tall can you make the tower?
What happens when you change the
number of cups? the position of the cups?
What happens if you change the size of
the divider?
What happens if you put the cups upright?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

34

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Count the cards in the tower. Then change the design and count again.

a deck of playing cards or a pack of 3" x 5" (7.5 x 13 cm) index cards
cardboard or posterboard dividers (any size will do)
a flat surface

1. Stand two cards so that the tops touch and


the cards support each other and stand up.
They will make an inverted V.
Make four pairs of standing cards.
2. Lay a piece of cardboard on top
of the standing pairs.
3. Stand four more playing card pairs on top of the cardboard.
4. Continue alternating cards and cardboard. Ask,
How tall can you make the tower?
What happens when you change the
number of card pairs? the position
of the cards?
What happens if you change the size
of the divider?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

35

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create a domino snake and then enjoy watching it collapse.

a set of dominoes
a flat surface

1. Stand dominoes close together in a row.


2. Tip the first domino over and watch the chain reaction.
See how long you can make the row before the
dominoes topple over.
Try making your snake go under a table or chair
and out the other side.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

36

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Play this matching game with a basket of real things.

one big basket or bowl


two small baskets or bowls
sets of little objects (at least three of each kind)
from the toy chest or junk drawer pencils, erasers,
paper clips, pennies, screws, jar lids, action figures,
building blocks
cardboard lids for the small baskets

1. Put all the objects in the big basket.


2. Players should close their eyes and choose six objects from
the big basket. Objects are put in the players small baskets.
3. When the choosing is finished, players should check to see
if they have any sets of three objects. Any sets should be
placed on the table outside of the basket. Then the players
cover their small baskets with the cardboard lids.
4. Player 1 looks in his or her basket and asks Player 2 for an
object that will make a match.
Do you have a pink eraser?
If Player 2 has a match, it is given to Player 1.
5. If Player 2 does not have a match, he or she says,
Try again.
Player 1 takes a new object from the big basket.
6. Players alternate turns until one player has an empty basket.
Note: Anytime a player has a set of 3 matching objects, the objects are placed on the table. Any player can
add to any set on the table at any time. Young children may enjoy playing Go Fish! This traditional card game follows
the same format.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

37

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Hide a set of objects around and then find them.

a container
a number of the same item (pinecones, wrapped candies, feathers, shells...)
Note: Its a good idea to know how many items you have.

1. Hide the items in plain sight.


2. Give the child the container and challenge him or her to find
the items.
3. Have the child count the items found. Say,
I hid _____ things. You found _______ things.
Did you find all the things that I hid?
As you repeat this activity, try these variations:
Try hiding items in less obvious places.
Let the child hide the items. You do
the finding.
Hide two kinds of items.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

38

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Count all the windows in a house or building.

the place where you are

1. Ask the child to help you find all the


windows.
2. Walk from room to room and keep a tally
or a chart.
You can also count the doors, the beds,
the stair steps, and the sinks...
Add these counts to your chart.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

39

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young learners love to play board games. Try these favorites.

Checkers
Chutes and Ladders
Candyland
memory games such as Arthurs
Memory Game and the Pooh
Memory Game

Follow the directions for the board game


you choose.
Hints:
If the child gets tired of playing, stop.
Gently suggest strategies.
Eliminate your killer instinct, but dont
give up modeling strategies for winning.
Compliment good moves.
Enjoy the game!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

40

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use paper from grocery bags to create a special scrapbook.

big brown paper grocery bags

hole punch

scissors

yarn or string

paste

marking pen

pictures (cut from a magazine, drawn, or photographs)

Making the Scrapbook


1. Cut bags into three 9" x 12" (23 x 30.5 cm) rectangles.
2. Fold the rectangles in half. Open the rectangles flat.
3. Stack the brown paper rectangles on top of each other.
4. Refold the papers and then punch three holes through the pages.
Bind the book by tying yarn through the holes.
Filling the Scrapbook
1. Write the childs name on the cover of the scrapbook.
2. Cut pictures from magazines, draw them, or use photos. Paste the pictures in the book.
3. Label the pictures with simple words. Its best if the child suggests the words and you write them.
Reading the Scrapbook
1. Look through the pictures.
2. Point to the words as you read them.
3. Talk about the pictures in the book.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

41

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Count and pattern with cereal.

a glob of clay
a stir stick or a skewer (cut off pointed end)
colored loop cereal

1. Stand stick upright in the glob of clay to make a pole.


2. Put cereal on the pole, one piece at a time.
3. Count the pieces on the pole.
4. Make a pattern by putting on the colored pieces in a specific order.
yellow red yellow red yellow red

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

42

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Match the socks in the laundry basket.

clean, unmatched socks from laundry


(Use pairs of socks of different colors and sizes as you begin sorting.
Dont expect young children to sort a pile of white athletic socks.)

1. Spread the socks out on a large surface. The floor works well.
2. Hold up one sock. Look with the child to find its mate.
3. Repeat until all the socks are matched.
Doing something real puts value in the effort. Make sure that
you deliver the socks to their owners with the report that the
child helped do the sorting!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

43

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This simple activity will help children learn that different coins have equivalent values.

10 pennies

2 nickels

2 dimes

2 quarters

2 fifty-cent pieces

silver dollar

dollar bills

see-through container

coin purse

1. Put the money in the coin purse and designate it as


the bank.
2. Each day put one penny in the see-through container.
3. Then dump the container out and count to
determine the value of the coins.
4. Each time several coins can be replaced with a
single coin, make the trade.
5 pennies should be traded for 1 nickel
2 nickels should be traded for 1 dime
5. When you save $1, decide together on a special
way to spend that dollar.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

44

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Challenge children to find ways to balance a variety of objects.

a beanbag
a ball
a book

1. Challenge the child to balance the beanbag


on different body parts:
hand
finger
top of a foot
head
knee
sole of a foot
back
2. Try the challenge with the ball and then the book.
3. Then try moving while balancing the object.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

45

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Carrying a tray successfully requires an understanding of balance points.

a plastic tray
blocks, plastic tumblers, other small toys
Note: Do this activity with nonbreakable items.

1. Balance the tray on one hand.


2. Have the child pile blocks on one end
of the tray. Ask,
What happened?
3. Challenge the child to think of a way to pile the
blocks on the tray so that it doesnt tip over.
4. Have the child balance the tray and tell you
where to pile the blocks.
After you and the child have explored the idea of
balancing, serve a snack on the tray.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

46

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Challenge children to identify common substances by their smells.

small paper cups


aluminum foil or paper towel
familiar-smelling substances (peanut butter, toothpaste,
onion, shaving cream,)
rubber bands
pin

Before the Activity


1. Put a small amount of each substance in a paper cup.
2. Cover the cup with foil or paper towel.
3. Secure the cover with a rubber band.
4. Make several small holes in the cover with a pin.

The Activity
1. Challenge the child to smell each of the cups and identify
what is inside without looking.
2. Talk about the kind of smell that each substance hasstrong,
sweet, spicy, sour, etc. Group cups by the types of smells.
3. Encourage the child to think about the effect each smell has
on how he or she feels about something. Ask,
What do you think of when you smell that smell?
How does it make you feel?
What pictures does a smell like that make in your head?
4. Let the child prepare mystery cups for you to identify.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

47

Five-year-old Mark loved


mixing several strongsmelling foods and then
stumping me.
Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Stretch a childs perceptions by asking him or her to compare


two objects and tell how they are alike and different.

jar or basket
slips of paper
crayons and pencils
magazines (optional)
glue (optional)

Before the Activity


1. With the child, write the names of common objects
and/or draw pictures of the objects on slips of paper.
Cut illustrations from magazines and glue them onto
the slips of paper.
2. Put the slips into the jar.
Activity
1. Draw two slips of paper from the jar.
2. Think of ways that the two objects are alike. Ask,
How is Chloe the cat like the stove?
When you hold Chloe she feels warm like the stove.
3. Think of ways that the two objects are different.
How are Chloe and the stove different?
Chloe is covered with fur and the stove is smooth metal.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

48

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create instruments and use them to keep the beat as you listen to music.

plastic margarine tubs


empty oatmeal box (round) or coffee can
blocks of wood
sandpaper
beads
sand
buttons
beans
empty cardboard tubes
dowels

1. Create original instruments. See pages 50 and 51 for suggestions.


2. Use the instruments to imitate sounds such as leaves rustling,
wind blowing, thunder, cars crashing, etc.
3. Play a tape or CD and play the instruments in time to the music.

Gather several five-year-olds and create a marching band! Five-year-old Chaundra used
music as the theme of her birthday party. Each guest created an instrument to take home,
and the marching band circled the birthday cake as they sang Happy Birthday!
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

49

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Musical Instruments You Can Make


Sandpaper Wood Blocks
Staple sandpaper to blocks
of wood.

TP Tube Shaker
Staple one end of a tp tube.
Add beans. Staple the other end.

Bells on a String
String bells on a cord.
Shake in time with the beat.

Margarine Tub Shaker


Put beans in a tub.
Close the lid and shake.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

50

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Coffee Can Drum


Cover the top of a coffee can with a piece
of stretchy rubber. Hold it in place with a
rubber band. Use a dowel for a drumstick.

Ruler Strummer
Stretch a large rubber band around a
ruler. Put a pencil under the rubber band.
Pluck the rubber band with your finger.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

51

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Mount an indoor/outdoor thermometer with large numbers where children


can see it easily. Use the thermometer as the focal point for various activities.

a thermometer with big numbers

1. Help the child learn to read the thermometer.


Explain that the level of the liquid in the tiny tube moves
up and down to tell the temperature. Hold an index card
even with the top of the liquid so that it is easier to read
the number.
2. After reading the temperatures over a period of time,
encourage the child to generalize about the
relationship between the height of the liquid and the
temperature by asking questions such as:
When you see a lot of liquid in the tube, is it
hot or cold? When you only see a little liquid,
is it hot or cold? Is a high number a hot
temperature or a cold temperature?
3. Set guidelines for what types of clothing should be worn
in specific temperature ranges. Have the child check
the thermometer before getting dressed in the morning.
Below 45long pants, long-sleeved shirt
In betweenlong pants, short- or long-sleeved shirt
Above 65shorts, short-sleeved shirt

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

52

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use a muffin pan to organize piles as you sort familiar items.

a muffin pan
a pile of familiar items: buttons, paper clips
and paper fasteners, coins, etc.

1. At first, give the child two different items and ask to have
them sorted.
Sort the pile into paper clips and paper fasteners.
Put the paper clips in one hole in the muffin pan.
Put the paper fasteners into a different hole.
2. Work together to sort a pile of similar items like buttons,
determining the categories. Suggest categories if the
child has trouble identifying possibilities.
Lets sort the buttons in Grandmas button bag.
How do you think we can divide them up?
Should we use colors? shapes? number of holes?
3. Challenge the child to sort a pile into categories that he
or she determines. Be sure to let the child explain the
categories to you.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

53

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Put things away or collect the household trash.

a room with things to be put away


a large garbage bag or trash can
trash containers in the rooms

1. Set a time goal. Say,


Lets see if we can collect all the
trash in 10 minutes.
Lets see if we can put the toys on the
shelves in 5 minutes.
2. Work side-by-side with the child to complete
the job.
Hold the large trash bag and let the child
empty the small trash containers from each
room into the bag.
Pick up the blocks as the child picks up
the books.
3. Check the clock as you finish to see if you
accomplished your goal.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

54

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Roll newspapers into tubes and use the tubes as giant tinkertoys.

sheets of newspaper (Each full sheet makes one log.)


masking tape
stapler

1. Starting with one corner, roll the newspaper into a


tight roll. Secure the corner to the roll with a small
piece of masking tape.
2. Make lots of newspaper rolls.
3. Staple the ends of the rolls together to make shapes that stand.
Begin by building small triangular lean-to
houses for stuffed animals.
Work your way up to people-sized huts.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

55

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Three boxes stacked together form an arch. Lots of arches built together form a tunnel.

lots of little cardboard boxes


tape

1. Close the flaps or lids on the boxes. Secure them


with a piece of tape.
2. Make a three-box arch.
3. Try a tunnel of three-box arches.
Make two parallel rows of boxes
close together, but with a space in
between them.
Add the boxes to form the top.
Push a toy car through the tunnel.

Try making a child-size


tunnel with larger boxes.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

56

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Taking an old appliance apart using tools is a special treat.

screwdrivers
pliers
small appliance with the electrical cord removed
(Use a broken mixer, a toaster that doesnt work,
or an old radio. Dont use appliances with sharp edges.)

1. Cut or disconnect the electrical cord from a broken or discarded appliance.


2. Give the child permission to take the appliance apart.
Be sure to explain that this is an activity that can be done
only with your approval.
3. Provide screwdrivers and pliers. If the child has never used
tools before, show how they are used.
4. Watch and assist, but let the child take the lead. Ask questions
that encourage the child to think about the parts of the appliance
that work together.
5. Lay all the parts together after they are dismantled.
Encourage the child to record the experience by drawing the
appliance or naming and labeling its separate parts.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

57

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Try picking up different objects with a magnet, sort the objects into two piles,
and then talk about the similarities of the objects in one pile.

magnet
everyday objectspencil, paper clip, tissue, spoon, block,
aluminum foil, piece of paper, nail, staple, rock, penny
2 baskets or boxes

1. Touch the magnet to an object. If the magnet


picks the object up, put the object in the magnetic
basket. If the magnet does not pick up the object,
put the object in the not magnetic basket.
2. Test many objects. Sort them into the two baskets.
3. Look at the objects in the magnetic basket. Say,
Do all the objects have common characteristics?
Are they the same shape?
Are they the same color?
Are they made of the same materials?
4. Choose a new object. Predict whether it is magnetic or
not magnetic by using what you have learned. Test the new
object to see if your prediction was accurate.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

58

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Help a child become an informed observer. Noting changes and then measuring to
confirm those changes are an important part of the scientific process.

yardstick or tape measure


scale
growing thingplant, pet, bush at the park, baby brother or sister
notebook or paper for recording observations

1. Choose a growing thing to measure.


2. Measure and weigh the thing. Record the date
and the measurements in the notebook.
3. Draw a picture or tell about how the thing looks.
(You can write what the child dictates.)
4. Make new observations every few days.
Be sure to talk about what the observations show.
5. Compare a fast-growing thing to a slow-growing thing.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

59

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Dye macaroni and string it to make a lovely addition to a jewelry collection.

package of salad macaroni


food coloring
rubbing alcohol
paper towels
long shoestring (You may use a piece of yarn
or heavy thread with a large plastic needle.)

1. Put two tablespoons (30 ml) of rubbing alcohol in a bowl.


Stir in the food coloring. (Start with six drops and vary the
amount to create different colors.)
2. Add 2 to 4 scoops of dry macaroni. Stir until macaroni is
uniformly colored.
3. Pour the macaroni onto a paper towel. Spread into a single layer.
Dry for 10 minutes.
4. Make several different colors of macaroni.
Store in lidded plastic containers.
5. Tie one piece of macaroni on one end of the shoestring.
This will keep the macaroni from slipping off the shoestring.
6. String the macaroni in a pattern.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

60

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Learn about strong shapes in this building activity that uses toothpicks and marshmallows.

a bag of miniature marshmallows


a box of toothpicks
a flat surface to work on

1. Provide the marshmallows and


toothpicks and challenge the
child to build a house.
2. Work beside the child and build
your own house. Make observations
about your house as you build.
This square shape keeps
tipping over.
This tepee seems to stand
up without tipping.
Have you found a shape that stands up by itself?
3. Leave your houses when they are completed and observe
the changes that occur. Note the shapes that do not collapse.
4. Try building again using what youve found out about shapes
that keep standing. Work together to make a big house.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

61

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Red, yellow, blue


This is fun to do.
Green, purple, pink
Tell me what you think.
Im an artist.
Look at me.
Im an artist.
Dont you agree?

Note: Please be aware of childrens food allergies as you prepare the recipe on page 66.

Use these activities to:


foster creativity
learn about the properties and qualities of materials
build a sense of independence
develop imagination
sharpen perceptions
improve small- and large-motor coordination

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

62

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Roll it and prick it and mark it with a P.


Playclay play is easy as can be!

playclay (Buy it at the store or make your own using the recipe on page 64.)
a tray or flat surface for sculpting

1. Enjoy the clay. You might:


Pick up a handful and squeeze it out through
your fingers.
Roll a ball between your hands.
Flatten a ball.
Make big balls and little balls.
Create a new shape.
2. As you and the child work, talk about what
youre doing.
Im making a ball. See how I roll the playclay
between my hands.
I put my ball on the table and push on it.
Now it looks like a pancake.
3. Ask questions.
What are you making?
How did you make that little ball?
4. Make size comparisons.
Your hill is taller than my hill.
Can you make me a bigger hill?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

63

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

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Hint:

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

becom

64

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Here is another tactile experience thats fun and edible.

frosting dough (recipe on page 66)


a tray or flat surface for sculpting
spoon
bowl
measuring cup

1. Mix the dough together.


2. Enjoy squeezing and molding.
3. If you want a sweet treat, mold a tiny animal and
pop it in your mouth.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

65

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

gh
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o
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t
s
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r
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ents: ady-mad
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2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

66

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Dont let the child have all the fun. Make a handprint of your hand as well.
Compare the two handprints and talk about how they are alike and different.

bakers clay (See page 72 for the recipe.)


pencil
baking sheet
oven
rolling pin

1. Roll out a circle of clay about the


size of a saucer.
2. Press hand into the center of the
circle to leave a handprint.
3. Using the tip of the pencil, poke
holes to write the date on
the circle of clay.
4. Bake at 325F (165C) until hard.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

67

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young sculptors tend to flatten clay projects so that they fall apart.
This caterpillar is made from ball shapes to eliminate that problem.

bakers clay (See page 72 for the recipe.)


toothpicks or broomstraws
baking sheet
oven

1. Roll 5 balls of clay about the size of marbles.


2. Line the balls up in a row.
3. Moisten the side of each ball and press it against the next ball.
The water acts like glue and holds the balls
(caterpillar segments) together.
4. Add two tiny balls of clay to one of the end segments for eyes.
5. Add broomstraws or toothpicks for antennae.
6. Bake at 325F (165C) until hard.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

68

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Sawdust clay dries to a hard, rough finish that can be sanded and painted.

sawdust (If you dont have a workshop, your local lumberyard will be glad to
give you some sawdust. Take a paper bag and theyll fill it for you.)
wallpaper paste
water
bowl
wooden spoon
pipe cleaner pieces or toothpicks
tempera paints, markers (optional)

1. Mix the sawdust clay.


Combine 1 scoop of sawdust and
scoop of wallpaper paste in the
bowl. A thick dough will form.
Stir as you slowly add water until
the dough has a putty consistency.
2. Shape the clay into different forms. Make
little creatures, puppets, bowls, and vehicles.

Homemade Wallpaper
Paste
Mix 3 tablespoons (24 g) of flour with
1 tablespoon (14 g) of sugar in a
microwave-safe bowl. Add cup (120 ml)
of water. Stir well. Cook for 30 seconds. Stir
again. Cook for 30 seconds more. The paste
should be soft, smooth, and thick.

3. Add pipe cleaner details.


4. Let your creatures dry until hard. Paint them with tempera paint or decorate with markers.
5. Use your clay creations for additional play experiences:
Create a parade of little creatures on the edge of a shelf. Dictate a story
about the creatures. Move the creatures around as you retell the story.
Carry on a discussion between different puppets.
Prepare a tiny tea party with the dishes you have made.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

69

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Heres a simple project to make using bakers clay.

bakers clay (See page 72 for the recipe.)


pencil
small container of water
cookie sheet
colored markers
clear gloss spray finish

1. Start with two walnut-sized balls of clay.


2. Roll one ball into a long snake.
3. Form the snake into a coil for the snails shell.
4. Roll the other ball into a flat oval to form the snails body.
5. Moisten the bottom of the shell and the center of the
body with water. Set the shell on the body and press
gently to attach.
6. Roll the head up. Poke 2 holes for eyes with a pencil point.
7. Bake in a 300F (150C) oven until hard.
8. Optional: Use colored markers to paint the snails shell.
Spray with clear gloss finish.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

70

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Enjoy a different clay experience using two slices of bread and some white glue.
The type of bread that you use will determine the clays texture.

two slices of bread


two tablespoons (30 ml) of white glue
small bowl
acrylic paints
glossy acrylic spray finish

1. Trim the crusts from the bread and tear it into tiny pieces.
2. Using your hands, mix the white glue into the bread.
It will be very sticky at first, but will become claylike as
you knead it.
3. Shape the clay. It is easier to do this if you divide the clay
into balls and then pinch these balls into animal figures
or tiny dishes. Keep the shapes simple.
4. Air dry your creations or bake them in the oven.
The temperature should be set between 200F
(95C) and 300F (150C). You will need to check the
sculptures regularly. The size and thickness of each piece
will determine its baking time.
5. Paint the pieces with acrylic paints.
6. Spray each piece with a coat of glossy acrylic finish.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

71

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

More Clay Recipes


Recipe for Bakers Clay
Ingredients:
1 cup (288 g) of salt
1 cups (360 ml) of hot water
4 cups (500 g) of flour
1. Dissolve salt in hot water.
2. Stir in flour.
3. Knead until pliable (at least 5 minutes).
4. Store in an airtight container.
After shaping, bake at 300F (150C) until hard.
(The length of time will depend on the size and thickness of the object.)
When cool, color with markers, spray with clear acrylic glaze, and enjoy.

Recipe for Texture Dough


Ingredients:
2 cups (470 ml) of water
cup (144 g) of salt
food coloring

2 tablespoons (30 ml) of salad oil


2 tablespoons (18 g) of alum
2 cups (250 g) of flour

1. Boil water, salt, and food coloring in a pan.


2. Remove from heat.
3. Add oil, alum, and flour.
4. While hot, mix and knead for 5 minutes.
5. Store in an airtight container.
This dough is called texture dough because you can knead in different
ingredients to change the texture. Try adding sand, coffee grounds, sawdust, or glitter.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

72

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create a colorful painting with finger paint.

large papera roll of white giftwrap with a slick finish


finger paintpurchased or homemade
plastic tray

1. Before you begin, set up a drying area (a plastic tablecloth spread on


a table or on a hard-surface floor out of the traffic pattern). Cut the
white paper to fit in the tray.
2. Wash your hands.
3. Spoon a scoop of paint onto the paper.
4. Smear and draw with your fingers and hands.
5. Add different colors to the picture.
6. Move the paper to the drying area and repeat with new paper.

Homemade Finger Paint


Mix cup (63 g) of cornstarch and 3 tablespoons
(36 g) of sugar. Add 2 cups (36 ml) of water. Stir over
low heat until blended. Divide into 4 equal portions.
Put each portion in an empty margarine tub or similar
container. Add a different food color and several
drops of liquid detergent to each portion.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

73

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Cut small pieces of colored paper and glue them onto a background.
Note: Young artists should practice simply cutting before they are expected to cut out specific shapes.

small pieces of colored paper (wrapping paper,


Sunday funnies, magazine pages, almost any paper
that cuts easily)
child scissors (Try the scissors to make sure that
they cut before you buy them. If the child is
left-handed, try them left-handed.)
larger piece of construction paper
glue stick

1. Have the child cut the colored papers


into pieces.
2. Pile the colored pieces into piles.
3. Paste the colored pieces to the large
piece of construction paper.

Mo
fini unt or
dis shed c frame
p
refr lay it ollage the
iger on
a
ator you nd
gall r
ery.

Show the child how


to hold the scissors with
the thumb on top and the
pointer finger underneath. Hold the
childs hand gently at first to help
keep the scissors blades
perpendicular to the paper.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

74

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use sponge prints to decorate brown paper bags.


Then use the bags for lunch sacks or gift wrap.

small brown paper grocery bags


sponges
small tray
tempera paint
newspapers or plastic drop cloth

1. Cover the area where you will be working with


newspapers or a plastic drop cloth.
2. Pour a puddle of paint into the tray.
3. Dip the sponge into the paint.
4. Press the sponge onto the brown paper sack to make
a sponge print.
5. Repeat dipping and printing.
You can also cut the sponge into different shapes or buy
ready-made sponge shapes for your sponge prints.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

75

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create a collection of three-dimensional puzzles. Make the puzzles together


and then enjoy putting the pieces together over and over.

4 small cardboard boxes (pudding or gelatin boxes work well)


picture (childs photo, drawing, or a picture cut from
a magazine)
glue
spray paint
tape

Preparing the Boxes


1. Tape the empty boxes closed.
2. Spray paint the boxes on all sides.
Let them dry completely.

Making the Puzzle


1. Use a drawing or photo smaller than the
area of the four boxes placed together.
2. Cut the picture into fourths.
3. Arrange the boxes to create a square.
4. Lay the picture on top of the boxes so that the pieces fit together.
5. Glue the picture to the boxes.
6. Turn the boxes over and repeat with another picture.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

76

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Creating a rubbing is just like magic!

shapes cut from posterboard or sandpaper


paper
crayons

1. Put several shapes on a solid surface.


2. Lay the paper on top of the shapes.
3. Rub crayons back and forth across the paper
until outlines of the shapes appear.
Vary the activity by:
using different shapes
using leaves and pieces of bark
cutting out sandpaper letters to spell the
childs name and hiding them under the paper

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

77

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

String macaroni on a shoestring to make a nifty necklace.

a long shoestring
several kinds of tube macaroni
small bowl

1. Tie one piece of macaroni to the end of the shoestring


so that other pieces of macaroni will not fall off the string.
2. Put several kinds of tube macaroni in a small bowl.
3. Have the child string the macaroni on the shoestring.
4. Tie the two ends of the shoestring together.
5. Wear the necklace with pride.

You can dye macaroni for a


colorful necklace.
Mix 5 drops of food coloring with 2
tablespoons of rubbing alcohol in a large
bowl. Pour in 2 cups of macaroni.
Stir until uniformly colored.
Spread on paper towels to
dry for about 10 minutes.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

78

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make this magic wand and then use it to play a game.

cardboard tube
small piece of cardboard or posterboard
stapler
aluminum foil

1. Draw a star on the piece of cardboard.


2. Cut out the star. Show the child how to cut in
on each of the legs so that the excess cardboard
falls away.
3. Cover the star with aluminum foil.
4. Staple the star to the cardboard tube.
5. Use the magic wand:
The child taps the rhythm of Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star as you sing.
The child gives an imaginary name to an item that you point to.
The child points to items that belong to a specific category. Say,
Point to everything that is a circle shape.
Point to things that begin with the same sound as mouse.
The child describes an item. You touch the item with the wand.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

79

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Paint the bottoms of a childs feet and create a trail of footprints. Be sure to
talk about how the paint feels as you participate in this sensory exploration.

poster paint
roll of white shelf paper
tub of warm, soapy water
paintbrush
towel
plastic drop cloth (optional)

1. Set up painting area: (You may want to do this outdoors.)


Put down the drop cloth.
Cut a piece of shelf paper about 6 feet (2 m) long.
Lay the shelf paper on top of drop cloth.
Fill the tub with warm, soapy water.
Put the tub and the towel at one end of the shelf paper.
Put the paint and paintbrush at the other end of the paper.
2. Have the child take off shoes and socks.
3. Paint the soles of the childs feet with poster paint. This is ticklish business!
Be prepared for giggles and wiggly toes.
4. Have the child walk along the paper, leaving a trail of footprints. Then have him or her step
into the tub of water to wash off the paint. Repeat the process using a different color, or switch
roles with the child and add your footprints to the strip.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

80

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Paint a huge cardboard box with flat white paint and then enjoy
using the box as an easel for more painting and drawing.

a plastic drop cloth


a big cardboard box (Refrigerator and television
boxes are great. Your local appliance store
will save one for you if you ask them.)
white latex paint
paintbrush
markers

1. Spread out the plastic drop cloth.


2. Center the box (open-side down) on
the plastic.
3. Paint the box.
4. Let the box dry.
5. Add decorations to the box with
markers.
You may want to make the box into
a house or store by adding windows
and a door.
It might become a camouflaged tank.
Use the brightly painted box as an easel or
display center for new creations.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

81

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use flour and salt to make this sparkling paint thats fun to use.

dark-colored construction paper


sparkling sponge paint
pie pan
sponge
glitter (optional)

Sparkling Sponge
Paint
Ingredients:
/ cup (96 g) of salt
/ cup (42 g) of flour
/ cup (80 ml) of water
Mix together in a pie pan.
Add commercial glitter for even
more sparkle.

1. Dip sponge into sparkling paint.


2. Press sparkle side of sponge to construction paper.
3. Lift and repeat.
Cut the sponges into interesting pieces before making a print.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

82

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make this card for any special occasion and then send it.

two 1" x 12" (2.5 x 30.5 cm) strips of construction paper


6" x 8" (15 x 20 cm) piece of colored construction paper
drawings of flowers or animalsHave the child create
these. Crayon, pencil, marker, paint, or computer
drawings will work.
glue
scissors

1. Fold the piece of construction paper in half to


make the card.
2. Decorate the front of the card with the drawings.
Save one drawing for the pop-up inside the card.
3. Glue the ends of the construction paper strips at
right angles. Fold the strips back and forth across
the glued end. This is called a catspring.
4. Glue the catspring inside the card.
5. Glue the reserved drawing to the end of the catspring.
6. Add words to the card. Write the words as the child
dictates them, or let the child write his or her
own message.
7. Put the card in an envelope. An envelope adds
value to the card and makes it special.
Be sure to acknowledge the artist with a byline on the back of the card.
This card created especially for you by Amy.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

83

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young artists will enjoy creating paper to wrap gifts or cover books.

tempera paint2 or 3 colors


cookie cutters
brown paper bag
small paper plate
newspaper or drop cloth

1. Prepare painting area. Spread out newspapers


or drop cloth on a flat surface. You may want
to put newspaper on the floor as well.
2. Pour a puddle of paint on the paper plate.
3. Cut the brown bag open and lay it flat
on the painting area.
4. Dip a cookie cutter into the puddle of paint.
5. Press the painted edge on the brown paper.
6. Dip and press to decorate the brown paper.
7. Let the paper dry. Cut to the desired size and use.
Cover a book or a pencil can. Wrap a gift or
laminate to use as a placemat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

84

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Crayon rubbings delight young artists because they seem to appear magically.
Do some rubbings indoors or outdoors and then compare the
different pictures that youve created.

white paper
old crayons
paper shapes (optional)

1. Take the paper wrappers off the crayons.


2. Lay the white paper on a textured surface
or over a flat object.
leaf
paper shape
wood shingle
paving rock
3. Hold the crayon on its side and rub it over the surface
of the paper. Keep rubbing until an image appears.
4. Move the paper to a new surface or place a
different object beneath the paper. Repeat the process.
5. Talk with the child about the rubbings that you
have made.
How are they alike?
How are they different?

Use cutout letters under the paper


to spell names and messages.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

85

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make this wonderful stuff and experience changes that occur in


materials when they are combined. This is squishy fun!

liquid starch
white glue
small widemouthed container with lid, such as a yogurt container
small bowl

1. Put 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of starch into the bowl.


2. Add 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of white glue.
Wait for five minutes.
3. Stir with a spoon until globs form. Dont worry
if there is some starch left in the bowl.
4. Knead the globs in your hands. This is part of
the fun. At first the globs will be stringy and
slimy. As you knead, the globs will form one
smooth mass. Knead at least 5 minutes.
5. Play with the new goo!
Mold the mass into a snake. Hold the two
ends and watch it sag.
Fold the goo and mash it to make it pop.
Lay the goo in your hand and watch it melt.
6. Store the goo in an airtight container and use it over
and over.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

86

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Combine two familiar mediums as you paint over crayon drawings.

crayons
paper
watercolor paint
fat brush
water

1. Draw a picture using the crayons.


2. Saturate your brush with water.
3. Dip the wet brush into the watercolor paint.
4. Paint over the crayon drawing.
Make long strokes across the whole page.
Do not paint over your initial strokes.
Its fine if some places on the page
are not covered by paint.

I have two framed watercolor resists hanging


in my living room. They are bright, beautiful,
and always a topic of conversation. My son did
both when he was six!
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

87

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Mix colored water to make new colors.

an area where spills can occur:


kitchen table, linoleum floor,
front porch

a small plastic pitcher of water


(Fill the pitcher only as full as
the child can handle easily.)

small clear plastic cups

towels for cleanup

food coloring

stick for stirring

1. Set out three small plastic cups.


2. Put three drops of food coloring in each cup.
3. Have the child pour a little water into each cup.
4. Talk about the colors you see.
5. Set out another cup.
6. Have the child pour a little water from two of
the colored-water cups into the empty cup.
7. Ask the child to tell you about what happened.
8. Have the child try more combinations.
Encourage free exploration!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

88

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Decorate T-shirts using fabric crayons and three-dimensional paint.


Then enjoy wearing special tees.

prewashed cotton T-shirt


fabric crayons (Buy them at a craft or fabric store.)
three-dimensional paint (such as Puffy Paint)
iron
piece of cardboard
paper

1. Draw pictures with the fabric crayons.


2. Transfer the pictures to the T-shirt.
Slip the piece of cardboard
inside the T-shirt to prevent
color from going through the
layers of fabric.
Lay the picture facedown on the T-shirt.
Adult supervision requiredPlace the hot
iron on the picture. Leave for several seconds.
Remove the iron.
Remove the paper.
3. Allow the T-shirt to cool.
4. Decorate the transferred pictures with three-dimensional paint.
Add dots, outlines, special features, and stripes.
5. Wear the new T-shirt proudly.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

89

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Watch colors combine and change as coffee filters are dipped into food coloring.

round basket-type coffee filters


food coloring
muffin tin

1. In the four corners of a muffin tin,


mix food coloring with water.
(Experiment with the intensity until
you are happy with the color
the solution makes. Start with four
drops of food coloring and one
tablespoon [15 ml] of water.)
2. Open the coffee filter flat. Fold it
in half several times.
3. Dip each corner of the folded filter
into a different food-color solution.
Dip in and out of the color
quicklythe coloring moves fast.
4. Unfold the filter and dry.

Display color bursts on a door or decorate


a window with the bright circles of color.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

90

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This project is messy. Be ready for lots of good clean, sudsy fun!

Ivory Snow flakes (not liquid)


water
food coloring
bowl
measuring cup
wooden spoon

1. Measure about three scoops of


detergent into the bowl.
2. Mix 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of water
with food coloring.
3. Add colored water to detergent, stirring
constantly, until mixture is thick.
4. Form balls with your hands.
(Add more water if necessary.)
5. Try making other shapes.

Use the soap balls for washing dirty


hands. The balls make nice gifts as well.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

91

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Im the cooks assistant.


I do important tasks.
I wash and wrap and scrub.
I do whatever he asks.
Im the cooks assistant.
I butter and I beat.
I pour and shake and stir.
And then, of course, I eat!

Note: Please be aware of childrens food allergies as you prepare recipes.

Use these activities to:


develop sense of touch
experience texture and consistency

use all five senses to learn about


foods

improve ability to grasp

describe an object

taste new foods

count, measure, and follow directions

imitate actual experiences

compare the size of objects

identify colors and shapes

see how ingredients change

learn the names of everyday things

read simple picture directions

make patterns with familiar things

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

92

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Set up a drawer or a cupboard in the kitchen just for young children.

drawer or cupboard
plastic measuring cups, plastic or wooden spoons,
a plastic bowl, small saucepan, dish towel, any utensils
that are easily manipulated and safe

1. When you are in the kitchen, open the childs drawer.


2. Lift out one or two items and show them to the child.
You might even show what could be done with the items.
Say, Look, a spoon. I stir with a spoon.
Demonstrate how you stir.
3. Put the items back and go about the
business of cooking. Encourage imitation
of your actions.
Soon the child will open the drawer before
you do.

One of my favorite photographs shows my


son with his pot and wooden spoon, sitting
on the kitchen floor in a pile of dry spaghetti.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

93

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Eating new textures is fun.

samples of food
tray

1. Put small samples of foods with different textures on a tray.


mashed potatoes
applesauce
cottage cheese
banana slices
crackers
pancake
pretzels
noodles
yogurt
cooked vegetables
(Do not use foods that could be dangerous for the child
such as popcorn, hot dogs, nuts, hard candy, raw vegetables)
2. Let the child feel the foods. Talk about how the foods feel.
Remember that you can feel with lots of different parts of your
bodyyour hands, your face, your ear, and your tongue.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

94

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Picking up little snacks is good practice.

little snacks in bite-sized pieces


Cheerios
cucumber slices
soft-cooked carrot circles
banana, peach, or pear slices
small pieces of soft cheese
macaroni noodles

1. Put the child in a high chair or on the floor.


2. Put the snack on the high chair tray or on a small plastic tray.
3. Applaud picking up and eating.
Sometimes the child may not be hungry and may see this as an
opportunity for throwing. Take the clue and simply remove
the snack.

I remember one time I was making curtains for a friend. I put


my one-year-old son in the high chair with his Spaghettios.
He was not hungry and decided to try out his pitching motion.
The white eyelet curtains soon had a lovely orange stain in the
center. It was not a good time for the Finger Food activity.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

95

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Bang pans and bowls for fun.

metal or plastic pans


metal or plastic bowls
a bangerwooden spoon, spatula, block

1. Turn a pan upside down on the floor.


2. Tap the pan with a banger.
3. Set out several pans and bowls.
4. Hand the child the banger.

Try a duet.
Chant words as you tap!
Bing Bing Bash
Hear the crash.
Bing Bing Bong
Hit the gong.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

96

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children love to do what youre doing.

washtub with water and bubbles


sponge or dishrag
small plastic glasses and dishes

1. If the child has a child-sized table or a low


stool, put the tub of water on that surface. If you
use a drain rack for drying, provide one for the
child as well.
2. Stack small plastic dishes to be washed beside the
tub and let the child take over.
3. Talk about the process.
Rub with the sponge.
Wash it clean.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

97

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Enjoy this yummy printing project.

large plastic tray


pudding
plate

1. Put the child in the high chair or at a table.


2. Put a puddle of pudding on the plate.
3. The child presses a hand in the pudding
and then presses the hand to the tray.
4. Point out the handprint on the tray. Count
the fingers. Point to and name the thumb.
5. Let the child lick his or her hand.
6. Repeat until the child is tired or until the
pudding is gone.
Be sure to have a camera available for a
memorable shot.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

98

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Learn about full and empty by filling containers with rice.

a set of plastic measuring cups


small plastic glasses
measuring spoons
a tub or large bowl
rice

1. Fill the tub with rice.


2. Give the child the containers.
3. Have the child fill the containers with rice.
4. After a period of filling and dumping
exploration, direct the rice play by showing
the child an empty cup and explaining,
When a cup doesnt have anything in it,
we say its empty.
5. Show a full cup and explain,
When a cup is filled to the top, we say its full.
6. Then ask the child to show you a full container and
an empty container.

The rice tub can be used over and over. Keep a whisk
broom and little dust pan with it for quick clean-up.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

99

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Screwing and unscrewing lids develops finger strength


and coordination.

plastic containers with screw lids


storage containers, water bottles

1. Demonstrate how a screw lid works. Explain how to twist the


lid while you hold the container in the other hand.
2. Next have the child hold the container.
You do the twisting.
3. Then you hold the container and the child does
the twisting.
4. Finally, the child takes over the whole job.

You may complete this progression in one session or over several months,
depending on the childs interest and small-muscle development.
Move to a more difficult level only as the child is ready.
Use the same You hold, Ill twist approach to pickle bottles, mustard and
mayonnaise jars, and other screw-lid containers that you need to open as you
prepare meals. Be sure to thank your helper for holding the container.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

100

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A childs sense of order makes putting groceries away so natural!

bags of groceries
sorting area

1. Put grocery bags in the sorting area.


2. Work together to take the groceries out of the bags.
3. Then work together to put the groceries where
they belong.

Have the child put


several similar items away.

Ask the child to locate an


item and then put it away.

Please put all the boxes


of Jell-O away.

Can you find the roll of


paper towels and
put it in the cupboard?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

101

Have the child sort a


group of items for you to
put away. Say,
Can you put all the cans
in a stack for me?

Hand a familiar item to


the child and ask him or
her to put it where it
belongs.
Heres a box of
Cheerios . Please
put it on the cereal shelf.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Setting the table is a good time to practice beginning counting.

spoons

As you set the table, play this spoon game with a child.
1. Put the child in a high chair.
2. Put several spoons on the tray.
3. Say,
Give me one spoon for (name).
4. Celebrate as one spoon is held up. Set the spoon at the
appropriate spot on the table.
5. Repeat, asking for spoons for different children until all
the spoons are distributed.
6. Another time say,
Give me two spoons for _________ and _____________.
7. Finally, alternate Give me one spoon and Give me two spoons.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

102

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Talk about the colors of foods and then play a color-identifying game.

plate of colorful food

1. Choose a food on the plate and say,


I see (color). The (food) are (color).
I see red. The beets are red.
2. Continue with different colors.
Ask,
Do you see any (color) on the plate?
What is it?
Make a game out of the color identification.
Im eating red. Can you guess what it is?
Yes, red strawberries. YUM!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

103

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use your five senses to identify different foods.

samples of foods

1. Show two foods:


carrot stick cheese stick
2. Say,
Here are two things that we eat.
How are they different?
How are they alike?
Your child may simply say,
That ones a carrot. That ones cheese.
3. Ask,
What do the sticks feel like?
Then help develop vocabulary:
The carrot is hard with bumps like the tile floor.
The cheese is soft and smooth like the mouse pad.
4. Suggest,
Close your eyes.
Can you tell which stick is the cheese by its smell?
5. Try tasting.
Close your eyes again. Do the two sticks taste
the same? Which one is the carrot?
6. ThenNow listen.
Ill break the sticks. Do they sound different
when they break?
You dont always have to use all five senses, but do refer to different senses
often so that the child is aware that there are many different ways of
describing things.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

104

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Engage the help of young cooks in putting out


the silverware or napkins for a meal.

silverware
napkins
small basket

1. Count the silverware that you will use


and place it in a small basket. Count aloud
and describe what you are doing.
Four of us will be eating lunch today,
so we will need four spoons, four forks,
four knives, and four napkins.
1 2 3 4 spoons
1 2 3 4 forks
1 2 3 4 knives
1 2 3 4 napkins
2. Have the child carry the basket to the table.
3. As you put out a plate, the child puts a napkin on the plate.
4. Together you put forks, spoons, and knives by the plates.
Soon the child will be able to put out the spoons, forks, knives,
and napkins without help. Be sure to thank the child for the help.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

105

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Recognizing and duplicating patterns is an important math skill.

plates, glasses, silverware, napkins


shelves of canned goods

Setting the Table


1. Set one place setting as a model.
2. Have the child duplicate the place setting.
3. Another day, repeat the activity, adding something new.
Put a salad fork on the table.
Lay a flower on each napkin.

Sorting Canned Goods


1. Empty a shelf in your cupboard.
2. Talk with the child about different ways
to organize the canned goods on the shelf.
little cans on this side, big cans on
that side
fruit and vegetables, soups and sauces,
other stuff
alphabetical order by name
3. Put the cans back on the shelf.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

106

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Name utensils and serving pieces and show how they are used.

place settings

1. Point to one utensil in the


place setting at the table.
2. Ask,
What is it?
3. After the child responds,
say,
Show me how you use it.
4. Practice this identifying game during food
preparation to learn about more utensils.
(a potato masher, a spatula, a ladle,
a colander, a funnel)

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

107

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Prepare a meal by making food shapes and then enjoy eating circles or squares.

foods cut into circles or squares


Sample Circle Menu
Carrot coins
Cracker stacks (round crackers layered
with cheese)
Banana slices
Salami
Sample Square Menu
French toast (trim bread into squares
before cooking)
Pat of butter
Melon cubes

1. Sit down at the table with the child.


Introduce the shape of the day.
The slice of salami is a circle shape.
Do you see any other circles?
2. Eat. Point out and enjoy the circles on the plate.
As you are eating, you may want to look around
for other objects in the room that are circles too.
The clock on the wall is a circle.
3. Another day, enjoy a meal of square shapes. When the child
seems comfortable with circle and square shapes, serve a meal
using two shapes and practice identifying the two shapes as you eat.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

108

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Compare the size of things.

items on the table at mealtime

1. Make an observation. Say,


The glass of milk is bigger than the salt shaker.
2. Ask the child to identify something else that is bigger
than the salt shaker.
My cup is bigger than the salt shaker.
3. Continue
My sandwich is bigger than the salt shaker.
4. Switch to smaller
My carrot stick is smaller than the salt shaker.
My olive is smaller than the salt shaker.
Use other comparing wordslonger and shorter, thicker and
thinner, stronger and weaker, heavier and lighter.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

109

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Extend comparison beyond big and little.

items on the table at mealtime

1. Make an observation. Lift each item to test your


observation. Say,
The sugar bowl is heavier than the salt shaker.
2. Ask the child to identify something else that is heavier
than the salt shaker. Lift the items to test the observation.
My mug is heavier than the salt shaker.
3. Continue
My plate is heavier than the salt shaker.
4. Switch to lighter...
My napkin ring is lighter than the salt shaker.
My olive is lighter than the salt shaker.
5. Use other comparing wordstaller and shorter,
thicker and thinner, stronger and weaker.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

110

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The child guesses what you describe.


Note: I Spy is a great game for many times a day! Mealtime is only one time to play!

a focused moment

1. Explain this guessing game to the child. Say,


I will look around and choose something that
I can see.
I will tell you the shape and color of the thing.
You will guess what I chose.
I will give you more clues if you cant guess.
2. Play the game. Say,
I spy with my little eye something that is shaped
like an ear.
It is reddish-brown.
3. Switch roles with the child.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

111

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A nutritious between-meal snack is more fun when its packed in a special container.

little snacks in bite-sized pieces


Cheerios
cucumber slices
soft-cooked carrot circles
banana, peach, or pear slices
small pieces of soft cheese
cooked macaroni noodles
small containers with lids
lunch box or bag (This can be as simple
as a paper bag with handles or it can
be a small lunch box with a handle just
like big brother or sisters.)

1. Have young cooks help put the snacks in


the containers.
2. Pack the snacks in the lunch bag.
3. Find a spot where you can enjoy
your treat.
The anticipation of fixing the snack and then choosing
a place to eat it makes the snack taste better and creates
a special quiet time. Be sure to carry on a conversation
as you eat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

112

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young cooks learn by imitating your everyday kitchen routine.

low cupboard or drawer


an accessible work surface
plastic measuring cups, plastic or
wooden spoons, a plastic bowl, small
saucepan, dish towel, any utensils that are
easily manipulated and safe
a small scrubbing pad or brush

1. Designate an area for storing the young


cooks kitchen equipment.
2. Encourage the young cook to use the
equipment to:
imitate your work in the kitchen
explore pouring and measuring
help prepare food for meals

Some jobs that young cooks can do include:


scrubbingpotatoes and carrots
tearinglettuce into pieces
breakingcauliflower or broccoli
shellingpeas
stirringbatter, fruit into yogurt, tuna salad
rinsingfruit
cuttingcookies with cookie cutters

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

113

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Prepare a meal together.

small cutting board or work surface


appropriate kitchen tools (Use plastic knives or table knives only as the
child develops expertise in the kitchen. Be careful of any sharp edge.)
food ingredients

1. Begin by having the child help you do a single step in


food preparation. Say,
Help me husk the corn.
2. Another time, assign a single independent task.
Wash the lettuce leaves.
Stir the batter.
Cut some fruit.
Peel a carrot.
Slice the cheese.
3. After the child has had experience doing a single task
independently, see the recipes on pages 115120
for more cooking ideas.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

114

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children can help make shortbread cookies.

8" (20 cm) baking dish


plastic fork
shortbread dough

Shortbread

Ingredients:
2 cups (250 g) of flour
1 cup (227 g) of butter
cup (63 g) of
powdered sugar
teaspoon (1 g) of
baking powder

1. Prepare the dough.


Cream butter and sugar.
Mix flour and baking powder; add to
butter-sugar mixture.
Mix well.
2. Help the child pat the dough into the pan.
3. Prick dough all over with fork. (Hold the childs
hand and help with this step, if necessary.)
4. Bake shortbread for 2025 minutes at 350F (175C).
5. Cut into squares while warm.
6. Cool and enjoy.
Recite Patty Cake as you cook. (see page 267)
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

115

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Decorating cookies is fun to do. Eating your creations is a special bonus.

brown sugar cookie dough

rolling pin

cookie cutters

baking pan

cookie decorationsraisins, small gumdrops,


cherry halves

Brown Sugar
Cookie Dough
Ingredients:
1 pound (454 g) of brown sugar
1 pound (455 g) of butter
4 cups (563 g) of flour
1 teaspoon (5 ml) of vanilla

1. Prepare the dough.


Cream butter, vanilla, and sugar.
Add flour and mix well.
Chill for at least one hour.
2. Sprinkle flour on the surface where you will
roll the cookies.
3. Start with a small ball of dough and roll it flat.
4. Cut simple shapes with cookie cutters.
5. Move shapes to baking pan.
6. Add decorations.
7. Bake at 300F (150C) for 15 minutes.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

116

Let the child participate as much as


ability and interest allow. Be sure to
explain what you are doing.

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This recipe makes 8 big pretzels.

baking sheet
oven
bowl

Perfect Pretzels
1 teaspoon (6 g) active dry yeast (Buy the
yeast in the jar so that you can easily scoop
out small amounts.)
cup (60 ml) of warm water
1 teaspoon (4 g) of sugar
1 cup (125 g) of flour
4 tablespoons (20 g) of grated cheese

1. Sprinkle the yeast on the warm water.


Stir until dissolved.
2. Add sugar and flour. Stir.
3. Add grated cheese. Stir.
4. Knead until smooth.
5. Cut into 8 pieces.
6. Roll each piece into a long snake.
7. Shape each snake into a pretzel.
8. Bake at 425F (220C) for 15 minutes.
For a change, make alphabet letters instead of pretzel shapes.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

117

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Cook with Me!


The following four picture recipes are for single-portion snacks that my

children loved. At first, work side by side with the child to prepare
the snacks. Later, the child will be able to prepare his or her own snack
independently.

Magic Pudding
Ingredients:
1 cup (240 ml) of milk
2 tablespoons (28 g) of instant
pudding mix
Combine milk and pudding mix in a
small covered container. Make sure
cover is securely in place, and shake
for several minutes.

Lemonade
Ingredients:
lemon
ice cubes
2 teaspoons (8 g) of sugar
/ cup (80 ml) of water
Combine the ingredients in a glass.
Stir and add ice cubes.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

118

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Fruit Salad
Ingredients:
of a banana
1 slice of pineapple
6 seedless grapes
small slice of melon without rind
Put the fruit in a small bowl.
Stir and eat.

Sandwich
Surprise
Ingredients:
round slice of baguette
slice of Canadian bacon
grated Swiss cheese
Layer the bacon and cheese on the
bread. Melt cheese in a microwave.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

119

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

apple
cream cheese
walnuts
Core an apple.
Stuff center with
cream cheese
and walnuts.
Slice and eat.

celery logs
peanut butter
raisin ants
Fill the logs with
peanut butter.
Put raisin ants on top.
Eat Up!

orange juice
lemon-lime soda
vanilla ice cream
Pour orange juice into
glass
full.
Pour soda into glass full.
Add a scoop of ice cream.

crackers
cheese squares
salami slices
Stack a snack:
cracker cheese
salami
cracker
Pop it in your mouth.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

120

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Making cherry ice cubes not only helps the child practice one-to-one correspondence,
but also helps to show how water can change from liquid to solid and back again.

water
cherries or grapes
ice cube tray

1. Have the child put one cherry in each section


of an ice cube tray. Describe what is happening.
You put one cherry in each hole.
There are 12 holes.
123456789101112
There are 12 cherries.
123456789101112
2. Using a small pitcher, the child fills the tray with water.
3. Put the tray in the freezer for several hours. Help the
child remove the cubes from the tray. Talk about
how the water changed.
Remember how you poured the water
into the tray with the pitcher? Does
the water pour now? How is
it different?
Use the cherry cubes in lemonade or
sparkling water for a special treat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

121

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use the lettuce and greens from your garden to create this salad.

lettuce, spinach, chard leaves


shredded carrots
cherry tomatoes
cucumber slices
croutons
dressing
self-closing plastic bags
small plastic container for the
salad dressing

1. Put the fresh salad ingredients out on the


table or counter.
2. Each person eating fills a plastic bag with
the ingredients for a salad.
3. Close the bag and shake to combine the
ingredients.
4. Add dressing to the bag. Shake again.
5. Dump onto a plate and eat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

122

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use your iron to make a grilled cheese sandwich.

iron
about 10" (26 cm) piece of aluminum foil
2 slices of bread
cheese
butter or margarine

1. Lay the aluminum foil on the counter.


2. Spread the butter on one side of a slice of bread.
Put the buttered slice, butter-side down, on the foil.
3. Put the cheese on the bread.
4. Spread butter on the other slice of bread. Put this slice,
butter-side up, on top of the cheese.
5. Fold the foil over the sandwich.
6. Iron the sandwich. Hold a hot iron on the foil for
several minutes. Turn the foil packet over and iron the
other side. This step must be supervised by an adult!
7. Enjoy!

When my children were five, these


smashed sandwiches were special
favorites! We even included them
in one five-year-old birthday
celebration.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

123

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Combine the cooks creative and culinery talents to make this tasty treat.

2 slices of white bread


food coloring
milk
muffin pan
cotton-tipped swabs
toaster

1. Pour a little milk into several cups of the


muffin pan.
2. Color each cup of milk a different color
using a few drops of food coloring.
3. Using the cotton-tipped swabs and the
colored milk, paint the bread. (Use a
different swab for each color.)
4. Dry the paintings by toasting the bread lightly
in a toaster.
5. Make sandwiches using the special slices.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

124

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young cooks can prepare this nutritious snack quickly and independently.

flour tortilla
toppingschoose one or more:
butter
grated cheese
salsa
diced chicken
scrambled eggs
refried beans

1. Put your tortilla on a microwave-safe plate.


2. Spoon or spread toppings on the tortilla.
3. Cook at full power for 30 seconds or until
topping is warmed.
4. Remove from the oven.
5. Fold the tortilla in half.
6. Cut into wedges.

Make your own tortillas! Buy masa


harina (tortilla flour) at your grocery
store and follow the recipe on the bag.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

125

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Keep these rocks in the refrigerator for hungry explorers.


The recipe makes about 5 dozen rocks.

cup (112 g) of peanut butter


small can (5 ounces or 147 g) of evaporated milk
cup (112 g) of brown sugar
1 cup (250 g) of marshmallows
2 cups (80 g) of Cocoa Krispies
3 cups (150 g) of Toasted Oatmeal Squares, crushed
To crush the oatmeal squares:
Put 1 cup (50 g) of squares in a small
plastic bag. Hold the bag on the floor.
Gently step on the bag to crush the squares.
handful of shelled sunflower seeds
cup (56 g) mini-chocolate chips

1. Combine peanut butter, evaporated milk, brown sugar,


and marshmallows in a small microwave-safe bowl.
2. Cook in the microwave, full power, for 60 seconds.
Stir. Cook 60 seconds more. Stir well.
3. In a large bowl combine cereal, seeds, and chips.
Pour peanut butter mixture over the top and stir until well mixed.

Dont like chocolate?


Use butterscotch chips
and plain Rice Krispies.

4. Drop by rounded teaspoonfuls onto foil-lined cookie sheet. Chill for


one hour in the refrigerator.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

126

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Read the book Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss, make green eggs and ham
with a child, and then see if the two of you agree with Sam-I-Am as you eat.

eggs

blue food coloring

precooked, sliced ham

bowl

fork

spatula

frying pan

nonstick cooking spray

1. Help the child break the eggs into the bowl. Stir.
2. Add a few drops of blue food coloring. Stir to mix.
(Be sure to note with the child that the eggs turn
green as they are stirred.)
3. Spray the frying pan with the cooking spray.
4. Heat the slices of ham in the pan. Move to one side.
OR Dice the ham and add it to the green egg mixture.
5. Pour the egg mixture into the pan and cook over
medium heat.
6. Stir to scramble.
7. Serve and enjoy.

Do you like green eggs and ham?


My kids and I made this favorite often!
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

127

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A young cook may enjoy eating this baked potato variation, and its
fun to prepare. Let the child do as many steps independently
as are appropriate and work together on the rest.

4 medium potatoes

knife and mixing spoon

bunch of broccoli

oven mitt

cup (68 g) of grated cheddar cheese

bowl

2 tablespoons (28 g) of butter

potato masher

1 teaspoon (6 g) of salt
cup (60 ml) of milk

1. Scrub potatoes. Butter the skins and prick


with a fork. Bake in 400F (205C) oven until done.
(Baking time will depend on size of potato.)
2. Cook fresh broccoli and finely chop.
(Or use a package of frozen chopped broccoli.)
3. Remove potatoes from oven. Hold the potato with
an oven mitt and carefully slice a lengthwise opening.
4. Scoop the insides of the potatoes into a bowl with the broccoli.
5. Add cup (45 g) of cheese, butter, salt, and milk.
Mash together until the mixture is pale green with dark green flecks.
6. Heap green mixture back into the potato skins and sprinkle with remaining cheese.
7. Return to the oven to heat through (about 10 minutes).
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

128

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Wrap these big cookies individually in plastic wrap. The recipe


makes twelve 6-inch cookies big enough for sharing!

stick of butter ( cup) or (112 g)

12-ounce package (340 g) of chocolate chips

cup (48 g) of vegetable shortening

electric mixer or a strong arm

cup (110 g) of brown sugar

aluminum foil

cup (96 g) of granulated sugar

baking sheets

2 eggs

wire cooling racks

2 teaspoons (10 ml) of vanilla


1 cups (188 g) of flour
teaspoon (23 g) eachbaking soda,
baking powder, salt

1. Cream the butter and the shortening. Beat in the brown


sugar and then the white sugar until fluffy.
2. Add the eggs one at a time, beating well after each. Stir in vanilla.
3. Combine flour, baking soda, baking powder, and salt. Stir this flour
mixture into the creamed butter and sugar. Blend well.
4. Add the chocolate chips. Mix well.
5. Cover the dough or put it in a plastic bag and chill it completely. (The dough can
be left as long as 3 days before baking.)
6. Preheat the oven to 350F (175C). Cover the baking sheet with aluminum foil.
7. Scoop fist-size mounds of dough onto the baking sheet. The mounds should be about 3"
(7 cm) apart. Flatten the mounds with your hand.
8. Bake the cookies 1215 minutes. When you remove the cookies from the oven, slide the
foil off the baking sheet. Cool the cookies on the foil for 5 minutes. Then move them to
wire racks.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

129

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Provide the ingredients, then stand back and let the child create a new snack.

a variety of ingredients, such as:


apple
pear
walnuts
honey
coconut
cinnamon

1. Show the child the ingredients that


are available.
2. Encourage the child to select from
those available and combine them to make a snack.
3. Write down the recipe for the childs creation.
4. Think of a name for the snack.
5. Taste the new creation.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

130

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young cooks become scientists as they mix and pour.

small pitcher
glasses (Clear plastic ones are best because you can see
changes as you combine ingredients.)
water
food coloring

1. Set out several glasses.


2. Put a little food coloring into each glass.
3. Pour water into glasses.
4. Encourage the child to combine the water
in the different glasses.
5. Another time, provide different ingredients
for the childs formula preparation:
coffee, milk, vanilla, orange juice,
lemonade, cherries

My children loved mixing unusual


ingredientscreating, and then
naming their formula.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

131

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create a memoboard for your kitchen.

a rectangle of contact paper the size you would


like your memoboard to be, or a square of gift wrap
small magnets

1. Designate the memoboard area by putting the


contact paper or the gift wrap on a metal surface
in your kitchenthe door of your refrigerator,
the side of your stove, or the water cooler.
The board should be at the childs eye level.
2. Give your memoboard a title. Write the title on
the board with a markerNotes for You.
3. Use the small magnets to secure notes and
recipes to the board.

Use the memoboard to post upcoming menus, special


requests, and picture recipes for make-by-yourself snacks.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

132

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Picture Recipes for Your Memoboard


Fruit Salad
Ingredients:
of a banana
1 pineapple ring
6 grapes
1 spoonful of yogurt
1. Put fruits and
yogurt in a bowl
and stir.
2. Eat.

Magic Pudding
Ingredients:
6 tablespoons
(90 ml) of milk
2 tablespoons (16 g)
of instant pudding mix
1. Put milk and pudding
mix in a bowl and put on lid.
2. Shake.
3. Eat.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

133

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Picture Recipes for Your Memoboard


Lettuce Rollup
1. Lettuce leaf
2. Peanut butter
3. Raisins
4. Roll it up.
5. Eat!

Bagel Bite
1. Minibagel
2. Honey butter
3. Banana slices
4. Eat!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

134

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children love tea parties. Share the party


with a favorite stuffed animal or a friend.

cups and saucers


(Small ones are great fun, but regular ones will do.)
small pitcher or teapot
herbal tea or juice (optional)
cookies or tiny sandwiches (optional)

1. Set a low table with the cups and saucers.


(I used the base of a footstool without
the cushion.)
2. Invite the child to join you for a special tea party.
3. Be rather formal as you sit down and pour the tea.
(If you choose to use pretend tea you will have to
pretend pour.)
4. Sip your tea and talk about the days activities.
5. Repeat a tea party rhyme and sing
Im a Little Teapot (see page 136).
One of my friends spent a wonderful afternoon with her
three-year-old. She and her daughter dressed in their
best dresses. My friend actually wore a formal gown and
white gloves. They sipped honey-sweetened tea and
shared the occasion with a stuffed bunny wearing a
velvet bow.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

135

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Here are two special tea party verses.


Enjoy them at your next tea party.

Heres a Cup
Heres a cup,
And heres a cup,
And heres a pot of tea.
Pour a cup,
And pour a cup,
And have a drink with me.

Im a Little Teapot
Im a little teapot,
Short and stout.
Here is my handle,
Here is my spout.
When I get all steamed up,
Hear me shout,
Tip me over and pour me out.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

136

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Prepare and share food together. As you divide the food, talk about fractions.

food that is easily divided into equal


partshave several wholes available

1. Decide on a piece of food to share.


(a piece of string cheese)
2. Explain that you will divide the food in two
piecesone piece for the child and one piece
for you.
3. Divide the food into two pieces. Make one much bigger
than the other. Give the smaller piece to the child and
keep the larger piece. The child will probably react.
Your piece is bigger than mine!
If not, encourage the child to compare the two
pieces by asking,
Hows your piece?
Are the two pieces the same size?
4. Divide another whole, this time into halves.
Compare the pieces with the child. Say,
When a whole thing is divided into
equal-sized pieces, the pieces have a special
name. The pieces are called fractions. When
a whole thing is divided into two equal-sized
pieces we call the fractions halves.
5. Let the child divide the next whole into halves.
Point out other wholes that have been divided into pieces. These might
include pizza, cinnamon rolls in a pan, and watermelon slices.
Talk about whether the pieces are fractions (pieces of equal size) or not.
Gradually introduce different fraction namesfourths, thirds, eighths.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

137

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Using familiar print from advertisements and food packaging,


create placemats with children. Then read the placemats as you eat.

large piece of construction paper


trademarks and words that your child recognizes
glue
clear contact paper

1. Trim the paper into a


placemat shape.
2. Cut trademarks and words
from advertisements,
magazines, and newspapers.
3. Glue the words to the paper.
4. Sandwich the placemat between
two pieces of clear contact paper.
5. Use the new placemat proudly.

The child may want to dictate or write a


message on the placemat.
I can read the words around me!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

138

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This simple snack helps develop small-motor coordination while you practice counting.

pretzel sticks
dollop of peanut butter or a cube
of fairly soft cheese
Fruit Loops

1. Stand the pretzel upright in the dollop of peanut


butter or the cube of cheese.
2. Have your child put the loops, one by one,
on the pretzel pole.
3. Count the loops on the pole.
Use several pretzel poles and compare the
number of loops on the poles to help the
child understand the concept of more and less.
This pole has more loops than that pole.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

139

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

I love to tell stories and read the m, too.


We can act the m out. Its fun to do!
Lets use puppets. Lets make a rhyme.
We have great fun at story time.

Use these activities to:


identify details in pictures
hear rhythm and rhyme to develop
phonemic awareness
repeat words and sounds to extend
vocabulary

identify objects in illustrations and


photographs
act out stories
make and use puppets

sharpen conceptual thinking

turn pages, start from the front of a


book, and understand that a word
stands for the name of a thing

develop memory

sequence story events

build a sense of extended family

write words, sentences, and stories

tell and retell stories

draw illustrations for stories

predict what will happen next

create a memory book

identify shapes and colors

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

140

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Sit the child on your lap and share a favorite book.

Good books!
Try sturdy board books with
clear shapes and colors.

1. At first, choose wordless books or books with only


names or labels. Turn the pages and point out the
objects in the illustrations. Relate the objects to the
childs experiences. Use the childs name.
See the ball.
Is it Tinas ball?
Talk about the childs favorite activities.
Look at the boy in the book.
He has blocks just like your blocks.
2. Read from a collection of Mother Goose
rhymes. The child may not recognize the
words, but the rhythm and the rhyme of the
text will be captivating.
3. Choose books with repetition and pattern in the
words and story structure.
4. Choose high-interest topics like bath and bedtime, toys,
and animals.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

141

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Practice important prereading skills as you read.


A Note About Reading
The most important thing you can do for a child is read. Young children still enjoy books about everyday
life, but they also enjoy hearing about animals and different forms of transportation. They love to hear the
same story over and over again. Many children enjoy looking at books by themselves. Enjoy the freedom
of reading beside a child as well as to a child.
1. Retelling
A childs ability to retell, to summarize, and to correctly order the events in a story are indicators
of reading readiness. When you have finished reading a story, ask the child to tell what the story
was about.
Tell me about what happened in the story.
2. Predicting
Stop reading and ask the child to predict what will happen next. Listen carefully and then read on to
see if the prediction was correct.
3. Identifying Pictures
Point to a picture. Say,
Tell me what this is.
or
Show me a ____________.
And have the child point to an object.

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Tell a story to a stuffed bear as the child listens and plays nearby.

a story
a bear

1. Sit down near the place the child


is playing.
2. Perch the childs teddy bear on your
lap and tell a story.

Try a true story about the


child or a traditional favorite
like The Three Little Pigs.

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Children love puppets. Use a puppet to tell a story.

a puppetbuy a ready-made one or


make your own (see page 146)

1. Put a puppet on your hand. It might


make noises or ask questions.
Ruff-Ruff. How are you today?
2. Start talking as the puppet.
3. Move the puppet behind your back, and then
make it reappear. Enjoy the childs giggles.

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tube sock
small empty Pringles canister or small plastic flowerpot
chopstick
stuffing (a plastic grocery bag cut into strips)
marking pens
double-sided tape
rubber band

1. Stuff the toe of the sock.


2. Hold stuffing in place with a rubber band. This makes the
puppets head.
3. Make a hole in the bottom of the empty canister.
4. Push the chopstick through the hole and into the stuffed head.
5. Stretch the sock over the outside of the canister and fasten
with double-sided tape.
6. Draw eyes and mouth with marking pens.
7. Add hair and hat if desired.
8. Move head up and down to play peek-a-boo.

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Puppet Directions
Mitten Puppet
Materials:
single mitten
felt
glue or needle and thread
marker
1. Add ears, eyes, mouth, and other details to mitten. Either draw them on
or cut them out of felt and glue or sew them on.
2. Put on the mitten and use the puppet!

Pants-Leg Puppet
Materials:
leg cut off an old pair of pants
yarn
stuffing (shredded plastic bags)
pencil or thin dowel
1. Cut a piece about 12 inches long from
the leg of an old pair of pants.
2. Turn the piece inside out. Gather and
tie one end shut.
3. Turn the piece right-side out. Stuff the
closed end to form the head. Tie off neck.
4. Cut arm holes for puppeteers fingers.
5. Decorate puppet as desired.
6. Insert a dowel into puppets head. Hold the
puppet as shown. Thumb and forefinger are arms.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Paper Bag Puppet Directions


Materials:
small brown paper lunch bag
marking pens or crayons
Steps:
1. Draw faces on flap of bag. The bottom of the flap is
the top of the puppets mouth.
2. Draw or decorate the rest of the bag.
To use the puppet: Put hand inside bag with fingers extending into
the flap. Move fingers up and down to make mouth move.

Finger Puppet Directions


Materials:
finger
washable marking pen
small piece of yarn
Steps:
1. Draw a face on a finger.
2. Tie a yarn necktie on the finger.
To use the puppet: Move your finger and talk.

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Make a family of these mice. Encourage children to make up stories about them.
You may want to write down the stories and create a series of tiny books.

walnut shell
washable marking pen
small piece of yarn
felt scraps
glue
wiggle eyes (optional)

1. Cut ears from the felt scraps.


2. Glue the ears to a walnut shell.
3. Cut a small piece of felt half the size of
the walnut shell opening.
4. Glue the felt in place.
5. Add eyes and a mouth.
6. Glue the yarn to the end of the shell
for a tail.
To use the puppet:
Slip your finger into the shell and talk.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Moving like an elephant adds another dimension to puppetry.


Even an elephants voice can reflect its slow, heavy gait.

sock with a heel


marking crayons
decorative tape
buttons (optional)
felt scraps (optional)

1. Lay the sock on a flat surface heel-side down.


2. Fold the outer edges of the toe section to
make a tapering trunk.
3. Wrap strips of tape around the trunk to hold the shape.
4. Add ears, eyes, and a bell.
5. Slip your hand into the elephant.
This elephant loves to swing its trunk as it talks.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make this stick puppet to use in your next puppet production.


You may want to create a whole family.

toilet paper roll


paper towel, crumpled into a ball
plastic wiggle eyes
broomstraw
pipe cleaners
glue
pencil or thin dowel

1. Stick the crumpled paper towel into the end of the


toilet paper roll to make the head.
2. Glue short pieces of broomstraw to the head
for antennae.
3. Glue the wiggle eyes to the head.
4. Bend pipe cleaners into grasshopper leg shapes.
Glue to the body.
5. Stick the pencil or thin dowel through the bottom of the
grasshoppers body.
6. Make the grasshopper hop and leap.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A simple flyswatter becomes a friendly character.

flyswatter
felt or paper scraps
12" (30 cm) length of fat yarn or thin rope
glue

1. Glue felt or paper eyes, nose, mouth,


and other features to the flyswatter.
2. Tie yarn around the handle for arms.
3. Use your puppet to give directions on
how to do something.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Record a childs thoughts and stories. Add pictures


to create a special book of remembrances.

a computer or traditional writing tools


paper
photos or child-drawn illustrations
a scrapbook

1. Copy down a thought or a story as the child


tells it.
2. Take photos or draw pictures to illustrate the text.
3. Mount the text and illustrations on scrapbook pages.
Note the date the page was created and any other
interesting circumstances. The scrapbook will become
an important keepsake.
4. Read and enjoy.

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Enjoy true stories about family members.

photos of family members


stories

1. Identify a photo.
This is Grandma Jill.
2. Tell the story.
My son tells his children this true story about me
when I was a child. I used to tell it to him.
When Grandma was a little girl she had a horse
named Charlie. She loved to ride Charlie in the
pasture. One day Grandma Jill had a friend over to
play and they decided to ride Charlie. Charlie enjoyed
the attention until the two girls took him out into the big
wheat field. He saw something that scared him and
jumped to the side. Both Grandma and her friend fell off
and Charlie ran home. It was a sad day because both girls
broke their arms when they fell. They never found out what
made Charlie jump.
Keep a photo gallery of special family members on the refrigerator.
Refer to it as you tell family stories.

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Enjoy dramatic play as you retell your favorite stories.

a story

1. Assign parts.
2. Sometimes you will need to designate places.
The little square rug is the bridge.
3. You tell the story.
Once upon a time...
The child moves through the actions.
Baby Billy Goat moves up onto the bridge.
Stop for key lines.
Whos that going across my bridge?
4. Continue to end of story.
5. Take your bows.

Depending on your familiarity with the story:


Limit narration. Let the characters talk
their way through the action.
Use costumes and props.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Place current photographs on the refrigerator and use


them as the basis for your storytelling.

current photos
magnets

1. Using magnets, place copies of photographs on the


refrigerator at the childs eye level. Put the photos in a
protective sleeve if you dont want fingerprints on them.
2. When you and the child are in the kitchen together, talk
about the photos.
Prompt the child to tell about what is happening
in the photo.
Who is that?
What is he/she doing?
Why is he/she doing that?
Tell about the special occasion that prompted
the photo.
Remember when Uncle Steve came over
for your birthday party? We had so much
fun watching you unwrap the packages.
You cried when Steve blew out the candles
on your cake. Then you stuck your whole
hand in the frosting.

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Whether your production includes costumes and programs or simply applause,


a play is a wonderful creative outlet.

imagination
The following items are optional:
costumes
props
a script
a curtain

1. Talk with the child about what a play is.


Explain that actors pretend to be the characters in a story.
Take the child to see a real play if possible.
2. Put on your own production.
Choose a familiar story with repeating actions such
as Caps for Sale by Espher Slobodkina.
Select roles. Prepare costumes. (This is optional.
The costumes can be imaginary.)
Retell the story and act it out. Practice several times
and then do your play for an audience.
3. Gradually choose more complicated stories and make your
productions more involved.

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Take turns with children as you create a story.

imagination

1. Start a story. Describe the setting and a character.


On a stormy afternoon all of the people of Eaton
gathered in the school. The tornado alarm had sounded.
One small boy named Jeff stood in the middle of the room
and looked around.
2. Have a child continue.
Jeff was lost. There were so many people and everyone was
talking. Jeff started to cry.
3. Listen to the child and piggyback on the ideas. Keep building until
the story is complete.
Jeffs mother and father realized that Jeff was missing and started
searching for him. Since there were so many people in the room, they
decided to split up and search for Jeff. They would meet in the middle
of the room in five minutes.
Jeffs father looked between tall people and behind short people. He
asked everybody, Have you seen my Jeff? Jeffs mother looked around
mothers and babies and big kids and daddies. She asked everybody,
Have you seen my Jeff? When Jeffs mother and father went to the middle of
the room, they saw a small boy sitting on the floor hugging himself and calling,
Mom, Dad, its me Jeff. Here I am. It was Jeff! Everyone hugged and everyone was
happy. And the tornado missed the town. What a happy night! The End

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Keep a writing supply box ready so that you can make


writing a part of your everyday routine.

a box
paper (several different kinds)
pens, pencils, markers, crayons
a small notebook
envelopes

1. Have a child help you gather the


materials for the writing box.
2. Encourage children to write often.
The best encouragement may be a shared
writing time with both of you sitting and writing. Say,
Lets write a letter to Grandma.
3. Offer to write captions on pictures that the child has drawn.
Include his or her signature on letters that you are sending.
Write down stories as the child tells them and then have
the child draw illustrations.

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Create a flap-board book for children to read and enjoy.

posterboard pages (Choose the size that you want


the book to be and make all the pages the same size.
Young children love little books, so you may want to
make the pages small.)
index cards
photos or illustrations
hole punch
scissors
glue
metal ring or string

1. Glue a photo to the posterboard page.


2. Label the photo with a single word or simple sentence.
3. Position the index card over the top of the photo to form
a flap.
4. Glue the top edge of the index card to hold it in place.
5. Write a question on the index card.
6. Punch holes in the top left-hand corner of all the pages.
7. Fasten the pages together with a metal ring or a piece of string.
8. Read and enjoy the book.
Vary the questions on the cards.
Wheres Tori? (sleeping, eating, digging, walking)
Whats inside?
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Combine pictures and words to write a rebus story. Then collect the stories to make a book.

paper
pencil, crayons, marking pens
a source of picturesmagazines,
comic strips, advertisements
scissors

1. With the child, cut ten pictures from


the picture sources.
2. Begin writing a story, Once there was a
(paste the picture in place of the word).
3. Continue writing and pasting until the
story is complete and all ten pictures have
been used. Some of your characters may
have to do some unusual things so that
you can use each of the pictures, but thats
part of the fun!

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Cut the squares of a comic strip apart to practice putting events in order.

a comic strip
notecards
scissors
glue

1. Read the comic strip with a child.


2. Cut the pictures apart.
3. Paste each picture to a notecard.
4. Mix up the cards and then arrange them in the
correct order.
5. Retell the story told by the comic strip.
Try creating a new story by combining the
pictures from several comic strips or putting
the pictures in a new order.

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Make a flip book and create new characters. Then tell or write stories about them.

3 sheets of 8" x 11" (21 x 28 cm) paper


crayons or marking pens
stapler

1. Fold the sheets of paper in half to make long,


thin rectangles.
2. Cut the papers along the fold line to make six long,
narrow pages.
3. Fold each narrow page into thirds. Unfold.
4. Draw a character on each page following
these directions:
On the top third, draw a hat.
On the middle third, draw a face.
On the bottom third, draw a collar or neck.
5. Stack the six pages together. Staple them on the
left side.
6. Carefully cut along the fold lines almost to the
stapled edge so that you can flip one portion of
the page without turning the rest of the page.
7. Flip the different parts of the pages to make
new characters.
8. Tell or write a story about the characters
you create.
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Practice important prereading skills as you read.

a story book

1. Retell the story.


A childs ability to retell, to
summarize, and to order the events
in a story are indicators of reading
readiness. When you have finished
reading a story, ask the child to tell
what the story was about.
2. Predict what will happen next.
Stop reading and ask the child to predict what will happen next.
Listen carefully and then read on to see if the prediction was correct.
3. Sequence events in a story.
Read the story. Identify with the child the important things that happened in the story.
Have the child draw a picture or write a word on an index card to represent each thing.
Put the cards in order to show the sequence of events.
4. Extend the story.
After you have finished reading, ask the child to make up a new adventure for the characters
in the story or think of a different ending. Write the adventure or keyboard it as the child tells
it. Add pictures and a cover. You can start your own set of stories.

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Read-aloud Books for Young Children


Bookstores and libraries are filled with wonderful books for you to share with young children.
There are a number of excellent read-aloud guides that will help you choose good literature
appropriate to the age of the child.
Buy a few special books to enjoy over and over again at bedtime. Be sure to consider these books,
just a few of my favorites:
Baby Goes Shopping by Monica Wellington; Dutton, 1997.
Barnyard Banter by Denise Fleming; Owlet, 1997.
Berenstains B Book by Stan and Jan Berenstain; Random House, 1997.
Chicka Chicka ABC and Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault;
Simon & Schuster, 1993 and 1989.
Color Surprises by Chuck Murphy; Little Simon, 1997.
Color Zoo by Lois Ehlert; HarperCollins, 1997.
Dr. Seusss ABC: An Amazing Book by Dr. Seuss; Random House, 1996.
Exactly the Opposite by Tana Hoban; Mulberry Books, 1997.
From Head to Toe by Eric Carle; HarperCollins, 1997.
Go, Dog, Go!: P.D. Eastmans Book of Things That Go by P.D. Eastman; Random House, 1997.
Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss; Random House, 1960.
I See by Helen Oxenbury; Candlewick, 1995.
Lunch by Denise Fleming; Henry Holt, 1998.
Moo, Baa, La La La by Sandra Boynton; Simon & Schuster, 1982.
Mouse Paint by Ellen Stoll Walsh; Red Wagon, 1995.
Red, Blue, Yellow Shoe by Tana Hoban; Greenwillow, 1986.
Richard Scarrys Best Word Book Ever by Richard Scarry; Golden Press, 1980.
Sams Cookie and Sams Wagon by Barbro Lindgren; William Morrow, 1982 and 1986.
Snowballs by Lois Ehlert; Harcourt Brace & Company, 1995.
Time to Sleep by Denise Fleming; Henry Holt, 1997.
Wheres Spot? by Eric Hill; Putnam, 1990.

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Be sure to consider the following categories:


Beautiful picture books like
The Mare on the Hill by Thomas Locker;
Dial Books, 1985.
Books with flaps or hidden pictures like
Eric Hills Spot books
Books with wonderful sounds and great
rhyme like Dr. Seusss ABC Book and
Hop on Pop
Books with appealing stories like The Best
Nest by P.D. Eastman; Random House
Beginner Books, 1968, and Cookies Week
by Cindy Ward; Scholastic, 1988.
Nonfiction books like Cars and Trucks and
Things That Go by Richard Scarry;
Western Publishing Company, 1974.
Lullabies like Hush Little Baby by Sylvia
Long; Chronicle Books, 1997.
Topics of special interest to young children
like All By Myself by Mercer Mayer;
Western Publishing Company, 1983.

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The world outside my door


Is ready to explore.
There are amazing places,
Ballgames, and fast races,
Discoveries to make,
And new pathways to take.
The world outside my door
Is ready to explore.

Note: Please be aware of childrens food allergies as you prepare recipes on pages 178182.

Use these activities to:


run, jump, hop, skip, and climb
throw, catch, kick, and bounce balls
count and practice beginning addition
identify sounds and their sources
practice climbing and descending
improve perceptual skills
understand position words
develop a sense of balance
improve large-motor skills
satisfy curiosity

exercise perceptions of space and


distance
see how changing the shape of an
object changes its strength
create a pattern
enlarge a design
dig a hole
read and follow directions
plant and tend a minigarden
visit new places

identify opposites
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Notes on Safe Outdoor Play with Young Children


Just as with indoor play, the success of outdoor play depends largely upon the
presence of multiple, simple playthings and the absence of any hazards. It is up to you
to evaluate the childs environment for any hazards.
Outdoor play should be loosely structured. Children should move freely. Teachers and
parents should interact by playing beside children, talking, pushing, swinging, and
keeping the activity safe.
Install locks on fence gates.
Store all gardening tools and supplies in a locked shed.
Get rid of plants and shrubs with poisonous leaves
or berries.
Set up play equipment on grass or sand, not on a
hard surface.
Cover the sandbox when not in use.
Choose a stroller with locking wheels so that the child
can climb in and out alone.
Never leave a child unattended.
Think about sunburns before they happen. Make sure that
children have on sunblock and enough shade.

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Explore new places or do your errands with the child in a stroller.

a stroller
emergency baga diaper, wipes, water bottle, bag of snacks

1. Load the child in the stroller, loop your


emergency bag over the handle, and start moving.
2. It isnt necessary to move fast. A child will simply enjoy
the motion, so keep moving. Point out things as you pass them.
3. Enjoy the stroll.

When my youngest child, Scott, was one,


his older brother and sister were both on
a summer swim team. Scott and I put over
fifty miles on the stroller as we circled
swimming pools during swim meets.

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Its fun to put something in a wagon or a box and pull it from one place to another.

a wagon
or
a box with a rope handle

1. Add a wagon (or pull-box) to your outdoor play area.


2. Pull a child in the wagon to show how it can be used.
Talk about how it feels to ride in a wagon.
3. Give rides to several stuffed friends or other
outdoor items.

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Provide a pail and a sponge so children can do yard work, too.

a small pail
a fat sponge

1. Next time you wash windows or clean your car, give


a child a small pail of water and a fat sponge.
2. Encourage the child to sponge down a wagon, a
tricycle, or even a lawn chair.
Dont expect a finished job. Young children aren't
concerned with the finished product.

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Young children love watering with the hose.

a hose
a nozzle for adjusting
the spray

1. Set up the hose in a place where water will not do


any damage.
2. Let the child water plants, grass, bushes, shrubs, and
areas of your garden.
Dont expect a child to take over the responsibility of
actually watering the plants or grass. Think of this activity
as water play, not work.

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Young children learn about spatial relationships by exploring.

a place to crawl and climb

Young children enjoy moving from one spot to another, climbing, sitting, crawling,
scooting up and down a ramp.
Provide a sturdy chair or piece of outdoor play
equipment and the movement becomes
a learning experience.
This activity can involve varying
levels of difficulty.

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Filling a pan or a bucket with sand and then dumping it can occupy hours.

a small bucket or a pan


two small plastic shovels
a sandbox or pile of loose dirt
Make sure that the child is strong enough to dump the bucket or the pan
when it is filled with sand. Choose a smaller container if necessary.

1. Sit on the edge of the sandbox and scoop with a shovel to


fill the bucket.
2. Invite the child to dig.
3. Describe what you are doing and then move to
the side to let the child take the lead.
Im filling this bucket with sand.
Then Im going to dump the
sand over there. Would you
like to dig with me?
I like digging.

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Young children love to swing.

a swing

1. Use a chair swing with a safety bar when you


first swing a child.
2. Stand in front of the swing and gently pull it
toward you and let go.
3. Gradually increase the force of the swing.
Move to the back and push from behind.

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Recite a rhyme as the child swings.

Swinging low.
Swinging high.
I can almost
Touch the sky.

I go away
Then I come back.
Its fun to swing
Forward and back
Forward and back
Forward and back

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Provide a rubber hammer and let the child bang away.

a soft rubber or plastic hammer


pounding board and mallet (optional)

Note: Move things that you do not want pounded.


1. Show the child how to pound with a rubber hammer.
2. Give the child the hammer.

Toy manufacturers make pounding


toys with pegs that can be pounded
into holes.

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Enjoy the freedom of a picnic.

a container to carry your food


food
water
something to sit on (optional)

1. The preparations for a picnic are almost as much


fun as the picnic itself and are great opportunities for
learning. Give children responsibility for part of the
pre-picnic preparations.
(Use a recipe from pages 178182.)
2. Let a child help in transporting the food and
equipment to the picnic.
3. Spread out the feast and enjoy.

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Picnic Favorites

Lettuce Wraps

Count-it Bags

1. Spread cream cheese on


a lettuce leaf.
2. Sprinkle with sunflower
seeds.
3. Roll up the leaf.
4. Eat.

1. Put in a bag:
10 Cheerios
10 M&Ms
10 pretzels
10 peanuts
2. Shake and eat.

P.B.+ Sandwiches
1. Spread bread with
peanut butter.
2. Crumble a piece of bacon
over p.b.
3. Dribble honey on top.
4. Add another slice
of bread.
5. Nibble.

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Fruit on a Stick
melon cubes
pineapple chunks
strawberries
Use any of the childs favorite
fruits cut in small pieces.
Stick several pieces of fruit on a
plastic stirrer.

Fruit Dip
Combine yogurt and honey to taste.
(Start with a teaspoon (7 g) of honey
to /3 of a small carton of yogurt.)
Store in a small, covered container.
Dip the fruit in and then eat.

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Picnic Cookies
Ingredients:
1 cup (192 g) of shortening
1 cup (220 g) of brown sugar
1 cup (200 g) of granulated sugar
2 eggs
1 teaspoon (5 ml) of vanilla
1 cups (185 g) of flour
1 teaspoon (4 g) of soda
3 cups (240 g) of quick-cooking rolled oats
8-ounce package (226 g) of butterscotch chips
1.To make dough:
Cream shortening and sugars.
Add eggs and vanilla.
Beat well.
Add flour and soda to creamed mixture.
Stir in rolled oats. Add chips.
Mix.
2. Form dough into 3 rolls about 2 inches in diameter.
3. Wrap in plastic wrap. Store in freezer.
4. When you want warm cookies:
Slice " rounds from frozen cookie roll.
Bake on ungreased cookie sheet at
350 F (175C) for 810 minutes.

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Sandwich Cubes
Make a childs favorite sandwich or try a peanut butter and honey special.
Spread one piece of bread with creamy peanut butter.
Spread a second piece of bread with honey.
Add banana slices to the peanut butter.
Put the two pieces of bread together.
Then slice the sandwich into small cubes. Enjoy.

Orange Bran Muffins


Ingredients:
/ cup (152 g) of butter
cup (252 g) of honey
4 eggs
3 cups (375 g) of whole wheat flour
1 tablespoon (12 g) of soda
2 teaspoons (12 g) of salt
1 tablespoon (12 g) of cinnamon
1 cup (240 ml) of warm water
4 cups (244 g) of bran
2 cups (590 ml) of buttermilk
cup (112 g) of raisins
1 teaspoon (4 g) of grated orange rind
Cream butter and honey.
Add one egg at a time, beating until blended.
Combine flour, soda, salt, and cinnamon. Add to
creamed mixture alternately with warm water. Stir in bran and buttermilk.
Makes 36 to 40 muffins.
To bake, preheat oven to 375F (190C).
Spoon muffin batter into buttered or oiled muffin pans.
Bake for about 20 minutes (30 minutes if batter has been refrigerated).
You can store batter in refrigerator for 7-10 days.
Make a fresh batch as desired.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Finger Jell-O
Ingredients:
3-ounce package (85 g) of Jell-O
1 envelope of unflavored gelatin
1 tablespoon (14 g) of sugar
1 cup (240 ml) of boiling water
Dissolve the Jell-O, gelatin, and sugar in the boiling water.
Pour into flat dish.
Refrigerate until set.
Cut into small pieces to eat.
To layer several colorsprepare one flavor Jell-O. Put in refrigerator
to set. Prepare a second color and cool outside of refrigerator.
When the first layer is set, pour the second layer over it and return
to the refrigerator. Repeat process to create rainbow layers.

Cheese Pretzels
Ingredients:
1 package active dry yeast
4 cups (500 g) of flour
1 cups (360 ml) of warm water
8 ounces (90 g) of cheddar cheese, grated
1 teaspoon (6 g) of salt
1 beaten egg
1 tablespoon (14 g) of sugar
Preheat oven to 425F (220C).
In a large bowl, dissolve yeast with water.
Stir in salt and sugar.
Stir in flour and cheese, alternating a cup of flour with
a handful of cheese.
Knead dough till smooth.
Form a roll.
Cut into about 30 pieces.
Roll each piece into a rope about 14 inches long.
Twist rope into pretzel shape.
Place on ungreased cookie sheet. Brush with beaten egg.
Bake immediately for 15 minutes.
To make breadsticks, dont twist the ropes of dough.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

182

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Always take a wagon or a stroller along as you


explore new places or do your errands.
a wagon or a stroller

1. Start off with the child pulling a wagon or walking


beside you as you pull the wagon. An empty wagon? No way!
Put an old towel in the bottom of the wagon. Be sure to include
a water bottle and a snack. The child may want to bring a
favorite stuffed animal along for the ride.
2. Adjust your pace to the childs. Point out things as
you pass. Enjoy the stroll.
3. Dont be surprised if the little ones legs give
out before you get home. Simply load him or
her in the wagon and continue home.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Its fun to put something in a wheelbarrow and push it from one place to another.

a small wheelbarrow or a tiny pull-box you


have created using PVC pipe scraps, duct tape,
and a cardboard box
Note: The child will pull the pull-box rather than push it.

1. Add a wheelbarrow to your outdoor play area.


2. Give a ride to a stuffed friend or a sand pail to demonstrate
how the wheelbarrow works.
3. As you do yard work with your
regular wheelbarrow, involve the
child on a smaller scale. The child
can haul small loads with his or her
wheelbarrow.

Imitating everyday routines outside is just


as important as imitating them inside.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young riders use their legs together to propel


themselves forward on low-wheeled vehicles.

a large area with a hard surface


a wheeled vehicle without pedals
Note: Make sure that the area you are using is safe. The
child will not be able, at first, to stop quickly or to
judge distances, so you must think in advance to
prevent accidents. Be especially alert for sloping
areas that lead into a street and decks or driveways
with drop-offs.

1. Enjoy the childs play.


2. Encourage awareness of space by having the
child follow simple directions.
Ride over to that side of the driveway
and come back.
Drive your truck to the swing and
back again.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

185

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Note opposites as you play and learn outside.

the things around you

Use any opportunity to encourage childrens use of


language. Observe and point out opposites as you use
all of your senses outside:
1. Sit quietly and listen for different sounds. Comment on
the sounds you hear. Encourage the child to connect
sounds with their source.
P.J.s bark is a loud sound.
Hollys meow is a soft sound.
Tell me about the sounds you hear.
2. Lie on your backs and look up at the sky.
Look at that big cloud.
Theres a small cloud over there.
3. Feel the grass with your bare toes. Then walk on
the sidewalk.
The grass feels prickly and soft.
The cement is hard and smooth.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

186

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Filling a pan or a bucket with sand and then dumping it can occupy hours.

small bucket
plastic shovels
cups, trucks, spoons
a sandbox or pile of loose dirt

1. Simply provide the equipment.


2. Join in the fun!
Some variations for sandbox play:
On a hot day sprinkle the sand
with water.
Dig trenches and lakes and fill
them with water.
Set up a digging station near
a pile of dirt. Instead of sand,
play with mud.

A child may not be interested in


building a particular structure. It is the
filling, carrying, dumping, and refilling
that become the main activities.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

187

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Throw and catch beanbags and foam balls.

beanbag, foam ball

1. Stand about three feet in front of a child.


2. The child forms a hand nest.
3. Gently toss the beanbag into the nest.
4. Child closes hands around the beanbag.
5. Child throws beanbag back to you.
Repeat as long as this is fun for the child or
until you collapse! Gradually extend the
distance between the two of you.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

188

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Share childrens enthusiasm for mastering large-motor skills.

space for hopping and jumping

1. Make sure that the child understands the


difference between the two termshop and jump.
If necessary, show the child how to balance on
one foot and hop.
2. Play a game of jumping and hopping. Say,
Hop 3 times. Jump 2 times.
3. Gradually make directions more
complicated.
Hop over to me.
4. Switch places with the child. You do the hopping
and jumping.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

189

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Develop eye-hand coordination with this throwing and catching game.

a beanbag
two one-gallon plastic containers with handles
Making the Scoops
Use clean one-gallon plastic containers to
make the scoops. Cut the containers as shown.

1. Stand about four feet from a child.


2. One of you will put the beanbag in one scoop and move
the scoop forward to throw the bag.
3. The other one will catch the beanbag in his or her scoop.
4. Repeat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

190

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Practice throwing, catching, and kicking.

balls of varying sizes


foam balls for beginning throwing and catching
beach balls
playground balls or soccer balls for kicking

Throwing and Catching


1. Stand about 5 feet from a child. Throw the foam ball.
2. The child catches the ball and throws it back.
Enjoy the play as you model correct throwing and catching.
Be supportive.
Good catch. Nice try.
Use different balls as the child becomes proficient.
Kicking
1. Roll the ball to the child. The child kicks the ball.
2. You catch the ball and roll it again.
Switch places occasionally, but keep your kicks under
control. You might want to enlist several others to join
in the kicking fun. Keep it simple and noncompetitive.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

191

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Paint walls, trees, fences, gates, mailboxes, and lawn furniture with water.

a paintbrush (about 2" [5 cm] wide, but


consider the size of the childs hand when
choosing the brush)
plastic bucket or can
water
Note: If you dont want to have certain areas painted (e.g., windows),
explain the limits to the child before the painting begins.

1. Fill the bucket with water.


2. Give the child a brush.
3. Let the painting begin!

This is a great activity for a child


to do while you are weeding,
but dont hesitate to take the
brush in hand and do some water
painting yourself.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

192

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use a small pitcher to pour and fill as children learn


about the concepts empty and full, dry and wet.

a child-sized pitcher (A plastic measuring cup


works well.)
tub of water

1. Give the pitcher to a child.


2. Say,
Fill it up.
Pour it out.
3. Make your directions more specific.
Pour it on your knee.
Pour it on your hand.
4. Have the child give the directions.
Pour it on my hand.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

193

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Children retrieve objects from the bottom of the tub and count them.

easy-to-grasp waterproof objects


rubber car
squeeze animal
canning seal
rattle
a plastic strainer or bathtub rack
tub of water

1. Drop objects in the water.


2. Ask the child to pick them up and put them in the rack.
3. You count as this is done.
4. Encourage the child to count along.
5. Applaud success.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

194

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

See how many plastic animals you can put into a pie pan ark before it sinks.

an aluminum foil pie pan


a set of plastic animals (Use plastic
clothespins if you dont have animals.)
a tub of water

1. Put the pie pan in the water.


2. Add one animal at a time.
Count as you add more.
How many animals can ride
in the ark before it sinks?
3. Try different small toys.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

195

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Help children take an active part in getting dressed.

socks
shirt
pants

Most young learners are able to put on socks


and sometimes a shirt or pants. Help extend
their feeling of independence by showing
them how to put clothes on and providing time
for practice.
1. Begin with the socks.
2. Next, a shirt...
Try placing the shirt on the floor with the back
facing up. Show the child how to put hands in the
bottom opening and scoop the shirt over the head.
3. Finally, pants...
Begin with pajama bottoms or sweatpants.
Sit on the floor and put on one leg at a time.
Grab the waist, stand up, and pull up the pants.
4. Praise the childs steps toward independence.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

196

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Cement artists will enjoy drawing on the sidewalk or the driveway.

playground chalk
cement surface

1. Make the playground chalk with the child.


The grinding and mixing is a great shared activity.
2. Use the chalk you created to draw beautiful pictures.
Be sure to sign the drawings with your name.

Playground Chalk
Ingredients:
12 eggshells
2 tablespoons (18 g) of flour
2 teaspoons (10 ml) of hot water
paper towel
1. Wash and dry the eggshells.
2. Grind the eggshells to a fine powder with a rock.
3. Put the powder in a dish, discarding big pieces of shell.
4. Combine flour and hot water in a second dish.
5. Add crushed eggshell and mix until it sticks together.
6. Shape the mixture into a fat chalk-stick shape.
7. Roll tightly in paper towel and dry until it hardens.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

197

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Practice measuring and mixing with dirt and water.

pail of clean dirt


water
plastic bowl, plate, spoon, cup

1. Set up a low table or bench with the mud pie supplies.


2. Encourage the child to mix dirt and water to make
mud that can be formed into shapes or poured into
small pans.
3. Allow mud creations to dry in the sun.
4. Decorate with grass seeds and twigs.
Dont worry if the child simply enjoys the process of
making mud. It isnt important that you end up with mud pies.
The process is the important part. The child is exploring liquids and
solids and discovering how they change when they are combined.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

198

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Walk around your neighborhood gathering bits of bark, leaves,


and other treasures. Then mount the treasures on a poster.

place to walk
basket or bag
piece of posterboard
backpack with snack and
water bottle (optional)

1. Put on comfortable shoes, stick a snack in


your backpack or bag, and fill your water bottle.
2. Walk with the child. Collect leaves, twigs,
petals, and stones in your basket.
3. Talk about the things you see and the things that
you put in your basket.
4. Glue or tape the treasures to a piece of posterboard.
Add a date to the collage and a caption that
tells where you walked.
Take the same walk during a different
season and make another collage.
Ask,
Are the things we saw the same?
Do our collages look different?
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Set up an obstacle course for a young tricycle rider.

several big cardboard boxes


tricycle
level area for riding

1. Put the boxes on the riding surface.


2. Challenge the tricycle rider to ride around the boxes.
Number the boxes and have the rider cycle to the
boxes in order.
Label the boxes and have the rider cycle to a
certain box.
Create a town with boxes and send the
rider on errands.

Sometimes its fun to set up a


crash course. The cyclist will love
driving into a box with a crash!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

March, hop, and skip in this traditional copycat game.

a large open space

1. Decide who will be the leader.


2. The leader leads the way. Skip or run or walk or tiptoe around the open space.
3. The follower follows, imitating the leaders movements.
4. Change leaders after a few minutes.
Vary the game:
add arm movements
maneuver around trees or play equipment
invite others to join your fun

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

201

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Take advantage of a childs interest in other


children to encourage cooperative play.

a neighborhood playground

1. Invite one or two other parents of children


to join a playground play group.
2. Decide on a regular time to meet.
Depending on your schedule, you may
choose to meet every week or
every month.
3. Meet at the playground to enjoy some
time together.
Hints:
Dont expect children to automatically
play together. They will probably begin with parallel
play and mature into group play.
Keep expectations flexible and unregimented.
Supervise the play and join in when appropriate.
Visit new playgrounds occasionally and, for a
special treat, go to a zoo or museum.
My daughters play group met every week for two years. The
group began with her three-year-old birthday party. We invited
two of Amys friends and their moms to the local playground.
Party favors included sand pails and shovels. Amy is now 26
and Im still in touch with the parents of her playmates.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

202

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Walk around your neighborhood focusing on sounds.

a place to walk
backpack with snack and water bottle (optional)

1. Put on comfortable shoes, stick a snack in your


backpack, and fill your water bottle.
2. Walk with the child. Listen for the sounds
around you as you walk.
3. Talk about the things you see that make the sounds.
4. Take the same walk at a different time of day. Ask,
Are the sounds the same?
How are they different?
Why?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

203

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Walk and balance on lines, curbs, and low walls.

chalk or a stick
a curb
a low wall

1. Draw or scratch a line on the surface.


2. Walk carefully, one foot in front of the other, along the line.
Extend your arms for balance.
3. Repeat until the child can walk the line quickly and efficiently.
4. Move to a curb away from a street.
5. Move to a low wall. (Act as a spotter as the
child walks along this new tightrope.)

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

204

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A child-size rake makes working fun.

small rake and a big rake


basket
leaves

1. Go outside with the child.


2. Show the child how to use a rake to pile up the leaves.
3. Work together to clear an area and make a small pile of leaves.
4. Let the child put some of the leaves in the basket.
5. Enjoy jumping in the pile and throwing the leaves from the
basket in the air to create a leaf storm.
Using the Leaves
Use the leaves to make the outline of a square. The square
might become an outdoor playhouse. Inside the square,
pile leaves for the bed or sofa.
Write the childs name with leaves on the cleared area.
As a last resort, bag the leaves to be taken by the garbage man.
Note: This activity is not designed to get rid of the leaves in your yard,
although it may. It is designed to use the leaves for playing and
learning.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

205

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Digging is an adventure. Imagine what you might find!

shovels
place to dig

1. Choose a place to dig. Make sure that the sand or


dirt in your first location is soft enough to ensure
initial success.
2. Dig!
At first, there is no need for a plan or a strategy.
The child will simply enjoy the accomplishment of
digging a hole and filling it in. As you repeat the
experience, you may want to identify what
you are digging.
3. Add water to the experience and make a lake.
Soon you will be creating and digging
interconnecting systems of waterways.
Keep a careful eye on your diggers. Three-year-old
Mark and his cousin Jeff used their toy dump trucks and
miniature shovels to fill in 20 holes that a workman had
dug for our new deck. The play looked innocent enough
from my vantage point in the garden, but when I had to
pay to have the holes redrilled, I decided we needed a
sandbox for digging.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

206

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Watch the giant machinery used to build houses, roads, and buildings.

a construction site
a camera (optional)

1. Choose a construction site.


2. Visit the site.
3. Talk about the equipment that you see.
What is happening?
What jobs do the different pieces of
equipment do?
4. Take photos of your visit.
Look at books about trucks and construction
equipment. See if the book shows some of the
same pieces of equipment. Visit the site
another time.
Has anything changed?
What has happened?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

207

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Set up a station for washing vehicles.

hose
bucket
big sponge
some vehiclestoys, trikes and bikes, or your car!
a nozzle that has a squeeze off-and-on handle
markers and cardboard for a sign

1. Set up the washing station.


Make a signTommys Wash and Shine
Coil the hose with nozzle attached.
Set out the bucket and sponge.
2. Start washing.
The same kind of washing
station is a great way to clean
toys and play dishes.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

208

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Learn words and phrases that describe the environment


as you play this traditional game.

a large open space

Note: When playing Simon Says, a direction


is to be followed only when preceded by the
phrase Simon says, .... If the direction does
not include the phrase Simon says, ..., it is not
to be followed.
1. Give the child a direction.
Simon says, Stand on a place thats smooth.
Simon says, Move slowly to the shade.
Hop to a sunny spot.
2. Gradually increase the difficulty of the descriptions that you use.
3. Switch positions and let the child give you directions.
4. Invite others to join in the fun.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

209

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a pair of bucket stilts and learn how to walk with them.

bucket stilts (Buy a pair at the toy store or make your own.)

1. Stand on the buckets.


2. Hold the string in your hands.
3. Lift up the string with one hand. Lift one foot at the same time.
left foot with the left hand
right foot with the right hand
4. Keeping the string taut so that the bucket stays
next to the foot, step forward.
5. Repeat with the other hand and foot.

Making Bucket Stilts


2 sturdy plastic flowerpots or small buckets
nylon cord
1. Poke 2 holes in the bottom of each flowerpot
as shown.
2. Cut 2 one-yard pieces of nylon cord.
3. Put each end of a cord through one of the holes
in a flowerpot.
4. Secure the ends by tying them inside the pot.
5. Repeat for the other pot.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Play this variation of the traditional game of four square.

a hard surface
sidewalk chalk or a stick for marking the square pattern
a playground ball

1. Draw the pattern shown on the


playing surface. (Scratch the
pattern with a stick if youre
playing on dirt or sand.) Number
the squares 1, 2, 3, and 4.
2. Stand beside the square with the
number 1. Have the child stand
nearby. Bounce the ball in the square.
The child catches the ball after one bounce.
3. The child bounces the ball in the same square.
You catch it after one bounce.
4. Move to the square with the number 2. Bounce
the ball in the square. The child catches the ball
after two bounces.
5. Continue taking turns bouncing and catching.

Bounce the ball in several squares.


Total the number of bounces caught.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

211

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Mold wet sand using empty boxes and bowls to create a sensational sand sculpture.

wet sand
shoebox
empty coffee can
small bucket
funnel
empty soup can

1. Fill a mold (coffee can, bucket, box) with wet sand.


2. Turn the mold upside down and carefully remove.
3. Fill different molds and do the same to create a basic sand shape.
4. Smooth sand with your hands.
5. Draw details with a finger.
6. Add rocks, sticks, and weeds.
Enjoy the experience of digging,
molding, and smoothing. The process is
more important than the end product.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

212

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Planting and tending seeds in a minigarden teaches responsibility


as well as providing important experiences in science.

a planter box or a small garden plot


good soil
rocks or pieces of broken pot
seeds
water
patience

1. Prepare the soil for planting:


If you are using a planter, cover the bottom with
rocks to ensure proper drainage and then fill the
pot with soil.
If you are planting in a garden plot, begin by
spading the soil, adding fertilizer if needed, and
then raking the area to be planted.
2. Plant the seeds according to the instructions on the seed package.
3. Tend the seeds. Note the changes. Enjoy the harvest.
Choosing the seeds to plant is a big decision. Do you want flowers or
vegetables? Will the garden be in the sun or the shade? Finding the answers
to these real questions is a great way to encourage the childs research skills.
Read seed packages together. Ask questions at the nursery. Check out a
book from your library.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Choose a place to visit with a child.

a destination
(This doesnt have to be fancy. Ive taken outstanding outings to the
lumberyard and the neighborhood ice-cream store. The destination
becomes outstanding when your focus changes. Instead of just going
to the lumberyard to buy something for your home maintenance, you
can plan an outing to look at different kinds of nails and discover why
there are so many different kinds.)
a time

1. Schedule a time for your outing. Discuss a place


that the two of you would like to visit.
2. Post the time and destination on the childs
memoboard.
3. Go on the outing. Enjoy!

Busy lifestyles and important obligations make it hard


to take outings with a child. Solve this problem by
scheduling an outstanding outing once a month and then
enjoy this special outdoor learning opportunity.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

214

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Sit down with a child and look through a brochure for a nearby park.
Read the information and plan a hike. Pack a snack and enjoy the outing.

park brochure
small pack
trail mix (see recipe below)
water bottle

1. Decide on a place that you would like to go.


If the brochure or guide youre using includes
a map, circle the place and trace the route you
will take to get there.
2. Prepare trail mix for a snack. Fill the water bottle.
Stow both in the pack. You may want to also include
a basic first-aid kit, suntan lotion, and the brochure.
3. Take the hike. Stop often and check the brochure. Note your
progress on the map. Enjoy the world around you.

Trail Mix
Ingredients:
Cheerios
peanuts
shredded wheat squares
chocolate chips

pretzels
raisins
dried fruit bits

1. Choose ingredients that you like.


2. Put the ingredients in a lidded container.
3. Shake the container to combine the ingredients.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Learn about the way that light moves as you use reflections to paint a picture.

pieces of aluminum foil


mirrors
shiny pan lids
scissors
string

1. Practice using shiny surfaces to


reflect light. This will work
particularly well if you find a wall in
the shade with the sun directly behind
it. Then you can reflect the sunlight
back onto the wall.
2. Try making different-shaped
reflections and moving the reflections.
3. Arrange reflective surfaces so
that you create a light collage on the
wall. Hang some mirrors or pieces of
foil so that they move in the breeze.
4. Walk in front of a light source to
create new shadows.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

216

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Handkerchief parachute toys are fun and inexpensive.

For each parachute toy:


handkerchief (A square piece of cotton or
plastic garbage bag will also work.)
four 12" (30 cm) pieces of string
wooden spool
felt-tip markers

1. Decorate the spool with markers.


2. Make the parachute from the handkerchief.
Pinch the corners of the handkerchief.
Tie a string to each corner.
Thread all four strings through the hole of the spool.
Knot the string so that the spool does not slip off.
3. Roll the parachute around the spool.
4. Toss the parachute into the air.
5. Watch the parachute float to the ground.
6. Designate a spot as the landing area and see if your
parachute toys can land on the area.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

217

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Invent new ways to make bubbles using things you find in a kitchen.

shallow pans or baking sheets

plastic container with a top

liquid dishwashing soap

glycerine (Buy it at a drugstore.)

plastic drinking straws

clean, empty cans with both ends removed

electrical tape

Bubble Solution
1. Fill a container with a quart
(950 ml) of warm water.
2. Mix in 8 tablespoons (120 ml) of
liquid soap.
3. Add 8 tablespoons (120 ml) of
glycerine.
4. Stir or shake well.

1. Assemble materials in a place where a mess wont matter.


Make the bubble solution and pour it into the pans.
2. Begin by simply blowing bubbles in the pans using
a drinking straw.
Make a giant mound of bubbles.
Make one big bubble dome.
Make a small bubble dome inside the big
bubble dome.
3. Then use cups, cans, straws, and tape to create
more bubbles.
Dip one end of a can in the bubble solution. Blow through the other end.
Tape several cans together and create a giant bubble.
Tape a handful of straws together in a bundle, dip them in the solution, and blow for an
explosion of tiny bubbles.
4. Combine the cups and straws creatively to invent new ways to make bubbles.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

218

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

These homemade flyers help children learn how changing


the shape of something affects its performance.

For each flyer:


2 paper plates the same size
stapler
colored markers

1. Decorate the plates with the markers.


2. Staple the two plates together.
If you staple the plates back-to-back,
you will create a flyer that dips
and curves.
If you staple the plates front-to-front,
you will create a flyer that flies faster
and straighter.
3. Try out the flyers!
4. Think about how to change the flyers.
What would happen if you made holes in the center
or added another smaller plate on top?
Try out your ideas.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

219

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Decorate a fence with thin strips of plastic. Its great practice in tying!

a disposable plastic tablecloth or trash bag cut into thin strips (6" x 2" [15 x 5 cm])
a fence(A chain link fence or the side of a dog run work particularly well.)

1. Tie strips of plastic to the


fence to form shapes and designs.
2. Add details with longer strips or
different colors.
3. Create a message by tying more
strips in order.

Slatted fences are great for weaving. You can create


a decorative weaving as a colorful backdrop for play.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

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Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use old nylon stockings and coat hangers to make rackets for this balloon game.

2 wire coat hangers


2 old knee-high stockings or the leg sections
cut off an old pair of pantyhose
masking tape
balloons

1. Pull the hangers into a diamond shape


and straighten the hooks.
2. Push each hanger into a nylon stocking.
Push all the way to the toe.
3. Gather the loose end by twisting it around
the handle and wrapping it with tape.
4. Double the handle by bending it in half
and wrapping with more tape.
5. Try balancing a balloon on the racket.
6. Use the rackets to hit a balloon back
and forth.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

221

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Play this variation of traditional hopscotch.

a hard surface
chalk or stick for marking the hopscotch pattern

1. Draw the pattern shown on the playing surface. (Scratch


the pattern with a stick if youre playing on dirt or sand.)
2. Start at square number one and hop, chanting the rhyme
as you go. On side-by-side squares use both feet.
Hop, Hop, Hopscotch,
(hop, hop, both feet down)
Hop, Hop, Hopscotch,
(hop, hop, both feet down)
Happy Day, Happy Day,
Hopscotch!
(hop, hop, both feet down)
3. Take turns hopping through the pattern.
Vary the game by:
telling something that makes your day
happy as you complete the jumping.
repeating the verse and jumping back through
the pattern. Repeat the last hopscotch
twice and do a turn before you start back.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

222

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

An old tire ready for recycling can provide an unusual easel and
then become an addition to your outdoor play equipment.

a tire
several colors of water-based outdoor trim paint
a paintbrush for each color
a bucket of water for cleanup
(optional) drop cloth

1. Set up a painting area in a place where spilled


paint wont be a problem or spread out a
drop cloth to catch spills.
2. Paint the tire. Be creative. Use spirals,
stripes, and flowers. Paint as much of
the tire as you can.
3. Let the tire dry overnight.
4. Turn the tire and paint the other side.
5. Use your new colorful tire:
Hang the tire to use as a
throwing target.
Fill the tire with soil and use it as
a planter box.
Make a tire swing.
Paint several tires and make a tire tower.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

223

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a basic sailboat and float it in a tub of water or in the gutter on a rainy day.
Then make changes to the design of the boat to improve its performance.

foam tray (recycled from the ones that have held food)
sheet of paper
scissors
screw or nail
straw
tape

1. Cut a small triangle from the foam tray.


(This will be the boat.)
2. Cut the straw in half. Cut a triangle of paper
the same height as the straw half. Tape the triangle
to the straw. (This will be the sail.)
3. Attach the sail to the boat. Stick the screw or
nail through the center of the triangle. Slip the
straw onto the screw or nail.
4. Sail the boat in a tub of water. Blow on the sail
to make the boat move faster.
5. Make changes to the design of the boat and/or the sail. Ask,
Do the changes make the boat go faster?
Do the changes make the boat look fancier?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

224

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Float and sink familiar objects.

bathroom objectssoap, washcloth, rubber duck, comb,


toothpaste tube, plastic cup, bath toys
tub of water

1. Drop an object into the water. Ask the child to describe what happened.
What happened to the soap when I dropped it into the water?
Did it sink? Did it float?
If the child is not familiar with the terms sink and float, show what the
words mean by floating something and sinking something.
2. Show the child another object. Have the child predict whether the
object will sink or float. Then have the child test the prediction.
3. Continue with a variety of objects. Always predict,
test, and then sort into two pilesSink and Float!
.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

225

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Fill one container with water and then pour it into another.

3 plastic containers of different sizes


and shapes
tub of water

1. Ask the child to pick one container and fill it with water.
2. Have the child pick a second container and fill it with water from
the first container. Repeat this to fill the remaining container.
3. Ask questions to encourage comparisons. Point to the containers
as you ask,
Did this one hold more water than that one?
How can you tell?
Which one holds the most?
4. After exploring all three containers, help the child arrange
them in order by the amount that they hold.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

226

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

How much will a toy boat hold before it sinks?

toy boat
tub of water
supply of pennies

1. Float the toy boat in the tub.


2. Ask the child to predict how many pennies the boat will hold
before it sinks.
3. Have the child add one penny at a time to the boat. Count the
pennies as they are added.
4. Continue until the boat sinks.
5. Check the prediction.
Try the same activity with a bigger boat and a smaller boat.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

227

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a plastic cup sink or float by making changes.

a plastic cup
a tub of water

Encourage the child to explore the sinking and floating of a plastic cup as changes
are made to the cup.
What happens when you put the cup in the water?
Will the same thing happen if the cup is upside down?
Will the same thing happen if the cup is on its side?
What happens if the cup is half full of water?
What happens if the cup is full of water?
What other changes can you make?
Will it sink or float now?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

228

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

When a child comes in really dirty, take the opportunity


to learn about how to get really clean.

washcloth
bar of soap
tub of water

Encourage the child to try several different methods


for cleaning one dirty hand or leg.
1. Start with the dry washcloth. Ask,
Does a dry washcloth work?
2. Try rubbing the bar of soap on the hand.
3. Then dip the hand in the tub.
Did the dry soap help? The water?
What might work better?
(Soap + Water + Washcloth work together
to make me clean!)

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

229

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Discover the fastest way to dry something.

4 washcloths
a tub of water

1. Put the 4 washcloths in a tub to get them


uniformly wet.
2. Decide on an area where the washcloths can
be left until they dry.
3. Spread one washcloth out flat to dry.
Wad up one washcloth and leave it wadded
up to dry.
Wring out one washcloth and spread it out
flat to dry.
Wring out one washcloth, wad it up, and
leave it to dry.
4. Predict which will dry first. Wait and watch
as the cloths dry. Check them often. Ask,
Which washcloth dried first?
Which was the slowest?
How will what we learned help us?
5. Try the same activity, leaving one wet
washcloth in the sun and one in a shaded area.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

230

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Im sitting in the chair.


Im being really good.
Im learning how to wait.
Did you ever think I would?
I can sit quietly.
I know that I can.
Ill surprise you with
My attention span!

Use these activities to:


identify the shapes of things

identify attributes of objects

practice counting

learn about measuring

develop eye-hand coordination


sharpen memory and coordination

observe an object from different


viewpoints

develop and expand vocabulary

improve dexterity

learn about qualities and


characteristics

practice adding and subtracting

practice patterning

locate words in text

practice problem-solving strategies

draw and write

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

231

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Add a dump-and-fill toy to your backpack to use only in waiting situations.

a plastic container with a lid


46 objects (big enough that they will not fit in the childs
mouth but small enough to fit in the container)
soft hair curlers
plastic animals
clothespins
blocks
measuring spoons

1. Store the objects in the plastic container


and keep it in your backpack or
diaper bag.
2. When you find yourself in a waiting situation,
pull out your waiting toy. The child will
enjoy dumping out the objects, picking
them up, and putting them back in the
container.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

232

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Think of waiting as an opportunity to learn about new things.

the things around you

1. As you wait in line or in a waiting room,


point out the things around you.
2. In simple language, explain the name of
the object, what it does, and how it affects
the child.
Look. Theres a special camera
that takes our picture while we
wait in line here at the bank.
It helps the bank to know who
comes in each day.

Young children may especially enjoy:


machines
computers, check-out registers, surveillance cameras
animals
fish in a tank, birds outside the window, seeing-eye dog
other babies and children
vehicles of all kinds

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

233

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Practice memory and sensory awareness with this simple game.

several objectsitems out of your purse or


backpack such as a key ring,
a comb, a case for glasses
a blanket or a sweater or jacket

1. Show the child one object.


2. Put the object under a blanket.
3. Then ask,
Where is (the object)?
4. The child should point to the bump or
remove the blanket to show the object.
5. When the child seems confident with one
object, try two.
Show the two objects.
Put them under the blanket.
Ask,
Which one is the (object)?
The child will have to use the shape of the bump
under the blanket to identify the object.
6. Have the child hide an object.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

234

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Connect a childs experiences with magazine illustrations as the


two of you talk about what animals can do.

pictures of animals
(Use the magazines in the waiting room
or the placards on the wall of the bus.)

1. Say the name of an animal or show the


animals picture.
2. Ask,
What can a (animal name) do?
3. The child may answer with the sound the animal
makes, a single word, or a recounting of a
remembered experience.
What can a dog do?
Woof-Woof. Doggie go. Doggie lick Sam.
At first, point out only animals that the child knows.
Later, point out new animals and give information as needed.
What can a llama do?
A llama can carry heavy things to help people.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

235

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Stuck at a meeting or an appointment without a toy?


Play this simple identification game.

a child

1. Say,
Show me a hand.
2. The child holds up a hand.
3. Continue with other body parts, pieces of
clothing, or items in the waiting room.
4. Move on to simple actions.
Show me a jump.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

236

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Stuck at a meeting or an appointment without a toy? Use shoes or socks!

easy-to-remove shoes or socks

This activity works better if you and the child are seated.
1. Begin by taking off one of the childs shoes.
2. Say,
One shoe off.
3. Take the other shoe off.
Two shoes off.
4. Put one shoe back on.
One shoe on.
5. Put the other shoe on.
Two shoes on.
Let the child do the taking off and putting on!

Add the traditional rhyme.


Diddle, diddle, dumpling, my son John
Went to bed with his stockings on.
One shoe off and one shoe on.
Diddle, diddle, dumpling, my son John.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

237

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A handkerchief or a simple facial tissue doubles as a great diversion.

a handkerchief

Keep your handkerchief with you in a pocket or purse.


Be ready to use it for these time passers:
Handkerchief Puppet
1. Put your index finger straight up.
2. Put the handkerchief around the finger.
3. Carefully grasp the tails of the handkerchief with your other
fingers, leaving your index finger extended.
4. Move your finger and talk. You may even want to add
eyes and a mouth with your pen.
Where are my eyes? Hey, can anybody see me?
I need some eyes.
Handkerchief Hide and Seek
1. Put the handkerchief partially into a pocket or sleeve.
2. Ask,
Where is the handkerchief?
3. Continue hiding the handkerchief in increasingly
difficult places.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

238

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Name all the things around you that are a specific shape.

the things around you

1. Think of a shape and name it.


a square
2. Look around. Help the child name all
the things that are that shape.
the window, the book, the table, the sign
3. Change shapes and repeat.
If the child is ready, introduce the concept of corners.
You re right, the table is a square.
Do you see this pointy edge?
We call this point a corner.
Lets count the corners on the table.
Can you find another square?
How many corners does that square have?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

239

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

When you find yourself in the waiting room,


look around and practice counting.

the waiting room

Count together in different ways.


1. Count fingers.
First, count just the childs fingers. Then add yours
as well. Count together, touching each finger as you
count it. Then listen as the child counts. Help if you need to.
2. Count pockets.
Find all the pockets in the childs clothes.
Count them. Add your pockets as well.
3. Count pennies.
Count the pennies in your coin purse.
Make piles of ten pennies. Ask,
Can you make three piles of ten?
Try other coins.
4. Count chairs.
Count the chairs in the room.
Count the people in the room.
Are there more chairs or more people?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

240

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Waiting in a quiet place may be difficult.


Try playing Giraffe.

a quiet place

1. Explain to the child that a giraffe doesnt talk.


Very often, it stands quietly and looks around.
2. Hold the child up high (like the tall giraffe)
and ask,
Can you be like a giraffe?
3. Then the child is quiet and looks around.

As improbable as it sounds, this is a great game.


My children loved to play Giraffe. They would
have contests to see who could not talk for the
longest time.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

241

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Encourage children to think creatively.

time together

1. Propose a change. Ask,


What if you had four feet?
What if the sky was always purple?
What if cars used tomato juice instead of gasoline?
2. Talk with the child about the effect of the change.
3. Let the child propose a What if .

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

242

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

For creating while waiting, carry a small notebook with a pencil.

a small notebooka memo-sized spiral one is great


a pencil
a piece of string

1. Attach the pencil to the notebook.


2. Keep the notebook in your purse or
pocket so that it is always handy.
3. Draw several lines on the page and ask the
child to make something out of the lines.
4. Take turns drawing lines and creating things.

I framed a charming underwater scene that my 3-year-old nephew


drew as we waited for a table at a restaurant. The seascape still hangs
in my family room, and Doug enjoys seeing his special creation
whenever he visits.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

243

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Carry a plastic container of small snacks for patterning fun.

small plastic container with lid


little nibbles such as Cheerios, raisins, grapes,
marshmallows
piece of paper

1. Put a piece of paper on a solid surface.


2. Put a line of 46 nibbles in a line at the top of the paper.
grape grape marshmallow grape grape
3. Have the child duplicate the line.
4. Eat the pattern.
5. Make more complicated patterns.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

244

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Reminisce about events in a childs past.

memories

1. Recall an event and tell about it.


I remember when you were two and you wore a
jack-o-lantern costume for the Halloween parade.
The pumpkins smile had two teeth. Daddy even stuffed
the costume with diapers to make you look rounder.
2. The child will love hearing your memories and will often ask for
more details.
Did you carry me or did I walk?
Soon the child will fill waiting time with his or her own memories.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

245

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Stuck at a meeting or an appointment without a toy? Use a shoe!

a shoe with shoestrings

1. Take the shoestring out of a shoe.


2. Restring the string. You may need to demonstrate how to do this
and help with the initial steps. Remember, your goal is fun and
practice in eye-hand coordination. Dont expect perfectly
laced shoes. Laugh together over problems.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

246

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Name all of the things around you that have a specific attribute.

the things around you

1. Think of and name a shape, a color, a texture, or a function.


a square
tan
smooth
tell time
2. Look around and name all the things that have
that attribute.
3. Change attributes.
4. Find combinations of attributes.
Can you find something that is smooth and also
a square shape?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

247

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Learn how to measure while you wait.

a nonstandard unit of measurea hand, a shoe,


a book, a pencil
an object to measure

1. Ask,
How tall is the (an object)?
2. Work with the child to use some unit of measure
to answer the question.
Hold the pencil next to the edge of the table.
Ill put my finger at the top of the pencil.
You move the bottom of my pencil to my finger.
Thats two pencils.
Keep going until we see how many pencils
wide the table is.
3. Encourage the child to measure objects
independently.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

248

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use a piece of paper to make an inchworm. Then


measure the things around you using the inchworm.

a piece of paper
an object to measure

1. Crush the paper into a wad. Flatten the wad into a


cylindrical shape to make the inchworm.
2. Measure something around you using the inchworm as
the unit of measure. Start at one end of the object.
Show the child how to use a finger to mark the spot
and move the worm forward.
3. After you have measured several objects, try estimating
the size of an object before you measure it.
Then measure to see if you were close.
4. Encourage the child to compare objects measured.
Ask,
What was longer, the magazine or my purse?
Is the table wider than the chair?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

249

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Discover that some shapes are stronger than


other shapes as you practice problem solving.

an index card (A reply card from a magazine will work.)

1. Lay the card between two objects to make a bridge.


2. Test the strength of the bridge by placing one penny on it. Ask,
Can the bridge hold more than one penny?
How many pennies can it hold before it collapses?
3. Challenge the child to change the bridge so that it will be stronger.
Try for multiple solutions.
4. Let the child test to see if the bridge is stronger.
5. When you see real bridges, check for any similarities between
them and your card bridge.
Are there differences?
Does looking at real bridges
give you any ideas for
changes that might
make your bridge
stronger?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

250

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Enjoy this story-creating experience together as you play this no-equipment-needed game.

time to think

1. Take turns creating a story that begins with a


fortunate event.
Fortunately the sun was shining.
2. Continue with an unfortunate event in the story.
Unfortunately the flowers were thirsty.
3. Alternate fortunate and unfortunate events until the story ends.
Fortunately Chelsea had a watering can
full of water.
Unfortunately she tripped and spilled the
water on the driveway.
Fortunately the water ran down the driveway
to the flowers.
Unfortunately Chelsea skinned her knee when
she fell.
Fortunately Daddy was home to kiss it better.
The End

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

251

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This simple game of hide-and-seek with pennies helps young children add and subtract.

some pennies
a hand

1. Show four pennies in your hand. Identify the number.


2. Take three pennies out of your hand and put them
in the childs hand. Close your hand to hide
the remaining penny.
3. Have the child tell how many pennies he or she has.
4. Keeping your hand closed, ask,
How many pennies do I have?
5. If the child doesnt know, open your
hand and show.
6. Repeat using different numbers of pennies.
7. Have the child hold the pennies originally
and transfer some to your hand, asking you
to identify how many are left.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

252

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

For creating while waiting, carry a small notebook with a pencil.

a small notebooka memo-sized spiral one is great


a pencil
a string

1. Attach the pencil to the notebook.


2. Carry the notebook in your purse or pocket
so that it is always handy.
3. Have the child copy words from the print
around you.
4. The child may choose to draw pictures to show
what the word is. The notebook then becomes a
minipicture dictionary.
5. Date the pages and youll be able to remember where
you were waiting on a certain day.

Later, the notebook of words can be


used as a reference for writing.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

253

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Use any print source handy as a game board.

a church bulletin, an advertising flyer, or a newspaper


pencil or highlighter

1. Pick a simple word or letter.


2. Take turns with the child:
locate the word or letter
in the print
highlight or cross out
the word
3. Count the number of times you
located the word or letter.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

254

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Experience the different way that things look when you have different viewpoints.

an object
at least two viewpoints

1. Pick an object in the area where you


are waiting.
the shopping chart
2. Talk with the child about how it looks
from where you are standing. Decide
whether it looks the same or different to the
two of you. Lift the child up to your level
so he or she can actually see the difference.
Can you describe the cart?
From up here it looks like a basket
filled with food.
3. Think about how the object would look if
you were inside it, underneath it, very close
to it, very far away from it, and high above it.
How do you suppose the cart looks to
the head of lettuce?
How about to the dog food on the rack
underneath?
Would the cart look the same from the
store across the street?
How would it look if you could hang
from the ceiling?
4. Choose a new object and repeat.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

255

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Heres what I know


Most things can go!
Wagons, trains,
Taxis, planes,
Tractors and trikes,
Rockets and bikes,
A water ski,
A kiddies car, and me!

Use these activities to:


experience texture and shape

read familiar words

improve ability to grasp and


squeeze

think creatively

develop fine-motor coordination

learn to tally

identify colors

read a map

improve memory
learn about rhythm

recognize words that begin with


specific letters

develop phonemic awareness

use letter clues to read words

identify letters

start a collection

group things in categories

recite rhymes and tell stories

compare objects

sing songs

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

256

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Keep a basket or box with travel supplies in your car..

diapers
wipes
change of clothes
sweatshirt or jacket
blanket
several small toys
box of crackers

1. Work together with the child to select


and pack the items for your car kit in a
basket or box. Preparing the car kit in
advance will save you time and make
getting ready to go somewhere much easier.
2. Help the child carry the basket to your car
and find a place to store it in the car.

Note: Do a car kit check periodically to


encourage the child to help you
remember to replenish supplies in the box.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

257

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Its fun to sit in a car seat and reel in a stuffed animal.

a small stuffed animal


a long scarf

1. Tie one end of the scarf to the front of the car seat.
2. Tie the other end of the scarf to the stuffed animal.
3. Give the animal to the child.
4. When the child is tired of playing with the animal
and drops it
5. Show how to pull on the scarf to retrieve the animal.
A new gameDrop It and Reel It Inwill begin.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

258

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Practice putting on and taking off lids looking for a hidden treasure.

boxes with lids


a small toy or stuffed animal

1. Put the toy in a box. Replace the lid. Ask,


Where is the truck? Where could it be?
2. Have the child find the toy. It
may be necessary to hold the base
of the boxes to make removing the
lids easier.
3. Let the child hide the toy and you
search for it.

For a special treat, wrap a


new toy and put it in the box.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

259

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Add sound to movement.

a bag or a box
several rattles
big bells

1. Put the objects in the bag.


2. Give the bag to the child.
3. Enjoy the noises.

Try singing and


rattling together.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

260

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Children will learn about empty and full as they put socks into a container.

a canister with a lid (like a Pringles container)


several socks

1. Give the child the canister without the lid and


several socks.
2. Have the child put the socks in the canister.
Show how a sock can be pushed down to make
room for another sock.
3. Fill the canister, dump it out, and then count
the number of socks.
4. Encourage the child to find other soft things that
will fit inside the canister.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

261

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Young children enjoy feeling different textures from soft and squishy to
prickly and ticklish.

a canvas bag
samples of materials of different textures. Choose some or all
of these suggestions: satin, flannel, velvet, burlap, canvas, oilcloth,
fake fur, chiffon, nylon net, and cotton batting.

1. Put material samples in the canvas bag.


2. Give the bag to the child.
Encourage dumping out, rubbing the different
samples on a leg or cheek, looking through
different samples, and hiding toys under samples
and then revealing them. (Peek-a-boo!)

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

262

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Chant and sing simple rhyming verses as you clap and do simple actions.

a rhyme in your head (see pages 264 and 265)

When you first introduce an action rhyme, do it for


the child several times. Soon the child will
imitate your actions. Applaud the attempts.
Celebrate each performance.
Learn the three rhymes on the next pages. Use one
or more anytime during the day when you
are on the road.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

263

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

So Big
How big is this baby?
This big? Maybe?
This big? Maybe?
This baby is so big!

Trot, Trot to Boston


Trot, trot to Boston,
Trot, trot to Lynn,
Look out (childs name)
Youre going to fall in!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

264

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This Little Piggie


This little piggie went to market.
This little piggie stayed home.
This little piggie had roast beef.
This little piggie had none.
And this little piggie cried, Wee! Wee! Wee!
All the way home.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

265

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Ride a Cockhorse
Ride a cockhorse to Banbury Cross,
To see a fine lady upon a white horse.
Rings on her fingers and bells on her toes,
She shall have music wherever she goes.

Trotty Horse
Trotty horse, trotty horse to the mill
To see Grandpappy and Uncle Bill.
Trotty horse, trotty horse to the town.
Watch out, little (childs name), dont you fall down!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

266

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Birthday Cake


Two candles on a birthday cake.
All lit up for me.
Ill make a wish and blow them out.
Watch and you will see.

Patty Cake
Patty cake, patty cake, bakers man.
Bake me a cake as fast as you can.
Roll it and prick it and mark it with B.
Put it in the oven for baby and me.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

267

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Blowing Balloons
This is the way
We blow a balloon.
Blow. Blow. Blow.
This is the way
We break a balloon.
Oh, oh, no!

Apples in My Tree
Way up high in the apple tree,
Two little apples smiled at me.
I shook that tree as hard as I could.
Down came the apples
Mmmm, were they good!
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

268

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Singing together is a great way to develop phonemic awareness.

songs in your head (Try the ones on pages 270 and 271.)
a tape player and tapes (optional)

1. Sing the old favorites you remember from your childhood or


learn a few new tunes. Dont worry about getting the words
or the tune perfect. Just enjoy. Start with nursery rhymes and
move on to those wonderful multiverse tales that go on forever,
such as Old MacDonald Had a Farm or This Old Man.
2. After the child becomes familiar with the words, stop singing just
before the final word, so he or she can finish the line.

As I drove across Kansas taking my daughter to college, she and her brother sang all the
songs that they remembered from car trips when they were little. You should have seen them
singing Gary LaPous Noodle Song with all the hand motions we had made up many years ago.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

269

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Hickory Dickory Dock


Hickory dickory dock,
The mouse ran up the clock.
The clock struck one,
And down he run.
Hickory dickory dock.

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star


Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

270

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Mary Had a Little Lamb


Mary had a little lamb, little lamb, little lamb
Mary had a little lamb with fleece as white as snow.
Everywhere that Mary went, Mary went, Mary went
Everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.
It followed her to school one day, school one day, school one day
It followed her to school one day which was against the rule.
It made the children laugh and play, laugh and play, laugh and play
It made the children laugh and play to see a lamb at school.

Old MacDonald Had a Farm


Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.
And on this farm he had some chicks, E-I-E-I-O.
With a chick-chick here,
And a chick-chick there,
Add animals and
animal noises until
Here a chick,
you cant think of
There a chick,
anymore!
Everywhere a chick-chick.
Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

271

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Eentsy, Weentsy Spider

Five Little Monkeys

The eentsy, weentsy spider


Climbed up the waterspout.
Down came the rain
And washed the spider out.
Out came the sun
And dried up all the rain.
And the eentsy, weentsy spider
Climbed up the spout again.

Five little monkeys


Jumping on the bed.
One fell off
And bumped his head.
Mama called the doctor,
And the doctor said,
Thats what you get
For jumping on the bed!
Four little monkeys
Jumping on the bed
Three little monkeys
Jumping on the bed
Two little monkeys
Jumping on the bed
One little monkey
Jumping on the bed.
He fell off
And bumped his head.
Mama called the doctor,
And the doctor said,
No more monkeys
Jumping on the bed.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

272

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Ten in the Bed


There were ten in the bed,
And the little one said,
Roll over. Roll over.
So they all rolled over,
And one fell out.
There were nine in the bed,
And the little one said,
Roll over. Roll over.
So they all rolled over,
And one fell out.
There were eight in the bed
There were seven in the bed
There were six in the bed
There were five in the bed
There were four in the bed
There were three in the bed
There were two in the bed
There was one in the bed,
And the little one said,
Im sleepy. Good night.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

273

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Hammer Song


Tori works with one hammer,
One hammer, one hammer.
Tori works with one hammer.
Then she works with two.
Tori works with two hammers,
Two hammers, two hammers.
Tori works with two hammers.
Then she works with three.
Tori works with three hammers,
Three hammers, three hammers.
Tori works with three hammers.
Then she works with four.
Tori works with four hammers,
Four hammers, four hammers.
Tori works with four hammers.
Then she works with five.
Tori works with five hammers,
Five hammers, five hammers.
Tori works with five hammers.
Then she goes to sleep.
Note: Substitute your childs name for Tori. Use he and she appropriately.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

274

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This Old Man


This old man, he played one.
He played knick-knack on his thumb.
Refrain:

With a knick-knack, paddy whack,


Give your dog a bone.
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played two.


He played knick-knack on his shoe.

This old man, he played six.


He played knick-knack on two sticks.

This old man, he played three.


He played knick-knack on his knee.

This old man, he played seven.


He played knick-knack up to heaven.

This old man, he played four.


He played knick-knack on my door.

This old man, he played eight.


He played knick-knack on the gate.

This old man, he played five.


He played knick-knack on the hive.

This old man, he played nine.


He played knick-knack on my spine.

This old man, he played ten.


He played knick-knack once again.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

275

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Six Little Ducks Song


Six little ducks
That I once knew.
Fat ducks, skinny ducks,
Fair ducks, too.
But the one little duck
With a feather on its back,
It led the others with
A quack, quack, quack.
Down to the river
They would go,
Wibble-wobble, wibble-wobble,
To and fro.
But the one little duck
With a feather on its back,
It led the others with
A quack, quack, quack!
Quack, quack, quack.
Quack, quack, quack.
It led the others with a quack,
quack, quack!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

276

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Down on Grandpas Farm


Down on Grandpas farm there is a big pink pig.
Down on Grandpas farm there is a big pink pig.
The pig, it makes a noise like this:
SNORT!
The pig, it makes a noise like this:
SNORT!
Oh, were on the way.
Oh, were on the way.
On the way to Grandpas farm.
Down on Grandpas farm there is an old white horse.
Down on Grandpas farm there is an old white horse.
The horse, it makes a noise like this:
WHINNY!
The horse, it makes a noise like this:
WHINNY!
Oh, were on the way.
Oh, were on the way.
On the way to Grandpas farm.

Think of other animals that you might see on a farm and add them to your song.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

277

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

If Youre Happy and You Know It


If youre happy and you know it,
Clap your hands.
If youre happy and you know it,
Clap your hands.
If youre happy and you know it,
And youre not afraid to show it,
If youre happy and you know it,
Clap your hands.

Then, change the feeling.


If youre shy and you know it,
Hide your eyes.
If youre tired and you know it,
Give a yawn.
If youre angry and you know it,
Stamp your foot.

TryStamp your feet.


Nod your head.
Turn around.
Shout hurray!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

278

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Wheels on the Bus


The wheels on the bus
Go round and round,
Round and round,
Round and round.
The wheels on the bus
Go round and round
All over the town!

Repeat, using the following verses:

The people on the bus


Go up and down.
The babies on the bus
Go Wah! Wah! Wah!
The mothers on the bus
Go Shh, shh, shh.

The driver on the bus


Says Move on back!
Move on back!
Move on back!
The driver on the bus
Says Move on back!
All over the town!

The wipers on the bus


Go swish, swish, swish.
The doors on the bus
Open and close.

Make up some more verses as you sing!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

279

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

The Grand Old Duke of York


The Grand Old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill,
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
You can lean them to the left.
You can lean them to the right.
And when you turn them
upside down,
Oh, what a silly sight!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

280

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Peanut Butter Chant


Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
First you take the peanuts and you crush em, crush em.
First you take the peanuts and you crush em, crush em.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Next you take the grapes and you squish em, squish em.
Next you take the grapes and you squish em, squish em.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Then you take the bread and you slice it, slice it.
Then you take the bread and you slice it, slice it.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Next you take the knife and you spread it, spread it.
Next you take the knife and you spread it, spread it.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Now you take the slices and you slap em, slap em.
Now you take the slices and you slap em, slap em.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Take that special sandwich and bite it, bite it.
Take that special sandwich and bite it, bite it.
(As if your mouth is full of sticky peanut butter)
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.
Peanut, peanut butterjelly.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

281

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Up to the Ceiling Handshake


Up to the ceiling,
Down to the floor.
Left to the window,
Right to the door.

This is my right hand


Raise it up high.
This is my left hand
Reach for the sky.
Right hand, left hand,
Twirl them round.
Left hand, right hand,
Shake up an down.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

282

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Where Is Thumbkin?
Where is Thumbkin?
Where is Thumbkin?
Here I am. Here I am.
How are you tonight, sir?
Very well, I thank you.
Run away.
Run away.
(Repeat with Pointer, Tall Man, Ring Man, and Pinky.)

Tall Man

Ring Man

Pointer
Pinky
Thumbkin

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

283

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Ten Little Fingers


I have ten little fingers,
And they all belong to me.
I can make them do things.
Would you like to see?

I can shut them up tight


Or open them wide.

I can put them together


Or make them all hide.

I can make them jump high


Or make them go low.

I can fold them up quietly


And sit down just so.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

284

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Five Little Monkeys


Change the number of fingers for each verse

Five little monkeys


Sitting in the tree
Teasing Mr. Alligator,
Cant catch me!

Along came Mr. Alligator


Hungry as can be.

Snap!

Four little monkeys


Sitting in the tree
Teasing Mr. Alligator,
Cant catch me!
Along came Mr. Alligator
Hungry as can be.
Snap!

Three little monkeys


Sitting in the tree
Teasing Mr. Alligator,
Cant catch me!
Along came Mr. Alligator
Hungry as can be.
Snap!

Two little monkeys


Sitting in the tree
Teasing Mr. Alligator,
Cant catch me!
Along came Mr. Alligator
Hungry as can be.
Snap!

One little monkey


Sitting in the tree
Teasing Mr. Alligator,
Cant catch me!
Along came Mr. Alligator
Hungry as can be.
Snap!
No little monkeys
Sitting in the tree
There goes Mr. Alligator
Full as he can be!

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

285

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Open, Shut Them


Open, shut them.
Open, shut them.
Give a little clap.
Open, shut them.
Open, shut them.
Put them in your lap.
Creep them, creep them.
Creep them, creep them
Right up to your chin.
Open wide your little mouth
But do not let them in.

This Is the Way the Farmer Rides


This is the way the farmer rides, the farmer rides, the farmer rides.
This is the way the farmer rides, so early in the morning.
This is the way the ladies ride, the ladies ride, the ladies ride.
This is the way the ladies ride, so early in the morning.
This is the way the gentlemen ride, the gentlemen ride, the gentlemen ride.
This is the way the gentlemen ride, so early in the morning.
This is the way that (childs name) rides, _________ rides, ____________ rides.
This is the way that ____________ rides, so early in the morning.
Bounce the child at a different pace for each rider.
Bounce wildly the final time, with the child slipping down between your legs during the last line.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

286

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Tell a story instead of reading.


Later, encourage a child to tell you a story.

a story in your head

1. Tell the story.


Tell a true story about the child.
Once upon a time there was a little girl
named Chelsea. She loved to dress up in her
mothers clothes. One day
Tell a story to explain something that happened
during the day.
Once upon a time there was a cat named
Herbie. Herbie lived with Jill and her
dog Sandy. Herbie watched Jill throw
the ball to Sandy. He watched as Sandy
brought the ball back to Jill. Herbie was
a smart cat. When Jill threw a wad of tissue
paper on the floor, Herbie picked the wad
up in his mouth and carried it over to Jill.
What a good kitty!
2. After a while, encourage the child to become the
storyteller.

Keep the stories short. Develop characters that are repeated


in subsequent stories. (Herbie, my daughters cat, showed
up night after night in our stories.)
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

287

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Talk about what comes before and what comes after.

a quiet time

1. Begin by discussing with the child something that


just happened.
You just put on your coat, what did you do
before that?
I read a book.
What did you do after you put on your coat?
I got in the car.
2. Then talk about another familiar routine.
What do you do before you eat breakfast?
I wake up and walk downstairs.
What do you do after you eat breakfast?
I put on my clothes.
3. Continue with familiar events.

At another time, draw pictures to represent three events, cut them out, and put them in order.
2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

288

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Name a general category and think of things that fit that category.
This activity will help the child identify common attributes.

a quiet time

1. Name a category of things.


vehicles
2. Have the child name a thing that fits in that category.
bus
3. Take turns naming more things that fit in that category.
jeep motorcycle
dump truck
4. Let the child choose a new category.

Other categories to try: reading materials,


things to sit on, machines, buildings, shoes,
healthy snacks.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

289

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Encourage problem solving by posing questions and discussing solutions.

good thinking

1. Pose a question.
How can you find out if your
teddy bear will fit in this box?
How can you find out which
weighs more, this book or that book?
2. Have the child suggest solutions.
3. Test the solutions if possible.

Hints:
Begin with problems about real objects.
Encourage multiple solutions.
Move toward problems requiring more complicated thinking.
Your toy tractor has four wheels.
How can you find out how many wheels would
be on four tractors?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

290

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

A bag of Cheerios and a pipe cleaner are easy carry-alongs for


developing dexterity.

self-closing plastic bag or small container with a lid


some Cheerios
large pipe cleaner

1. Give a child a large pipe cleaner with one end


folded over and the bag of Cheerios.
2. Have the child string the Cheerios on the pipe
cleaner.
3. Begin by simply stringing the Cheerios. Later,
designate a number to be strung.
Can you put five Cheerios on the pipe
cleaner?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

291

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Tally the vehicles that go by.

paper on clipboard
crayon

1. Divide your sheet of paper in half.


2. Decide on two vehicles to watch for. Label the two sides of the
tally sheet.
3. Put a mark on the record sheet to count each vehicle as you spy it.
Add another category.
Note: If youre traveling on a busy freeway, designate specific cars or
trucks to tally tow trucks and blue vans. If youre traveling on a country
road, make the categories more general pickups and cars.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

292

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Teach children to recognize a stop sign.

a stop sign

1. Point out a stop sign as you drive or as you walk.


2. Note the color and the shape.
3. Ask,
What does it say?
(The child probably knows that it says STOP;
if not, explain that it does.)
4. Point to the letters and say, S - T - O - P spells Stop.
5. Repeat the words whenever you pass a stop sign.
When you want the child to stop doing something, try
spelling S-T-O-P.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

293

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Colorforms provide entertainment for long road trips.

flexible plastic paper shapes and figures


Make your own color shapes from Rubbermaid
shelf-liner paper or purchase ready-made shapes
(Colorforms) from a toy store.

1. Put the color shapes on the vehicle window:


Make a picture.
Arrange the shapes in groups with similar attributes.
Count how many you have.
Make a line of shapes across the window.
Make a line of shapes from the top to the bottom
of the window.
2. Tell about the color shapes:
Talk about the picture.
Ask about the rules used for making the groups.
Count the shapes together.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

294

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Model good driving for your


passengers.

a traffic light situation

1. Explain what the colors on a traffic light mean by teaching


this verse or your own version of it.
Red light means STOP.
Green light means GO.
Yellow means look before you know
Whether to stop or whether to go.
2. As you approach a traffic light, repeat the appropriate line.
Say, (color) light, and have the child finish the line.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

295

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Keep a travel tray in the car for long and short trips.

a plastic tray with a smooth surface


zippered pouch or zip-lock plastic bag
paper
crayons
Colorforms shapes
pencil

1. Put the objects in the pouch.


2. Put the tray in the car so youre ready whenever
youre on the go.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

296

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Beginning readers love reading the familiar words around them.

signs

1. Point out signs or trademarks that


the child knows. Say,
See the sign on that restaurant.
What does it say?
2. Applaud successful reading.
Yes, thats a Pizza Hut .

In preparation for a trip, or just for fun, you may


want to:
cut out familiar words from
advertisements
glue the print onto a piece of
cardboard or put it in a scrapbook
practice reading the print

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

297

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

As you travel in a car, watch the signs going by to find all the letters of the alphabet.

a variety of billboards or direction signs

1. Start with A.
2. Find the letter on a sign outside the
window of your vehicle.
3. Look for a B.
4. Work your way through the whole alphabet.
Often a sign will have more than one letter
on it.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

298

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a game out of trying to replace or improve familiar objects.

imagination

1. Pose a problem.
What if you got to Grandmas
house and you forgot
your pajamas?
How could you make it easier to
eat spaghetti?
2. Challenge the child to think of several
solutions. Creativity is good. Recognize
good ideas even if they are hard to implement.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

299

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Create an awareness of size by doing simple comparisons.

several objects or people

1. Begin with familiar things that are easy to


compare. Ask the child comparison questions.
Who is taller Grandpa or Josh?
Which is longer the map or the book?
Which is wider the seat belt or the ribbon?
Tell me about the sidewalk and the street.
How would you compare them?
2. Have the child check the answers by actually
comparing the things.
3. Compare items that are familiar, but beyond
your immediate environment.
Which is taller the bus or the tree?
Which is longer the parking space or
the car?
Which is wider the bridge or the river?

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

300

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Designate a thing that you will collect at each place you visit and then begin collecting.

a container to store your collection


sticky notes

1. Decide what item you will be collecting.


Make it simple and inexpensive. (Free
is better!)
postcards, napkins, rocks
2. Have the child find the item to
be collected.
3. Use a sticky note to label the item
with the date and place it was collected.
Make more permanent labels when you
get home.

I have a china bowl on my buffet filled with tiny


rocks gathered from beaches throughout the
world. The collection began when my son and I
decided to choose one stone from each stop we
made on a trip to the mountains.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

301

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Children enjoy tracing a route on a map and soon learn to interpret map symbols.

several maps
a map of your house
a map of your neighborhood
a map of the area you are traveling in

1. Begin by having the child help draw


a map of your house or a single room.
2. Look at the map and talk about where
familiar things are located.
I think that the front door is here.
Whats over here?
Where would the bed be?
3. Point to a spot on the map and have the child
go to that spot.
4. Next, draw a simple map of your neighborhood.
Draw a line on the map to show a walk that you
will take and then take it.
5. Then, draw the route of your next trip on a map
and enjoy referencing the map as you travel.

The childs questions Are we there yet?


and How much farther? become learning
experiences when you have taken the time to
develop these basic map skills.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

302

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

Make a bingo card using travel brochures and ticket folders. As you move through an
airline terminal or national park, a child can collect the print to score a bingo.

a lightweight piece of cardboard


advertisements, brochures, and pamphlets
scissors
glue
clear contact paper

1. Before you go on the trip, work with the child


to make a bingo card using the print that you might
see as you travel.
Draw a grid on a lightweight piece of cardboard.
Mark the middle space FREE.
Cut words and pictures from advertisements,
brochures, and pamphlets.
Paste the cutouts on the grid to make the bingo card.
Cover the card with clear contact paper.
2. As you travel, look for the print. Use an erasable pen to circle
the words that you find.
3. Yell Bingo when you find 5 in a row.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

303

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

This is a beginning category game that may cause giggles.

several general categoriesanimals that swim,


flying animals, things with wheels

1. Choose a category.
animals that swim
2. Take turns naming things that fit in that category.
Goldfish swim.
Whales swim.
Ducks swim.
3. When you or the child cant think of a thing that fits in the
category, try a silly response.
Refrigerators swim.
4. Start a new category with the next response.

2002 by Evan-Moor Corp.

304

Teaching Young Children EMC 4506

About Evan-Moor Educational Publishers


Who We Are
At Evan-Moor, we are proud that our
products are written, edited, and tested by
professional educators.
Evan-Moors materials are directed to
teachers and parents of Prekindergarten
through sixth-grade students.
We address all major curriculum areas
including:
reading
social studies thematic units
writing
geography
arts & crafts
math
science
How We Began
In 1979, Joy Evans and Jo Ellen Moore were
team-teaching first grade in a Title I school.
They decided to put ideas that worked for
their students into a book. They joined with
Bill Evans (Joys brother) to start Evan-Moor
Educational Publishers with one book.
Bill and Joys parents garage served as the
warehouse and shipping facility.
The first catalog was a folded 8 12" x 11"
sheet of paper!

Who We Became
Evan-Moor now offers over 450 titles.
Our materials can be found in over 1,500
educational and trade book stores around
the world.
We mail almost 2 million catalogs a year to
schools and individual teachers.
Our Web site www.evan-moor.com offers
24-hour service and the ability to download
many of our titles.
Evan-Moor is located in a 20,000-squarefoot facility in Monterey, California, with a
staff of nearly 60 professionals.
Our Mission
Now, as then, we are dedicated to helping
children learn. We think it is the worlds most
important job, and we strive to assist teachers
and parents in this essential endeavor.

TM

Helping Children Learn

for
ons
Less
y
D
y a
Ever
eek
he W
t
f
o

Early Learning
Resources
Phonemic Awareness
Daily Language Practice

34 week-long units, each focusing on a chant, poem, or


language game. You get a minilesson for every day of the
week, illustrated rhymes, reproducibles, and patterns.
112 pp. EMC 740

Language Games and Centers

Make practicing letters, colors, shapes, and language skills


exciting! Complete directions and patterns for making and
using 17 games.
112 pp. EMC 736

Following Directions

Teacher directions, patterns, and reproducibles to help young


learners follow oral directions, picture directions, and simple
written directions.
112 pp. EMC 738

Circle Time Activities

Teacher directions and patterns for dozens of activities that


teach concepts and skills during circle timecalendar, math,
oral language, phonics, thinking, music, and movement.
112 pp. EMC 739

Learning with Nursery Rhymes

Teach language arts and math concepts using 12 popular


rhymes. Includes illustrated rhymes, headbands, puppets,
picture and word cards, reproducibles, and manipulatives.
112 pp. EMC 741

Real Math for Young Learners

Using activities that build on their own experiences, students


practice counting, geometry, graphing, patterning,
measurement, and beginning computation.
112 pp. EMC 744

Math Games and Centers

Complete directions and patterns for using and making 23


games and 21 centers. Practice counting, patterning, sorting,
numeral recognition, shapes, and graphing.
112 pp. EMC 735

ISBN 9781596738485

EMC 4506i