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World Military

Expenditures and

Arms Transfers

1972-1982

April 1984

UNITED STATES ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY

Data

Coverage is made more current in this edition by inclusion of data for two addi
tional years (1981 and 1982), instead of the usual one. Tables I and II include data
for eleven years, rather than for ten years as in the past, thereby facilitating com
parisons over a full decade. The statistical data are based on information on hand
as of March 1, 1984. Although the data are the best available, it should be noted
that they are of varying reliability. Much of the data, or estimates used in the absence
of reliable data, are subject to considerable margins of error, particularly for coun
tries that have restrictive data disclosure policies or developing national statistical
systems.
Acknowledgements
This edition was prepared by the staff of the Defense Program and Analysis
Division.

Comments and questions regarding this publication are welcome. They may be
directed to:
Defense Program and Analysis Division

U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

Washington, D.C. 20451

ATTN: Daniel Gallik

Telephone (202) 632-0816

ACDA Publication 117

Released April 1984

World Military

Expenditures and

Arms Transfers

1972-1982

U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

April 1984

FOREWORD

Accurate and complete information is vital for sound decision-making on


national security issues and for better public understanding. This report, the
fifteenth of a series by the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, provides a
ready reference on military expenditure and arms transfer data covering 145
countries.
The data in the report allow comparisons between countries and regions. By
including additional economic data on GNP, central government expenditures, and
international trade for a decade, the reader is able to examine military expenditures
and arms transfers against their broader economic background. The data in the
report are as up to date and reliable as possible, but should be used with an
appreciation of the caveats spelled out in the Statistical Notes.
Unfortunately, many governments still make little information available, even or
especially to their own citizens, about military expenditures and arms transfers. In
such cases we must depend upon estimates provided by other US Government
agencies and other sources.
We will continue our efforts to make this publication as complete and timely as
possible. Success in that effort can be attained only if a number of governments
become more forthcoming. The United States has supported UN efforts to devise a
standardized format for national military expenditures and to develop the neces
sary techniques for comparison and verification. As President Reagan stated in his
address to the second UN Special Session on Disarmament in June 1982:
The Democracies of the West are open societies. Information on our defenses
is available to our citizens, our elected officials and the world. We do not
hesitate to inform potential adversaries of our military forces, and ask in
return for the same information concerning theirs.
The data problem is most glaring in the East-West context, but it extends to non
aligned countries as well.
I urge users of this report throughout the world, including those contributing
directly to national security policy-making in their own countries, to support steps
to make national policies on military spending and arms trade more transparent.
Only in this way will we develop a better understanding ofpotential adversaries and
together move toward a more secure and stable world in which arms control can
play its rightfuL role in mitigating both arms competition and the tensions and
distrust which foster that competition.

III

This report confirms that the growth in military spending by the developing
countries slowed dramatically after the mid-1970s and has remained low since.
That is a welcome confirmation. It would be even more welcome and perhaps a
harbinger of long-term trend, if this slowdown resulted primarily from an easing of
tensions and less aggression around the world. Realistically, however, it is dIfficult
to be sanguine about such a favorable projection on two counts.
First, the slowdown was heavily influenced by economic, not political or military,
developments. It reflects in large part that in the early 1970s we witnessed a surge in
military spending led by OPEC countries after the dramatic rise in oil prices and
then a fall in oil demand and price which contributed to the worldwide recession.
Second, much of the underlying causes of military spending-particularly aggres
sive political-military tendencies and insecurities in the world- have not abated.
The Soviet Union continues to increase its global arms exports and remains the
world's largest military supplier, as it has been since 1978. This is so despite more
countries becoming arms exporters. The Soviet Union supplied 37 percent of all
arms deliveries made to developing countries in 1982. Against the background of
continued Soviet use of its own or surrogate forces to invade or destabilize
developing countries and a Soviet economy heavily geared to military production,
this is an ominous indicator for the future.
Paradoxically, both despite and because of the heavy economic burden imposed
by the Soviet military sector discussed in the essay by Professor Cohn, Soviet arms
sales and military specialization have become important complements to Soviet
foreign policy. Moreover, in the rest of the Warsaw Pact, as reflected in the essay
by Dr. Snitch, arms sales have become an increasingly important means of
managing the East European debt problem - itself in large measure a legacy of the
inefficient Soviet economic model imposed on the region. The data and analyses in
this report thus contribute to an appreciation of the costs and dimensions of the
problems that the Free World must continue to face in meeting the challenge of
aggression.

Director

IV

CONTENTS

iii

Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Military Expenditure, Arms Transfer and Other Statistics, 1972.1982. .

Highlights . . . . . .

..........

. ..... .

Table I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .. 11
Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government
Expendi tures, and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization,
and Country.
Table II. . .. . .......... ..........
. .............. 53
Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982,
By Region, Organization, and Country
Table III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........
..............
Value of Arms Transfers, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Major Supplier
and Recipient Country

95

Table IV . . . . . . . . . . .
.............
Number of Arms Delivered, Culmulative 1978-1982, By Selected
Supplier, Recipient Developing Region, and Major Weapon Type

99

... 103

Statistical Notes ........ .

. ... 109

Essays ............... .
Declining Soviet Capital Productivity and The Soviet Military
Industrial Complex
by Stanley H. Cohn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ...... .

... 111

East European Involvement in the Wodd's Arms Market


by Thomas H. Snitch . . . . . . . . . . .
. ........ . .......... 117

MILITARY EXPENDITURE, ARMS TRANSFER

AND OTHER STATISTICS, 1972-1982

HIGHLIGHTS

World military expenditures are projected to


pass the trillion-dollar mark in 1985. Spending in
1984 is estimated to be about $970 billion in cur
rent dollars.

Countries with the highest per capita spending


on defense in 1982 ranked in descending order
were Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, United Arab
Emirates, Israel, Kuwait, and Libya.

The annual real growth rate of military expend i


tures for 1972-1982 averaged 5.0% for develop
ing countries and 2.4% for developed countries.

Arms transfers, in terms of constant 1981 dollars,


reached a new high of $34.4 billion in 1982, over
70 percent higher than the 1972 figure.

Growth in real military spending by developing


countries slackened from a dramatic 12% in
1972-1975, to 2% in 1975-1980, 5% in 1980-1982,
and an estimated 2% in 1982-1984.

The total number of arms exporters increased


from 32 countries in 1972 to 44 in 1982, the
number with deliveries exceeding $100 million
annually growing from lOin 1972 to 29 in 1982.

Growth in real military spending by developed The Soviet Union continues as the world's top
arms supplier, as it has been since 1978, provid
countries increased from an annual rate of
ing 37% of the transfers to developing countries
under 2% in the 1970s, to over 4% in 1980-82,
and an estimated rate of over 4.5% in 1982-1984.
in 1978-1982.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact accounted for The Middle East is the main recipient of arms,
74.4% of total world military expenditures in
receiving 42% of all arms transfers and 51% of
transfers to developing countries in 1982.
1982, the Soviet Union's share of Warsaw Pact
military expenditures being 85.7% and the United
States' share of NATO military expenditures
being 63.7%.

Military Expenditures

World military expenditures grew substantially


in the last decade from under $300 billion in 1972
to about $820 billion in 1982 in current dollars. It
is estimated from partial data and recent trends
that world military spending will reach about $970
billion this year and can be projected to exceed

one trillion dollars in 1985. These data in current


dollars reflect the effects of inflation as well as
real growth. It is estimated that inflation has
accounted for more than twice as much as real
growth in the expansion of world military spend
ing from 1972 to the present; dollar inflation
averaged 7.6% annually while growth in real
military spending averaged 3.1 % annually.

Data expressed in constant dollars reflect mili


tary spending in real terms, eliminating to the
extent possible the effect of changes in prices.
Patterns of growth in both current and constant
dollars can be compared in Figure 1 for the world
as a whole and for the developed and developing
countries. (Note that this is a "semi-log" chart, on
which dollar amounts are shown on a logarith
mic or ratio scale. Such a chart is designed to
show trends; an equal distance anywhere along
the vertical axis shows an equal relative change
and the same slope in lines anywhere on the chart
represents the same growth rate.) Figure 1 illus
trates the much more modest rate of growth when
expenditures are expressed in constant dollars
instead of current dollars. This is evidenced by
the very moderate increase in real military ex-

Military Expenditures by Region, 1972-1982


In BilliOna.of Constant 1981 Dollars
Ratio Scale

400r-----------7-----------7-----,
300
200

Warsaw Pact,

.............

...

NATO
North America

..... ~- ..... ~---- ....

__ ,

l00L~~~~
L- NATO;Europe ____--~--j

....... .............
~

<

'

~.

East Asia

50

World Military Expenditures 1972-1984


Ratio Scale"

30

In Billions of Current Dollars

20

1000r---~----------------------~

..... ........ .....


Africa
~

_ _ ..i,..'

. Latin America

500

300
5r-o_ _"

1972

1974

1976

1978

1980

1982

Figure 2
In Billions of Constant 1981 Dollars
1000r-------------~--------__--~

World

.......

penditures by developed countries in 1972-79,


followed by an upturn; also noteworthy is the
sharp increase, even in constant dollars, in devel
oping country expenditures in 1972-76, with a
subsequent leveling off through 1980.
The changes in regional military spendin~ un
derlying these overall trends can be seen in Figure
2, which shows trends in constant dollars. The
moderate early growth in developed country
spending is largely due to the drop in real NATO
spending until 1976, while the subsequent in
crease resulted from a continuation of steady
Warsaw Pact growth together with a reversal of
the drop in growth by NATO. The upsurge in
developing country spending can be seen to result

500~~--'-~------!
Develoqed

300
200

100
1972

1974

1976

On a ratio (or semi-log) scale, an equal slope anywhere on


the chart means an equal growth rate.

Figure 1

mainly from the dramatic growth in Middle East


spending from 1972 to 1976, followed by a level
ling off in 1976-80 and another surge in 1980-82,
largely due to the Iran-Iraq war. The Latin Ameri
can rise in 1981-82 is attributable in large part to
Argentine military spending related to the Falk
lands War. African spending grew rapidly in
1972-79 from a lower base, in large part as a
reflection of Libyan, Soviet and Cuban activity in
the region.
The shares of world military expenditures for
1972 and 1982 and the average real growth rates
for the period for major country groupings are
presented in Table A.
The 28 developed countries remained respon
sible for over three-fourths of total world military
expenditures in 1982, but the number of person
nel in the armed forces of developing nations
(17.1 million) exceeded that of developed nations
(l0.4 million) by almost 7 million. The contrast
between expenditures and military personnel for
the two groups reflects the fact that in 1982 the
developed countries spent almost 557,000 per
member of the armed forces. over five times the
average of 510,500 that the developing countries
spent for each member of their armed forces.
Fig.ure 3 illustates the 1982 shares of world mili
tary expenditures attributed to the various regions,
the two major military alliances, and the leading
countries.

Table A
Military Expenditures: World Shares and Growth
Rates, 1972-1982, By Groupings of Countries

(In percent)
Share
1972 1982

World
Developed Countries
Developing Countries
Region:
Africa
East Asia
Europe
Latin America
Middle East
North America
Oceania
South Asia
Organization:
NATO
Warsaw Pact
OPEC
OECD

Growth
Rate,
1972-1982

--

-100.0
76.7
23.3

2.9
2.4
5.0

1.3
11.3
54.2
1.5
2.7
27.5
0.7
0.9

2.0
10.2
51.5
2.0
7.8
24.8
0.6
1.1

8.0
2.5
2.5
5.0
11.4
1.9
2.5
4.6

41.5
37.8
2.4
45.3

37.7
36.7
7.5
41.3

2.0
2.6
13.3
2.1

100.0
81.6
18.4

*Average real growth is caleulated as a compound rate and


fitted to all years. (See Statistical Notes.)

Shares Of World Military Expenditures, 1982

weST
GeRMANY 3%

SOUTH ASIA AND


OCEANIA 1.7%
LATIN AMERICA 2.0%
OTHER EAST ASIA 4.1%

Figure 3

in part the costs of the war with Iran. Saudi


Arabia in 1982 had the world's highest military
expenditure per capita.
The number of personnel in the armed forces
compared to a country's population is an indica
tor of burden from the standpoint of allocation of
labor resources. Israel in 1982 had the highest
proportion of military personnel-46.2 per 1000
people in its population; next came North Korea
with 38.0, United Arab Emirates with 36.7, Iraq
with 32.1, and Syria with 30.9.

The economic burden of military expenditures


is best indicated by the quantity and quality of
resources which have been diverted from poten
tial civilian uses to the military sector. Because
"opportunity costs" are difficult to gauge, the
ratio of military expenditures (ME) to GNP is a
commonly used indicator of burden. These ratios
are provided in Table 1 and illustrated in Figure 4;
the latter shows this burden in comparison to
GNP per capita. Iraq leads all countries in the
ratio of ME/GNP with an estimated 46 percent of
its GNP directed to the military in 1982, reflecting

Relative Burden of Military Expenditures, 1982

GNP PER CAPITA (1981 dollars)


ME/GNP'

Less than $200

'I.

10%
andover

Laost
Vietnam t
Kampuchea

$200-499

$500-999

Lebanon
Yemen (Aden) t

North Korea
Yemen (Sanaa)

Iraq
Jordan
Syria
Iran t
Mongolia t

$1.000-2,999

$3,000-9,999
Oman
Israel
Soviet Union
Libya t
Bulgaria
Bahrain t
Poland
Greece
Singapore
East Germany
Argentina t
, Czechoslovakia
I United Kingdom

$10,000
andover
Saudi Arabia
Qatar t

5-9.99%

Ethiopia
Guinea-Bissau
Chadt
Afghanistan t

Somalia
Mauritania
Pakistan
Tanzania
Guinea t
Liberia

Morocco
Zambia t
Albania t
Honduras t
Egypt
Nicaragua t
China
Zimbabwe
Swaziland

Taiwan
South Korea
Malaysia
Turkey
Cuba

2-4.99%

Burma
Upper Volta
Mali

Burundi
Kenya
Madagascar t
India
Mozambique
Equatorial
Guinea t
Malawi t
Benin t
Cape Verde
Central African
Republic
Senegal
Togo

Guyana
EI Salvador
Thailand
Indonesia
Angola t
Sudan
Botswana
Philippines
Nigeria

Chile
Congo
Peru
Yugoslavia t
Algeria t
Portugal
South Africa
Tunisia
Ecuadort

Romania
Hungary
Uruguay
Cyprus
Belgium
Netherlands
Gabon
Italy
Venezuela
New Zealand
Spain
Ireland

France
West Germany
Sweden
Norway
Denmark
Australia
Canada
Switzerland

1-1.99%

Bangladesh
Zaire t

Sao Tome &


Principe t
Haiti
Rwanda t
Sierra Leone

Lesotho t
Ivory Coast
Papua New
Guinea
Cameroon

Suriname t
Guatemala
Paraguay
Jamaica
Bolivia
Dominican
Republic
Fiji

Austria
Malta
Japan

Finland
Luxembourg

Barbados
Colombia
Panama
Brazil t
Ghana t
Mauritius

Trinidad &
TObago t
Mexico

Iceland

United Arab
Emirates
United States
Kuwait

Less
than 1%

Nepal

Niger
Sri Lanka
The Gambia

Uganda
Costa Rica

Source:Table I

"Countries are listed within blocks in descending order of ME/GNP.

fRanking is based on a rough aPProximation of one or more variables for which 1982 data or reliable estimates are not available.

Figure 4
4

Table B
Countries with Highest Ratios of Military Expendi
tures to Central Government Expenditures, 1972
and 1982

(Percent)
Country

1982

38.1
45.2
42.2
69.7
78.5
24.5
37.2
40.9
30.5
39.8

47.5
47.3
45.6
44.4
42.5
35.9
35.2
31.3
30.9
28.7

--

Oman
Yemen (Aden)*
Iraq*
Soviet Union*
Jordan*
United Arab Emirates
Syria
Pakistan
Yemen (Sanaa)
Israel

Another gauge of the military burden on a


country is the ratio of military expenditures to
central goverment expenditures (CGE). That ratio
normally provides an indication of the degree to
which a government directs its controllable re
sources to military use. The ten countries with the
highest ratios between military expenditures and
central government expenditures in 1982 are listed
in Table B. Middle East and Persian Gulf coun
tries dominate the list.
The ten leading countries in terms of military
expenditures and their military personnel levels in
1982 are displayed in Figure 5. China ranks first in
military personnel but third in military spending.
Military expenditures, it should be noted, are
more a measure of economic input than of mili
tary output. They do not account adequately for
the impact on military capabilities of differences
in technological levels, efficiency of resource

1972

*Note the qualifications on data in Table I and the Statistical


Notes.

utilization, readiness, morale, geographic situa


tion and other factors. When expressed in a
common currency unit, however, such expendi
tures do provide a way of comparing countries'
efforts in support of their military forces. They also
allow comparison with other national economic
indicators to achieve a perspective on relative
burden, as reflected above.

Leading Countries In Military Expenditures and Supported Armed Forces, 1982

$OVIET
UNION
UNITED
STATES
CHINA
UNITED

KINGDOM

FRANCE

SAUOI

ARABIA

WeST

GERMANY

POLAND

JAPAN

IRAQ

280

240

200

160

120.

80

40

MllITAAYE)tl"SNOIT()RE$, 1982

ARMED FORCES, 1982


(millions of persons)

(bllli()nll! Of culTtint QolI~)

Figure 5
5

World Arms Imports


Billions constant 1981dol.lars
35 --~-.-----------------------------

30-------------------------
25---------------~--

20
15

10
5

1976

DEVELOPING

WORLD

Figure 6

Arms Transfers
Shares of World Arms Imports, 1982

In 1982 the value of the world's total arms


transfers was $36.5 billion in current dollars,
around 2 percent of total world trade. Developing
countries imported more arms than developed
countries; the total value of the arms trade and
the amounts delivered to developing and devel
oped countries for the period 1972-1982 are de
picted in Figure 6 (in constant 1981 dollars). The
value of arms imported by developing cO.untries in
1982 was nearly 16 percent of their military ex
penditures, while that for developed countries
was only one percent.
The Middle East has led all other regions each
year since 1977 in the value of arms imports and
throughout the 1972-1982 period in the ratio of
arms import to total imports. Middle East coun
tries were the recipients of 42 percent of the total
world arms transfers, and 51 percent of the trans
fers to developing countries in 1982. Figure 7
displays 1982 regional shares of the world arms
trade.

LATIN AMERICA
7,6%

Figure 7

NORTH
AMERICA
1,9%

Table C contrasts 1972 shares with 1982


shares of world arms imports by groupings of
countries as well as depicting average annual
rates of real growth of the various groupings. The
Middle East and Latin America had the most
significant regional average annual real growth
rates for arms imports during 1972-1982 period,
the Middle East with a 11.5 percent rate and Latin
America with 13.9 percent. OPEC had the most
spectacular arms import record, jumping in con
stant 1981 dollars from a $2.0 billion level in 1972
to a $12.3 billion level in 1982 for an average
annual real growth rate of 18.5 percent.

Leading Arms Importing Countries, 1982

4,3

Table C
Arms Imports: World Shares and Growth Rates,
1972-1982, By Groupings of Countries
(In percent)

*
2

Supplied Primarily by
Warsaw Pact Countries
I
I

.3

,/ilIHl!>A Ccinstent 1981 dGllars

Share
1972 1982

World
Developed Countries
Developing Countries
Region:
Africa
East Asia
Europe
Latin America
Middle East
North America
Oceania
South Asia
Organization:
NATO
Warsaw Pact
OPEC
OECD

-
100.0
28.5
71.5

-
100.0

Growth
Rate,'"
1972-1982

18.1
81.9

6.1
1.1
7.7

3.6

14.9
9.8
18.3
7.6
41.9
1.9
0.5
5.0

8.9
-5.4
0.8
13.9
11.5
3.7
6.3
9.0

15.7
12.3
10.1
19.2

11.4
6.1
35.6
IS.7

3.1
-3.2
18.5
5.2

4.7
37.7
28.2
3.8
19.2
1.8

i.1

Figure 8

The leading arms imhorting countries are dis


played in Figure 8. T e Soviet Union was the
major exporter to six of the ten leading arms
importers. Iraq, the leading importer in 1982,
imported $4.3 billion in arms. The only country
from the Western Hemisphere to be listed
with the
ten arms-importing nations in 1982
was Cuba. 0 other Central American nation in
1982 is listed among the top fifty importing
nations; only Chile and Peru in South America
were listed among the top fifty, 31st and 32nd
respectively.

tON

Average real growth is calculated as a compound rate and


fitted to all years. (See Statistical Notes.)

In 1982, NATO was responsible for 47.9 per


cent and the Warsaw Pact for 38.3 percent of
world arms exports. The United States, however,
shipped a lower value of arms than the Soviet
Union, 26.2 percent of the world total compared
to 30.1 percent (see Figure 9). A time series chart
on arms exports as a percent of world arms trade
of the NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances and of
the United States and the Soviet Union is pre
sented in Figure 10.
The countries which came into prominence as
arms exporters during the early 1980s were Brazil,
Israel, North Korea, South Korea, and Turkey.
The value of arms exports generated by those
countries. however, is still far below that of arms
exported by the world's leading arms exporters
for 1978-1982. the Soviet Union, the United States,
France, the United Kingdom, West Germany,
Italy, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and
China.
Table III provides data on the exporting and
importing of arms over the five-year period,
1978-1982. During that period countries in the
Middle East were the leading importers of both
United States and Soviet arms.

Shares of World Arms Exports, 1982

q,"io

----=:i

"'''. '
,,0

~'?'

UNITED
STATES
26,2%

ALL OTHER
SUPPLIERS 13,8%

OTHER NATO 5.4%

Figure 9

Arms Exports as a Percent of the World Arms Export Trade, 1972-1982


PERCENT
60 ----------------------------------------~-----------------------

., ......... '

' " NATO

-~-~.~.~-~-

-..

..............

"..-,...... ... ."

50---------------------------------------..~~~4------WARSAW

40 - - - - . , f - .___

..

........ _........

..............

0'

".;!

..
" ........

.. ,

.,

/
/"

- _ //

,... I
30

'"..t'

. .

"

".
~-'

'""

................ .

"

--~-----------------------------~~-----------------~~
__
~~~-

SOVIET UNION

20

10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1972

1973

1974

I.___--'-I--:-___LI____--'-,_

1975

1976

1977

Figure 10

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

Value of Economic Aid and Arms Exports to Developing States 1978-1982

31.5

45.

40 ..35

30 ... 2$

20

15

10

Figure 11

Table IV provides information on the nature of


the military hardware exported to developing
regions during the five-year period, 1978-1982.
The Soviet Union led the United States decisively
in the transfer of all categories of land armaments
and missiles. The United States was the leader by
slim margins in naval combatants and aircraft
(other than supersonic).

The exports of arms and contributions to eco


nomic development assistance are compared for
the top five arms exporters in Figure 11. Whereas
economic development assistance exceeds arms
exports in each of the four Western countries, the
Soviet Union's arms deliveries exceed its eco
nomic aid nearly fivefold.

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME;

ARMEO
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
IGNP)

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENOITURES
leGE)

811hon doHars

Btlhon dollars

PEOPLE

ME

ME

GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

Cot1slanl
1981
dollars

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Sllllon dollars

YEAR

Current

Constant
1981

Thousand

CufTenl

Constant

ConSlani
1981

1981

MliltOf'I

CO'lstanl
1981
dollars

TOTALS!
WO~LD

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

290.9
313.8
358.7
405.9
438.6
472.4
517.5
572.7
647.3
733.6
817.5

565.9
577 .9
607.3
630.2
644.4
655.5
668.5
682.2
707.6
733.6
771. 1

25341
25580
26884
25996
25944
25741
26158
26383
26294
26818
27510

4828
5453
6131
6784
7506
8284
9243
10400
11605
12844
13632

9391
10041
10381
10534
11027
11494
11942
12388
12688
12844
12858

2282.6
2427.7
2631.8
2932.3
3094.1
3235.7
3377.0
3536.6
3787.0
3957.8
4071.0

3839.3
3915. 1
3992.1
4081.8
4157.8
4230.1
4302.6
4376.2
4463. 1
4541 .2
4622.3

6.0
5.8
5.8
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.6
5.7
6.0

24.8
23.8
23. 1
21 .5
20.8
20.3
19.8
19.3
18.7
18.5
18.9

147
147
152
154
155
155
155
155
158
161
166

6.6
6.5
6.7
6.4
6.2
6. 1
6.1
6.0
5.9
5.9
6.0

2446
2564
2600
2580
2652
2717
2775
2830
2842
2828
2781

461.7
465.6
480.2
484.3
489.9
502.0
509.8
522.2
544.2
562.4
591.1

10636
10505
10579
10481
10312
10107
10126
10129
10200
10244
10409

3868
4347
4803
5257
5787
6353
7079
7908
8740
9690
10260

7524
8004
8133
8163
8501
8815
9145
9419
9556
9690
9677

1827.8
1922.3
2060.8
2269.5
2379. 1
2462.8
2584.3
2698.4
2878.8
2993.0
3094.0

1015.5
1023.9
1032.7
1041. 5
1048.2
1055.S
1063.3
1070.5
1079.3
1090.2
1097.9

6.1
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.7
5.8
6. 1

25.3
24.2
23.3
21.3
20.6
20.4
19.7
19.4
18.9
18.8
19.1

454
454
465
465
467
4,75
479
487
504
515
538

10.5
10.3
10.2
10. 1
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.5

7409
7818
7876
7838
8110
8349
8601
8799
8854
8888
8814

104.2
112.3
127.2
145.9
154.5
153.4
158.7
160.0
163.4
171.2
180.0

14705
15074
16305
15515
15631
15633
16032
16253
16094
16573
17100

960
1105
1327
1527
1.719
1930
2164
2492
2864
3154
3372

1867
2036
2247
2370
2525
2678
2796
2968
3132
3154
3180

454.8
505.3
571.0
662.8
715.0
772.9
792.7
838.2
908.2
964.8
977.0

2823.8
2891.2
2959.4
3040.3
3109.6
3174.3
3239.3
3305.7
3383.8
3451.0
3524.4

5.6
5.5
5.7
6.2
6.1
5.7
5.7
5.4
5.2
5.4
5.7

22.9
22.2
22.3
22.0
21.6
19.8
20.0
19. 1
18.0
17.7
18.4

36
38
43
48
49
48
49
48
48
49
51

5.2
5.2
5.5
5. 1
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.9

661
704
759
779
812
843
863
898
925
913
902

324.6
333.8
343.9
369.6
380.0
391.0
402.9
414.7
422.4
440.5
453.6

2.8
2.7
2.8
3.6
3.8
4.0
4. 1
4. 1

12.2
11.6
11 .5
12.0
12.6
13.6
14.3
14.3
13. 1
13.7
13.2

22
22
24
31
34
35
36
36
33
34
33

2.9
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.9
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.0
2.9

819
839
902
865
893
903
885
897
925
876
840

DEVELOPED
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

237.4
252.9
283.6
311. 9
333.5
361.8
394.6
438.4
497.8
562.4
626.7

DEVELOPING
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

53.5
61.0
75. 1
94.0
105.2
110.6
122.8
134.3
149.5
171.2
190.8

BYREGION 8

AFRICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

3.8
4.1
5. 1
7.4
8.9
10. 1
11.2
12.7
12.9
15.0
16. 1

7.4
7.6
8.6
11.5
13.0
14.0
14.5
15. 1
14. 1
15.0
15.2

946
933
962
1003
1092
1319
1313
1268
1295
1309
1305

136
152
183
205
231
254
276
312
357
386
403

266
280
310
319
339
353
356
372
391
386
381

60.5
65.4
74.9
95.6
102.9
103.1
101.7
105.3
107.'1
109.2
115.5

11

3.b

3.9
4.0

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITU'AES
(ME)

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

BlIIK)('l doHars

Btlilon dollars

PEOPLE

ME

ME

GN'P

"'CoE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

EWlI;on dollar$

YEAR

CuJ'fent

Constant
1981

Thousand

Current

Constant
1981

Constant

1981

Constant
Million

o~

Constanl

1981

1981

dollars

dollars

EAST ASIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

64.1
63.8
65.3
68.3
69.0
70.7
74.1
79.2
76.5
78.2
78,6

7863
8031
8988
7847
7841
7850
8269
8350
8473
8610
8859

665
773
851
968
1072
1211
1395
1609
1843
2086
2291

1293
1423
1441
1503
1575
1680
1803
1916
2015
2086
2161

268.5
286.1
304.2
326.3
354.8
384.6
420.5
450.5
480.8
500.0
524.6

1359.7
1391 .2
1420.6
1447.0
1473.4
1497.4
1520.9
1545.3
1569.3
1594.0
1620.7

5.0
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.1
4. 1
3.8
3.7
3.6

23.9
22.3
21.5
20.9
19.4
18.4
17.6
17.6
15.9
15.6
15,0

47
45
45
47
46
47
48
51
48
49
48

5.8
5.8
6.3
5.4
5.3
5.2
5A
5.4
5.4
5,4
5.5

951
1023
1015
1039
1069
1122
1185
1240
1284
1308
1333

,306.3
316.7
331.5
340.2
352.3
355.7
361.6
368.8
379.0
384.3
397.5

9471
9390
9557
9425
9310
9211
9156
9217
9190
9272
9475

2210
2482
2790
3064
3354
3651
4042
4489
4966
5448
5807

4300
4570
4724
4757
4927
5066
5222
5346
5429
5448
5477

1246.7
1307.6
1429.5
1563.2
1631. 3
1691.1
1755.6
1849.6
1956.8
2031.1
2101.9

750.4
756.7
762.7
768.5
774.0
779.2
784.7
789.6
795.8
800.2
805.1

7. 1
6.9
7.0
7.2
7. 1
7.0
6.9
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.3

24.6
24.2
23.2
21.8
21,6
21.0
20.6
19.9
19,4
18.9
18.9

408
418
434
442
455
456
460
467
476
480
493

12.6
12.4
12.5
12.3
12.0
11 .8
11 .7
11.7
11 .5
11 .6
11 .8

5730
6039
6193
6190
6366
6502
6655
6771
6822
6808
6803

79.5
81.0
84.1
84.9
87.0
88.5
90.6
92.5
95.9
97.3
99.9

3291
3241
3236
3046
2850
2797
2772
2716
2690
2761
2832

1076
1205
1331
1434
1594
1728
1919
2153
2373
2585
2739

2093
2219
2254
2227
2342
2398
2479
2564
2594
2585
2584

690.4
714.5
785.9
859.2
886.1
903.4
940.7
976.7
1028.2
1058.9
1059.2

311. 4
314.2
316.4
318.4
320.3
321.7
323.4
325.0
327.6
328.6
330.2

3.8
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

11 .5
11 .3
10.7
9.9
9.8
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.3
9.2
9.4

255
257
265
266
271
275
280
284
292
296
302

10.6
10.3
10.2
9.6
8.9
8.7
8.6
8.4
8.2
8.4
8.6

6721
7062
7126
6995
7312
7455
7666
7890
7919
7867
7825

213.9
223.0
233.9
241.3
251. 3
254.5
258.2
262.8
269.1
273.0
283.0

5294
5262
5416
5478
5580
5599
5562
5655
5660
5669
5799

889
1004
1146
1292
1396
1527
1689
1850
2052
2268
2435

1730
1849
1941
2006
2051
2119
2182
2204
2243
2268
2297

440.6
470.6
509.6
561.9
595.1
622.9
651.5
700.1
748.4
780.9
844.5

351.7
354.4
357.5
360.6
363.6
366.5
369.5
372.1
374.9
377.6
380.4

12.4
12. 1
12.C
12.v
12.3
12.0
11 .8
11 .9
12.0
12.0
12.3

48.5
47.4
45.9
42.9
42.2
40.9
39.6
37.5
36.0
35.0
33.5

608
629
654
669
691
694
698
706
717
723
744

15. 1
14.8
15. 1
15.2
15.3
15.3
15. 1
15.2
15. 1
15.0
15.2

4919
5217
5430
5563
5640
5782
5905
5923
5984
6007
6040

33.0
34.6
38.5
44.0
47.0
50.9
57.3
66.5
70.0
78.2
83.3

EUROPE, ALL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

157.4
172 .0
195.8
219.1
239,8
256.4
279.9
309.6
346.6
384.3
421.4

-NATO EUROPE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
19B1

1982

40.8
44.0
49.6
54.7
59.2
63.8
70.2
77.7
87.7
97.3
105.9

WARSAW PACT
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

110.0
121 . 1
138.1
155.4
171 . 1
183.4
199.9
220.6
246.1
273.0
300.0

12

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
IGNP)

CENTRAL
GOVEANMENT
EXPENDITURES

8i11iOn dOllars

811t/on dollars

PEOPLE

ME

ME

ME

GNP

CGE

PEA
CAPITA

ICGE)

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

BIllion doltars
YEAR

ClK1'6Il'

Constant
1981

-OTHER EUROPE
1912
6.6
12.9
6,9
12.8
1913
13,5
1974
8.0
1915
9.0
14.0
14,0
1916
9.5
9.2
12.7
1971
1978
9.9
12.8
1979
11 .3
13.4
12,8
14.0
1980
1981
14.0
14.0
15.5
1982
14.6

Thousand

CUl'T8nt

Constant
1981

Constant

1981

MllltOn

Cot)slan!
1981
dollars

COQSlan\

1981
dollars

886
881
905
901
880
815
821
846
840
842
844

245
272
311
337
364
395
433
485
541
594
632

416
502
528
523
534
548
560
518
591
594
596

115.1
122,5
134.0
142.0
150, 1
164.8
163.4
172.8
180,2
191 ,3
198. 1

81.3
88.1
88.8
89.5
90.1
91.0
91.8
92.5
93.3
94.0
94.5

2,1
2.5
2.6
2 1
2.6
2,3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2,4

11 . 1
10.4
10. 1
9.9
9.3
1.7
7,8
1.8
7.8
7.3
1.4

141
145
152
155
155
140
139
145
150
148
154

10. 1
10.1
10.2
10.1
9.8
9.0
9.0
9.1
9,0
9.0
8.9

5462
5700
5946
5852
5934
6028
6106
6250
6342
6327
6308

LATIN AMERICA
1912
4.3
1973
5.0
1974
5.8
1915
1. 1
1976
8. 1
1977
9.1
1918
9.7
1979
9.9
1980
11.0
1981
12.8
16.6
1982

8.3
9.1
9.9
11.0
11.9
12.6
12.5
11 .8
12.0
12.8
15.7

1173
1208
1248
1297
1328
1436
1509
1513
1564
1612
1117

291
339
394
446
496
552
616
109
811
885
926

519
625
661
692
128
766
196
845
886
885
813

106.6
122.8
132.6
145.4
150.5
158.0
168.5
179.0
201,3
226.8
198.5

292.7
300.2
301.9
315.9
323,9
331.6
339.3
347.5
356.0
368.6
316.2

1.4
1.5
1.5
1,6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1 .4
1.4
1.4
1.8

1.8
7.4
1.5
1,6
1.9
8.0
7.4
6.6
6,0
5.6
7.9

28
30
32
34
36
37
36
34
33
34
41

4.0
4.0
4.1
4,1
4. 1
4.3
4.4
4.4
4,4
4,4
4.6

1979
2082
2161
2192
2249
2310
2348
2431
2490
2406
2322

MIDDLE EAST
1912
7.7
12.8
1973
1974
20.0
1915
28.4
34.3
1976
1977
34.5
1918
38. 1
1919
39.1
1980
48.3
1981
56.3
1982
63.9

15.0
23.6
33.9
44.1
50,4
41.9
49.3
46.6
52,8
56.3
60.3

1248
1283
1406
1684
1764
1499
1580
1759
1828
2026
2124

66
84
146
118
222
249
256
320
384
400
409

129
155
248
276
326
346
331
381
420
400
385

44.1
63.0
91.6
130.8
149. 1
169.4
164.5
176.7
203.6
207.9
211.5

105, 1
108.0
111. 5
114.7
118.2
121.8
125.9
129.9
133.5
137.6
141.7

11 ,5
15.2
13.6
16.0
15.4
13,8
14 9
12.2
12 6
14. 1
i5.1;

33.6
31.5
34.7
33.1
33.8
28,3
30.0
26.4
25,9
27. 1
27.1

142
218
304
384
426
393
391
358
395
409
425

11.9
11 .9
12.6
14.7
14,9
12.3
12.5
13.5
13.7
14.7
15.0

1236
1431
2231
2409
2763
2842
2634
2936
3150
2911
2122

NORTH AMERICA
1972
19.9 155.4
1913
80.1
148.6
1914
88.5 149.9
1975
93.8
145.6
1976
94.2
138.3
1977
104.5 145.0
1918 113.3 146.4
1979 126.4 150.6
1980 148.6 162.5
175. 1 175.1
1981
1982 202.5 191.0

2413
2337
2242
2205
2159
2154
2141
2105
2130
2164
2190

1296
1451
1515
1704
1892
2105
2361
2643
2879
3223
3348

2521
2611
2667
2646
2719
2920
3050
3148
3147
3223
3158

494.6
524.2
532.2
595.2
623.8
645.0
674.8
684.8
143.0
785,9
813.0

230.8
232.1
234.4
236.7
238.0
240.3
242.5
244.7
251.7
254.2
256.7

6.2
5.6
5.6
5.5
5.0
5,0
4.8
4,8
5.2
5.4
6.0

31.4
28.3
28.2
24.5
22.2
22.5
21.1
22.0
21.9
22,3
23.5

613
640
639
615
581
603
603
615
645
689
744

10.5
10.1
9.6
9.3
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.5
8.5
8.5

10925
11511
11319
11181
11679
12154
12578
12866
12505
12680
12302

13

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(MEl

ARMED
FORCES

GROSSW,TIONAl
PRODUCT
IGNP]

Bilbon dollars

Bilbon dollars

YEAR

CUlTent

Constant
1981

Thousand

Current

PEOPlE

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
leGE)

GNP

ME

ME
CGE

BillIOn dollars

Constant

Constanl
1981

1981

Million

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPlE

Conslanl
1961
doPars

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Cons ian!
1981
dollars

OCEANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.8
3. 1
3.3
3.9
4.6
5.0

4.0
3.7
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.9
4.0
4.0
4.2
4.6
4.7

100
84
81
83
86
87
87
88
89
89
91

79
87
97
108
119
126
141
154
174
196
209

154
161
165
168
175
175
182
184
190
196
197

35.7
35.7
37.6
46.5
49.9
51.5
53.1
51.7
51.8
54 3
55.3

16.6
17 .0
17.2
17.5
20.4
20.7
20.9
21.2
21.3
21.6
22.1

2.6
2.3
2 1
2. 1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4

11 .2
10.4
9.0
7.5
7.2
7.6
7.5
7.7
8. 1
8.5
8.5

240
215
198
202
178
190
191
187
199
210
213

6.0
4.9
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4. 1

9282
9513
9613
9639
8577
8462
8713
8690
8954
9106
8955

5.3
4.8
4.9
5.8
5.8
5.7
6.1
6.2
6 5
7.3
8.2

2126
2313
2400
2452
2362
2182
2102
2082
1724
1735
1747

75
83
92
109
118
134
153
162
188
217
235

147
153
156
169
174
186
198
193
206
217
222

25.3
22.9
23.3
29.3
31.7
33.1
38.3
39.1
41.9
42.6
44.8

759.4
776.1
793.9
811.9
829.9
848.1
865.5
883.3
913. 1
925.1
946.2

3.6
3.1
3. 1
3.4
3.3
3.1
3. 1
3.2
3. 1
3.4
3.7

20.9
21.0
21.0
19.8
18.3
17.2
15.9
15.9
15.5
17.1
18.3

7
6
6
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
8

2.8
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.4
1.9
1.9
1.8

193
197
196
208
209
219
229
218
226
235
235

19.8
18.5
17.8
15.8
14.9
15. 1
14.7
14.6
14.6
14.8
15.5

433
420
424
415
403
415
418
426
445
467
495

10.5
10.2
9.9
9.5
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.5
8.3
8.5
8.6

8511
8952
8936
8780
9174
9464
9771
10027
9912
9966
9783

608
629
654
669
691
694
698
706
717
723
744

15 . 1
14.8
15. 1
15.2
15.3
15.3
15. 1
15.2
15. 1
15.0
15.2

4919
5217
5430
5563
5640
5782
5905
592:l
5984
6007
6040

SOUTH ASIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2.7
2.6
2.9
3.7
4.0
4. 1
4.7
52
6.0
7.3
8.7

BY ORGANIZATION

NATO, ALL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

120.7
124.7
138.2
148.5
153.4
168.3
183.5
204.1
236.3
272.5
308.4

234.9
229.6
234.0
230.5
225.3
233.5
237.0
243.1
258.3
272.5
290.9

5704
5578
5478
5251
5009
4952
4914
4821
4820
4925
5022

2372
2656
2907
3139
3486
3833
4280
4796
5252
5808
6087

4614
4890
4922
4874
5121
5319
5529
5712
5742
5808
5742

1185.0
1238.7
1318.1
1454.5
1509.9
1548.4
1615.6
1661 .5
1771. 1
1844.8
1872.2

542.2
546.3
550.8
555.1
558.3
562.0
565.9
569.7
579 3
582.8
586.9

5. 1
4.7
4.8
4.7
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
4 5
4.7
5.1
d

213.9
223.0
233.9
241.3
251.3
254.5
258.2
262.8
269.1
273.0
283.0

5294
5262
5416
5478
5580
5599
5562
5655
5660
5669
5799

889
1004
1146
1292
1396
1527
1689
1850
2052
2268
2435

1730
1849
1941
2006
2051
2119
2182
2204
2243
2268
2297

440.6
470.6
509.6
561.9
595.1
622.9
651. 5
700.1
748.4
780.9
844.5

351.7
354 4
357.5
360.6
363.6
366.5
369.5
372.1
374.9
377.6
380.4

12.4
12 . 1
12.0
12.0
12.3
12.0
11.8
11 .9
12.0
12.0
12.3

48.5
47.4
45.9
42.9
42.2
40.9
39.6
37.5
36.0
35.0
33.5

Wft.RSAW PACT
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

110.0
121 . 1
138. 1
155.4
171. 1
183.4
199.9
220.6
246. 1
273.0
300.0

14

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENOITURES
(ME)

ARMEO
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENOITURES
(eGE)

8tf11On dofiars

Btlhon dotlars

PEOPLE

ME

GNP

ME
CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMEO
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPlE

Billion dollars
YEAR

CUf'fEtnt

Constant

1981

Thousand

Current

Constant

Constan!
1961

1981

Mol"""

Cons tan I

Constant

1981
dollars

1981
dollars

OPEC
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

7.0
9.5
16.7
25.3
31.3
32.1
37.6
36.9
44.9
55.0
60.9

13.6
17 .5
28.2
39.3
45.9
44.5
48.6
43.9
49.1
55.0
57.5

1299
1280
1284
1399
1481
1344
1254
1366
1420
1606
1713

140
171
253
295
360
405
423
511
600
628
640

272
314
428
458
529
563
546
609
656
628
604

66.8
96.7
132.0
174.4
195.6
216.8
213.4
221.0
248.4
258.2
268.6

271.4
279.0
286.9
295.0
302.4
310.8
319.7
328.5
339.8
348.8
358.6

5.0
5.6
6.6
8.6
8.7
7.9
8.9
7.2
7.5
8.7
9.5

20.4
18. 1
21.4
22.5
23.5
20.5
22.8
19.9
19.8
21.3
21.4

50
62
98
133
151
143
152
133
144
157
160

4.8
4.6
4.5
4.7
4.9
4.3
3.9
4.2
4.2
4.6
4.8

1005
1128
1492
1555
1751
1812
1710
1854
1932
1803
1685

131.8
136.3
150.7
162.9
168.9
184.4
201.4
224.5
259.5
298.7
337.6

256.3
251.0
255.1
252.9
248.1
255.9
260.2
267.4
283.7
298.7
318.4

6611
6470
6382
6147
5878
5757
5737
5673
5675
5179
5892

3072
3450
3777
4102
4542
4992
5573
6256
6901
7654
8017

5976
6352
6396
6369
6673
6927
7200
7452
7545
7654
7618

1428. 1
1495.7
1596.7
1758.8
1835.6
1902.2
2000.0
2070.0
2203.3
2294.9
2336.5

729.5
735.9
742.6
749.0
753.8
759.5
765.0
170.5
781.6
786.7
792.1

4.3
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.7
3.7
3.6
3.6
3.8
3.9
4.2

11.9
16.8
16.0
14.4
13.5
13.5
13.0
12.9
12.9
13.0
13.6

351
341
343
337
329
336
340
347
362
379
402

9.1
8.8
8.6
8.2
7.8
7.6
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.3
7.4

8192
8632
8614
8503
8853
9121
9412
9672
9653
9729
9618

OECD
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

15

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY

AIWED
FORCES

EXPENDITURES
(MEl

GROSS NATIONAL
PAQOOCT
(GNP)

...."""

M.1l1On dOHars
YEAR

C"""'"

Constant

1981

Thoosand

Current

_-

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

....
Constal'lt
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPt.E

ME

ME

GNP

CGE'

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

.000
PEOPLE

Constant
Mllkon

COnSlan!

1981

H18.

dollars

dollars

BY COUNTRY
~

AFGHANISTAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1971
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

22
25
25
34
50
42
48
55E
178E
178 E
165E

42
46
42
53
73
59
62
66E
194 E
178 E
155 E

117
124
125
131
135
137
154
167

228
228
212
203
199
190
199
198

NA

NA

188

188

NA

NA

206
217
325
467
748
742
919
1063
1061
1784

400
399
550
725
1099
1030
1188
1267
1160
1784

91
91
130
130
142
143
110
89
43

1109
1307
1546
1766
1978
2172
2429
2600
2879

2157
2407
2618
2742
2906
3014
3138
3097
3148

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

52
52
53
52
52
52
53
52
52
53
53

1192
1262
1275
1310
1334

2320
2323
2159
2034
1960

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2150

2560

1859

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA

80
80
80
80
85
75
76
88
101
101
120

13140
14264
16034
17955
20503
23205
21730
31208
35561
40832
44587

25560
26265
27149
27879
30120
32198
35825
37172
38879
40832
42057

30
35
47
47
47
47
47
47'

4464
4235
4588
5137
5700
6558
7005
7634

6931
6221
6366
6637
6789
7170
7005
7201

225
235
229
297
398
347
359

NA
NA
NA
NA

12.6
12.9
13.2
13.5
13.8
14. 1
14.4
14.9
15.5
14.6
14.2

2.0
1.9
1 .6
1 9
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.2
6.2

2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2 5
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.7
2,7
2,8

9.8
9.8
9.8
10.0
10.2

NA
NA

19.0
19.8
18.5
17.9
18.5
17.0
17.3

NA
NA
NA
NA

3
3
3
3
5
4
4
4
12
12
11

7.2
7.1
9.8
9.6
10.3
10. 1
7.6
6.0
2.8

171
186
198
203
210
213
217
207
203

NA
NA

NA
NA

23.6
22.6
23.0
21.7
20.8
20.8
20.4
20.0
19.3
19.6
18.9

1054
1010
938
847
784

5,4
5,3
5.2
5.0
5.2
4.4
4.3
4.9
5.4
5.2
6.0

1738
1739
1751
1742
1825
1894
2035
2053
2068
2104
2092

5.0
5.8
7.5
7.2
7.2
7.2
6.5
6.4

1155
1036
1010
1021
1044
1103
972
973

ALBANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1971
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1635

NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

7.8

10.7

103
99
92
84
79
76
76
76

NA
NA
NA

'NA

NA

11 ,5

69

NA

NA

14,7
15. 1
15.5
16.0
16.5
17 .0
17.6
18 . 1
18.8
19.4
20.1

1.6
1.5
2.0
2.6
3.7
3.2
3.2
3 ...
3.0
4.4

6,4
5.5
8.7
7.8
11 .4
10.0
10.9
11 .8
10.0
13. 1

26
35
45
66
60
67
70
61
92

NA

NA

NA

6.0
6.0
6.3
6.5
6.5
6.5
7.2
7.4

3.6

11.5

41

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

ALGERIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

NA

NA

161

251

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

E
E
E
E
E
E
E

6283
7228
6326
9335
9635
1O~74

10853
10735
11620
13623
15894

NA
NA
984

NA
NA
NA

ANGOLA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2182

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

16

TABLE I. Military Exp8nditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY

EXPENDITURES
(ME,

ARMED
FORCES

MJllIondolars.

YEAR

Current

...

Mithon dOItars

Cot'l51anl

1981

Thousand

CutTent

_-

CEf;TRAL
GQVERf;MENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE,

GROSS f;ATlONAL
PR(X)UCT
(GNP,

Constanl

Constant

1981

'98'

PEOPlE

ME

ME

""GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

Constant
Million

GNP
PER
CAPITA

CO'1Slanf

1981

1ge1

dollars

dollars

ARGENTINA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

792
932
1173
1658
1948
2259
2617
2758
2739
3186

1541
1716
1986
2575
2863
3134
3381
3285
2995
3186

NA
1870
1807
1786
2017
2190
2531
2765
2970
3428
3988
4415

1.4
1.5
1.6
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.6

8.5
8.7
7.8
10.0
12.3
14.5
14.2
12.8
10.8
10.3

62
69
78
101
110
118
126
120
108
111

NA

24.5
24.8
25.2
25.5
25.9
26.4
26.8
27.2
27.7
28.7
29.2

NA

NA

132352
138502
140529
143672
147564
148689
155355
157029
163621
168578
169842

28938
28473
28886
36328
40175
41198
42341
41490
41276
42642
43519

13.2
13.4
13.6
13.8
13.9
14. 1
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.8
15. 1

2.7
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5

50474
53102
55445
54469
57532
59935
60476
63629
65672
65687
66017

15275
17039
18012
19408
20931
21684
23662
24710
25515
26333

7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.6

1.0
0.9
1.0
1.1
1. 1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.1
1. 1
1 .2

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4

NA
4.6
3.5
2. 1
2.3
2.6
6.3
6.9
5.4
6.5
8. 1

56158
61520
71179
77010
80748
90884
93933
109261
119578
120403
120344

109242
113279
120522
119572
118622
126103
121353
130140
130734
120403
113516

18065
19653
25362
25754
23361
21664
23866
25732
27704
30987

NA

140
160
150
160
155
155
155
155
155
155
175

3637
3328
3024
3133
3217
3512
3572
3537
3748
3988
4165

86
71
68
70
71
70
70
70
71
71
73

68038
75218
82995
92531
100449
107163
120251
131835
149658
168578
180057

485
490
551
615
645
668
716
756
752
749
762 E

60
60
60
50
40
37
40
40
40
40
40

25947
28839
32745
35080
39163
43196
46811
53421
60068
65687
69988

NA

NA

NA

30
41
23
36
52
139
170
172
214
264

3
3
4
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
2

NA

16
24
15
24
38
107
143
157
214
280

361
714
750
1074
1446
1709
2075
2938
3319
3483

666
1209
1165
1578
2007
2208
2472
3212
3319
3286

NA

5.7
6.5
6.0
6.3
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.4
6.0

4458
4567
4782
4689
4580
4776
4528
4784
4719
4195
3887

12.6
11 . 7
10.5
8.6
8.0
8.5
8.4
8.5
9. 1
9.4
9.6

275
248
222
227
231
249
251
2.45
256
269
275

6.5
5.3
5.0
5. 1
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8

10026
10336
10333
10411
10616
10545
10940
10904
11206
11390
11247

3.2
2.9
3. 1
3.2
3.1
3. 1
3.0
3. 1
2.9
2.8

64
65
73
82
86
89
95
100
100
98
100

8.0
8.0
8.0
6.7
5.3
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

6729
7080
7392
7262
7671
7991
8063
8484
8756
8643
8686

NA

NA

15.0
11.9
4.7
4.2
5.3
13.3
19. 1
15.7
19.0
20.2

154
139
79
121
175
347
426
573
536
661

15.0
15.0
13.3
16.7
16.7
6.7
5.0
5.0
6.7
5.0
5.0

3330
4033
3885
5263
6691
5521
6181
10707
8297
8215

AUSTRALIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

AUSTRIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

249
266
325
396
439
481
554
635
688
749
808E

NA

NA

BAHRAIN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

17

206
350
510
870
989
1046
893
1097
1132
1309

NA

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES

ARMED
FORCES

- (ME)

YEAR

C"""'"

Constant

GROSS NATIONAl
PAOOlICT
(GNP)

C...ont

1981

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

-- -
I

Constant
1981

PEOPLE

ME

ME

"""G'NP

""""C'GE

ME
PEA
CAPITA

Constanl
1981
dollars

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Constant
1981
dollars

Constanl
1981

Mrilion

1196
1140
880
660
1385
1731
1852
2106
2447
2324E
2398 E

73.1
75.1
77.1
79.2
81.3
83.5
85.8
88.1
88.3
90.8
93.6

0.9
0.4
0.6
0.6
1.0
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.6

5.5
2.9
5.6
7.4
7.2
9.2
8.8
7.5
6.4
7.4
8. 1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

0.6
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
0.8
0.9
0.8

98
100
108
109
119
118
124
126
131
136
133

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
o 3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.1
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
1.2
1.2

0.2
0.7
1. 1
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.3
3 6
3.4

1
8
8
3
4
5
6
11
35
36

NA

NA

NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.7
6.7
3.3
3.3
3.3

3520
3617
2323
2388
2542
2630
2806
2986
3089
3068
2904

2.9
2,8
2.7
3.0
3. 1
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.4

7.2
7.1
7.0
6.8
6.7
6.6
6.6
6.5
6.5
6.2

231
243
245
266
285
293
313
321
331
341
334

10.8
10.8
10.2
8.9
8,9
8.7
9.2
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.6

8113
8616
8936
8743
9250
9351
9647
9829
9918
9740
9691

1,6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.4
1.3
1.9
2. 1
2.4

9.9
10.7
11.0
11 .4
8.5
8.4
8.6
11 ,4
9.9
11.0

3
4
3
3
3
3
3
5

0.7
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

NA

NA

NA

249
246
241
257
261
265
272
273
271
274
280

BANGLADESH
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

47
86
100
100
126
126
129
120
71
79
77

3710
4087
4956
5589
6617
7110
8239
9339
10594
12349
13223

7218
7526
8391
8678
9720
9865
10644
11124
11582
12349
12473

362
392
411
461
519
568
651
752
847
920
923

704
723
697
716
762
789
841
896
926
920
871

229
256
225
216
250
262
252
267
300
319

NA

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
1

1156
1280
1420
1682
1901
2069
2379
2643
3000
3385
3507

2249
2357
2404
2612
2792
2871
3074
3148
3280
3385
3308

105
105
100
87
87
85
90
85
86
86
85

40457
45388
51721
55184
61709
66049
73185
80872
89812
96431
101721

78699
83575
87576
85683
90653
91644
94549
96326
98191
96431
95950

31062
33208
34494
38200
41407
43381
46544
48665
50811
54369

NA

9.7
9.7
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.9
9.9

5
6
6
7
6
8
8
14
18
23
NA

10
11
11
11
10
11
11
17
20
23

2
3
3

359
387
413
496
551
611
695
779
887
987
1099

698
713
700
771
810
848
898
928
910
987
1036

110
107
102
98
119
137
134
152
205
218
278

2,8
2.9
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

33
18
29
31
68
114
125
131
144
171 E
205E

65
33
49
48
100
158
162
157
157
171 E
193 E

0
1
1
0
0
1
1
2
9
10

0
1
2
0
1
1
2
3
10
10

NA

BARBADOS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

BELGIUM
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

BENIN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

NA
4
4
4
4
3

18

NA
1.2
1.2
1.1
1. 1
0.8

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 19721982. By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
(ME)

GROSS NATIONA!.
PROOUCT
(GNP)

Mi_doI....

_dollars

ARMED
FORCES

EXPENDITURES

CENTRAL

PEOPI.E

GOVERNMENT

eXPENDITURES

ME

ME

""GNi>

CG'E'

ME
PER
CAPITA

CUll'"

Constant
1981

Thou.....,

CurT...

Constant

1981

Constant

1981

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000

(CGE}

VEAR

ARMED
FORCES
PER
PEOPLE

MillIon

...

...

Constant

Constant
1981

1981
dollars

dollars

BOLIVIA
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

NA

11
22
20
25
21
24
21
26
29
35
16

3.9
4.0
3.9
4.3
4.6
4.0
3.9
3.8
4.5
4.6
4.6

1149
1205
1246
1281
1346
1324
1333
1323
1299
1211
1086

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
2. 1
4.3
4.8
4.0
3.2
2.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
'0.2
5.2
8.2
9.9
8.5
1.9
5.2

0
0
0
0
0
19
42
46
40
34
26

0.0
0.0
1.4
2.0
1 .4
1.1
1.4
2.5
3.3
3.3
3.0

485
591
918
106
862
936
988
960
992
1018
984

1.4
1.3
1.2
1. 1
1. 1
0.9
0.8
0.1
0.1
0.1

1.4
1.2
6.1
5.6
5.8
4.5
3.9
3.2
2.8
2.6

21
23
22
20
23
19
18
16
16
14

NA

100.8
103.3
105.9
108.5
11 1 . 1
113.7
116.4
119.2
122.0
125.3
128.3

NA

NA

4. 1
4. 1
4.1
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.1
3.6
3.6

1513
1150
1810
1918
2051
2111
2146
2228
2331
2188
2173

9452
9595
11236
12447
11408
11259
12193
12803
12495
14499
14717

8.6
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.9

9.9
10.3
10.9
9.9
9.9
10.0
9.4
8.9
9.2
9.2
10.0

28.6
30.5
28.5
25.2
28.2
28.8
24.1
23.8
24.7
21.7
24.1

314
340
368
360
365
369
350
346
346
353
398

22.0
20.6
20.0
20.1
20.1
20.1
18.6
18.5
18.2
18.5
19.1

3178
3305
3312
3659
3707
3612
3149
3900
3141
3862
3969

39
53
55
18
88
89
108
114
140
196
100

15
99
93
121
129
123
140
136
153
196
95

11
18
18
20
22
20
20
20
24
26
26

2600
2941
3385
3895
4398
4112
5262
5116
6298
6818
6566

5058
5426
5132
6048
6462
6622
6198
6819
6885
6818
6193

468
522
619
690
805
836
810
820
853
865

1.5
1.8
1.6
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.1
2.0
2.2
2.9
1.5

16.2
19.0
15. 1
11.6
16. 1
14.1
16. 1
16.6
18.0
22.1

NA

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.1
4.8
5.0
5. 1
5.2
5.3
5.6
5.1

0
0
0
0
0
9
22
30
33
31
28

0
0
0
0
0
13
29
36
36
31
26

0
0
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3

114
221
319
318
411
412
535
645
816
910
1043

340
418
642
494
603
655
692
168
892
910
984

192
192
230
231
251
258
360
312
425
391
503

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0

1116
1304
1385
1446
1180
1623
1639
1629
1196
1831

2112
2402
2346
2245
2616
2252
2111
1940
1964
1831

NA

NA

410
420
435
455
450
450
450
450
450
450
460

81542
98202
116915
134046
155152
113016
193434
223020
260812
214214
295648

158621
180823
198064
208132
221925
240061
249901
265638
285145
214214
218815

29283
33341
35031
40341
44141
49938
53894
61208
69510
11652

189
111
114
115
171
117
164
163
162
165
175

14051
15440
17326
20503
22209
23290
25542
28816
30506
34380
37451

21332
28430
29336
31834
32625
32315
32998
34322
33352
34380
35326

BOTSWANA
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

BRAZIL
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

BULGARIA
1972
1973
1974
1915
1976
1911
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1390 E
1590 E
1892 E
2021 E
2190 E
2340 E
2390E
2556 E
2820 E
3148 E
3761 E

2103
2921
3203
3138
3217
3246
3081
3044
3083
3148
3541

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

19

NA

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MIUTARY
EXPENDITURES
IME;

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAl
PRQOUCT
{GNP;

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
ICGE;

Miltion dIOMats

MillOn doMars

Million do4Iani

YE:AR

Current

Constant
1981

Thousand

Coo,,",

Constant

PEOPlE

ME

ME

'GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPiTA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Constant

ConS1ant
1981

1981
dollars

19B1

Constant
1981

NdOOn

691
735
515
507
544
626
718
730
854
918
1018 E

28.4
29.1
29.8
30.5.
31.2
32.0
32.8
33.6
34.4
35.3
36.2

5.6
6.3
3.7
3.6
3 6
3.7
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.6
3.4

29.6
31 . 1
27.6
28.4
27.5
26.2
23. 1
24.4
21.9
22.3
20.6

7
7
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5

6.7
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
5.2
5. 1
4.9

128
124
127
129
134
139
144
148
156
161
167

2. 1
2. 1
2.5
2.3
2.2
2.8
2.8
2.8
4.0
4.0
4.7

15.9
10.6
11 .4
11 .0
9.9
12.4
12.1
12.3
17 .8
16.2

NA

3
3
4
4
4
5
6
6
8
8
10

0.8
0.8
1.4
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.7
1 .7
1 .7
1.6
1.6

175
186
185
183
192
207
211
213
213
221
220

dollars

BURMA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

191
198
202
209
210
208
212
212
179
179
179

1877
1965
2248
2547
2858
3205
3668
4177
4911
5714
6445

3651
3619
3807
3955
4198
4448
4738
4975
5370
5714
6079

13
14
16
16
16
23
24
25
36
37
45

3
3
5
7
7
8
7
7
7
7
7

325
375
405
448
511
599
670
753
819
953
1026

633
691
685
697
750
831
866
897
895
953
968

83
137
148
148
169
185
202
207
202
233

NA

3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0
4. 1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4

32
34
38
45
55
51
68
76
88
81
91

63
63
65
70
81
71
88
91
96
81
86

8
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
12

1933
2156
2586
2812
3107
3603
4366
4930
5792
6998
7861

3761
3970
4379
4366
4564
5000
5641
5873
6332
6998
7415

606
611
637
805
895
877
1035
1004
1062
1585
1677

7.0
7.2
7.3
7.5
7.7
7.9
8.1
8.3
8.6
8.8
9.0

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.4,
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.2

10.5
10.3
10.3
8.8
9.1
8.2
8.5
9. 1
9.1
5.2
5. 1

9
8
9
9
10
9
10
11
11
9
9

1. 1
1. 1
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1 .3
1.3

537
551
599
582
592
632
696
707
736
795
823

2258
2346
2629
2829
3138
3560
4060
4120
4619
5245
6139

4392
4321
4452
4392
4609
4939
5245
4907
5050
5245
5790

90
85
80
77
78
80
79
78
80
82
82

105385
119717
134643
148446
165782
178955
199090
222297
242057
274747
276706

205001
220440
227980
230490
243541
248302
257208
264777
264639
274747
261008

41842
44328
52256
57017
56535
57071
60301
59787
62661
67311
71924 E

21.8
22.1
22.4
22.7
23.0
23.3
23.5
23.7
24.0
24.4
24.6

2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1 .9
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.2

10.5
9.7
8.5
7.7
8.2
8.7
8.7
8.2
8. 1
7.8
8.1

201
195
198
193
200
212
223
207
210
215
235

4.1
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.3

9403
9974
10177
10153
10588
10656
10945
11172
11026
11260
10610

105
124
84
92
101
118
128
149
171
204
222 E

204
228
142
144
149
164
165
1713
187
204
209E

6
7
10
10
11
16
19
21
33
37
48

BURUNDI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CAMEROON
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CANADA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
IME)

YEAR

Current

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRQOUCT
(GNP)

CeNTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

....11oon_

MiMion dOtI8t$

PEOPlE

Me

Me

GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Constant
19B1

ThOusand

<Ament

Constanl
1981

Cot'istant
1981

Mllbon

Constant
1981
dollars

Constant
1981
dollars

CAPE VERDE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2
2
2
2
3
1
2

2
2
2
2
3
1
2

2
2
4
4
4
3
3

50
59
67
75
85
97
107

74
82
86
89
93
97
101

37
50
44
59
85
67
61

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0,3
0.3
0.3

4.0
3."
3.2
3.0
3.6
1.9
2.2

7.9
5.5
6.2
4.5
3.9
2.8
3 6

9
9
9
9
11
6
7

8.3
6.7
13.3
13.3
13.3
10,0
10.0

246
275
288
298
313
324
338

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

7
9
8
8
9
10
11
12
15
14
14

15
17
14
13
13
14
14
14
16
14
14

3
3
3
3
4
7
4
4
4
4
5

309
334
387
424
467
514
565
578
625
677
720

601
616
655
659
686
713
730
689
683
677
679

158
178
166
155
123
135
136
130
126
128
125

1.9
2.0
2.0
2. 1
2. 1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4

2.6
2.9
2.3
2. 1
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.1
2.4
2. 1
2.1

9.7
9.9
8.9
9.0
11.0
10.3
10.4
10.9
13.0
11.0
11 .2

8
8
7
6
6
6
6
6
7
5
5

1.6
1 .5
1.5
1 .4
1 .9
3.2
1 .8
1 .7
1.7
i .7
2. 1

316
308
327
314
327
324
331
299
297
282
283

14
14
18
21
21
18
17
18

27
27
30
34
31
25
22
22

10
10
10
11
11
9

108
112
120
117
123
89
88
77

25.6
24.2
25.5
29.0
25.8
28.7
25.8
29.0

7
6
7
8
7
6
5
5

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

3.9
4.0
4.0
4. 1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.5
4.8

4.6
5.0
5.4
5.5
5.0
4 0
3.5
5.0

NA
NA
NA

596
541
568
614
633
645
658
453
435
396
324

2.6
2.5
2.5
2.7
2.6
2.1

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

306
294
335
395
431
465
509
380
398
396
343

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

152
135
142
149
150
150
149
100
94
88
67

384
495
712
649
607
'705
853
861
996
1175
1391

747
912
1205
1007
892
978
1102
1026
1088
1175
1312

75
75
90
110
111
1 11
111
111
116
116
116

13482
13381
14622
13555
14931
17479
20295
23721
27756
31620
28801

26225
24639
24759
21047
21934
24252
26220
28254
30346
31620
27167

11437
8903
8481
7674
6924
8200
8732
8552
8963
10245
10813

9.7
9.9
10.0
10.2
10.4
10.5
10.7
10.8
11 .0
11 .2
11.3

2.8
3.7
4.9
4.8
4.1
4.0
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.7
4.8

6.5
10.2
14.2
13. 1
12.9
11 .9
12 6
12.0
12 . 1
11 .5
12. 1

77
92
120
98
85
93
103
95
99
104
116

7.7
7.6
9.0
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.4
10.3
10.5
10.4
10.3

2703
2488
2475
2063
2109
2309
2450
2616
2758
2823
2404

CHAD
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CHILE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

21

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization. and Country-continued
MIUTARY
EXPENOlTURES

_0
FORCES

(ME)

YEAR

Constant
1981

Thousand

GROSS NATIONAl
PROOUCT
(GNP)

Curren!

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENOfTURES
loti_
_
ICGE)

PEOPlE

ME

ME

GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMEO
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

HlOO
PEOPLE

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

...

Constant
1981

ConSlanl

dollars

dollars

1981

Mo'kon

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

885.1
906.3
925.6
942.6
957.8
971.8
985.7
1000.0
1013,6
1028.8
1044.8

13.7
12.:.1
12.0
11.6
11.2
10.3
9,6
9,6
8.0
7.8
7. 1

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

51
50
51
51
49
49
50
53
47
47
44

3.4
3.6
4.6
4.6
4.5
4,4
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.3

378
416
426
446
444
478
524
561
595
604
630

8.8
8. 1
6.8
7.3
6.8
7.5
7.6

45.8
43.9
39.8
33.1
31.4
33.4
32.3

129
133
110
121
124
148
168

NA
NA

NA
NA

6,7
7.2

NA
NA
NA
NA

36.2
32.5
31 .2
31.3
28.8
27.4
21.5
26,7
28.3
27.8
27.2

1481
1638
1625
1662
1841
1986
2222
2346
2459
2540
2579
1029
1017
1124
1141
1167
1204
1283
1327
1460
1387
1373
823
799
874
939
858
785
716
811
873
1036
1161

CHINA
MAINLAND
197~

1973
1974
1975
1976
1911
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

23500E
25000 E
28000 E
31500E
32500E
34500E
38500 E
45000 E
44000 E
48500 E
49500 E

45713E
46033 E
474 10 E
48909E
47743E
47869 E
49738 E
53599 E
48105 E
48500 E
46691 E

1014
1119
1027
1255
1396
1798
2230

1973
2061
1739
1949
2052
2495
2881

NA
NA

NA
NA

3066E
3660E

3066E
3452 E

149
159
155
210
181
157
185
281
351
366
327
19
23
28
35
39
39
44
41
49
63
93

3040
3250
4300
4300
4300
4300
4500
4500
4450
4450
4490

172000 E
205000 E
233000 E
271000 E
290000 E
335000 E
400000 E
471000 E
552000 E
622000 E
698000 E

334583 E
377414 E
394519E
420711 E
426021 E
464814 E
516766E
561006 E
603499 E
622000 E
658400 E

550
503
493
504
475
460
471
468
504
504
504

11573
13792
15169
17242
20681
24054
29412
34481
40044
45985
50583

22512
25397
25685
26772
30381
33375
37997
41070
43780
45985
47713

4312
4698
4366
5882
6542
7461
8925
9312
10471

NA
NA

15.2
15.5
15.8
16. 1
16.5
16.8
17 . 1
17.5
17.8
18. 1
18,5

290
292
262
326
267
219
239
334
384
366
309

50
50
50
50
60
60
60
60
60
65
70

11908
13514
15671
17709
19547
21780
25525
29191
33129
36897
39460

23165
24885
26535
27496
28716
30219
32976
34770
36220
36897
37222

3155
3216
3132
3543
3194
3393
3816
4200
4973
4822
3971

22.5
23.1
23.6
24. 1
24.6
25. 1
25.7
26.2
24,8
26.6
27. 1

1.3
1.2
1.0
1.2
0.9
0.7
0.7
1.0
1. 1
1.0
0.8

9.2
9. 1
8.4
9.2
8.4
6.5
6.3
8.0
7.7
7.6
7.8

12
12
11
13
10
8
9
12
15
13
11

2.2
2.2
2. 1
2. 1
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.6

38
42
48
55
57
55
57
48
53
63
87

9
7
7
7
10
6
11
16
16
16
16

507
564
671
786
818
792
832
1022
1278
1657
1970

987
1039
1137
1221
1202
1099
1075
1217
1397
1657
1858

222
240
38B
501
401
368
435

1.2
1,3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1 .6
1.6
1.6

3.9
4.1
4.3
4.5
4.8
5.0
5.4
4.0
3.8
3.9
4.7

17.4
17.9
12.5
11.1
14.4
15.0
13.3

32
33
37
42
41
39
38
32
33
39
54

7.5
5.4
5.4
5.4
7. 1
4.6
7.3
10.7
10.0
10.0
10.0

TAIWAN
1912
1973
1974
1975
1976
1911
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

169
186

COLOMBIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CONGO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
564
692
973

22

NA
9.5
9.2
9.0

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

ARMED
fORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

l
ENT
EXPEND)TURES
ICGE)

PEOPLE

ME

ARMED
fORCES
PER

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

Constant
1981
dollars

GNP
PEA
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

YEAR

C_

MiRian doMars

MillIOn donal'S

Mi'hon doIar'5
Constant
1981

Thousand

Current

Co

Constant
1981

M,lIlOn

Constant
1981
dollaf"s

COSTA RICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CUBA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

4
5
6
8
10
13
12
14
15
14

9
10
11
12
14
18
16
17
17
14

NA

NA

249
291
340
393

484
535
575
610

NA
NA

NA
NA

1040
1160
1140
1199
1109

1343
1381
1246
1199
1046

2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
140
140
140
120
125
200
210
210
220
225
230

883
1008
1167
1287
1429
1653
1874
2120
2333
2342
2205
7174 E
8014 E
9239 E
10595 E
11515E
12745E
14520E
16218 E
17440 E
20429 E
21971 E

1718
1856
1976
1998
2100
2294
2421
2526
2551
2342
2079
13955
14756
15643
16450
16916
17683
18758
19317
19067
20429
20724

348
376
389
417
455
465
600
656
675
544

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

1. 1
1. 1
1. 1
1.0
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1 .2
1.5

954
977
1040
999
1050
1092
1153
1148
1109
937
800

15.7
15.6
15.2
12.9
13.2
20.8
21.6
21 .4
22.9
23 2
23.5

1568
1639
1700
1768
1780
1842
1933
1971
1986
2106
2114

26
32
51
54
50
64
50
62
47
69
130

20.0
18.3
18.3
33.3
30.0
16.7
25.0
26.7
26.7
28 3

2091
2863
2399
1943
2320
2719
7.999
3241
3399
3447
3603

412
430
427
443
427
429
434
423
438
447
467

15.2
15.4
14.8
14.2
14. 1
13.7
14.0
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.8

7830
8094
8281
8485
8528
8831
8918
8956
9115
9028
9007

0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6

2.6
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.9
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.7

5
5
5
6
7
8
7
8
7
5

NA

1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.6

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

8.9
9.0
9.2
9.3
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.6
9.7
9.8

3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7

54
59
62
65

7.2
7.2
6.5
5.9
5.0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

1.3
1. 1
2.1
2.8
2.2
2.4
1.7
1.9
1 .4
2.0
3.6
d

5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.7
4.8
5.0
5.2

17.6
17 .2
16.4
15.6
14.'"
14.8
15.5
15.2
15.5
14.7
16.3

NA
NA

NA
NA
138
141
129
123
106

CYPRUS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

8
10
18
21
20
27
23
31
26
41
83 E

16
19
30
32
30
38
30
37
28
41
78 E

12
11
11
20
10
10
15
16
16
17

645
933
850
750
947
1176
1393
1632
1865
2068
2292

1254
1718
1439
1166
1392
1631
1799
1944
2039
2068
2162

234
372
359
402
422
439
493
528
593
624

NA

0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

221
223
218
210
210
206
212
211
212
212
213

58369
63740
71898
80878
86503
95476
104236
114296
127569
138132
147065

113542
117367
121739
125577
127076
132473
134664
136137
139470
138132
138721

34010
36344
38417
41951
43568
43660
42420
42324
43246
46493
44241

14.5
14.5
14.7
14.8
14.9
lS.0
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.3
15.4

NA

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

3077 E
3389 E
3713 E
4227 E
4333 E
4645 E
S080E
5407 E
6129 E
6852 E
7634 E

5985
6240
6286
6563
6365
6445
6562
6440
6700
6852
7200

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

23

6.8
5.3
8.6
8.1
7.2
8 7
6.1
7. 1
4.8
6.7

NA

NA

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(MEl

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NA!lONAI.
PRODUCT
(GNPI

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENOlTURES
.ICGEI

Minion dollars

Wilbon do8ars

MullIOn dOHar$
YEAR

Current

Constanl

Constant

Constanl

1981

1981

PEOPLE

ME

ME

""'GNP

"'CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

,_

_EO
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

PEOPLE

Constant

Constant

'981

1981

aollars

dollars

1981

Thousand

1129
1063
1187
1252
1239
1271
1317
1347
1419
1446
1485

45
45
35
35
35
34
34
35
33
32
31

25708
28199
30382
32767
37008
39808
43163
48035
51856
56728
61192

50009
51924
51443
50876
54366
55234
55763
57214
56694
56728
57721

16691
16687
18334
18665
19323
20136
20923
22271
23603
25156
26907

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.1
5.1
5. 1
5.1
5. 1
5. 1
5.1
5. 1

2.3
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.6

6.8
6.4
6.5
6.7
6.4
6.3
6.3
6. 1
6.0
5.7
5.5

225
212
237
245
243
249
258
264
278
283
291

9.0
9.0
7.0
6.9
6.9
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.5
6.3
6. 1

10002
10384
10288
9975
10660
10830
10934
11218
11116
11123
11317

16
16
18
18
19
19
19
19
24
24
25

2167
2572
2974
3408
3843
4285
4710
5320
6151
6933
7443

4215
4736
5036
5292
5646
5946
6085
6337
6725
6933
7021

792
873
985
969
936
906
1017
1272
1195
1186

1.7
1.5
1.7
1.6
1 .7
1.6
1.9
1.9
1.4
1 .5
1.4

8.9
8.4
8.7
8.6
10.0
10.6
11.2
9.4
7.7
8.8

15
15
17
16
18
18
21
21
16

NA

4.6
4.7
4.9
5.0
5. 1
5.3
5.4
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.1

NA

16

3.5
3.4
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
4.2
4. 1
4. 1

916
1007
1027
1058
1107
1121
1127
1131
1179
1175
1151

20
20
20
20
24
30
35
35
35
34
36

3511
4564
5221
6272
7159
8089
9265
10397
11709
13146
13779

6829
8404
8840
9739
10518
11224
11970
12384
12802
13146
12997

1041
10826
1515
1618
1769
1914
1932
2018
2211
2500
2228

6.3
6 5
6.7
6.9
7.1
7.3
7.5
7.8
8.0
8.3
8.5

2.4
2.1
2. 1
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.8
2.4
2.2
2.3

15.6
1 .6
12.5
14.5
14.5
13.2
17.6
14.6
13.0
11 .8

25
27
28
34
36
34
45
37
35
35

NA

NA

NA

3.2
3. 1
3.0
2.9
3.4
4. 1
4.7
4.5
4.4
4. 1
4.2

1084
1293
1319
1411
1481
1537
1596
1587
1600
1584
1529

390
390
410
400
400
350
447
447
447
447
447

6478
6940
7765
9263
11668
13968
16534
18409
22206
25344
29375

12602
12780
13148
14383
17141
19381
21361
21926
24278
25344
27708

5648
5855
7237
8799
9898
10044
10057
10798
12620

34 4
35.1
36.0
36.9
37.8
38.8
39.9
41.0
42.2
43.4
44.6

19.2
32.7
35.0
30.9
22.1
21.0
13.9
11 . 1
10.3

42.9
71.4
63.6
50.5
38.3
40.4
29.6
22.6
19.7

70
119
127
120
100
104
74
59
59

NA

NA

NA

8.2

15. 1

50

11.3
11. 1
11 .4
10.8
10.6
9.0
11 .2
10.9
10.6
10.3
10.0

366
364
365
389
453
499
535
534
575
584
621

Curren!

Million

DENMARK
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

580
577
701
806
843
916
1019
1131
1297
1446
1575

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ECUADOR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

36
39
50
53
64
69
88
100
84
104
107E

70
73
85
83
94
96
114
120
92
104
101E

e
83
95
112
151
174
182
263
246
262
296

e
162
176
189
235
256
253
340
294
287
296

NA

NA

1245E
2270E
2716 E
2864E
2579E
2927E
2305Eb
2044Eb
2279Eb

2423E
4180E
4600E
4447 E
3789E
4062E
2978 E b
2435Eb
2492Eb

NA

NA

17

EGYPT
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2395Eb 2259Eb

NA
14945

24

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(MEl

ARMED
FORcES

GROSS NATIONAl
PRODUCT
(GNP,

ME

ME

'Gii'

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPlE

MllilOtldolLars
YEAR

Currenl

T_ _

Constant
1981

Curren!

'"

Constant
1981
dollars

Consta.nt
1981
dollars

EL SALVADOR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
20
25
27
30
33
47
53
83
116
142

38
37
42
42
44
46
61
63
90
116
134

8
8
8
8
8
8
10
11
12
13
25

1578
1748
2026
2329
2579
2885
3.284
3533
3489
3491
3496

3071
3220
3430
3617
3789
4003
4242
4208
3814
3491
3298

398
402
450
519
556
611
626
626
661
693
641

3.8
3.9
4.0
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.6
4.6

1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1 2
1.5
1.5
2.4
3.3
4.1

9.7
9.4
9.4
8.2
8.0
7.7
9.8
10.1
13.7
16.7
20.9

10
9
10
10
10
10
13
13
18
25
29

2.1
2. 1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.8
5.4

808
825
857
882
881
909
942
895
794
759
717

2
2
5
5
5
2
2
2
2
2
2

74
80
85
91
96
104
113
126

145
148
145
141
142
144
147
150

47
24
14
10
8
6
9

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

6.2
5.6
5.0
4.6

19.1
34.2
50.6
61.8

30
27
23
21

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

6.7
G.7
16.7
16.7
25.0
11.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

483
495
483
472
711
723
735
752

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

50
50
45
50
65
225
233
250
250
250
250

1742
1897
2096
2296
2504
2724
2904
3345
3812
4246
4635

3390
3493
3550
3565
3678
3780
3752
3984
4167
4246
4372

468
494
490
670
723
735
778
813
942

2.5
1.9
1.9
3.8
4.9
5.7
4.8
8.7
9.6
9.6
9.8

18.4
13.7
13.9
20.2
24.7
29.2
23.0
42.7
42.6

NA
NA

26.7
27.4
28.1
28.8
29.5
30.2
31.0
31.8
29.8
30.0
30.6

NA
NA

3
2
2
4
6
7
5
10
13
13
14

1.9
1.8
1.6
1.7
2.2
7.5
7.5
7.9
8.4
8.3
8.2

127
127
126
123
124
125
121
125
139
141
142

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
2
2

428
516
582
634
689
772
845
1029
1077
1248
1325

834
951
985
984
1013
1071
1092
1226
1177
1248
1250

195
226
211
207
240
278
293
319
306
354
378

0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.7

0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0

1.2
0.9
1.1
1.5
1.7
2.0
3.3
3.7
3 3
3.2
3.4

4
3
4
5
6
9
15
19
17
19
18

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
2.3
1.7
3.3
3.3
2.9

1668
1585
1642
1641
1688
1785
1820
2043
1962
2080
1785

EQUATORIAL GUINEA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

4
4
4
4

9
8
7
6

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

44
36
40
87
121
154
138
291
367
408E
455E

86
G7
68
135
179
215
179
347
401
408E
429E

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

ETHIOPIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

FIJI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1
1

1
1
2
4
7
9
9
11
13

2
2
2
3
4
5
9
11
10
11
12

25

TABLE I.
MIlITARY
EXPENDITURES
(MEl

Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
(GNP)

MiKion dollars
YEAR

Oment

CENTAAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

PROOUCT

MUIIofl dollars

Conslant
1981

r_

Current

Constant

'98'

PEOPLE

ME

ME

'"'GN"P

"""CGE

ARMED

ME
PER
CAPtTA

fORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Cons1ant

198'

M,lkon

'"

Constani

Constant

1981
dollars

1981
dollars

FINLAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

287
306
301
390
370
411
459
555
719
736
891

558
564
509
606
543
570
594
661
187
736
846

40
40
40
40
36
39
39
36
36
36
36

19092
21479
24094
26345
27881
29526
32457
37953
43405
48085
51232

37139
39551
40797
40905
40958
40968
41932
45206
47454
48085
48326

8815
9616
10654
11956
13156
14151
16704
18625
21046
23865
25612

11147
17706
18040
18564
19326
20475
21581
22184
23010
23865
24159

560
560
580
515
585
502
502
505
486
485
485

228565
254012
285549
311623
346151
318496
421126
413382
522498
572106
607429

444617
467833
483491
483852
509401
525166
544834
563844
511245
572106
572968

2
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
6

1404
1541
2418
2926
4201
3468
2493
2614
2910
3055
3300

2731
2837
4196
4544
6172
4812
3221
3185
3181
3055
3113

NA
NA
NA

78
89
120
122
142
156
155
199
198
203
217

152
164
203
189
208
217
200
237
216
203
205

4.6
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.8
4.8
4 8

1.5
1.4
1.2
1.5
1.3
1 .4
1.4
1.5
1.1
1.5
1.8

5.7
5.6
4.7
4.7
4. 1
4.2
4.4
4.1
5.3
4.9
5.5

121
120
108
129
115
121
123
131
164
153
116

8 7
8.5
8.5
8.5
7.7
8.5
8.3
1.5
7.5
7.5
1.5

8073
8415
8680
8703
8714
8716
8736
9418
9886
10011
10068

51.1
52.2
52.5
52.1
52.9
53.1
53.3
53.5
53.1
54. 1
54.4

3.9
3.8
3.1
3.8
3.8
3.9
4.0
3.9
4.0
4.2
4.2

11 .5
11 .6
10.6
10.1
9.9
10.2
10.2
9.9
10.0
9.7
9.3

331
339
343
352
365
385
404
414
428
441
444

10.8
10.1
11.0
10.9
11 . 1
9.5
9.4
9.4
9. 1
9.0
8.9

8599
8962
9209
9181
9629
9890
10222
10539
10631
10515
10532

1265
1126
1245
2131
3145
2875
1303
1156
1087
1126E
1205E

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9

1 .5
1.5
0.1
0.8
0.7
1. 1
2.6
2.6
2.2

3.2
3.9
2.5
1.8
1.4
1.9
6.5
7. 1
6.3

80
81
62
63
14
89
141
136
114

NA

NA

NA

2.7

6.9

92

4.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
6.1
6.7
8.3
8.3
6.3
6.1

5463
5674
8392
7514
10287
8020
5368
5309
5302
3819
3459

33
28
32
39
41
57
81
13
79
19
81

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NA
NA
NA

305
328
406
378
417
362
333
396
361
339
342

9770
10011
10747
12804
13247
13669
13361
14202
14145
14919
15482 E

FRANCE
1972
1973
1974
1915
1976
19'71
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

148536
153260
110184
184589
194245
199110
211657
223106
229194
241046
258615

GABON
1912
1913
1974
1975
1976
1971
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

20
23
18
24
30
38
65
68
63 E

40
43
31
38
44
53
84
81
68E

NA

NA

88E

83E

GAMBIA, THE
1912
1913
1914
1915
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

26

1.6
1.6
1.3
1.3
1 .7
0.0
0.0
0.0

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

YEAR

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NIlTIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

dol....

Current

Milion doHars

Constant
1981

Thousand

CW'Tenf

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)
Milhon _

Constant

Constant
1981

198'

PEoPLE

3695
4187
4575
5191
5590
5955
6547
7217
7995
9107
10236

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

7187 E
7709 E
7746 E
8060E
8211 E
8262 E
8458 E
8596 E
8740 E
9107 E
9655 E

ME

ME

Ci'iE

PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

MlihoM

GERMANY. EAST
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ME

G'NP

'.

Constant
1981
dollars

Constant
1981
doltars

.d

202
202
215
220
220
222
228
227
231
232
233

66068
73193
81776
92186
98888
107901
117817
131593
146975
164751
175522

128519
134773
138464
143135
145270
149713
152209
156739
160687
164751
165564

51706
56635
59860
61464
64279
66153
69874
73390
77210
80461
86117

17.0
17 .0
16.9
16.9
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7

5.6
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.7
5.5
5.6
5.5
5.4
5.5
5.8

13.9
13.6
12.9
13 . 1
12.8
12 5
12. 1
11 .7
11 .3
11 .3
11 . 2

422
453
458
476
488
491
503
514
523
545
578

11.9
11 .9
12.7
13.0
13. 1
13.2
13.6
13.6
13.8
13.9
14.0

7559
7927
8193
8469
8647
8911
9060
9385
9622
9865
9914

3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4

14.2
13.9
13.4
12. 1
11.7
11 .3
11 .4
11 .2
10 7
10.7

NA

313
326
341
338
341
340
351
357
362
374
372

8.2
8. 1
8.1
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.9
7.8
7.8
7.8

9025
9423
9457
9321
9861
10159
10538
11004
11148
11153
11032
3040
3040
3152
2675
2479
2478
2597
2410
2337
2224
1968
3181
3422
3256
3438
3583
3678
3871
4018
3992
3890
3870

GERMANY, WEST
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

9939
11004
12507
13476
14283
15047
16666
18395
20427
23094
24351

19334
20262
21177
20924
20982
20878
21531
21910
22333
23094
22970

505
505
505
495
495
489
489
485
480
480
480

286272
317314
346294
371029
412846
449578
500030
566333
628129
688185
720485

556873
584284
586351
576091
606488
623792
645997
674556
686731
688185
679610

136330
146029
158580
172705
179930
184415
189695
195569
208399
215734

NA

61.7
62.0
62.0
61.8
61.5
61.4
61.3
61.3
61.6
61.7
61.6

225
172
233
301
256
197
171
134
110
141

439
316
395
467
376
274
222
159
121
141

28575
29496
31524
27554
26528
27257
29611
28206
28277
27807
25397

5467
4906
5312
6366
6572
5459
4653
4422
3297
2904
2870

9.4
9.7
10.0
10.3
10.7
11.0
11.4
11.7
12. 1
12.5
12.9

8.0
6.5
7.4
7.3
5.7
5.0
4.8
3.6
3.7
4.9

46
32
39
45
35
25
19
13
10
11

NA

14690
16019
18617
17746
18058
19645
22920
23681
25864
27807
26925

1 .5
1.1
1.3
1.7
1.4
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.4
0.5

NA

40
40
35
20
20
18
19
15
14
13
13

NA

NA

NA

4.3
4. 1
3.5
1.9
1.9
1.6
1.7
1.3
1.2
1.0
1.0

646
661
936
1324
1504
1680
1837
1934
1923
2578
2782

1258
1217
1585
2056
2209
2331
2373
2303
2102
2578
2624

180
180
180
191
200
290
184
180
185
185
186

14558
16544
17308
19931
22442
24658
28172
31715
35060
37739
40209

28319
30464
29306
30946
32969
34213
36396
37776
38331
37739
37927

7793
8363
8476
9226
10573
11423
12183
12417
13266

8.9
8.9
9.0
9.0
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.4
9.6
9.7
9.8

4.4
4.0
5.4
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.5
6.1
5.5
6.8
6.9

16. 1
14.6
18.7
22.3
20.9
20.4
19.5
18.6
15.9

141
136
176
228
240
250
252
245
219
265
267

20.2
20.2
20.0
21.2
21.7
31 .2
19.6
19. 1
19.3
19. 1
19.0

GHANA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

GREECE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
NA

27

NA
NA

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES

ARMED
FORGES

{MEl

YEAR

G_

GROSS NATIONAl
PRODUCT
IGNP)

GENTflAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
IGGE)

MtJliOn t'JOIWs

MiNiOn dOIarS

PEOPLE

ME

ME
PER
CAPITA

GNP

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPiTA

1000
PEOPLE

Constanl
1981

T-..nd

Current

Constant

1981

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

Constant
MIllion

~fO

1961
dollars

dollars

GUATEMALA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

32
50
49
67
73
8:2
100
114
146

60
50
54
78
7:2
93
95
98
110
114
138

14
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
15
16
17

:28:23
3195
3708
4104
4709
5395
6111
695:2
7800
8577
8752

549:2
5884
6:279
6373
6918
7486
7894
8281
8528
8577
8255

609
583
655
637
833
881
954
978
1299
1433
1220

5.6
5.7
5.9
6. 1
6.3
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.4
7.5

I.1
0.9
0.9
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.2
1 . :2
1.3
1 .3
1.7

9.9
8.6
8.3
1:2.3
8.6
10.6
10.0
10.1
8.5
8.0
11.3

10
8
9
12
11
14
14
14
15
15
18

:2.5
:2.3
:2.2
:2 . 1
2.2
2.2
:2 . 1
2. 1
2. 1
2.2
2.3

980
1032
1064
1044
1098
1169
1196
1217
1:218
1159
1100

14
13
15
16

27
25
25
24

1220
1294
1355
1370
1528
1549
1594
1594
1604
1535
1589

252
251
217
246
442
364
372
784
733
773
713

4.3
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.0
5.1
5.3

10.8
10. 1
11 .8
10.0

6
5
5
5

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

627
703
800
882
1040
1116
1234
1338
1467
1535
1685

2.2
2.0
1.9
1 .8

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

17
17
17
7
10
10
18
18
17
17
17

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

5.1

10.2

15

NA

NA

NA

4.0
3.8
3.7
1.5
2.0
2.0
3.5
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.2

283
287
294
291
311
309
312
300
320
301
299

5
5
5

107
122
104
101
117
127
126
130
130

25
50
52
72
'88
90
103
95
108

0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
o8
0.8
0.8

0.6

2.5

NA

NA

NA

6
5
4
4
4

63
79
71
73
90
107
115
130
138

7.0
7.2
5.9
5.3
6.2
5.5
7.0

13.8
10.1
7.8
7.4
7.6
7.6
8.4

12
12
11
11
9
9
11

10.0
10.0
8.3
10.0
10.0
8.3
5.0
5.0
5.0

214
245
173
169
195
212
157
163
163

4
4
4
2
5
7
7
7
7
7
7

253
266
314
384
404
414
438
468
514
551
522

492
490
532
596
593
575
567
557
562
551
493

171
216
200
330
443
295
256
307
367
415
338

07
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8

1.2
1.7
2.7
6.6
8. 1
5.9
3.7
3.5
4.0
4. 1
4.5

3.5
3.9
1.3
12.0
10.8
11 .4
8.2
6.4
6.1
5.4
6.5

8
10
18
49
59
42
26
24
28
28
27

5.7
5.0
5.0
2.5
6.3
8.8
8.8
8.9
8.9
8.8
8.8

704
613
666
745
742
718
708
697
703
689
616

30
27

GUINEA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

79 E

79 E

NA

NA

GUINEA-BISSAU
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

NA

5
5
5
5
7
7
9

7
7
7
6
7
7
9

3
4
8
25
32
24
16
16
20
22
23

6
8
14
39
47
33
20
19
22
22
22

13

GUYANA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
198j
1982

28

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMED
FORCES

U'liTARY
EXPENDITURES
,ME)

YEAR

Current

GAOSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Minton do&tars

IoIiPioo_

PEOPLE

ARMED
FORCES
PER

ME

ME

GNP

roE

ME
PER
CAPITA

Constant
1981
dollars

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Con slant
1981

Thousand

Current

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

Million

Constant
1981
dollars

HAITI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.3
1 .2
1.7
1.9
1.6

14.6
14.2
10.4
8.2
6.7
5.9
6.8
6.6
9.3
9.6
9.9

5
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
5
4

2.5
2.4
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.3
1.3
1 .2
1.2
1.5
1.4

234
233
243
229
244
240
245
255
266
273
267

2.9
3.0
3. 1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.8
4.0
4. 1

1.9
1.7
1.6
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.4
2.4

12.3
12.4
10.5
10. 1
9.3
10.1
11.2
11.8

11
10
9
11
11
12
14
15

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

4. 1
4.0
3.2
3.8
3.6
3.5
3.9
3.9
3.7
3.8
3.9

605
606
599
565
584
614
635
651
650
624
595

24204
24813
26072
31969
30813
31474
31755
31939
32140
34300
32998

10.4
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.6
10.7
10.7
10.7
10.7
10.7

5. 1
5.0
5.1
4 9
4.5
4. 1
4.2
4.2
4.5
4.5
4.5

11. 1
11.0
11.0
8.8
8.4
8 0
8.4
8.2
8.9
8.4
8.9

258
261
272
269
244
238
248
244
267
269
274

14.0
13.5
11 .9
11 .2
11 . 1
13.6
10.3
10.3
11 . 1
11.3
10.5

5013
5278
5372
5500
5437
5780
5863
5889
5962
5991
6092

642
733
800
845
750
822
857
901
894
940

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
O.C
O.U
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

10398.
11228
11666
11476
11858
12601
13198
13506
13876
14182
13401

12
10
9
11
11
11
13
15
24
27
26

23
19
16
17
16
16
17
17
26
27
24

12
12
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8

5-79
620
717
767
880
937
1046
1221
1413
1502
1584

1126
1142
1215
1191
1294
1300
1351
1455
1545
1502
1495

163
139
158
211
242
276
256
272
284
292
249

4.8
4.9
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.6

2. 1
1.7

17

22
24
30
40
46

33
31
30
35
36
41
52
55

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

12
12
10
12
12
12
13
14
14
15
16

902
987
1096
1164
1313
1505
1720
1968
2261
2497
2587

1756
1818
1857
1807
1928
2089
2222
2345
2472
2497
2440

270
254
286
348
388
411
467
472
601
671
725

1380E
1476 E
1688 E
1820E
1765 E
1821 E
2054 E
2197 E
2613 E
2884 E
3108 E

2684 E
2717 E
2858 E
2825E
2592 E
2526 E
2653 E
2616 E
2856 E
2884 E
2931 E

146
140
125
118
118
144
110
110
119
121
112

26801
29815
33313
37199
39238
44162
48565
52907
58357
64110
69111

52134
54899
56406
57758
57642
61275
62741
63017
63801
64110
65190

0
0
0
0
0
0

1069
1219
1378
1478
1614
1816
2043
2268
2538
2836
2841

2079
2245
2333
2295
2371
2520
2639
2701
2775
2836
2680

HONDURAS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

17
17

HUNGARY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ICELAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

a
a
a

a
a
a

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

NA

29

NA

a
0

a
a
a
0

TABLE I.

Military Expenditures, Armed Forces. GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
{MEl

4RIoIED
FORCES

GROSS N4TIONAl
PRCXlUCT
(GNP)

MilllondoHars
YEAR

Current

Constant
1981

Thoosand

Currttnt

-
I

CENTR4l
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
Mi_
_
{CGEI

Constanl

Constanl
1981

1981

PEOPlE

Nl!lhon

ME

ME

GNP

CGE

0;,

ME
PER
C4PITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

GNP
PER
C4PIT4

Constant
1981
dollars

Constant
1981
dollars

INDIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2047
1853
2149
2832
2907
3050
3502
3843
4303
5151
6223

3982
3413
3639
4398
4271
4232
4525
4577
4704
5151
5870

1590
1620
1620
1670
1440
1270
1300
1286
1104
1104
1120

58978
64670
70628
84648
90949
104116
118886
122851
143225
165236
178141

114727
119080
119589
131432
133608
144462
153591
146327
156587
165236
168035

19922
16805
17212
22509
23700
24849
28880
28754
30926
32050
33499 E

579.0
591.0
604.0
617.0
630.0
643.0
655 0
667.0
692.3
699.9
715. 1

3.5
2.9
3.0
3.3
3.2
2.9
2.9
3.1
3.0
3. 1
3.5

20.0
20.3
21. 1
19.5
18.0
17.0
15.7
15.9
15.2
16. 1
17.5

6
5
6
7
6
6
6
6
6
7
8

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.3
2.0
2.0
1 .9
1.6
1.6
1.6

198

356
310
270
260
257
260
250
250
250
260
270

21915
25611
29491
33798
38682
44193
50890
57893
69004
82471
89674

42630
47159
49934
52478
56826
61319
65746
68956
75442
82471
84587

7342
8572
9778
12018
13881
13452
15419
17641
19987
23640
24199 E

128.0
131.0
134.0
137.0
139.0
142.0
145.0
148.0
151 .2
154.3
157.6

3.4
3. 1
3.2
4.1
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.5
3.2

19.8
17.3
16.5
17.9
15.3
16. 1
15.0
13.7
12.7
12 . 1
11 . 2

11
11
12
15
15
15
16
16
16
18
17

2.8
2.4
2.0
1 .9
1 .8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

333
360
372
383
408
431
453
465
499
534
536

265
285
310
385
420
350
350
415
305
440
470

25078 E
36228 E
57110E
65205 E
84356 E
86979 E
75739 E
96179 E
89200 E
67382 E

30.6
31.4
32.4
33.3
34.3
35.4
36.4
37.4
38.8
40.0
41.2

8.9
8.8
12. 1
14.7
13.2
11.3
15.8
6. 1
7.3
10.6

27.7
30.2
29.0
31.9
32.0
25. 1
33.9
18.3
19.8
20.7

142
187
361
448
476
383
423
188
183
178

1594
2124
2984
3040
3612
3409
2688
3063
2513
1684

NA

NA

NA

8.7
9. 1
9.6
11 .6
12.2
9.9
9.6
11.1
7.9
11.0
11 .4

105
105
110
155
190
140
140
212
350
400
450

4915E
5855E
11419E
14177E
16810E
19402 E
23695E
34648E
39881E
24634 E
25177E

10.1
10.5
10.9
11.2
11 .6
12.0
12.5
12.9
13. 1
13.6
14.0

14'.9
25.5
21.6
16.9
17.2
18.7
17.0
14.9
21.7
48.2
46.4

42.2
57.7
45.1
29.0
37.5
42.1
24.7
24.9
26.0
43.5
45.6

141
261
382
332
366
420
415
475
722
872
787

10.4
10.0
10.1
13.8
16.4
11 .7
11. 2
16.4
26.7
29.4
32. 1

946
1026
1774
1965
2128
2243
2449
3199
3328
1811
1696

201

198
213
212
224
234
219
226
236
235

INDONESIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

748
805
951
1385
1447
1561
1791
2026
2320
2867
2876 E

1456
1482
1610
2151
2125
2166
2314
2413
2537
2867
2713 E

IRAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

IRAQ
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

4361
2241
3194
5882
6910 11700
9607
14917
1 1127
16347
9793
13589
11938
15423
5907E 7036E
6519E 7127 E
7145Eb 7145Eb

NA

NA

b
b
734 E 1428E
1491E 2746E
2461E 4168E
2398 E 3723E
2892 E 4249E
3633 E 5041 E
4020E 5194 E
5147 E 6130E
8658 E 9466 E
11864 E 11864 E
11689 E 11026E

NA

48783 E
66709 E
96700 E
101243 E
123922 E
120685 E
97848 E
114558E
97522 E
67382 E

15727
19469
40408
46745
51064
54041
45501
38455
35974
34527

Nt.

NA

NA

9562E
10782E
19336E
22012 E
24695E
26921E
30612 E
41269E
43602 E
24634 E
23749E

30

3385
4763
9236
12855
11344
11981
21033
24652
36407 E
27254 E
24194 E

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARV
EXPENDHURES
(ME)

ARMeD
FORCES

GROSS NATIQNAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES

PEOPLE

ME

'C'GE

ME
PER
CAPITA

Milhc::lrldoltars
VEAR

Cu"ent

Constant

....

MIDlOftdOdars
CutTent

Constant
1981

ConSlan!

ARIdED
FORCES
PER

GNP'
PER
CAPITA

1000

(eGE)

PEOPLE

Constant
1981

Conslant
Mllhon

'"

1981
dollars

dolla,s

1981

T"""sond

74
90
104
158
149
168
191
210
258
277
340

144
166
177
246
220
233
247
250
282
277
321

9
10
11
11
14
12
13
14
19
19
21

6323
6957
7906
8749
9390
10561
12045
13401
14810
16370
17385

12300
12811
13387
13585
13794
14653
15561
15962
16192
16370
16399

4449
4823
5824
6097
6331
6628
7349
7939
8967
9763
8067

3.0
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5

1.2
1.3
1.3
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
2.0

3.2
3.4
3.0
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.2
3 1
2.8
4.0

48
53
57
77
68
70
75
73
83
79
91

3.0
3 2
3.5
3.4
4.4
3.9
4.2
4.1
5.6
5.4
6.0

4100
4132
4318
4245
4310
4440
4715
4694
4762
4677
4685

1476
3142
3036
3780
4083
4103
3707
5232
5424
4374E
5838 E

2872
5786
5140
5869
5999
5694
4789
6232
5930
4374 E
5507 E

130
130
160
190
190
165
165
165
180
180
180

8398
9222
10632
11855
12479
13668
15282
16984
18524
21574
22917

16336
16981
18003
18408
18333
18964
19744
20230
20253
21574
21617

7210
10562
11884
13555
14634
16350
14093
16161
17348
21870 E
19195 E

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.9

17.6
34.1
28.6
31.9
32.7
30.0
24.3
30.8
29.3
20.3
25.5

39.8
54.8
43.3
43.3
41.0
34.8
34.0
38.6
34.2
20.0
28.7

897
1753
1512
1726
1714
1626
1330
1684
1560
1151
1412

40.6
39.4
47.1
55.9
54.3
47.1
45.8
44.6
47.4
47.4
46.2

5105
5145
5295
5414
5238
5418
5484
5467
5329
5677
5543

4000
4188
4584
4630
4820
5384
5939
6782
7761
8680
9778

7781
7712
7762
7189
7081
7471
7673
8078
8486
8680
9223

510
520
500
500
432
330
365
306
363
363
391

139439
157503
177691
186226
208497
225297
248862
283729
320908
350307
374162

271245
290016
300870
289150
306291
312601
321509
33.,949
350848
350307
352934

109404
105955
118898
134840
134185
141324
145948
151631
169353
170862
149375E

54.3
54.9
55.4
55.8
56.2
56.4
56.7
56.9
57.0
56.2
56.3

2 9
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.4
2.4
2 4
2.4
2.5
2.(':

7.1
7.3
6.5
5 3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0
5 1
6.2

143
140
140
128
126
132
135
142
148
154
163

9.4
9.5
9.0
9.0
7.7
5.9
6 4
5.4
6.4
6.5
6.9

4995
5282
5430
5181
5450
5542
5670
5939
6155
6233
6268

6
6
7
7
8
9
8
6
6
6
6

2526
2885
3189
3805
4484
4930
5819
6432
7463
8273
8613

4914
5312
5400
5909
6587
6841
7518
7661
8159
8273
8124

1266
1342
1394
1522
1886
1934
2502
2802
2706

6.0
6.2
6.5
6.8
7.0
7.3
".5
7.8
8.0
8.3
8.6

1.8
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.2
0.8
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.7

7.2
4 9
5.5
4.9
4.1
3.0
3.4
3.1
3.6
4.0
5.0

15
10
11
10
11
8
11
11
12
13
16

1.0
1.0
1. 1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.1
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7

819
856
830
869
941
937
1002
982
1019
9S6
944

1981

IRELAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ISRAEL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ITALY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

IVORY COAST
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

46
35
45
47
52
41
66
73
88
110E
1<16 E

90
65
76
74
77
58
86
87
96
110E
138 E

27f50

2768

31

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MiliTARY
EXPENDiTURES
,ME)

ARMED
fORCES

GROSS NAnONAL
PRODUCT
IGNP)

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
ICGE)

M1lhon dollars

MIMIof'l dOllars

PEOPLE

ME

ME

""GNP

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Mlliton do6Iart
YEAR

Curren!

Constant
1981

Thousand

Current

Constant
19a1

Constant
1981

Conslant
1981
dOllars

Con SIan!

MililOO

1981
dollars

2.0
2.0
2.1
2 1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3

0.5
0.7
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.2
1.6

1.7
2.7
1.9
2.1
2.4
2.3
1.8
1.9
1.5
2.3
2.9

7
11
10
12
14
13
10
10
9
14
19

2.0
2.0
1.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.5
1.0
0.9
0.9

1678
1692
1610
1578
1424
1313
1311
1298
1217
1206
1210

62
64
61
69
73
76
81
86
89
92
96

2.2
2 1
2.2
2. 1
2 1
2.1
2.1
2. 1
2.1
2.0
2.0

7258
7789
7588
7685
7996
8339
8689
9065
9372
9601
9774

JAMAICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

7
12
12
16
20
20
18
19
19
33
46

15
23
21
25
30
28
23
23
21
33
44

4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2

1726
1837
1996
2134
2035
2082
2234
2397
2450
2775
2951

3357
3384
3381
3314
2990
2889
2886
2855
2678
2775
2784

3467
3825
4030
4958
5604
6277
7247
8439
9510
10877
12159

6744
7044
6824
7698
8233
8709
9363
10052
10397
10877
11469

233
233
237
237
236
236
239
239
242
241
241

400001
459820
493851
552409
613997
684556
772837
882088
1001305
1129098
1226951

778105
846685
836197
857716
901987
949827
998440
1050651
1094723
1129098
1157343

103247
110601
120969
129735
141927
157176
177200
193633
209574
213680
220350

107.2
108.7
110.2
111.6
112.8
113.9
114.9
115.9
116.8
117 .6
118.4

0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0

6.5
6.4
5.6
5.9
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.2
5.0
5.1
5.2

70
70
70
60
65
70
70
67
65
65
65

977
990
1095
1299
1890
2064
2332
2771
3347
4024
4615

1901
1823
1854
2018
2776
2864
3013
3301
3660
4024
4353

867
915
966
1183
1075
1605
1)399
1731
1797
1886
2185

2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.2
3.3

35.8
35.3
32.4
28.0
34.3
26.4
24.2
27.3
23.3
21.7
21.3

78.5
70.3
62.1
47.7
88.5
47.2
45.5
52.0
47.4
46.3
42.5

295
268
240
217
352
280
259
310
284
273
281

30.4
29.2
28.0
23.1
24.1
25.9
25.0
23.1
21.7
20.3
19.7

826
759
741
776
1028
1061
1076
1138
1220
1257
1319

200
213
220
62
62
70
70

652
559
579
614

1269
1029
981
954

NA
NA

21.4
14.9
10.9
11.0

27 8
29.2
30.1
9.3
10.0
11.7
11.9

176
141
134
142

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

37
21
14
15

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

7.2
7.3
7.3
6.7
6.2
6.0
5.9
5.8
5.7
5.8
5.9

888
885
1151
1185
1258
1246
1325
1204
1395
1443
1517 E

JAPAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
~982

JORDAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

349
349
354
363
647
545
563
756
779
874
984

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

680E
643E
600E
564 E
951E
757 E
727 E
900E
852 E
874 E
928 E

KAMPUCHEA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

139
83
63
67

271
153
106
105

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
35
35
30

~JA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

32

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
6.1
6.0
5.1

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

TABLE I.
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES

Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMED

GROSS NATIONAl

FORCES

PRODUCT
(GNP)

(ME)

Current

KENYA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

27
34
38
50
48
90
174
238
250
198
278

Constant
1981

54
63
64
77
70
125
225
284
273
198
263

T_sand

Current

PEOPLE

""'GNP

ME

ME
CGE

Million dollars

MillIOn dollars

Mllhondollars

YEAR

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

ARMED

ME
PER
CAPITA

FOACES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

Constant
1981
Million

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Constant
1981
dollars

dollars

7
8
9
9
9
13
13
13
13
13
13

2187
2393
2737
3016
3228
3759
4326
4952
5715
6478
7074

4255
4407
4635
4683
4742
5215
5589
5898
6248
6478
6673

954
985
974
1154
1203
1128
1561
1764
1785
1985
NA

12.1
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.6
15.2
15.8
16.4
17.1
17.8

1.3'
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.5
2.4
4.0
4.8
4.4
3.1
3.9

5.7
6.4
6.7
6.7
5.9
11.1
14.4
16. 1
15.3
10.0
NA

4
5
5
5
5
8
14
18
16
11
14

0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7

351
352
356
346
338
357
367
373
381
378
374

27.6
25.7
28.0
20.3
21.6
17.9
15.9
12.8
27.3
NA
29.7

136
131
149
105
118
103
99
89
183
NA
176

31.3
31.1
30.3
29.6
30.7
31.1
37.0
39.5
39.1
38.8
38.0

648
704
770
986
919
897
936
952
971
NA
817

KOREA, NORTH
1972
1030
1973
1080
1974
1370
1975
1080
1976
1310
1977
1250
1978
1310
1979
1320
1980
3000 E
NA
1981
1982
3500 E

2003
1988
2319
1676
1924
1734
1692
1572
3279 E
NA
3301 E

460
470
470
470
500
520
632
692
700
710
710

4900
5773
7050
10100
10200
10800
12400
14000
15900
NA
16200

9531
10630
11937
15682
14984
14985
16019
16675
17383
NA
15280

7255
7733
8279
8260
8917
9670
10645
12268
12026 E
NA
11130 E

14.7
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.3
16.7
17.1
17.5
17.9
18.3
18.7

21.0

KOREA, SOUTH
771
1972
751
1973
1974
999
1266
1975
1976
1884
2244
1977
1978
2850
1979
2878
3513
1980
1981
4157
1982
4783 E

1501
1383
1692
1967
2767
3113
3681
3428
3841
4157
4511E

635
634
634
630
610
600
600
638
600
600
600

16009
19434
22826
26667
32453
37885
45417
52392
53535
62254
69539

31143
35785
38650
41406
47675
52566
58675
62404
58530
62254
65594

5768
4926
6341
7464
9047
10112
11285
12857
13100
14962
17110E

34.6
35.3
36.0
36.7
37.3
37.9
38.5
39.1
39.8
40.1
40.7

4.~

3.9
4.4
4.8
5.8
5.9
6.3
5.5
6.6
6.7
6.9

:/6.0
28.1
26.7
26.4
30.6
30.8
32.6
26.7
29.3
27.8
26.4

43
39
47
53
74
82
95
87
96
103
110

18.4
18.0
17.6
17.2
16.4
15.8
15.6
16.3
15.1
15.0
14.7

900
1013
1073
1128
1278
1387
1524
1596
1470
1552
1611

KUWAIT
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

427
467
1043
1124
1579
1432
1375
1391
1422
1254E
1545E

14
14
15
25
25
10
10
11
12
12
13

3951
4365
12444
13293
15340
16369
17916
27461
32484
32444
27512

7686 E
8039 E
21071 E
20641 E
22535 E
22712 E
23146 E
32716E
35515 E
32444 E
25951 E

3007
3648
7058
5954
7996
7370
8872
8085
9318
11921
12549

0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1 .4
1.5
1 .6

5.6
5.8
5.0
5.4
7.0
6.3
5.9
4.3
4.0
3.9
6.0

14.2
12.8
14.8
18.9
19.7
19.4
15.5
17.2
15.3
10.5
12.3

534
519
1159
1124
1435
1302
1146
1070
1016
836
965

17.5
15.6
16.7
25.0
22.7
9.1
8.3
8.5
8.6
8.0
8.1

9607
8932
23412
20641
20487
20647
19288
25166
25367
21629
16219

219
254
616
724
1075
1032
1064
1168
1301
1254 E
1638 E

33

18.7
19.4
10.7
12.8
11.6
10.6
9.4
18.9
NA
21.6

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MJlITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME!

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATION4I.

CUn''''

-- -(GNP)

1oIi_ _

YEAR

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
ICGE!

PIIODUCT

Constant
1981

Thou.....

Gun...

Constant
1981

Conslant
1981

PEOPlE

ME

ME

""1iNP

CGE

ARMED
FORCES
PER

ME
PER
CAPITA

GNP
PER
CAPITA

10r0
PEOPLE

Million

...

ConSlanl
1981
dollars

Constant
1981
dollarS

LAOS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

50E

59E

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

34
39
60
61
66
69

66
71
102
94
97
96

Nfl
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

245
288

245
272

79
71
60
46
46
45
47
46
55
55
57

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

290E

402E

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

320E

301 E

204E

NA
NA
NA

3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

29.1

17

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

2.4
2.4
3.2
5. 1
11.0
17.6

16.4
15.7
20.4
15.7
15.8
16.4

26
28
39
35
35
34

NA
Nft
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

27.7
33.5

23.6
16.5

94
104

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9
5.2

0
0
0
0
0
0
2
7

NA.

25.5
22.2
18.8
13.9
13.9
13.2
13.8
13.5
15.7
15.7
15.8

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
118

NA
NA.
NA
NA
83

LEBANON
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
20
25
20

NA
9
9
20
23
22
23

1452
1606
1869
1189
599
395

2826
2958
3165
1846
880
549

406
457
503
603
614
586

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

885
862

885
813

1040
1650

2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.9
3.0
2.6
2.6

301
382
425
477
546
607
650
632
659
714
739

51
60
67
94
87
122
141
184
189
196
204

1. 1
1. I
1 .2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
1.5

773
746
804
747
855
899
920
972
939
930
920

150
166
187
167
238
240
290
381
301
352
372

1.4
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0

8.0
8.0
9.6
7.4

NA
3.2
3. 1
6.9
7.7
8.5
8.8

1130
1183
1217
683
326
196

NA
NA
NA
340
312

LESOTHO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

NA

13 E

13 E

NA.

NA.

2
2

154
207
251
307
371
437
503
530
602
714
784

8
6
9
7
9
9
10
9
15
36
47

6
6
6
6
6
4
7
7
7
7
7

397
405
475
481
582
648
712
816
859
930
976

0
0
0
0
0
0
2E
8E

0
0
0
0
0
0
2E
9E

0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1

NA

NA.

1.9

7.0

NA.

NA.

NA

0.0
0.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.4
1.4

1.1
0.9
1. 1
1.0
1.1
1. 1
1.2
1.0
1.7
3.9
5. 1

5.5
4.1
4.9
4.3
4.0
4.0
3.7
2.5
5.2
10.3
12.7

5
4
6
4
6
5
6
5
8
18
23

4.3
4.0
4.0
3.8
3.8
2.4
4. 1
3.9
3.7
3.5
3.5

273
347
354
397
455
506
500
486
507
510
528
552
497
536
466
534
529
541
540
494
465
460

LIBERIA.
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

3
5
4
6
7
8
8
14
36
50

34

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENotTURES
IME)

YEAR

Cun....

LIBYA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

A_O
FORCES

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT

I0Il_ _

Constant
1981

GROSS NATIONAL
PRooUcT
!GNP)

T"""""""

Cun...

PEOPlE

ME

'CG'E

ARMED
FORCES
PEA

ME
PEA
CAPITA

ICOO

ICGE)

PEOPLE

Constant

Constant

Constant
1981

GNP
PEA
CAPITA

1981

...

...

2.1
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.2
3.3

5.6
5 ..7
6.2
7.0
9.2
9.5
15.6
12.4
8.5

13.1
13.0
16.6
16.7
23.1
25.5
37.3
37.2
23.4

266
311
512
493
773
862
1259
1232
1002

NA
NA

NA
NA

0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

0.8
0.7

2.4
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2. 1
2.2
2. 1
2.3
2.3

MIIlIOI"I

COflstanl
1981
dollars

1981

dollars

287 E
371E
726E
793E
1368 E
1679 E
2729 E
3000E
2750E

558 E
684 E
1229 E
1232 E
2010E
2329 E
3526 E
3573 E
3006 E

NA
NA

NA
NA

13
15
16
21
23
25
29
32
40
46
49

26
28
28
33
34
35
38
38
44
46
46

20
24
24
31
38
55
62
112
118
114E

39
44
41
48
56
76
81
133
129
114E

NA

NA

3
5
5
11
9
15
28
48
52
37

5
10
9
17
14
21
37
57
57
37

NA

NA

20
20
25
25
25
30
50
51
53
55
55

5149
6513
11635
11311
14829
17722
17510
24209
32425
26513
23986

l0016E
11993 E
19701 E
17563E
21785 E
24590E
22621 E
28835 E
35450E
26513 E
22625 E

4280
5284
7419
7359
8690
9140
9458
9605
12842

1769
2149
2457
2672
2918
3197
3587
4125
4548
4883
5163

3442
3958
4160
4149
4287
4436
4634
4913
4972
4883
4870

1120
1184
1204
1510
1587
1747
1743
1838
1937
2008

8
8
11
13
17
17
20
20
20
20
20

1463
1517
1701
1876
1928
2087
2182
2596
2848
2817
2933

2847
2794
2881
2913
2832
2896
2819
3092
3114
2817
2767

588
573
518
501
577

4
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
4
4
4

443
485
580
655
704
779
944
1052
1142
1246
1382

862
894
982
1017
1034
1082
1220
1253
1248
1246
1304

NA
NA

NA
NA

9.5
9.1
10.4
10.0
9.6
11.1
17.9
17.6
17.7
17.2
16.7

4769
5451
8208
7025
8378
9107
8079
9943
11816
8285
6856

NA

88
70
70
83
87
89
95
97
111
115
116

3.3
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

11475
9896
10402
10373
10717
11090
11585
12283
12431
12207
12175

1.1
1.1
1.5
1.7
2.2
2.2
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2

401
388
389
383
363
366
348
372
362
316
304

0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.6

183
186
200
195
195
196
214
212
208
201
203

LUXEMBOURG
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

O. i

8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
o 9
0.9
1.0

MADAGASCAR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

GOl

752
934
954
1107E
774

7.1
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
7.9
8. 1
8.3
8.6
8.9
9.1

1 4
1.6
1.4
1.7
2.0
2.7
2.9
4.3
4.1
4.1

6.7
7.7
8.0
9.7
9.8
12.8
10.8
14.3
13.5
10.3

5
6
5
6
7
9
10
16
15
12

NA

NA

NA

4.7
4.8
4.9
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.2
6.4

0.7
1.2
0.9
1.8
1 .4
1.9
3.0
4.6
4.6
3.0

2.9
5.3
4.4
6.5
6.0
8.0
9.9
13.5
12.5
8.4

1
2
1
3
2
3
6
9
9
6

NA

NA

NA

MALAWI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

201
203
212
272
235
262
373
425
460
441

NA

35

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
IoIILlTARY
EXPENDITURES
(MEl

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
ICGE)

"Ilion doIlaF$

Mdlion dOllars

,..dhon 00ltats
YEAR

C""...

Constanl
1981

Thousand

Current

Constant

Constant
1981

1981

PEOPLE

ME

Million

ARMED
FORCES
PEA
1000
PEOPlE

ME
PER
CAPITA

"GNP

ConSlanl

Constant
1981
doBars

GNP
PEA
CAPITA

1981
dollars

MALAYSIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

320
293
374
466
463
643
589
678
922
1446
1613

623
541
634
724
680
893
761
808
1009
1446
1522

69
70
75
76
80
79
82
82
83
100
100

6270
7320
8572
9558
11186
12738
14494
17168
20194
24066
26231

12197
13480
14515
14841
16433
17674
18725
20449
22078
24066
24742

3797
3337
3994
4750
4940
5804
6049
5631
7713
10596
11235

11.5
11.8
12. 1
12.4
12.7
13.0
13.3
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.7

5.1
4.0
4.4
4.9
4. 1
5. 1
4.1
4.0
4.6
6.0
6.2

16.4
16.2
15.9
15.3
13.8
15.4
12.6
14.4
13. 1
13.7
13.5

54
45
52
58
53
68
57
59
72
101
103

6.0
5.9
6.2
6. 1
6.3
6. 1
6.2
6.0
5.9
7.0
6.8

1060
1142
1199
1196
1294
1359
1407
1492
1577
1683
1683

9
11
13
16
20
24
26
28
30

18
20
22
26
30
34
34
34
33

8
8
8
8
8
7
8

16.5
17.7
19.5
21.4
19.3
18.3
17.9
17.0
17.3

3
3
3
4
5
5
5
5
5

NA

NA

NA

29E

27E

139 E

5.4
5.5
5.7
5.8
6.0
6. 1
6.3
6.5
6.6
7.1
7.2

2.2
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
2.9
2.9

NA

B21
793
777
869
996
1072
1055
1166
1153
1118
1150

11 1
114
113
122
158
188
194
199
192

NA

422
430
458
560
678
772
816
979
1054
1118
1219

2.4

20.0

1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
1. 1
1 .3
0.8
1. 1
1.0
1.0

152
144
136
149
166
175
167
179
174
157
159

5
8
6
11
10
10

2
2
4
3
4
7
7
6

246
282
342
452
549
647
763
904
1083
1234
1341

479
519
580
702
807
898
986
1077
1184
1234
1265

197
229
279
375
366
354
381
432
390
496
551

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4

1. 1
1 .5
1. 1
1.6
1 .3
1.2
1.0
0.6
0.5
0.8
1. 1

2.6
3.5
2.3
2.9
2.8
2.9
2.5
1 .4
1 .6
2.0
2.4

17
26
21
36
34
34
32
20
15
24
33

6.7
6.7
13.3
10.0
13.3
23.3
23.3
20.0
2.5
2.5
2.5

1598
1732
1934
2341
2690
2995
3288
3591
2961
3085
3163

3
3
3
3
15
11
12
8
8
8
8

288
284
357
361
421
430
441
505
571
677
747

561
524
605
561
619
597
510
602
624
677
704

115
146
163
229
441
318
318
290
298
291
299

1.3
1.3
1 .3
1 .4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6

1 .6
2.3
2.2
2.4
16.8
20.2
16. 1
14.0
11 .6
8.4
1.9

7.8
8.2
8.1
5.8
23.5
31.8
28.9
29.0
24.2
19.0
18.6

6
9
10
9
74
86
65
56
48
37
34

2.3
2.3
2.3
2. 1
10.7
12. 1
8.6
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.0

431
403
466
401
442
426
407
401
416
451
440

MALI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

7
7
7

NA

MALTA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

3
7
6
7
7
5

9
14

6
6
9
13

4
6
7
8
10
86
11
10
66
56
59

9
12
13
13
103
120
91
84
12
56
55

MAURITANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

36

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME;

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATiONAl
PRQOUCT
IGNP;

MilliOn doIlat'$
YEAR

Current

I GonsE
1981

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

MIIlIIOO dOftars
Thou.....

ClJrr"'"

Constant
1981

Constant

1981

PEOPLE

Mllhon

Me

ME

"'"'1iNP

'"CGE

ME
PEA
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPlE

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Constanl

Constant
1981
dollars

1981
dollars

MAURITIUS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
2
7
3

1
1
0
1
1
1
1
2
7
2

0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

366
436
513
566
662
764
868
990
962
1104
1224

712
804
868
879
973
1060
1122
1179
1052
1104
1155

135
140
152
198
261
317
351
357
330
370
371

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.7
0.3

0.9
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.7
2.0
0.8

1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
7
2

0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
3.3
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

791
893
965
976
1081
1178
1246
1310
1052
1104
1155

53.3
55.1
56.8
58.7
60.5
62.3
64.1
65.8
67.9
71.9
73.8

0.7
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5

4.9
4.4
4.3
4.4
3.9
3.9
2.8
2.7
2. 1
2.3

Nil

16
16
16
20
18
17
13
14
13
16
16

1.5
1 .5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.6
2.3
2.2
2. 1
2.0
2.0

2469
2586
2655
2713
2732
2750
2892
3064
3199
3223
3114

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA'
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

Nil
Nil
NA
NA

12.3

124

NA
NA
NA
Nil
NA

1.3
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1 .5
1 .6
1 .6
1.7
1.7
1.8

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2194
2250
3134
4071
5068
5435
4797
5105
5287
6028
6969

16.8
17.2
17.7
18.2
18.7
19.2
19.8
20.4
21.0
21.6
22.2

2.7
2.9
3.0
4.4
5.8
6.4
5.7
5.5
7.2
7.2
8.8

12.3
13.4
10.8
13.0
15.2
16.5
16.8
16.0
20.8
17.9
20.2

16
17
19
29
41
46
40
40
52
50
63

MEXICO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

448
488
557
788
765
795
688
817
827
1196
1261 E

872
898
943
1223
1125
1103
889
973
904
1196
1190E

80
80
85
95
100
100
145
145
145
145
145

67664
77383
89091
102565
112543
123483
143'529
169277
198679
231759
243677

131624
142488
150851
159250
165330
171334
185428
201625
217215
231759
229852

17799
20341
22094
27534
28660
28602
31256
36413
42183
52502

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

NA
NA
Nil
NA

NA
NA
NA
Nil

1200E

1762E

NA
Nil
Nil
NA
NA

135E

187E

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

139
163
199
341
523
645
625
685
1007
1080
1492

270
301
337
529
768
896
807
817
1101
1080
1408

65
65
65
75
90
85
85
98
117
120
125

5071
5629
6544
7767
9051
10091
11048
12536
14078
15101
16906

9866
10365
11080
12060
13296
14001
14273
14932
15391
15101
15947

NA

MONGOLIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
198'1
1982

39
47
36
25
36
36
36
36

1526E

27 .9
33.6
25.7
16.7
24.0
22.5
22.5
21.2

1175

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

3.9
3.8
3.7
4. 1
4.8
4.4
4.3
4.8
5.6
5.6
5.6

587
602
626
662
71 1
729
720
732
732
699
718

MOROCCO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

37

TABLE I.
MILITARY
EXPENDITlI"lES
(MEl

Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization. and Country-continued
ARMED

GROSS NATIONAL

FORCES

PROOUCT

ERNMENT
.~~~"i~L
RES

(GNPI

PEoP!.E

ME

ARMEO

ME
PER

'GNP

CAPITA

(CGEI

Mtill()ndoilars

YEAR

C""..,.

MdIton doHar$

Constan.
1981

ThOusand

Currenl

Cons~ant

1981

Constant
1981

Mllhon

"0

FORCES
PEA
1000
PEOPLE

Conslant
1981

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Constant
1981
dollars

dollal's

MOZAMBIQUE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

25
64
61
1 13
110
134
155
163

38
94
85
146
131
147
155
154

20
21
26
25
30
30
25
20

2795
2813
3002
3251
3576
3991
4465
4786

4341
4133
4166
4200
4259
4364
4465
4514

6
7
8
8
12
15
15
18
20
21
23

12
14
13
12
17
22
20
21
22
21
22

32
32
32
32
32
37
32
25
21
25
24

1066
1 121
1297
1435
1585
1731
1900
2108
2177
2458
2712

2074
2065
2196
2228
2328
2402
2454
2511
2380
2458
2558

59391
66508
74881
80108
89413
96946
106636
118006
129681
140106
146305

115531
122464
126790
124382
131352
134513
137765
140556
141779
140106
138005

10747
12096
14075
15481
16482
16727
18010
19765
21525
24475
25817

20907
22273
23832
24037
24214
23208
23267
23542
23533
24475
24352

0.9
2 3
2.0
3.5
3.1
3.4
3.5
3.4

7.5
15.9
15.6
28.9

529
523
530

9. 1
9.3
9.5
9.8
10.0
12. 1
12.4
12.7

179
205
206
200
246
308
315
324
334
330
447

12.4
12.7
13.0
13.3
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.6
15.0
15.4
15.8

0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.8
o9
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

6.9
6.9
6.6
6.4
7.2
7.2
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.5
5.0

50481 E
53158
56605
62041
64933
67554
70749
74159
77389
80204
81362

13.3
13.4
13.5
13.7
13.B
13.9
13.9
14.0
14. 1
14.2
14.3

3.2
3.0
3.0
3.2
3.0
3.3
3.1
3.2
3. 1
3.2
3.3

7.2
6.9
6.8
6.5
6. 1
6.6
6.0
6. 1
5.7
5 6
5.5

2.9
3.0
3.0
3.1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1

1.7
1.5
1 6
1 .7
1.6
1 .7
1 .7
1.6
1.9
2.1
2. 1

5.3
4.7
4.6
4.1
4.3
4.3
4. 1
4.3
4.8
5.0
5.0

516
595
545
507

NA

NA
27.8
29.7
29.1

2.2
2.3
2.7
2.6
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.6

477
444
438
428
425
360
360
355

2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.6
1.5

167
162
169
167
171
172
171
172
158
159
161

273
275
286
293
288
319
305
321
314
318
313

8.6
8.6
7.8
8.2
8.1
7.9
7.2
7.6
7.7
7.6
7.6

8686
9139
9391
9079
951B
9677
9911
10039
10055
9866
9650

119
110
129
130
122
128
127
125
145
165
165

4.8
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.0
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2

7209
7424
7944
7753
7811
7486
7505
7594
7591
7895
7855

4
10
8
15
13
12
12
12

NEPAL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NETHERLANDS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1871
2001
2282
2593
2709
3201
3287
3782
4056
4527
4755

3641
3685
3864
4026
3979
4441
4247
4505
4434
4527
4486

115
115
105
112.
112
109
100
107
108
108
108

NEW ZEALAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

178
180
229
261
257
286
306
325
412
514
543 E

347
331
389
405
378
397
395
388
450
514
512 E

14
13
13
13
13
13
12
13
13
13
13

6520
6985
8482
9974
8765
9267
9720
9127
9385
10298
10213

38

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDlTURES
(ME)

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NIlTIONAl
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Mdhonc:ioft&rs

Million_

""_ _1$

YEAR

Coff"'"

NICARAGUA
1972
22
1973
18
1974
23
31
1975
1976
41
1977
53
70
1978
1979
55
119 E
1980
169 E
1981
NA
1982
NIGER
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

4
3
4
6
7
8
10
12
14
14 E
16 E

Cooslant
1981

Thov$lVlCl

Current

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPlE

MIHlOn

ME

ME

aNi'

""OOE

I
I

ARMED
FORCES
PER

ME
pER
CAPITA

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPlE

'.

Constanl

Constant

1981

1981
dollafS

dollars

43
34
40
49
60
74
91
65
130E
169 E
NA

6
6
6
5
5
6
NA
NA
15
40
75

1161
1262
1574
1786
1965
2095
2062
1649
2082
2461
2515

2258
2323
2665
2773
2887
2907
2665
1965
2276
2461
2372

378
380
548
557
523
624
543
450
693
873
NA

2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

1.9
1.5
1.5'
1.8
2. 1
2.5
3.4
3.3
5.7
6.9
NA

11 .4
9.0
7.4
8.9
11 .5
11 .9
16.8
14.6
18.8
19.3
NA

21
16
19
22
26
32
38
27
52
65
NA

3.0
2.9
2.9
2.3
2.2
2.6
NA
NA
6.0
15.4
27.8

1129
1106
1269
1260
1255
1264
1110
818
910
946
878

9
7
6
10
10
11
13
15
15
14 E
15 E

4
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
3
3
3

630
569
647
701
786
888
1074
1264
1453
1648
1764

1226
1048
1096
1088
1154
1232
1388
1506
1589
1648
1664

207 E
174 E
179 E
202 E
243
244
317
341
427
NA
NA

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.8
4.9
5.0
5.2
5.3
5.5
5.7
5.9

0.7
0.7
0.6,
1.0
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9

4.4
4.0
3.8
5.2
4.4
4.6
4.3
4.5
3.6
NA
NA

2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5

278
233
238
226
235
246
266
284
288
289
282

:2

NIGERIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1125
1283
1183
2383
1941
2282
2090
1897
2031
2148
1792

2189
2363
2003
3701
2851
3166
2701
2259
2220
2148
1691

305
;305
300
270
270
300
204
164
150
140
132

28253
33181
41054
44035
51407
57811
59030
67677
74120
76866
77562

54960
61098
69514
68372
75519
80214
76262
80610
81035
76866
73162

8627
11171
14668
23571
24584
25682
24002
25960
23774
NA
NA

59.9
61.7
63.6
65 7
67.8
69.9
72.2
74.6
77.1
79.7
82.4

4.0
3.9
2.9
5.4
3.8
3.9
3.5
2.8
2.7
2.8
2.3

25.4
21 .2
13.7
15.7
11.6
12.3
11 .3
8.7
9.3
NA
NA

36
38
31
56
42
45
37
30
28
27
20

5 1
4.9
4.7
4.1
4.0
4.3
2.8
2.2
1.9
1.8
1.6

917
990
1093
1040
1113
1147
1056
1080
1051
964
887

NORWAY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

669
700
776
932
1015
1109
1293
1413
1508
1649
1823

1301
1290
1314
1447
1491
1539
1670
1683
1648
1649
1719

35
35
35
35
39
39
39
39
37
37
37

20118
22124
25216
28684
31913
34923
38849
44023
50114
55201
58521

39136
40738
42696
44537
46882
48457
50190
52436
54789
55201
55201

15543
16173
16956
18341
21287
22565
23684
24665
24586
23453
22334

3.9
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.1
4. 1
4. 1
4. 1
4.1

3.3
3.2
3.1
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.2
3.0
3.0
3. 1

8.4
8.0
7 8
7.9
7.0
6.8
7. 1
6.8
6.7
7.0
7.7

333
322
328
361
372
384
407
410
402
402
419

9.0
8.8
8.8
8.8
9.8
9.8
9.5
9.5
9.0
9.0
9.0

10034
10184
10674
11134
11720
12114
12241
12789
13363
13463
13463

39

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population. 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

GROSS ,,,..TlONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

ARMED
FORCES

hit_dollars
YEAR

C.......

Constant
1981

ThOusand

Currenl

-I

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Constant
1981

PEOPLE

ME

ME

'"GNP

CliE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Con$tant

Constant
1981

Mllhon

Constant
1981
dollars

1981
dollars

'If"

OMAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

77
121
342
698
785
687
768
779
1179
1512
1685

150
224
579
1084

1154
953
992
928
1289
1512
1589

4
8
10
12
18
12
12
19
15
15
15

324
309
1207
1708
1968
2173
2246
2998
4786
5739
5910

630
569
2044
2652
2891
3016
2902
3571
5233
5739
5575

350
466
500
502
604
588
518
544
467
467
478

9150
10393
11880
13399
14892
16428
19284
21866
25919
30174
33598

395
491
1805
2106
2384
2083
1958
1959
2598
3122
3346

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

23.9
39.4
28.3
40.9
39.9
31.6
34.2
26.0
24.6
26.4
28.5

38. 1
45.7
32. 1
51.5
48.4
45.8
50.7
47.4
49.6
48.4
47.5

215
320
827
1355
1442
1191
1240
1031
1433
1680
1766

5.7
11 .4
14.3
15.0
22.5
15.0
15.0
21 . 1
16.7
16.7
16.7

900
813
2920
3315
3614
3770
3628
3968
5814
6376
6194

17800
19138
20115
20805
21877
22795
24914
26044
28338
30174
31692

2917
3779
4025
4788
5026
5018
5348
6025
5979 E
5839 E
6120 E

69.3
71.2
73.2
75.2
77.3
79.5
81.7
84.1
87.2
89.3
92.1

6.7
6.6
5.7
6. 1
6.0
5.2
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.8
6. 1

40.9
33.4
28.3
26.5
26. 1
23.8
24.5
21 .6
23.6
30.2
31 .:]

17
17
15
16
17
15
16
15
16
19
20

5. 1
6.5
6.8
6.7
7.8
7.4
6.3
6.5
5.4
5.2
5.2

256
268
274
276
283
286
304
309
325
337
344

0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8

2.9
2.8
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.2
1.8
2.1
2.0

NA

12
12
12
13
11
11
12
11
13
13
14

4.4
4.4
4.7
4.7
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.2
4.5
5.0

1518
1600
1542
1595
1513
1529
1692
1667
1868
1829
1903

1 . !:>
1 .4
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.5

4.6
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.4
3.9
3.0

11
10
11
10
12
12
11

NA
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.0
1.0
0.9

780
760
797
785
796
776
774

PAKISTAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

612
685
672
816
893
861
1013
1092
1292 E
1761 E
2033 E

1191
1262
1138
1268
1312
1194
1309
1301
1412 E
1761 E
1918 E

10
10
12
14
14
14
16
18
23
27
31

19
20
21
22
21
20
21
22
25
27
29

7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
10

1249
1390
1548
1747
1854
1983
2357
2659
3247
3659
4035

2429
2560
2621
2712
2724
2752
3046
3168
3550
3659
3806

680E
723
837
896
920
911
959
1243
1235
1364

NA

1 .6
1.6
1.7
1 .7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1 .9
1.9
2.0
2.0

32
30
33
33
37
38
36E

NA

1487
1588
1852
2045
2186
2407
2627

2185
2204
2393
2436
2390
2407
2478

717
707
777
779
847
974
1225 E

2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.0
3. 1
3.2

PANAMA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1~)76

1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

PAPUA NEW GUINEA


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

22
22
25
27
34
38
38 E

3
3
4
3
3
3

40

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MilITARY
EXPENOITURES

.
YEAR

PARAGUAY
1912
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ARMED
FORCES

(ME)

Current

...

Constant
1981

Thousand

_ _

CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

GROSS NIlTIONAl
PRQOVCT
(GNP)

Current

ME

ME

GNP

CGE

Constanl
1981

45
41
38
49
49
53
55
57
66
78
91E

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16

1286
1460
1731
2027
2264
2698
3191
3924
4721
5593
5780

2502
2689
2931
3148
3326
3743
4123
4674
5162
5593
5452

246
310
345
506
626
968
779
539
994 E
1026E
1078 E

478
571
584
786
919
1344
1006
642
1087E
1026E
1017 E

75
75
90
95
100
125
125
125
151
157
164

8367
9185
10792
12305
13171
13904
14775
16482
18868
21432
22783

16276
16913
18273
19106
19348
19292
19089
19632
20G29
21432
21490

PHIlIPPINES
1972
168
1973
223
1974
297
546
1975
1976
614
1977
628
513
1978
1979
673
653
1980
1981
848 E
1982
1033E

327
411
502
849
902
872
662
802
714
848E
974 E

62
63
90
120
140
155
156
156
155
155
155

11416
13223
15291
17660
19797
22425
25716
29795
33884
38391
41830

22207
24348
25891
27420
29082
31115
33223
35489
37046
38391
39457

POLAND
1972
4700E
1973
5095E
1974
5613E
1975
6417E
1976
7052 E
1977
7597E
1978
8050E
1979
8704 E
9615E
1980
10286 E
1981
1982 13494 E

9142 E
9381 E
9504E
9963 E
10359 E
10540E
10399 E
10367 E
10512 E
10286 E
12728E

318
328
366
435
435
430
430
425
421
425
429

80463
91311
105323
120540
129937
140149
155785
166275
177293
183579
186823

156521
168134
178334
187160
190882
194457
201261
198049
193833
183579
176224

Constant

1981

ARMEO
fORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

PEOPLE

Constant
198,
dollars

Constant
"Ilion

1981
dollars

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

1.8
1.5
1.3
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.7

13.5
13.9
13.1
13.6
12.0
12.5
11.3
11.3
11.7
11.9
10.6

17
15
13
17
17
17
18
18
20
23
26

5.8
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.5
4.7

962
996
1046
1124
1146
1247
1374
1507
1613
1695
1603

2785
2810
2884
3295
3495
3417
3143
3001
4021
4329
3945

14.3
14.7
15.1
15.5
15.9
16.3
16.7
17.2
17 .6
18.1
18.6

2.9
3.4
3.2
4.1
4.8
7.0
5.3
3.3
5.3
4.8
4.7

17.2
20.3
20.3
23.9
26.3
39.3
32.0
21.4
27.0
23.7
25.8

33
38
38
50
57
82
60
37
61
56
54

5.2
5.1
6.0
6.1
6.3
7.7
7.5
7.3
8 6
8.7
8.8

1138
1150
1210
1232
1216
1183
1143
1141
1172
1184
1155

3228
3516
3034
4362
4525
4590
4884
4767
5276
6062
5624E

39.7
40.8
41.9
43.1
44.2
45.4
46.5
47.7
49.1
50.5
51.8

1.5
1.7
1.9
3.1
3.1
2.8
2.0
2.3
1.9
2.2
2.5

10.1
11.7
16.6
19.5
19.9
19.0
13.6
16 8
13.5
14.0
17.3

8
10
12
19
20
19
14
16
14
16
18

1.6
1.5
2.1
2.8
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0

559
596
617
636
658
685
714
744
754
760
761

33.0
33.3
33.6
34.0
34.3
34.6
34.9
35.3
35.6
35.9
36.2

5.8
5.6
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.2
5.2
5.4
5.6
7.2

24.5
25.2
21.6
17.7
18.5
17.5
15.9
14.7
13.7
13.3
14.0

277
281
282
293
302
304
298
293
295
286
351

9.6
9.8
10.9
12.8
12.7
12.4
12.3
12.0
11.8
11 .8
11.9

4743
5049
5307
5504
5565
5620
5766
5610
5444
5113
4868

333
295
295
362
412
429
494
512
563
662
857E

37325
37193
44042
56185
55866
60172
65253
70736
76633
77314
90598

41

ME
PER
CAPITA

1000

...

23
22
22
31
33
38
43
48
60
78
96 E

PERU
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

PEOPLE

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENOITUIlES
(ME)

YEAR

C""""'

_ED

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

FORCES

....

MtlIIOO doIiars
Constant

1981

Thousand

Current

_-

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENOITURES
(CGE)

Constant

Constant
1961

1981

PEOPlE

ARMED

ME
PER
CAPITA

ME

GNP

FORCES
PEA

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEoPlE

Constant

....",OtI

...

""

Conslant

1981

1981

dOllars

dollars

PORTUGt\L
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

594
604
831
618
532
522
573
641
763
843
900

1155
1113
1407
960
781
725
741
763
834
843
849

255
260
310
217
60
58
68
68
68
68
68

9461
10405
11492
11853
13216
14760
16248
18338
20670
22662
24522

25
60
60
84
141
211
260
474
604

49
110
101
131
208
293
336
565
660

NA
NA

NA
NA

2
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6

650
770
2535
2452
3170
3433
3708
5301
6619
7194
6516

18404
19160
19458
18404
19416
20480
20991
21843
22598
22662
23131

2944
3252
3553
4218
5078
7344
5951
5614
6449
6983
6848

9.0
9.0
9.1
9.4
9.7
9.7
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.9
10.0

6.3
5.8
7.2
5.2
4.0
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.7
3.7
3.7

39.3
34.2
39.6
22.8
15.4
9.9
12.5
13.6
12.9
12. 1
12.4

128
123
154
102
80
74
75
77
84
85
84

28.3
28.9
34.1
23.1
6.2
6. 1
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.8

2045
2129
2138
1958
2001
2111
2142
2228
2282
2289
2313

512
780
898
2261
2344
2789
2297
2706
3285
4050
3270

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3

3.9
7.8
2.4
3.5
4.5
6.2
7.0
9.0
9. 1

9.6
14.2
11 .3
5.8
8.9
10.5
14.6
20.9
20.1

491
1107
509
659
1041
1465
1682
2827
3303

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

20.0
30.0
15.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
25.0
30.0
30.0
20.0

12647
14178
21463
19037
23284
23822
23955
31569
36184
35971
20490

22631
25629
31498
34311
36611
39430
40819
45133
37432
32226
30315

20.7
20.8
21.0
21.2
21.4
21.7
21 .9
22.0
22.2
22.4
22.5

6.0
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.3
5.1
4.8
4.5
4.3
4.2
4.6

18.4
16. 1
13.7
12.9
12.5
11 .4
11.0
9.6
11.0
12.6
14.9

200
198
205
208
214
207
204
197
186
181
200

10.5
9.2
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.1
10.0
10.0
9.7
9.6
10.5

3328
3421
3584
3717
4059
4109
4259
4404
4308
4299
4394

4.0
4. 1
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.8
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.5

1.8
3.0
2. 1
1.6
1.6
2.1
1 .6
1 .8
1.9
1.7

15.9
25.6
17.7
15.0
12.5
15.8
12.3
12 . 1
12.9
11 .8

3
5
4
3
3
4
3
3
4
4

NA

NA

NA

1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.9

188
189
192
217
215
213
215
222
232
239
240

QATAR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1264 E
1417 E
4292 E
3807 E
4656 E
4764 E
4791 E
6313 E
7236 E
7194 E
6147 E

ROMANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2135
2245
2551
2851
3123
3249
3465
3644
3776
4057
4793

E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E

4153 E
4133 E
4319 E
4426 E
4587 E
4508 E
4476 E
4340 E
4128 E
4057 E
4521E

218
192
218
220
220
220
218
219
215
214
237

35419
38649
44459
50754
59141
64267
72207
81349
87476
96305
104827

68898
71165
75278
78804
86880
89170
93285
96894
9%37
96305
98879

7
12
10
10
10
15
12
16
20
21E

13
23
16
15
15
21
16
19
22
21E

NA

NA

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5

388
422
477
616
659
723
799
933
1083
1267
1401

755
778
807
957
968
1003
1033
1112
1184
1267
1322

RWANDA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

86
91
95
104
122
134
133
162
173
183 E

NA

42

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MiliTARY
EXPENDITURES

ARNED
FORCES

(ME)

YEAR

Cunent

GROSS NATIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

..

MilliOn_

Constant

,98,

T_

COO.,.

CENTRAl.

PEOI'I.E

OOI/EANMENT
EXPENOtTURES
(CGE)

Constant

ME

ME

ME

GNP

'"CGE

PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

1000
PEOI'I.E

Constant

Ylhion

Conslant

Constanl

dOllars

dollars

'98'

'98,

'"

1.5
1.6
1.0
1.0
1.8

4. 1
6.6
3.4
2.5
2.5

2
3
2
3
6

NA
NA

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
O. I
O. I

NA
NA

NA
NA

4540
12597
13112
29822
39279
52508
48230
60669
68863
73485
84311

6.5
6.8
7.0
7.3
7.7
8.2
8.8
9.3
9.3
9.8
10. I

11. 1
13.2
to.9
17.4
19.1
15.3
15.9
18. 1
14.4
13. 1
15.4

,98,

GNP
PER
CAPITA

198'

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0

NA
NA

7
6
8
12
25

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

13
18
22
26
31
30
33

1550
2199
4549
10183
13931
13268
13972
16573
18411
20679
23349

75
75
80
95
95
60
50
50
54
54
55

7207
9026
24700
37612
49608
62304
68140
76838
117144
158077
161118

7
7
7
7
11
13
13
8
8
8
8

1063
1059
1187
139"
1615
1742
1786
2132
2289
2433
2844

2068
1951
2011
2162
2373
2417
2307
2540
2502
2433
2683

380
396
431
434
478
521
467
507
653
716
746 E

4.6
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.9
6. 1

'3

480
526
595
668
678
732
784
893
1008
1116
1190

934
969
1007
1037
996
1016
1013
1064
1103
1116
1123

176
224
240
287
246
237
275
292
334
307
272E

2.9
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0

19
25
28
31
34
30
31

0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

192
253
286
314
345
309
318

34. 1
17 .5
34.7
34. 1
35.5
25.3
29.0
27 .3
26.7
28.1
27.7

238
323
649
1395
1809
1618
1587
1782
1979
2110
2311

11.5
11.0
11.4
13.0
12.3
7.3
5.7
5.4
5.8
5.5
5.4

2156
2444
5974
7999
9464
10542
10003
9841
13771
16130
15047

1.9
1.9
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.9
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.1

10. I
9.5
7.0
8.6
8.6
8.8
11 .5
12.5
8.7
7.7
7.5

8
8
6
7
8

1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
2.2
2.5
2.4
1.5
1.4
1 .4
1.3

449
415
410
432
465
465
427
461
439
412
439

0.8
1.0
0.8
1. 1
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.7
1.1
1. :3
1 . '

4. 1
4.5
3.6
3.8
4.0
4. 1
4.9
6.0
3.6
4.8
4.9

1.0
1.0
1.7
1.7
1.0
1.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

322
334
335
345
321
317
316
322
324
318
312

SAUDI ARABIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

797
1194
2686
6558
9483
9562
10815
13914
16840
20679
24754

14020E
16620E
41822 E
58399 E
72876 E
86447 E
88032 E
91521E
128073 E
158077 E
151977E

SENEGAL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

19
20
17
24
28
33
41
53
51
55E
59E

38
37
30
37
41
45
53
63
56
55E
55E

10
11
10
9
9

SIERRA LEONE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

3
5
5
7
6
7
10
14
11
14
14

7
10
8
11
9
9
13
17
12
14
13

3
5
5
3
4
1
2
2
2
2

43

2
3
2
3
3
3
4
5
3
4
:3

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES

ARMED
FORCES

(ME)

GROSS NIlTIONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

Mflbon doIafs

YEAR

Cumm.

Constanl
1981

Thousand

C""",,,

""-I

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
Mi_
_
(CGE)

PEOPt.E

ME

o;:;p

ME

CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES

PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPt.E

Constant
1981
dollars

ConSlant
Constant
1981

Constant
1981

""1

1981
dollars

SINGAPORE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

198
197
205
256
317
410
419
452
584
708
869E

385
362
347
398
466
569
541
539
639
708
820 E

20
24
24
27
35
36
64
57
50
50
50

3335
3854
4431
5222
5843
6637
7853
9260
10721
12954
14672

6487
7098
7503
8108
8583
9210
10145
11030
11721
12954
13839

23
24
31
30
32
36
90
94
102
133
160

45
44
52
47
47
50
116
112
112
133
151

25
25
30
30
31
53
54
54
54
54
54

734
762
678
958
1007
1154
1352
1500
1665
1855
1985

1428
1404
1149
1488
1479
1601
1747
1787
1821
1855
1872

1382
1714
1993
2510
3323
3491
2833
2971
2501
2873 E
2982 E

75
40
45
50
59
67
78
70
70
70
70

29794
32925
38703
43113
46137
48765
53943
61197
72231
82681
87208

57958
60626
65534
66941
67777
67662
69690
72892
78969
82681
82260

4000
4000
4100
4100
4200
4200
4200
4300
4300
4300
4400

608200
692000
792400
890100
960200
1052200
1165000
1275400
1423800
1587000
1715000

1183103
1274207
1341706
1382043
1410573
1459935
1505081
1519123
1556634
1587000
1617703

1365
1632
1558
1964
2056
2238
2372
2580
3099
4038
4692 E

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5

5.9
5. 1
4.6
4.9
5.4
6.2
5.3
4.9
5.5
5.5
5.9

28.2
22.2
22.3
20.3
22.7
25.4
22.8
20.9
20.6
17.5
17.5

175
164
157
173
202
247
235
224
266
295
328

9.1
10.9
10.9
11 .7
15.2
15.7
27.8
23.8
20.8
20.8
20.0

2948
3226
3410
3525
3732
4004
4411
4595
4884
5397
5535

275
345
454
433
459
405
550
659
608
537
720

2.9
3.0
3. 1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
5.4
5.9
6.1

3.2
3.2
4.6
3.2
3.2
3.2
6.7
6.3
6.2
7.2
8. 1

16.4
12.8
11.5
10.9
10.2
12.6
21 .2
17.0
18.4
24.9
21.0

15
14
16
14
14
15
34
32
20
22
24

8.6
8.3
9.7
9.4
9.7
16. 1
15.9
15.4
10.0
9.2
8.9

492
468
370
465
462
485
513
510
337
314
307

14899
14901
17562
19139
20125
19886
20359
20401
21024
18850E
19382 E

23.7
24.3
24.9
25.5
26.1
26.7
27.2
27.8
24.7
29.4
30.2

2.4
2.8
3.0
3.8
4.9
5.2
4.1
4.1
3.2
3.5
3.6

9.3
11 .5
11 .4
13. 1
16.5
17 .6
13.9
14.6
11.9
15.2
15.4

58
70
80
98
127
130
104
106
101
97
98

3.2
1.6
1 .8
2.0
2.3
2.5
2.9
2.5
2.8
2.4
2.3

2445
2494
2631
2625
2596
2534
2562
2622
3197
2812
2723

dc

261247
280436
298514
323579
352569
370741
388608
423791
469242
495600
545491

247.5
249.8
252.1
254.5
256.8
259.0
261.3
263.4
265.5
267.7
270.0

15.4
14.9
14.9
14.9
15.3
i5 J)
14.8
15.0
15.0
14.9
15.0

69.7
67.7
67.0
63.8
61.2
59.1
57.3
53.7
49.7
47.8
44.4

735
760
793
810
840
845
851
863
877
884
897

16.2
16.0
16.3
16. 1
16.4
16.2
16. 1
16.3
16.2
16. 1
16.3

4780
5100
5322
5430
5492
5636
5760
5767
5863
5928
5991

SOMALIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

SOUTH AfRICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

710
931
1177
1617
2262
2516
2193
2494
2288
2873E
3161 E

SOVIET UNION
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

93600
103100
118100
132900
147000
157800
172300
190900
213200
236700
257000

182075
189842
199969
206351
215949
218948
22259'7
227380
233090
236700
242419

44

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MfllTARV
EXPENDITURES
(hiE)

....
YEAR

Current

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PRQOUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAL
GO\IERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
leGE)

hlillioo_

MiNion doIlanI

TI_ _
Constant
1981

Curren!

COnSlan!
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPLE

MIllion

Me

ARhiED
FORcES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

CGE

hiE
PER
CAPITA

Constant
1981
doHars

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Conslanl
1981

dollars

SPAIN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

29685
31910
34795
37966
37178
44173
47160
50421
53846
61290E
67171E

34.4
34.7
35.1
35.4
35.8
36.3
36.7
37. 1
37.4
37 8
38.0

3 0
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.5
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2. 1

14.4
13 . 1
12.4
11.8
11 .3
6.9
6 5
6.5
6.5
6.0
5.8

123
120
123
126
117
84
83
87
93
96
102

10.6
10.5
10.7
10.6
10.3
8.5
8.7
9.4
9. 1
9.0
9.3

4189
4487
4702
4700
4776
4859
4893
4869
4894
4859
4894

2780
2861
2934
3057
3275
3332
3638
3862
4142
4327
4574

863
745
669
786
901
778
1474
1470
1768
1486
1712

13.0
13.2
13.4
13.7
13.9
14. 1
14.3
14.6
14.8
15 . 1
15.4

1. 1
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

3.5
3.1
3.2
2.8
2.2
2.7
1.8
2.0
1 .6
1.7
1.4

2
1

1.2
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
0.9
1.2
1 .2
1.3
1.2

213
216
219
223
235
236
254
264
279
286
297

3212
3100
3725
4574
5725
7123
8024
8161
8801
10040
11325

6248
5708
6308
7103
8411
9883
10366
9721
9622
10040
10682

1447
1353
1228
1690
2127
2548
2326
2426

14.4
14.9
15.5
15.9
16.4
16.9
17.6
18.2
18.7
19.3
20.0

4.5
4.4
3.2
2.6
2.3
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.3
2.9
3.0

19.3
18.4
16.2
11.0
9.1
11.5
14. 1
13.7
14.2
12.3
14.5

19
16
12
11
11
17
18
18
16
15
16

2.4
2.3
2.3
3. 1
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3

434
383
407
446
512
584
589
534
514
520
534

534
557
685
844
884
969
1067
1140

830
818
950
1090
1053
1060
1067
1075

325
365
408
390
362
356

0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
5.0

2076
2046
2376
2727
2632
2650
2668
2688

4260
4176
4323
4487
4190
3068
3060
3256
3502
3655
3889

365
365
375
375
368
309
321
349
341
341
353

74078
84567
97484
107162
116388
127132
139007
151659
167445
183691
197175

144100
155718
165062
166389
170979
176397
179586
180641
183067
183691
185989

15
12
12
14
13
14
20
24
26
24
26

30
23
21
22
19
20
26
29
28
24
24

16
18
18
18
18
18
13
18
18
19
18

1429
1554
1733
1969
2229
2401
2816
3242
3788
4327
4849

143
135
117
119
131
210
254
278E
289E
289 E
340E

279
249
198
185
193
292
329
331 E
316 E
289E
321E

35
35
35
50
50
50
71
65
65
65
65

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

2190
2267
2553
2890
2852
2211
2368
2734
3203
3655
4123

SRI LANKA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2
1

SUDAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

2222

2360
2221

SURINAME
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
NA

45

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILiTARY
EXPENDITUI'IES
iME)

ARMED
fORCES

GROSS NATiONAL
PRODUCT
(GNP)

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDiTURES
(CGEI

MlIhcw'1dc::lMer$

I,tilhondol.a.ts

Mt_ _

ME

PEOPLE

CG'ir

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
fORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPlE

YEAR

CutTOO1

Constant

1981

Thousand

Current

Conslant

Constant
1981

1981

Constant

Constant
Mllhon

1981

1981

dollars

dollars

SWAZILAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
1
1
3
6
9
10
11
27
27 E

0
0
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

144
158
180
219
261
284
317
338
415
472
500

280
291
305
340
383
394
409
402
454
472
472

3444
3441
3517
3457
3409
3422
3468
3519
3492
3537
3658

75
75
75
75
66
68
68
68
70
70
70

49269
54160
61410
68436
73085
75605
82158
92863
102766
111624
118929

95841
99727
103980
106260
107365
104902
106141
110609
112353
111624
112182

0
0
2
2
5
8
11
12
12
27
26E

0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.9
0.7
1 .5
2.2
2.8
3.0
2.8'
5.7
5.5

0.0
0.0
2.2
1.9
4.4
5.5
5.0
6.3
7.7
13.0
12.4

0
0
5
4
11
17
23
24
21
45
43

0.0
0.0
2.0
2.6
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.3
3.3
3.3

702
582
611
681
767
788
819
805
756
787
787

32501
32428
35370
35794
39282
42016
45567
48430
49808
52395
53519

8. 1
8. 1
8.2
8.2
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3

3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.3
3.2
3. 1
3.2
3.3

10.6
10.6
9.9
9.7
8.7
8. 1
7.6
7.3
7.0
6.8
6.8

425
424
429
421
415
412
417
424
420
426
440

9.3
9.3
9. 1
9.1
8.0
8.3
8.3
8.2
8.4
8.4
8.4

11832
12312
12680
12958
13093
12638
12788
13326
13536
13448
13516

81
118
121
123
127
157
230
191
165
207
211E

SWEDEN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1770
1869
2077
2226
2321
2466
2685
2955
3194
3537
3878

SWITZERLAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

939
967
1075
1101
1306
1323
1390
1602
1758
1912
2017 E

1827
1780
1821
1710
1919
1836
1795
1908
1922
1912
1903E

25
25
25
25
25
18
18
23
23
23
23

46689
50911
56376
56653
59317
64650
69481
77503
88083
98159
101982

90823
93744
95457
87964
87139
89702
89763
92313
96301
98159
96196

12712
14720
15547
16257
17782
17971
18043
18556
19020
18752
19032 E

6.4
6.4
6.4
6.4
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.4
6.4
6.4

2.0
1.9
1 .9
1.9
2.2
2 0
2.0
2.1
2.0
1.9
2.0

14.4
12. 1
11 .7
10.5
10.8
10.2
10.0
10.3
10. 1
10.2
10.0

285
278
284
267
304
291
285
302
300
298
297

3.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.0
2.9
2.9
3.7
3.6
3.6
3 6

14191
14647
14915
13744
13831
14238
14248
14653
15047
15337
15030

SYRIA

e
398
556
645
1100
1157
1174
1392
1722
2189
2437
2528E

e
776
1025
1092
1708
1700
1629
1799
2052
2393
2437
2385E

115
115
130
230
230
225
225
250
250
270
290

3816
3805
5238
7020
7990
8290
9703
11000
13272
15651
17583

7423
7007
8870
10900
11738
11502
12536
13103
14511
15651
16586

2086
2304
3037
5038
5630
5550
5041
5051
6685
6461
6780E

6.7
6.9
7.2
7.4
7.7
7.9
8.2
8.5
8.8
9 1
9.4

10.5
14.6
12.3
15.7
14.5
14.2
14.4
15.7
16.5
15.6
14.4

37.2
44.5
36.0
33.9
30.2
29.4
35.7
40.6
35.8
37.7
35.2

115
148
151
230
220
206
219
241
272
267
253

17.2
16.7
18. 1
31.1
29.9
28.5
27.4
29.4
28.4
29.7
30.9

1108
1015
1232
1473
1524
1456
1528
1541
1649
1720
1764

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

46

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
{ME)

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS N"TlOH"l
PROOUCT
(GNP)

CENTAAL
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(eGE)

M"IK)fl~

MieIIOl'l dollars

...._doIIars
YEAR

Current

Constant
1981

Thou$8l'ld

C<Jrrent

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPLE

ME

ME

GNi>

""CGE

_EO
FORCES
PER
1000
PEOPLE

ME
PER
CAptTA

Constant
1981
dollars

ConSlant
Mol"""

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1981
dollars

TANZANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

45
48
75
106
104
120
167
392
327
277
306

88
88
127
165
153
167
216
467
358
277
288

25
25
20
25
25
31
63
53
53
53
53

1951
2179
2439
2763
3129
3537
3801
4275
4843
5222
5589

3796
4012
4130
4290
4597
4907
4910
5092
5295
5222
5272

882
935
1072
1338
1264
1135
1255
1795
1982
1733
2088

14. 1
14.5
14.9
15.4
15.8
16.3
16.8
17.4
18.6
19.2
HI. 9

2.3
2.2
3.1
3.9
3.3
3.4
4.4
9.2
6.8
5.3
5.5

10.1
9.5
11.9
12.3
12. 1
14.7
17.2
26.0
18. 1
16.0
13.8

6
6
8
10
9
10
12
26
19
14
14

1.8
1.7
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.9
3.8
3.0
2.8
2.8
2.7

269
276
277
278
291
301
292
292
284
272
264

345
316
345
398
522
640
873
1119
1228
1335
1562

671
581
584
619
768
889
1128
1333
1343
1335
1473

205
233
221
227
228
230
250
250
234
238
241

9919
11467
13240
15376
17603
19941
23362
26611
30571
35032
38695

19295
21115
22419
23875
25860
27668
30181
31696
33423
35032
36500

3428
3267
2904
3606
4365
4622
5261
5636
6243
6433
7336

39.2
40.3
41.4
42.4
43.5
44.6
45.6
46.7
47.7
48.7
49.7

3.5
2.8
2.6
2.6
3.0
3.2
3.7
4.2
4.0
3.8
4.0

19.6
17.8
20.1
17.2
17.6
19.2
21.4
23.6
21.5
20.8
20 1

17
14
14
14
17
19
24
28
28
27
29

5.2
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.2
5.2
5.5
5.4
4.9
4.9
4.8

492
524
541
563
594
620
661
678
700
719
734

5
5
5
8
9
13
15
17
19
22
19

10
10
9
13
14
18
20
20
20
22
18

2
2
2
3
4
4
5
4
4
4
4

349
383
441
493
511
575
684
708
774
867
918

679
706
747
766
750
798
883
844
846
867
866

125
119
111
203
250
242
286
259
268
224
229

2.1
2. 1
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7

1 .6
1.5
1.3
1.8
1 .9
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.5
2.6
2. 1

8.5
9.1
8.5
6.6
5.7
7.4
7.2
8. 1
7.8
9.9
7.9

5
5
4
5
6
7
8
8
8
8
6

1.0
1.0
0.9
1.3
1.7
1.7
2.0
1.6
1 .5
1.5
1.5

323
336
339
333
326
332
353
337
325
321
320

2319
2726
2494
3156
3817
4336
5149
5602
6013
6796
7884

4512
5019
4224
4900
5608
6017
6653
6672
6574
6796
7437

1152
1095
1079
1122
1706
1797
2188
2535
2411
2786

1. 1
1. 1
1. 1
1.1
1. 1
1. 1
1. 1
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.5
o 6

1.6
1 .3
1. 1
1. 1
2.0
1.8
2.0
2.2
1.5
1 .5

17
12
10
11
30
29
39
46
29
35

NA

NA

NA

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
1 .7
1.7

4102
4563
3840
4454
5098
5470
6048
5560
5479
5663
6197

THAILAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

TOGO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

9
7
6
7
22
23
33
46
32
42

18
14
11
12
33
31
43
55
35
42

NA

NA

1
1
1
1
2
2

NA

47

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENOITIJAES
IMEI

YEAR

""-

Cun...,

Constant
1981

_0
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAl
PRODUCT
{GNP]

PEOPlE

ME

ME
PER
CAPITA

GNP

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPlE

Thousat'<l

Constant
1981

Cunenl

MI'IIon

Constant
1981

Constant
1981
dollars

dollars

TUNISIA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

33
35
43
57
59
66
79
313
280
228
283 E

65
64
72
89
87
91
103
373
306
228
267E

20
20
20
20
21
20
22
24
29
29
32

2456
2599
3125
3702
4197
4663
5354
6238
1255
8348
8951

4778
4786
5291
5748
6166
6470
6917
7430
7932
8348
8443

1216
1745
1407
1767
1956
2288
2476
2758
2162
2914
2735 E

5.3
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.9
6.0
6.2
6.3
6.5
6.1
6.8

1.4
1.3
1.4
1.6
1 .4
1.4
1.5
5.0
3.9
2.1
3.2

5.4
3.7
5.2
5. 1
4.5
4.0
4.2
13.5
11. 1
1.8
9.8

12
12
13
15
14
15
16
59
41
34
39

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.6
3.3
3.5
3.8
4.5
4.3
4.1

901
886
962
1008
1045
1078
1115
1119
1220
1246
1241

4. 1
3.9
3.7
5,6
6.0
5.1
5. 1
4,2
4.2
4.0
5.2

18.9
18.8
20.0
26.0
25.9
20.8
19. 1
14.7
16.6
20.0
NA

45
43
43
69
18
74
67
54
51
59
66

16.3
14.2
13.5
11 .2
11. 1
12.1
13.4
12.9
11.2
12,4
13.3

1087
1115
1161
1229
1294
1313
1320
1282
1230
1251
1219

TURKEY

1972
1973
1914
1975
1976
1977
1918
1979
1980
1981
1982

866
917
1009
1807
2204
2295
2281
2035
2166
2814
3375

1686
1689
1109
2801
3238
3185
2947
2424
2368
2814
3183

610
545
535
453
460
540
582
517
517
583
638

20957
23318
27239
32013
36572
40244
44455
48010
51752
58942
65252

40768
42937
46121
49800
53126
55840
57432
57185
56581
58942
61550

8905
8992
8549
10781
12493
15336
15396
16413
14255
14053
NA

37.5
38.5
39.5
40.5
41.5
42.5
43,5
44.6
46.0
47.1
48.1

311
188
236
200
206
156
151
83
63
97
102

605
347
401
311
303
217
195
100
69
97
96

13
12
25
25
25
23
6
6
6
6
6

6172
6498
1139
7429
8024
8587
8874
8433
8875
10325
11550

12007
11965
12089
11535
11788
11914
11464
10045
9103
10325
10895

2620
1958
2055
1708
1686
1034
980
524
269
282
492

10.5
10.8
11 .2
11.5
11.9
12.4
12.8
13.2
12 8
13.1
13.4

5.0
2.9
3.3
2.7
2.6
1 .8
1.7
1.0
0.7
0.9
0.9

23. 1
17.7
19.5
18.2
18.0
21.0
19.9
19. 1
25.7
34.5
19.6

57
32
35
21
25
17
15
7
5
7
7

1 .2
1. 1
2.2
2.2
2. 1
1.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4

1143
1101
1019
1003

10

1252
2478
7818
9659
12376
15417
14701
19796
27821
28157
27366

2436 E
4564 E
13237 E
14998 E
18181E
21475 E
18993 E
23579 E
30417 E
28157E
25813 E

86
195
340
500
1002
2345
2634
2810
4558
5476
5719E

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.9
1.0
1. 1
1.2

0.9
0.6
0.3
0.4
0.7
3.4
5.6
6.0
6.2
7.3
8.0

24.5
13.2
10.8
10.5
12.5
31 . 1
40.3
50.7
41.4
37.3
35.9

70
64
73
81
178
910
1327
1584
1885
1857
1713

33.3
27.5
38.0
35.0
38.6
31.3
31.3
27.8
44.0
40.0
36.7

8121
1 14 11
26475
24996
25973
26844
23741
26199
30417
25597
21511

UGANDA

1912
1973
1914
1915
1976
1977
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

990

960
895
761
758
788
813

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
14
21
33
85
525
822
1196
1724
2043
2179E

21
25
36
52
124
728
1062
1425
1885
2043
2055E

11

19
21
27
25
25
25
44
44
44

48

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MIlITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

.....
Current

YEAR

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NilTIONA!.
PROOUCT
(GNP)

..

M;4hon doIars

Constant
1981

Thousand

Currem

_-

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Constant

Constant

1981

1981

PEOPlE

MillIOn

ME

ME

GiiP

'C'G'E

""

'"

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1Il00
PEOPlE

GNP
PER
CAPITA

Constanl

Constanl

1981
dollafS

dollars

1981

UNITED KINGDOM
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

22743
22894
23572
23068
23876
23261
23452
24158
25902
24385
25815

370
370
350
345
344
318
318
328
326
333
322

228202
260331
279997
300956
329486
352826
392272
434217
465482
498952
531606

443911
479358
474097
467290
484029
489549
506782
517195
508910
498952
501447

160926
167465
188649
203280
200304
187563
195409
199431
208027
206216
215303

55.9
56.0
56.0
56.0
56.0
55.9
55.9
55.9
56.0
56.0
56.0

5. 1
4.8
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.6
4.7
5. 1
4.9
5.1

14. 1
13.7
12.5
11.3
11 .9
12.4
12.0
12. 1
12.5
11 .8
12.0

406
408
420
411
426
416
419
432
462
435
461

6.6
6.6
6.3
6.2
6. 1
5.7
5.7
5.9
5.8
5.9
5.8

7941
8560
8466
8344
8643
8757
9065
9252
9087
8909
8954

151027
144283
145457
141213
133702
140034
141137
145646
157413
169888
185205

2323
2252
2162
2128
2081
2074
2062
2027
2050
2082
2108

1190900
1331300
1440700
1556100
1726400
1926100
2162000
2421000
2637000
2948700
3071400

2316602
2451375
2439420
2416129
2536152
2672477
2793121
2883642
2883021
2948700
2897151

452796
479871
479909
538206
567299
587956
614525
624979
680314
718600
741040

209.0
210.0
212.0
214.0
215.0
217.0
219.0
221.0
227.7
229.8
232.1

6.5
5.9
6.0
5.8
5.3
5.2
5. 1
5. 1
5.5
5.8
6.4

33.4
30.1
30.3
26.2
23.6
23.8
23.0
23.3
23.1
23.6
25.0

722
687
686
659
621
645
644
659
691
739
798

11 . 1
10.7
10.2
9.9
9.7
9.6
9.4
9.2
9.0
9. 1
9. 1

11084
11673
11506
11290
11796
12315
12754
13048
12661
12831
12482

5
6
6
17
20
22
27
27
27
32

10
11
11
26
30
30
34
32
30
32

887
906
967
976
1073
1069
1139
1200
1151
1253
1255

10.9
10.9
10.1
19.0
18.8
20.2
24.0
17 .8
18.2

NA
NA

5.7
5.8
6.0
6.1
6.2
6.4
6.5
6.7
5.9
6.3
6.4

1.2
1.2
1.2
2.8
2.8
2.9
3. 1
2.7
2.6
2.6

NA

NA
NA

1
1
1
4
4
4
5
4
5
5

NA

456
492
571
629
730
770
882
1008
1052
1253
1330

98
104
112
141
161
152
145
182
166

NA

5
5
5
5
10
6
6
4
5
5
5

NA

0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
1.6
0.9
0.9
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.8

155
156
161
160
173
167
175
179
195
198
196

103
11 1
149
164
146
168
184
222
271
363
409

202
204
252
254
215
234
238
264
296
363
386

20
20
25
25
28
28
28
28
28
28
29

4395
4694
5222
6005
6628
7122
8062
9336
10711
11526
10998

8549
8643
8842
9324
9737
9882
10416
11120
11710
11526
10374

2161
1985
2149
2195
2405
2421
2462
2370
2612
2845
3159

2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9

2.4
2.4
2.9
2.7
2.2
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.5
3.2
3.7

9.4
10.3
11 .8
11.6
8.9
9.7
9.7
11.2
11 .4
12.8
12.2

72
73
90
9f
74
80
82
91
102
125
133

7.1
7. 1
8.9
8.9
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.7
10.0

3053
3087
3158
3330
3357
3407
3591
3834
4038
3974
3577

11691
12433
13921
14857
16253
16764
18153
20282
23692
24385
27368

UNITED STATES
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

17639
78358
85906
90948
91013
100925
109247
122279
143981
169888
196345

UPPER VOLTA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

URUGUAY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

49

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY

EXPENDITURES

ARMED
FOflCES

(t,IE)

YEAR

Cu......

Con,tan1
1981

,..,..,..,.,

GROSS NATIONAl.
PRODUCT
(GNP)
1oIi_ _

C.....,.,

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

--

Constanl
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPlE

t,lE

t,lE

GNP

""CGE

t,lE
PER
CAPiTA

ARt.lEO
FOflCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000
PEOPLE

Constant
1981
dollars

Constant

'98,
"""",00

'"

daltars

VENEZUELA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

474
515
610
723
738
833
852
750
780
1059E
1638E

922
950
1033
1123
1085
1156
1101
893
853
1059E
1545E

45
50
50
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
56

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

625
630
665
643
637
615
660
650
900
1000
1200

1065
1068
912
712

1100
1090
980

39
35
37
32
45
54
83
97
120

77
64
63
50
67
75
107
116
131

NA
NA

NA
NA

23816
26615
31022
36752
42056
47421
52402
57272
61822
68120
70469

46328
49008
52527
57065
61783
65797
67700
68217
67589
68120
66471

10731
11063
20008
20210
20859
22437
21852
16496
18513
24571
22904

11.5
11.9
12.3
12.7
13.2
13.6
14.1
14.5
17.3
16.9
17.4

2.0
1.9
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.6
2.3

8.6
8.6
5.2
5.6
5.2
5.2
5.0
5.4
4.6
4.3
6.7

80
79
84
88
82
85
78
61
49
62
88

3.9
4.2
4.1
4.3
4.2
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.2
3.3
3.2

4028
4118
4270
4493
4680
4838
4801
4704
3906
4030
3820

23.0
23.4
23.9
24.3
48.8
50.1
51.2
52.4
53.7
54.6
55.8

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

27.2
26.9
27.8
26.5
13. 1
12.3
12.9
12.4
16.8
18.3
21.5

103
101
90
81
216

VIETNAM
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

NA

8400E

9183 E

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

5458
5351
5512
5364

NA
NA
NA
NA

19.3
19.8
20.3
20.7

19 5
20.0
16.6
13.3

NA
NA
NA
NA

55
53
45
34

57.0
55.1
48.3

NA

2805
2906
3255
3454

NA

282
270
271
259

13
12
14
19
21
20
20
20
23
23
25

379
328
324
287
382
506
576
693
777
875
956

737
605
548
446
562
702
744
825
850
875
902

170
141
132
106
154
178
213
246
288

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.7
1 7
1.8
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.0

10.5
10.7
11.5
11 .2
12.0
10.7
14.4
14. 1
15.5

45.2
45.8
47.8
46.9
43.6
42.2
50.5
47.2
45.7

48
40
39
29
39
41
59
61
69

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

8.1
7.5
8.8
11.2
12.4
11 . 1
11 . 1
10.5
12. 1
11.5
12.5

461
378
342
262
330
390
413
434
447
438
451

1221E
1290E
1281 E
1281 E
7187E

2375 E
2376 E
2170E
1989 E
10558 E

NA

NA

7600E

9818 E

NA
191

NA
171

NA
NA

VI ETNAM. SOUTH
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

547
580
539
459

YEMEN (ADEN)
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
NA

50

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES

ARMED
FORCES

(ME)

CENTRAl.
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

GROSS NATIONAL
PAOOUCT
(GNP)
1011 _ _

- -

MOIIoon_
YEAR

c-.nt

Constant
1981

T-..nd

ClIfTenl

Constant

Constsn!
1981

1981

YEMEN (SANAA)
1972
1973
1974
1975
1916
1977
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

35
38
55
78
97
121
149
362
311
443
610

PEOf'\.E

ME

ME

'"GNP

"'CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER
1000

GNP
PER
CAPITA

PEOPLE

...

Constant
1981
dollafs

Const3nl

1981
do'I~H$

68
70
94
122
143
168
192
431
340
443
575

20
31
35
42
42
40
40
36
36
30
22

873
1073
1222
1443
1695
1874
2189
2541
2926
3264
3636

1699
1975
2069
2241
2490
2601
2828
3026
3199
3264
3430

223
235
278
331
420
496
710
1131
1133
1502
1862

4.5
4.6
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.0
5. 1
5.2
5.4
5.6

4.0
3.6
4.5
5.5
5.8
6.5
6.8
14.3
10.6
13.6
16.8

30.5
30.0
33.8
37.0
34.2
33.9
27. 1
38.2
30.0
29.5
30.9

15
15
20
26
29
34
38
84
65
82
102

4.4
6.7
7.4
8.9
8.8
8.2
8.0
7. 1
6.9
5.6
3.9

377
429
440
476
518
530
565
593
615
604
612

982
1042
1425
1685
1965
1976
2068
2413
2798
2891

1910
1918
2412
2616
2886
2741
2671
2874
3059
2891

43385
44676
51175
51500
54154
58831
63779
66160
67355
67843
67683

20.8
21.0
21.2
21.4
21.6
21.8
22.0
22.2
22.4
22.5
22.7

4.4
4.3
4.7
5.1
5.3
4.7
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.3

20.5
20.4
21.1
23.0
22.3
16.8
45.2
46.3
49.7
51. 3

91
91
113
122
133
125
121
129
136
128

NA

22303
24263
30224
33169
36864
42405
49368
55546
61608
67843
71754

9298
9403
11414
11354
12942
16314
5907
6208
6156
5639

NA

258
25B
262
270
275
270
260
258
258
259
247

NA

NA

NA

12.4
12.3
12.4
12.6
12.7
12.4
11 .8
11 .6
11 .5
11 .5
10 9

2085
2127
2414
2406
2507
2699
2899
2980
3007
3015
2981

112
109
191
170
125
138
131
130
121
71

219
201
323
264
184
192
169
154
133
71

5102
5510
5712
5373
5203
5277
5006
5033
5149
5140
5089

11 . 1
8.8
10.4
12.3
8.0
10.8
11.9
11.0
8.6
4.1

9
8
13
10
7
7
6
5
4
2

2.0
2.8
2.5
2.2
2. 1
2.0
1.9
0.8

222
233
235
214
202
200
184
179

0.9

180

NA

22.9
23.6
24.3
25.0
25.7
26.3
27.2
28.1
28.6
29.5
30.4

4.3
3.7
5.7
4.9
3.5
3.6
3.4
3.1
2.6
1.4

NA

2623
2992
3373
3460
3542
3803
3875
4226
4710
5140
5395

1977
2284
3115
2150
2313
1779
1418
1410
1540
1736

NA

45
65
60
55
55
53
53
23
26
26
26

NA

NA

NA

0.9
0.9

174
167

87
58
66
67
74
71
80
138
113

169
108
113
105
109
99
103
165
124

14
16
16
16

NA
NA

NA
NA

1606
1694
2020
2156
2370
2422
2658
2597
2961
3157
3463

3125
3119
3420
3348
3483
3361
3434
3094
3238
3157
3266

1210
1580
1141
1838
1485
1464
1504
1113
1590
1468
1502

4.5
4.7
4.8
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.5
5.6
5.8
6.0
6. 1

5.4
3.5
3.3
3. 1
3.1
3.0
3.0
5.3
3.8

14.0
6.9
9.9
5.7
7.4
6.8
6.9
14.9
7.8

31
23
23
21
21
18
18
29
21

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

3. 1
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.8
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.5

694
663
712
669
682
634
624
552
558
526
535

YUGOSLAVIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

ZAIRE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ZAMBIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

17

20
14
14
15
15
15

51

TABLE I. Military Expenditures, Armed Forces, GNP, Central Government Expenditures


and Population, 1972-1982, By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
MILITARY
EXPENDITURES
(ME)

YEAR

"""""_
e I

Constant
1881

ARMED
FORCES

GROSS NATIONAL
PAOO\JCT
(GNP)

CENTRAl
GOVERNMENT
EXPENDITURES
(CGE)

Million dollars

n .........

Constant
1981

Constant
1981

PEOPLE

ME

ME

"""iiNP

""CGE

ME
PER
CAPITA

ARMED
FORCES
PER

GNP
PER
CAPITA

1000

PEOPLE

Mlllmo

"to

Constant

Constant

1981
dollars

dollars

1881

ZIMBABWE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

34
42
66
75
141
210
239
282
447
419E
453 E

67
78
112
117
207
291
310
336
489
419E
428E

11
11
15
15
17
17
24
38
35
60
40

2383
2578
3105
3304
3464
3371
3554
4145
5196
6393
6912

E Estimate based on partial or uncertain data.

4636
4747
5257
5130
5089
4677
4591
4937
5681
6393
6520

878
959
1149
1163
1464
1493
1679
1590
2031
2272E
3181E

NA Not Available.

5.9
6. 1
6.3
6.6
6.7
6.9
7.1
7.3
7.5
7.9
8.1

1.4
1.7
2. 1
2.3
4.1
6.2
6.8
6.8
8.6
6.6
6.6

... Pre-independence.

7.6
8.2
9.8
10. 1
14.2
19.5
18.5
21.2
24. 1
18.4
13.5

11
12
17
17
31
42
43
46
65
53
52

o Nil or negligible .

a In order to reduce distortions in trends caused by data gaps, the totals for the world,
regions, and organizations include rough approximations for those countries and years
in which data or estimates are unavailable. and available data, estimates, or approxima
tions for years in which countries were not independent
b Estimated by adding arms imports to data on military expenditures, which are believed to
exclude arms purchases. It should be noted, however. that the value of arms import
deliveries in a given year. as shown in Table II (converted at current exchange rates).
may differ significantly from actual expenditures on those imports in that year.
c Some part of estimated total military expenditures may not be included in announced
,central budget expenditures. The ratio of ME to CGE therefore may be somewhat overstated.
d This ratio is calculated from the two variables as expressed in dollar terms, Since in this
case the two variables are converted to, or estimated in, dollars in differing ways, the
ratio in doliars differs from what it would be in national currency terms. See also
Statistical Notes, Military Expendltures-to-GNP ratiO.
e This series probably excludes most capital expenditures or arms acquisitions. See Table
II for an indication or arms imports, although it should be kept in mind that data in Table II
represent value of deliveries or arms imports in a given year, not actual expenditures on
those arms.

52

1.9
1 .8
2.4
2.3
2.5
2.5
3.4
5.2
4.7
7.6
4.9

785
778
834
777
759
677
646
676
757
809
805

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports. 19721982
By Region. Organization. and Country
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

Current

TOTALJMPORTS

COrSlan!
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTS

Billion dolta~

MIIIKm dollars

Milhon dOllars
YEAR

Constant

Curren!

'981

TOTALS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

8111100 dmlars

Constant

1981

Currenl

ARMS
ARMS
IMPORTS EXPORTS

- -

Constant

TOTAL
EXPORTS

1981

WORLD
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10380
13145
11805
12630
16615
19650
23195
26705
28050
34390
36500

20189
24202
19984
19606
24402
27260
29961
31804
30661
34390
34424

10410
13200
11790
12765
16690
19810
23170
26585
27800
34260
36255

20250
24305
19963
19820
24518
27486
29933
31665
30393
34260
34198

423
582
841
891
1002
1146
1332
1661
2025
2001
1896

823
1072
1424
1384
1472
1591
1721
1978
2213
2001
1788

413
572
835
872
987
1127
1296
1633
1984
1951
1836

803
1053
1414
1353
1449
1563
1674
1945
2169
1951
1732

2.5
2.3
1.4
1.4
1.7
1.7
1 .7
1.6
1.4
1.7
1.9

2.5
2.3
1 .4
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.8
2.0

2960
3400
3395
3495
4310
4240
4605
4970
5935
6880
6610

5757
6260
5747
5425
6330
5882
5948
5918
6487
6880
6234

9475
12880
11485
12145
15800
18995
22065
25240
26100
31190
31345

18431
23716
19446
18857
23210
26356
28506
30063
28535
31190
29566

338
463
650
668
763
861
1000
1265
1513
1448
1369

659
854
1101
1037
1121
1194
1293
1506
1655
1448
1292

332
452
603
646
715
817
970
1189
1401
1375
1322

647
833
1021
1003
1051
1134
1253
1416
1531
1375
1247

0.9
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5

2.8
2.8
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.3
2.3
2. 1
1.9
2.3
2.4

7420
9745
8410
9135
12305
15410
18590
21735
22115
27510
29890

14431
17942
14237
14180
18072
21378
24013
25885
24173
27510
28190

935
320
305
620
890
815
1105
1345
1700
3070
4910

1819
589
516
962
1307
1130
1427
1602
1858
3070
4631

84
118
190
223
239
286
331
396
511
553
526

164
218
'322
347
351
396
428
471
558
553
496

80
119
232
225
271
309
325
444
583
575
513

156
219
393
350
398
429
420
529
638
575
484

8.8
8.2
4.4
4. 1
5. 1
5.4
5.6
5.5
4.3
5.0
5.7

1.2
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.5
1.0

16
21
32
42
42
50
58
61
88
97
83

31
39
55
66
62
69
76
73
9'>
97
79

18
25
46
42
49
57
58
85
115
95
86

35
47
77
66
72
80
75
101
126
95
81

3. 1
2.2
2.4
3.3
6.2
6.9
9.8
8.3
5.8
6.0
6.5

0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
o 1
0.3

DEVELOPED
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

DEVELOPING
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

BY REGION

AFRICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

490
470
770
1410
2615
3460
5765
5140
5160
5805
5455

952
865
1302
2188
3839
4799
7446
6120
5639
5805
5144

10
5
0
5
10
150
15
180
10
65
300

19
9
0
7
14
208
19
214
11
65
282

53

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL lMPORTSb

TOTAL EXPORTS

ARMS
ARMS
1MPORTS EXPORTS

-
M,li.o"dollars

MIlI'on dollars

YEAR

Current

COnSldf'!

1981

3910
4090
2105
2150
1285
1200
1610
3265
3900
3620
3570

7605
7530
3563
3338
1887
1664
2079
3888
4263
3620
3366

870
250
160
235
265
295
420
470
755
1330
1965

EUROPE, ALL
1972
1973
1974
1975
197(:)
1977
19"18
1979
1980
1981
1982

2925
3415
3480
3970
4985
4710
4750
5380
5955
6465
6690

5689
6287
5891
6163
7322
6534
6135
6407
6509
6465
6309

-NATO EUROPE
1435
1972
1973
1055
1190
1974
1560
1975
2115
1976
1680
1977
1670
1978
1979
2050
2790
1980
3170
1981
3490
1982
WARSAW PACT
1280
1972
1973
2080
1974
2000
1975
1980
2310
1976
2390
1977
2550
1978
2550
1919
2265
1980
2445
1981
2240
1982

1981

1692
460
271
364
389
409
542
559

TOTAL
IMPOATS

Billion dOilars

COI'sla'll

CI.. rrery

EAST ASIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

Bllllol"1 dollars

Current

1330
1853

42
67
108
104
115
130
155
209
263
277
264

83
124
183
161
169
180
200
249
288
277
249

45
64
96
95
117
141
172
200
252
283
267

88
117
162
148
172
196
222
238
276
283
252

9. 1
6. 1
1.9
2. 1
1. 1
0.9
1.0
1.6
1.5
1 .3
1 .3

1.9
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
o 5
0.7

5270
7870
6775
7320
9960
12225
15735
18895
20040
23360
22735

10251
14491
11471
11365
14631
16962
20328
22505
21909
23360
21445

241
334
455
486
544
611
711
906
1083
985
950

470
616
771
754
800
847
918
1080
1185
985
896

230
314
410
445
492
572
681
845
978
920
908

449
578
695
691
723
793
880
1006
1069
920
856

1.2
1.0
o 8
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
o 5
0.7
0.7

2.3
2.5
1.6
1.6
2.0
2. 1
2.3
2.2
2.0
2.5
2.5

2790
1942
2014
2421
3106
2330
2156
2441
3049
3170
3291

1780
1895
1810
2060
3190
3645
5315
4960
7165
10060
7630

3462
3489
3064
3198
4686
5057
6866
5907
7833
10060
7197

163
229
314
321
368
413
483
627
752
670
640

318
422
531
499
540
574
623
747
823
670
604

160
219
291
308
340
393
472
590
684
632
610

312
404
493
478
499
546
610
703
748
632
575

0.9
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.5

1 1
0.9
0.6
0.7
0.9
0.9
1.1
0.8
1.0
1.6
1.3

2490
3830
3386
3074
3393
3316
3294
3037
2476
2445
2112

3360
5875
4800
4820
6200
7890
9570
13045
11585
12185
13895

6536
10817
8127
7483
9108
10947
12363
15537
12666
12185
13106

40
53
67
88
93
103
123
140
159
160
165

79
98
113
137
13"
143
159
167
174
160
155

40
53
64
78
86
103
117
141
162
163
177

78
97
109
122
127
144
152
168
177
163
167

3.2 8.4
3.9 1 1 . 1
3.0 7.4
2 2 6. 1
2.5 7. 1
2.3 7.6
2. 1 8. 1
1.8 9.2
1.4 7. 1
1.5 7.5
1.4 7.8

~25

54

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

Mlillon dollars

--_YEAR

Curren!

..

TOTAliMPORTS b

MIlIIOO doUars

Constant

1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTS b

Cons~a.'l!

1981

Current

TOTAL
TOTAL
IMPORTS EXPORTS

Btlhon dollars

BllbQn dollars

Constant
1981

Currenl

ARMS
ARMS
IMPORTS EXPORTS

- -

Constant

1981

00

OTHER EUROPE
210
280
290
430
560
640
530
780
900
850
960

408
515
490
667
822
887
684
928
983
850
905

130
100
165
440
570
690
850
890
1290
1115
1210

253
184
279
683
837
957
1098
1060
1410
1115
1141

37
51
74
76
82
93
104
138
171
154
144

72
94
125
118
121
129
135
165
187
154
136

30
41
54
58
65
74
91
113
130
125
120

58
75
92
91
96
103
117
134
143
125
114

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.7

0.4
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.8
1.0
0.9
1.0

390
560
450
585
955
1050
1495
1660
1725
2480
2790

758
1030
761
907
1402
1456
1930
1976
1885
2480
2631

10
10
0
60
200
35
110
130
155
175
705

19
18
0
93
293
48
142
154
169
175
665

20
26
45
49
51
58
65
80
106
113
92

39
48
76
77
75
80
84
95
116
113
86

18
26
42
40
45
53
58
75
98
104
99

35
48
71
62
66
74
75
89
107
104
93

1.9
2.1
1.0
1.2
1.9
1.8
2.3
2.1
1.6
2.2
3.0

0.1
0.0
0.0
O. 1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.7

1995
3735
4160
3850
5590
7675
8360
9715
9405
13405
15290

3880
6877
7043
5977
8211
10648
10799
11570
10281
13405
14421

10
25
95
140
175
150
260
360
170
840
770

19
46
160
217
257
208
335
428
185
840
726

11
17
28
41
49
65
75
82
107
126
130

22

126
122

17
2'1
87
84
101
110
104
150
208
198
156

33
50
147
131
149
152
135
179
228
198
147

17 .0
21.5
14.5
9.3
11.3
11.7
11 . 1
11 .8
8.8
10.6
11 .8

O. 1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
O. 1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.5

369
570
406
465
469
402
465
476
502
650
641

4210
5030
4720
4880
6020
6870
6530
6480
6590
8400
9740

8189
9262
7992
7577
8843
9532
8436
7718
7204
8400
9187

79
99
145
142
172
202
232
279
319
343
313

154
182
246
220
253
281
300
332
349
343
295

71
97
133
142
156
164
192
240
288
306
283

138
180
225
220
229
228
248
286
315
306
267

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2

5.9
5. 1
3.5
3.4
3.9
4.2
3.4
2.7
2.3
2.7
3.4

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

LATIN AMERICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

MIDDLE EAST
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

32

48
64
72
91
96
98
117

NORTH AMERICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

190
310
240
300
320
290
360
400
460
650
680

55

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

MdliOn dollars

YEAR

Cunen!

TOTAL IMPORTS

Million doliars

ConSlanl
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTS

Currenl

'981

ARMS
ARMS
IMPORTS EXPORTS

- -

811110n dollars

Billion dollars
ConS!8:l!

Constant

1981

Current

Constant
1981

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

"0

";0

OCEANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

110
115
200
40
115
180
260
205
320
580
190

213
211
338
62
168
249
335
244
349
580
179

10
10
30
120
50
30
50
30
40
30
10

19
18
50
186
73
41
64
35
43
30
9

6
10
16
14
16
17
20
24
29
33
34

13
18
27
22
24
24
26
28
32
33
32

8
12
13
14
16
17
19
24
29
28
28

16
22
23
22
24
24
24
29
31
28
26

1.6
1. 1
1 .2
0.3
0.7
1.0
1 .3
0.8
1.1
1.7
0.6

0.1
0,1
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0

370
450
400
325
750
1085
595
940
1125
1385
1835

719
828
677
504
1101
1505
768
1119
1229
1385
1730

20
0
10
5
10
55
50
40
40
60
30

38
0
16
7
14
76
64
47
43
60
28

4
5
9
11
9
11
14
17
25
24
27

8
10
15
17
14
15
18
21
27
24
26

3
4
6
6
8
9
10
12
13
12
5

7
8
10
10
11
12
12
14
14
12
4

8.8
7.7
4.4
2,9
7.7
9.5
4.2
5.3
4.5
5.6
6.6

0.5
0.0
0,2
0.1
0 1
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.6

0.7
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4

2.6
2.2
1,5
1.5
1 .9
1.9
1.8
1 .4
1.4
2.0
1.9

SOUTH ASIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

BY ORGANIZATION

NATO, All
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1625
1365
1430
1860
2435
1970
2030
2450
3250
3820
4170

3160
2512
2420
2887
3576
2732
2621
2917
3552
3820
3932

5990
6925
6530
6940
9210
10515
11845
11440
13755
18460
17370

11652
12751
11056
10775
13529
14589
15302
13626
15038
18460
16384

243
328
459
463
540
6113
715
906
1072
1013
954

473
605
777
719
794
855
924
1079
1172
1013
900

231
317
424
450
496
558
664
830
973
939
893

450
585
718
699
728
775
858
989
1063
939
842

1280
2080
2000
1980
2310
2390
2550
2550
2265
2445
2240

2490
3830
3386
3074
3393
3316
3294
3037
2476
2445
2112

3360
5875
4800
4820
6200
7890
9570
13045
11585
12185
13895

6536
10817
8127
7483
9108
10947
12363
15537
12666
12185
13106

40
53
67
88
93
103
123
140
159
160
165

79
98
113
137
137
143
159
167
174
160
155

40
53
64
78
86
103
117
141
162
163
177

78
97
109
122
127
144
152
168
177
163
167

WARSAW PACT
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

56

3.2 8.4
3.9 11 . 1
3.0 7.4
2.2 6.1
2.5 7.1
2.3 7.6
2.1 8. 1
1 .8 9.2
1.4 7. 1
1.5 7.5
1.4 7.8

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

OPEC
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1050
1610
2520
3125
5240
7375
8465
9190
7625
12280
13000

2042
2964
4266
4851
7697
10232
10935
10945
8335
12280
12261

5
0
50
70
30
65
50
180
25
590
290

9
0
84
108
44
90
64
214
27
590
273

14
20
32
52
64
85
96
98
132
153
151

27
37
55
80
94
118
124
117
144
153
143

25
40
121
113
137
151
143
212
296
272
220

49
74
206
176
202
210
185
253
324
272
208

7.4
7.9
7.7
6.0
8.2
8.6
8.8
9.3
5.8
8.0
8.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1

OECD
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

1990
1730
1915
2245
3105
2780
2885
3530
4600
5835
5740

3870
3184
3241
3484
4560
3856
3726
4203
5027
5835
5413

6130
7025
6735
7440
9710
11025
12645
12230
14795
19405
18500

11924
12935
11404
11552
14264
15297
16336
14567
16175
19405
17450

307
423
603
603
696
787
908
1164
1397
1326
1248

598
779
1022
937
1023
1093
1173
1386
1527
1326
1177

296
405
543
574
639
725
865
1062
1252
1231
1169

576
745
920
892
939
1006
1118
1265
1369
1231
1103

0.6
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5

2. 1
1.7
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.6
1.6

57

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Current

TOTALIMPORTS b

Million dollars

MtUIOI"1 dollars
YEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant
1981

Current

Current

Constant
1981

Current

ARMS
IMPORTS

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Million dollars

MillIOn dollars

Constant
1981

TOTAL EXPORTS b

TOTAL
EXPORTS

By Country

AFGHANISTAN
20
80
80
40
50
110
90
200
10
190
160

38
147
135
62
73
152
116
238
10
190
150

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

164
172
243
350
261
328
395
377

319
316
411
543
383
455
510
449

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

5
10
5
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

9
18
8
7
7
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
40
20
90
320
480
725
450
525
1000
1100

19
73
33
139
470
666
936
535
573
1000
1037

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

120
230
210
210
130
170
280
350

186
337
291
271
154
185
280
330

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

122
143
230
217
291
306
321
474
670
694

237
263
389
336
427
424
414
564
732
694

12.1
46.5
32.\3
11.4
19.1
33.5
22.7
53.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

17.3

223

151

195

0.0

0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10493
2408
4035
6008
5338
7125
8681
8403
10826
10505
10307

2904
4433
6832
9328
7841
9886
11215
10008
11836
10505
9722

1306
1895
4684
4692
5332
6115
6315
9481
13660
14134

2540
3489
7931
7285
7832
8484
8158
11292
14934
14134

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

0.6
1.6
0.4
1.4
5.9
6.7
8.3
5.3
4.8
9.5
10.6

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

720

999

800

1110

29.1

0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA

ALBANIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ALGERIA

NA

ANGOLA

58

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPORTS

Current

TOTAL 'MPORTS b

Mtlhon dollars

Mliitondoliars

VEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant
1981

Curren!

Million dOllars

Constant
1981

Currenl

Constant
1981

TOTAL EXPORTSb

Million dollars
Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
,MPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

- -

ARGENTINA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

60
50
40
30
50
40
370
490
200
430
300

116
92
67
46
73
55
478
583
218
430
282

10
10
0
0
0
5
0
10
5
10
0

19
18
0
0
0
6
0
11
5
10
0

1905
3705
4106
2230
6154
3635
3947
6128
4455
3033
4162
5774
3834
4953
7861
6600
10541 . 11524
9430
9430
5338
5035

1941
3266
3931
2961
3916
5652
6400
7810
8021
9143
7623

3775
6013
6656
4597
5752
7842
8268
9302
8769
9143
7190

3.1
2.2
1.1
0.7
1.6
0.9
9.6
7.4
1.8
4.5
5.6

0.5
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0

60
110
190
30
80
140
240
180
280
550
170

116
202
321
46
117
194
310
214
306
550
160

10
10
30
120
50
30
50
30
40
30
10

19
18
50
186
73
41
64
35
43
30
9

5158
7731
12487
11098
12389
13515
15568
18231
22479
26223
26681

10033
14235
21143
17231
18199
18752
20112
21714
24576
26223
25167

6461
9559
11024
11944
13155
13352
14416
18667
22031
21767
21987

12568
17601
18666
18545
19325
18526
18624
22234
24086
21767
20739

1.1
1.4
1.5
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.5
0.9
1.2
2.0
0.6

0.2
0.1
0.3
1.0
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0

20
5
5
5
60
80
50
40
80
70
40

38
9
8
7
88
111
64
47
87
70
37

10
10
5
30
60
60
190
100
50
190
50

19
18
8
46
88
83
245
119
54
190
47

5216
7119
9022
9394
11523
14245
16019
20252
24444
21043
19502

10146
13108
15276
14585
16927
19765
20695
24122
26724
21043
18395

3883
5283
7161
7519
8506
9808
12175
15483
17489
15841
15642

7553
9727
12125
11674
12495
13608
15729
18441
19120
15<;41
14754

0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.2

0.3
0.2
o 1
0.4
0.7
0.6
1 .6
0.6
0.3
1.2
0.3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
40
30
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
43
30
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

361
516
1126
1198
1668
2029
2045
2478
3484
4124
3730

702
950
1906
1860
2450
2815
2642
2951
3809
4124
3518

348
479
1272
1203
1516
1845
1892
2485
3602
4347
3789

676
882
2153
1867
2227
2560
2444
2959
3938
4347
3574

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
1.1
0.7
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

AUSTRALIA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
AUSTRIA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
BAHRAIN

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0

59

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPORTS

~lIjjoo

Million dollars
YEAH

Current

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant
1981

Current

TOTALIMPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTS b

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

- -

dollars

Minion dollars

Mllkoo dollars

I Co,r;:~~nl

Current

Constant
1981

Current

ConSlanl
1981

BANGLADESH
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
40
20
10
10
30
5
0
30
20
30

38
73
33
15
14
41
6
0
32
20
28

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

683
986
1078
1321
952
1163
1513
1908
2599
2699
2300

1328
1815
1825
2051
1398
1613
1954
2272
2841
2699
2169

260
358
348
327
401
476
549
659
759
791
769

505
659
589
507
589
660
i09
784
829
791
725

2.9
4.0
1.8
0.7
1.0
2.5
0.3
0.0
1. 1
0.7
1.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

141
168
204
216
231
212
313
423
522
512
550

274
309
345
335
348
311
404
503
510
512
518

44
54
86
107
86
96
130
151
226
194
263

85
99
145
166
126
133
161
179
247
194
248

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

20
30
20

50
70
60
80
160
140
140
70
140
270
10

97
128
101
124
235
194
180
83
153
270
66

15490
22075
29880
30781
35545
40406
48609
60913
71003
62464
51994

30132
40647
50593
47793
52217
56063
62798
12553
78561
62464
54103

16152
22455
28334
28804
32889
37538
44947
56700
64654
55691
52381

31419
41347
47915
44723
48315
52084
58067
67535
70686
55691
49409

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
.0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5

0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

93
112
147
188
211
246
311

180
206
248
291
310
341
401

36
44
42
32
38
41
27

70
81
71
49
55
56
34.

0.0
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
4.0
12.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

BARBADOS
1912
1973
1974
1915
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

BELGIUM
1912
1973
1974
1975
1976
1911
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

110
10
80
290
320
310
340

38
55
33
124
161
97
103
345
349
310
320

1972
1913
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
5
0
0
10
40
40
40
30
5

0
0
8
0
0
13
51
47
43
30
4

SO

BENIN

60

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

CUtren!

TOTAUMPORTS b

Constanl
1981

Current

Constant
1981

Cumml

TOTAL EXPORTS b

Mlilton dollars

Milloon do4lafs

Mllkoo dollarS

Million OOII(lf$

YEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

COf'lstanl
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

."

- -

BOLIVIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
10
5
10
5
5
20
80
60
60
0

0
18
8
15
7
6
25
95
65
60
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

185
230
366
575
594
591
717
894
814
825
536

359
423
619
892
872
820
1003
1064
889
825
505

201
261
556
445
566
634
627
762
942
909
823

391
480
941
690
831
879
810
907
1029
909
776

0.0
4.3
1.3
1.1
0.8
0.8
2.5
8.9
7.3
7.2
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
197G
1971
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
10
10
5
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
13
12
5
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

110
166
185
218
209
276
353
529
691
799
662

214
305
313
338
307
383
456
630
755
799
624

58
85
12J
144
176
180
221
436
503
399
433

112
156
204
223
258
249
286
519
550
399
408

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.6
2.8
0.9
0.0
1.2
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1971
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

60
120
60
100
140
100
210
240
130
60
30

116
220
101
155
205
138
271
285
142
60
28

0
0
0
30
80
20
110
120
150
150
625

0
0
0
46
117
27
142
142
164
150
589

4783
6999
14168
13592
13726
13257
15054
19804
24961
24079
21069

9304
12887
23989
21104
20164
18394
19448
23588
27289
24079
19873

3991
6199
7951
8670
10128
12120
12659
15244
20132
23293
20175

7163
11414
13462
13461
14878
16816
16354
18157
22010
23293
19030

1 .2
1.7
0.4
0.7
1.0
0.7
1.3
1.2
0.5
0.2
0.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
3. 1

100
290
270
220
220
190
260
380
150
260
110

194
534
457
341
323
263
335
452
164
260
103

0
5
30
30
10
10
70
50
50
150
220

0
9
50
46
14
13
90
59
54
150
207

2585
3291
4278
5528
5559
6344
7658
8580
9771
10905
11901

5028
6059
7243
8583
8166
8802
9893
10219
10689
10905
11231

2646
3327
3790
4807
5316
6303
7485
9013
10491
10590
11471

5147
6126
6417
7463
7809
8745
9670
10735
11469
10590
10820

3.9
8.8
6.3
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.4
4.4
1.5
2.4
0.9

0.0
0.2
0.8
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.9
0.6
0.5
1.4

BOTSWANA

BRAZIL

BULGARIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

61

1.9

TABLE II. ,Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

TOT AlIMPORTS b

Million dOllarS

MdllQf1 dollars
ConSlan~

yE.AH

ARMS EXPORTS

1981

TOT AL EXPORTS b

Million dollars

Million dollars

Current

ARMS

ARMS
IMPORTS

EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

BURMA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

5
5
5
0
0
10
5
30
20
10
50

9
9
8
0
0
13
6
35
21
10
47

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

159
143
216
250
194
274
327
319
353
371
408

309
263
365
388
285
380
422
380
385
371
384

118
141
194
159
193
207
234
384
471
475
380

229
259
328
246
283
287
302
457
514
475
358

3. 1
3.4
2.3
0.0
0.0
3.6
1.5
9.4
5.6
2.6
12.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0'

0
0
0
10
0
10
0
10
10
5
20

0
0
0
15
0
13
0
11
10
5
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

31
31
43
62
58
74
98
152
168
161
214

60
57
72
96
85
102
126
181
183
161
201

26
31
31
32
61
89
69
104
65
71
88

50
57
52
49
89
123
89
123
71
71
83

0.0
0.0
0.0
16. 1
0.0
13.5
0.0
6.5
5.9
3.1
9 3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
5
10
10
5
0
5
30
20

0
0
0
7
14
13
6
0
5
30
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

303
334
437
599
609
783
1056
1275
1602
1426
1204

589
615
739
930
894
1086
1364
1518
1751
1426
1135

221
367
497
449
511
704
803
1123
1384
1110
1000

429
675
841
697
750
976
1037
1337
1513
1110
943

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
1.6
1.2
0.4
0.0
0.3
2. 1
1 .6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
140
120
160
210
170
240
270
320
440
250

58
257
203
248
308
235
310
321
349
440
235

210
130
120
80
120
70
130
180
90

408
239
203
124
176
97
167
214
98
100
226

20043
24746
34414
36218
40356
42257
46546
56957
62834
70342
58418

38988
45565
58270
56235
59284
58631
60133
67841
68696
70342
55103

21186
26437
34508
34080
40598
43545
48429
58298
67730
72726
71239

41212
48679
58429
52915
59640
60419
62566
69438
74048
72726
67197

0.1
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.4

1.0
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.3

BURUNDI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

CAMEROON

CANADA

100

240

62

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

MilkOn dollars
YEAH

Current

ARMS EXPORTS

TOT AllMPORTS b

MillIOn dollars

Conslanl
1981

Current

Current

ARMS
IMPORTS

Constanl
1981

I Co,"~~n!

Current

ARMS
expoRTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Million dollars

MllllOfl doHars

Cons!anl
1981

TOTAL EXPORTS b

TOTAL
EXPORTS

CAPE VERDE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
30
30
0
10
0

0
0
38
35
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

30
38
54
56

44
52
69
66

2
2
2
3

2
2
2
3

0,0
0.0
55,5
53.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

34
52
46
69
55
63
55
70
81
148

66
95
77
107
80
87
71
83
88
148

39
37
48
47
59
80
72
80
116
117

75
68
81
73
86
111
93
95
126
117

0,0
0,0
0,0
0.0
0,0
0,0
0,0
14,2
0.0
3,3

0.0
0.0
0,0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
10
5
0
0
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
14
6
0
0
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

62
82
88
133
116

120
151
149
206
170

36
38
37
48
63

70
70
62
74
92

0,0
0,0
0.0
0,0
8.6

0.0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0,0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
70
70
20
130
60
60
190
250
260
280

19
128
118
31
190
83
77
226
273
260
264

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

CHAD

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

180

232

91

117

0.0

0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

941
1098
1911
1338
1643
2259
3002
4218
5824
6364
3528

1830
2021
3235
2077
2413
3134
3878
5024
6367
6364
3327

855
1231
2481
1552
2083
2190
2478
2894
4671
3906
3822

1663
2266
4200
2409
3060
3038
3201
3447
5106
3906
3605

1,0
6.3
3,6
1 ,4
7,9
2.6
1.9
4.5
4.2
4,0
7,9

0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,1
0,0

CHILE

63

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Current

TOTAL IMPORTS b

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTS b

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

- -

MIIlJOO dollars

Million dollars
YEAR

ARMS EXPORTS

Million dollars

Million oollars

Constant
1981

Current

I C01',;'~~n'

Current

I constE
1981

CHINA
MAINLAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
70
100
110
160
100
80
180
170
120
40

58
128
169
170
235
138
103
214
185
120
37

850
230
140
180
140
110
160
130
250
370
1000

1653
423
237
279
205
152
206
154
273
370
943

2585
4625
6805
6830
5575
6595
10350
14490
19305
17945
16080

5028
8516
11522
10604
8189
9150
13371
17259
21106
17945
15167

3225
5105
6740
7130
7265
8110
10175
13735
18925
21640
22360

6273
9400
11412
11070
10672
11252
13145
16359
20690
21640
21091

1.2
1.5
1.5
1.6
2.9
1.5
0.8
1.2
0.9
0.7
0.2

26.4
4.5
2. 1
2.5
1.9
1.4
1 .6
0.9
1.3
1.7
4.5

40
70
150
150
160
180
200
200
700
550
600

77
128
253
232
235
249
258
238
765
550
565

0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
14
13
0
0
5
0
0

2520
3800
6980
5960
7609
8522
11051
14800

4902
6997
11818
9254
11177
11824
14277
17628

2910
4380
5517
5301
8155
9349
12682
16100

5660
8065
9341
8230
11980
12971
16384
19176

1 .5
1 .8
2. 1
2.5
2. 1
2 1
1 .8
1.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
40
10
40
0
10
10
20
70
40
30

58
73
16
62
0
13
12
23
76
40
28

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0

1671
1955
2704
2321
2509
2813
3663
3850
5098
5201
5169

866
1177
1417
1465
1745
2443
3003
3300
3945
2956
3097

1684
2167
2399
2274
2563
3389
3879
3930
4313
2956
2921

3.4
3.7
0.6
2.6
0.0
0.4
0.3
0.6
1.5
0.7
0.5

0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

859
1062
1597
1495
1708
2028
2836
3233
4'663
5201
5480

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
10
5
30
0
20
20
80
0

0
0
0
15
7
41
0
23
21
80
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9

91
126
125
170
168
206
260
291
429
994
807

177
232
211
264
246
285
335
346
469
994
761

52
89
189
179
181
186
118
510
959
1073
977

101
163
320
277
265
258
152
607
1048
1073
921

0.0
0.0
0.0
5.8
2.9
14.5
0.0
6.8
4.6
8.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

TAIWAN
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

COLOMBIA

0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

CONGO

64

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS EXPORTSa

ARMS IMPORTS a

Currenl

Million dollafs

Million Cklars

MillIOn dollars

YEAH

TOTAllMPORTSb

Consta'1~

1981

Correnl

Constant
1981

CUffenl

I
i

I co~stan\ I
1981

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAl
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

'II;

-- -Mllhon dollars
Corrent

Constant
1981

COSTA RICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

373
455
720
694
770
1021
1185
1397
1508
1211
866

725
837
1219
1077
1131
1416
1530
1664
1648
1211
816

281
345
440
493
593
828
844
934
1018
964
872

546
635
745
765
871
1148
1090
1112
1113
964
822

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

70
70
60
70
130
100
350
260
260
800
975

136
128
101
108
191
138
452
309
284
800
919

0
0
0
30
120
10
0
0
0
10
20

0
0
0
46
176
13
0
0
0
10
18

1300
1780
2690
3767
3879
4362
4751
5089
6409
6602
6916

2528
3277
4554
5849
5698
6052
6137
6061
7006
6602
6523

840
1400
2690
3572
3284
3669
4575
4829
5593
5389
6498

1634
2577
4554
5546
4824
5090
5910
5751
6114
5389
6129

5.4
3.9
2.2
1.9
3.4
2.3
7.4
5.1
4.1
12. 1
14 . 1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
3.7
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
10
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
10
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

317
451
407
308
432
623
758
1010
1202
1166
1223

616
830
689
478
634
864
979
1203
1314
1166
1153

134
173
151
151
257
326
341
453
532
562
544

260
318
255
234
377
452
440
539
581
562
513

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0
0.8
0.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

200
340
320
310
300
250
120
340
150
320
250

389
626
541
481
440
346
155
405
164
320
235

210
230
330
490
460
650
950
975
700
600
850

408
423
558
760
675
901
1227
1161
765
600
801

4684
6071
7352
8874
9410
10883
12488
14371
15537
15295
16219

9111
11178
12448
13778
13823
15100
16133
17117
16986
15295
15298

4938
5988
6884
8158
8745
100 11
11669
13313
15286
15230
16265

9605
11025
11656
12666
12846
13890
15075
15857
16712
15230
15342

4.3
5.6
4.4
3.5
3.2
2.3
1.0
2.4
1.0
2. 1
1.5

4.3
3.8
4.8
6.0
5.3
6.5
8. 1
7.3
4.6
3.9
5.2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NA

NA

0
0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

CUBA

CYPRUS

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

65

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPOATS

TOTAL IMPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
IMPORTS

-
MliliondO!ws

MljjlOn dollars

YEAH

Current

COf\Slant

1981

Current

~AIIlton

Consla01
1981

Current

dollars

Constanl
1981

Mllhon doItars

Cunent

TOTAL
IMPORTS

AAMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

Constant
!981

...

DENMARK
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

40
10
40
30
70
70
70
30
200
200
210

20
20

19
9
16
0
29
13
6
0
10
20
18

5089
7802
9927
10368
12427
13265
14809
18402
19428
17575
16863

9899
14366
16808
16098
18255
18405
19132
21918
21240
17575
15906

4432
6248
1719
8712
9115
10065
11882
14696
16982
16095
15309

8621
11504
13070
13527
13390
13965
15350
17504
18566
16095
14440

0.7
0.1
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.1
1.0
1. 1
1 .2

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

388
489
808
889
878
975
987
1213
1640
1668
1444

754
900
1368
1380
1289
1352
1275
1444
1793
1668
1362

348
442
637
894
716
780
676
875
962
1188
768

676
813
1078
1388
1051
1082
873
1042
1051
1188
724

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

319
397
678
987
958
1508
1630
1986
2250
2246
1989

620
731
1148
1532
1407
2092
2105
2365
2459
2246
1876

343
548
1135
989
1267
1216
1502
2067
2506
2542
2139

667
1009
1921
1535
1861
1687
1940
2462
2739
2542
2017

3. 1
5.0
0.7
6.0
9.3
10.6
5.5
9.0
8.0
2.6
11 .5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
5
0
0
50
90
10
0
30
290

0
0
8
0
0
69
116
11
0
30
273

899
915
2351
3934
3807
4812
6727
3837
4860
8782
9078

1748
1684
3980
6108
5592
6676
8690
4570
5313
8782
8563

825
1121
1516
1402
1522
1708
1737
1840
3046
3233
3120

1604
2064
2566
2176
2235
2369
2244
2191
3330
3233
2943

61.1
92.8
9.7
8.8
3.9
5. 1
5.9
16.2
11 .3
6.5
23.1

0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
2.9
5.2
0.5
0.0
0.9
9.3

17
18
67
46
102
97
90
35
218
200
198

10
5
10
0
20

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
5
10
20
5

10

5
0
10

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ECUADOR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

90
160
90
180
180
60
230

19
36
8
93
132
222
116
214
196
60
216

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

550
850
230
350
150
250
400
625
550
575
2100

1069
1565
389
543
220
346
516
744
601
575
1980

60

EGYPT

66

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

MtIIfOn dollars

o
o

10
5

16
7

o
o

5
30

6
35

o
o
o
o
o

10
50

10
47

o
o

o
o
o

o
o
o

10

15

o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o

EQUATORIAL GUINEA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

o
o

o
o

o
o

10

12

10
20
10

10
20

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
10
10
30
50
440
1100
210
575
270
290

19
18
16
46
73
610
1421
250
628
270
273

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o

o
9

ETHIOPIA

FluI

TOTAL EXPORTS b

I, - ARMS
'MPORTS

Mlliton dollars

EL SALVADOR
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

TOT ALIMPORTS b

ARMS EXPORTS a

i
I~-cv-rr~--'-~IC~~-~~I~~ot-r--cv-".-m--~Ic~~-~~,~~"t-r-c-v-"e-n'-'I~co-,~~SI~-"~'~-c-vr-ren-t-'-lc~O~'~98i~~n'l
I

YEAH

ARMS 'MPORTS a

o
o
5

o
o
o

o
5
o
o
o

o
o

o
o
o
o

o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o

o
o
o

o
o

MIliton dollars

o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
NA
NA
NA

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o

67

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

278
374
563
598
735
929
1027
1039
962
985
883

540
688
953
928
1079
1289
1326
1237
1051
985
832

302
358
462
531
743
972
801
1131
1074
797
704

587
659
782
824
1091
1348
1034
1347
1174
797
664

0.0
0.0
1.7
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.4
2.8
0.0
1.0
5.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o 0

29
22
11

56
40
18

25
40
13

48
73
22

0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

12

17

37

54

0.0

0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

189
214
283
296
356
392
567
722
738
786

367
394
479
459
523
543
667
675
789
738
741

167
239
269
231
280
332
297
418
425
374
404

324
440
455
358
411
460
383
497
464
374
381

5.2
4.6
3 5
10. 1
14.0
112.2
212.7
37.0
79.6
36.5
36.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

159
222
273
267
263
307
355
470
562
631
509

309
408
462
414
386
426
458
559
614
631
480

78
94
154
170
135
180
199
257
377
311
283

151
173
260
264
198
249
257
306
412
311
266

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

517

Million dollars

ARMS
ExPORTS

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1912-1982

By Region, Organization, and Country-continued


ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTALlMPORTS b

Mllhon dollars

Million dollars

YEAH

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

5666
7063
9295
8544
9316
10635
11071
13306
15468
14005
12340

0.3
0.1
0.4
0.6
0.0
0.1
1.0
0.6
1.2
0.4
0.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.1

52523 26451 51453


69468 36659 67501
89595 46255 78319
83790 53118 82475
94593 57162 83973
97815 64997 90183
105672 79378 102549
127456 100691 119932
147456 116016 126839
120953 106425 106425
109143 96688 91202

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

2.7
2.3
1.5
1.3
1.9
1.8
2.3
1 .6
2.3
3.9
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Mlilton dol;ars

Million dollars

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTSb

Current

FINLAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
5
30
50
5
10
80
70
190
70
60

19
9
50
77
7
13
103
83
207
70
56

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
80
5
5
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
95
5
5
9

3161
4355
6811
7626
7392
7608
7866
11398
15636
14192
13393

6148
8019
11532
11840
10859
10556
10162
13576
17094
14192
12633

2913
3836
5490
5503
6342
7665
8570
11172
14148
14005
13083

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
20
20
30
40
50
70
110
40
40
100

38
36
33
46
58
69
90
131
43
40
94

725
850
700
700
1100
1200
1800
1600
2700
4200
3200

1410
1565
1185
1086
1615
1665
2325
1905
2951
4200
3018

27001
37727
52914
53965
64391
70497
81795
107008
134873
120953
115708

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
20
10
10
10
50
20
10

0
0
0
0
29
13
12
11
54
20
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

135
160
332
44,?
502
716
617
532
673
928
811

262
294
562
690
737
993
797
633
735
928
765

234
383
768
943
1135
1343
1107
1848
2173

455
705
1300
1464
1667
1863
1430
2201
2375

NA
NA

NA
NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
1 .3
1.6
1.8
7.4
2. 1
1.2

0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

25
31
44
60
74
78
100
141
164
125
97

48
57
74
93
108
108
129
167
179
125
91

19
22
47
48
35
47
39
58
32

37
40
79
74
51
65
50
69
35
27
41

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o 0

FRANCE

GABON

NA
NA

GAMBIA, THE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

68

27

44

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPORTS

Current

Constant

1981

CurreN

TOTAl'MPO~O~TSb

MillIOn doilars

MIllion dollars

YEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant
198'

MillIOn dollars

Current

I co;~~~nt I

MIllion doHars
CUfrenl

Consta'l!
'981

ARMS
'MPORTS

-TOTAl
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

GERMANY. EAST
340
490
490
450
550
500
360
240
150
360
575

661
902
829
698
808
693
465
285
164
360
542

50
50
40
50
20
90
60
40
110
120
140

97
92
67
77
29
124
77
47
120
120
132

6075
8099
9797
11947
13514
15049
16452
18384
20774
20014
20942

11817
14913
16588
18549
19852
20880
21254
21897
22712
20014
19753

6336
7772
8903
10680
11645
12778
14963
16610
18848
19723
22142

12325
14310
15074
16582
17107
17729
19330
19784
20606
19723
20885

5.6
6.1
5.0
3.8
4.1
3.3
2.2
1.3
0.7
1 .8
2.7

0.8
0.6
0.4
o 5
0.2
0.7
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

675
625
575
600
490
410
340
360
480
550
490

1313
1150
973
931
719
568
439
428
524
550
462

320
120
210
420
700
900
975
1200
1400
1400
725

622
221
355
652
1028
1248
1259
1429
1530
1400
683

40378
54891
69661
74930
88421
101458
121755
159646
188002
163914
155370

78545
101073
117951
116342
129894
140773
157297
190153
205541
163914
146555

46736
67563
89368
90176
102163
118072
142453
171804
192861
176090
176435

90913
124406
151319
140014
150081
163825
184037
204635
210854
176090
166425

1.6
1. 1
0.8
o 8
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3

0.7
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.4

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
10
10
20
20
40
50
0
5
10

0
0
16
15
29
27
51
59
0
5
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

293
454
821
791
843
1144
989
893
1056
1105
705

570
836
1390
1228
1238
1587
1277
1064
1155
1105
665

432
630
730
808
828
1014
1093
1041
1257
1063
873

840
1160
1236
1254
1216
1406
1412
1239
1374
1063
823

0.0
0.0
1.2
1.2
2.3
1.7
4.0
5.5
0.0
0.4
1.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

110
40
100
260
525
430
310
380
240
410
370

213
73
169
403
771
596
400
452
262
410
349

0
0
0
0
5
0
5
5
0
0
120

0
0
0
0
7
0
6
6
0
0
113

2348
3477
4385
5322
6059
6854
7829
9614
10547
8810
10026

4567
6402
7424
8263
8900
9510
10114
11451
11531
8810
9457

870
1456
2030
2278
2561
2756
3368
3885
5219
4248
4298

1692
2681
3437
3537
3762
3824
4351
4627
5705
4248
4054

4.6
1.1
2.2
4.8
8.6
6.2
3.9
3.9
2.2
4.6
3.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
2.8

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

GERMANY, WEST

GHANA

GREECE

69

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Million OOilars

YEAI'-t

Current

ARMS EXPORTS

~JI4t1'0n

Constant
1981

Currenl

TOTAL IMPORTS b

Million dollars

doilars

I Co,~s~~n'

Curren!

Constant
1981

TOTAl EXPORTSb

I
!

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

Million dollars

TOTAL
IMPORTS

'"

'"

Current

Constant
19B1

TOTAL
EXPORTS

GUATEMALA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
5
0
10
20
5
10
10
10
0
40

19
9
0
15
29
6
12
11
10
0
37

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

324
431
700
733
839
1053
1286
1504
1598
1674
1399

630
793
1185
1138
1232
1461
1661
1791
1747
1674
1319

338
445
582
641
782
1225
1113
1270
1557
1253
1173

657
819
985
995
1148
1699
1437
1512
1702
1253
1106

3.0
'1 . 1
0.0
1.3
2.3
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.0
2.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
10
20
10
0
20
20
0
0
5

19
18
16
31
14
0
25
23
0
0
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

72
70
75

140
128
127

43
53
99

83
97
167

13.8
14.2
13.3

0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

272

351

334

431

7.3

0.0

NA
NA.
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0
10

0
0
0
0
12
11
0
0
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

43
38
37
37
49
61
55
50

72
59
54
51
63
72
60
50

4
7
6
13
12
13
11
14

6
10
8
18
15
15
12
14

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.4
1~>' 3
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

143
177
255
344
364
315
279
318
396
438
283

278
325
431
534
534
437
360
378
432
438
266

147
136
271
365
279
259
296
293
389
352
241

286
250
458
566
409
359
382
349
425
352
227

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1 .2
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

GUINEA
10

GUINEA-BISSAU

GUYANA

70

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS ,MPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL/MPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

VEAH

Current

t..,hl!tQil dollars

CO'1stant
1981

Currenl

Constan!
1981

Million dollars

MdltQn dollars

Current

I Co,n~~n,

Curren!

COl')stanl
1981

ARMS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Million dollars

ARMS
IMPORTS

EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

HAITI
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

69
83
125
149
207
213
233
272
375
461

134
152
211
231
304
295
301
324
410
461

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

NA

0
0
0
0
40
5
5
10
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
58
6
6
11
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

70
190
190
180
210
170
270
230
360
70
70

136
349
321
279
308
235
348
274
393
70
66

10
30
60
50
60
60
70
50
50
90
110

0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10

85
99
135
124
183
206
200
220
213
154
154

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.1

NA

44
54
80
80
125
149
155
185
195
154
164

NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

193
262
380
404
453
579
699
826
1009
949

375
482
643
627
665
803
903
983
1103
949

210
261
294
303
397
519
613
734
829
760

408
480
497
470
583
720
791
874
906
760

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.8
0.8
0.7
1.2
0.0
1.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

19
55
101
77
88
83
90
59
54
90
103

3168
3886
5340
6795
7252
8558
10584
11919
12628
12672
13461

6162
7155
9041
10550
10653
11874
13673
14196
13806
12672
12697

3308
4377
4874
5694
6643
7959
8814
11117
12503
11950
13064

6434
8059
8252
8841
9758
11043
11386
13241
13669
11950
12322

2.2
4.9
3.6
2.6
2.9
2.0
2.6
1 9
2.9
0.6
0.5

0.3
0.7
1.2
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

231
359
518
484
467
605
675
815
999
1024
944

449
661
877
751
686
839
872
970
1092
1024
890

189
290
331
306
401
512
641
782
918
895
685

367
534
560
475
589
710
828
931
1003
895
646

0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

HONDURAS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

HUNGARY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

ICELAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

71

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPORTS

Current

TOTAlIMPORTSb

MllltOn dollars

Millon doilars
YEA~

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant

1981

Current

Million dollarS

MIllion OOllatS

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPOATS b

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAl
EXPORTS

- --

INDIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

210
190
190
170
490
725
290
490
700
875
1200

408
349
321
263
719
1005
374
583
765
875
1131

20
0
10
0
10
50
20
30
30
20
10

38
0
16
0
14
69
25
35
32
20
9

2223
3211
5136
6381
5665
6647
7865
9828
14341
13907

4324
5912
8696
9907
8322
9222
10160
11706
15679
13907

2448
2917
3926
4355
5549
6378
6671
7806
8242
7300

4762
5371
6647
6761
8151
8849
8618
9297
9010
7300

9.4
5.9
3.6
2.6
8.6
10.9
3.6
4.9
4.8
6.2

0.8
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
20
30
30
80
60
90
180
370
440
190

19
36
50
46
117
83
116
214
404
440
179

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1562
2729
3842
4770
5673
6230
6690
7202
10834
13272

3038
5025
6505
7406
8333
8644
8642
8578
11844
13272

NA

3456
5912
12573
11027
12555
15058
15041
18569
23951
22262
15880

0.6
0.7
0.7
0.6
1.4
0.9
1.3
2.4
3.4
3.3

NA

1777
3211
7426
7102
8547
10853
11643
15590
21908
22262
16836

NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

525
525
1000
1200
2000
2500
2200
2000
400
800
1300

1021
966
1693
1863
2938
3468
2842
2382
437
800
1226

0
0
40
50
30
30
20
0
0
0
0

0
0
67
77
44
41
25
0
0
0
0

2409
3393
5433
10343
12894
14645
13549
91-38
12246
11969
9072

4686
6247
9199
16059
18941
20320
17504
11598
13388
11969
8557

4038
6207
21571
20211
23507
24260
22200
19876
14210
10201
17539

7854
11429
36524
31381
34532
33660
28680
23674
15535
10201
16544

21.7
15.4
18.4
11.6
15.5
17.0
16.2
20.5
3.2
6.6
14.3

0.0
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

140
625
625
675
1000
1500
1600
2300
1600
3700
4300

272
1150
1058
1048
1469
2081
2067
2739
1749
3700
4056

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0

705
894
2371
4215
3470
3899
4213
7006
13642
19040
19936

1371
1646
4014
6544
5097
5409
5442
8344
14914
19040
18805

1108
1955
6601
8297
9272
9649
11061
21432
26278
10530
10250

2155
3599
11176
12882
13620
13388
14289
25527
28729
10530
9668

19.8
69.9
26.3
16.0
28.8
38.4
37.9
32.8
11 .7
19.4
21.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0

INDONESIA

IRAN

IRAQ

72

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL IMPORTS

TOTAL EXPORTS

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

...

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0

- -
Mililon dollars

YEAH

Current

M!l40n dOllars

Constant
198~

Current

MinIOn dOtlars

Constant
198'

Current

Constant
1981

Million oolars
Current

Constant
1981

IRELAND
1912
1913
1914
1975
1916
1911
1978
1919
1980
1981
1982

5
0
0
0
0
10
5
10
20
10
10

9
0
0
0
0
13
6
11
21
10
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0

2102
2189
3812
3119
4196
5396
1121
9883
11154
10608
9101

4088
5135
6454
5861
6164
7481
9199
11111
12194
10608
9150

1611
2131
2655
3193
3315
4404
5691
1132
8398
1619
8062

4869
6110
1352
8494
9181
1619
1604

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1

1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

300
230
950
125
915
1100
900
490
825
1100
1000

583
423
1608
1125
1432
1526
1162
583
901
1100
943

10
20
30
50
140
60
120
260
140
260
360

19
36
50
17
205
83
155
309
153
260
339

2419
4219
5444
6099
5121
5118
1506
8136
9164
10267
9668

4822
1819
9211
9469
8404
8011
9691
10405
10614
10261
9119

1141
1449
1825
1941
2415
3084
3921
4546
5538
5664
5222

2231
2668
3090
3013
3541
4219
5065
5414
6054
5664
4925

12. 1
5.3
11.4
11 .8
11.0
19.0
11.9
5.6
8.4
10.1
10.3

0.9
1.4
1.6
2.6
5.8
1.9
3. 1
5.7
2.5
4.6
6.9

1912
1973
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

190
120
100
70
140
140
150
110
120
100
150

369
220
169
108
205
194
193
131
131
100
141

110
140
220
250
310
380
800
615
615
1100
915

214
251
312
388
543
521
1033
804
138
1100
919

19319 31580
28000 51551
41089 69512
38535 59832
43908 64502
48090 66125
56491 12989
17893 92118
99662 108960
91102 91102
86218 81326

18607
22223
35143
34816
31261
45305
56068
12232
11613
15264
13491

36195
40920
59504
54058
54131
62861
12435
86035
84919
15264
69321

0.9
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

0.6
0.6
0.6
0.1
1.0
0.8
1.4
0.9
0.9
1.5
1.3

5
5
0
5
10
10
60
10
110
130
60

9
9
0
7
14
13
11
83
120
130
56

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

553
858
1214
1181
1631
2157
2322
2515
3142
2535
2299

1015
1519
2055
1833
2396
2992
2999
2995
3435
2535
2168

1. 1
0.1
0.0
0.4
0.1
0.5
2.5
2.8
3.6
5.4
2.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

3133
3923
4495
4~51

ISRAEL

ITALY

IVORY COAST
1912
1913
1974
1975
1976
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

454
111
969
1121
1296
1156
2326
2491
2991
2383
2180

73

883
1309
1640
1749
1903
2436
3005
2961
3270
2383
2056

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS'MPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

MilMan dollars

YEAH

Currenl

TOTAl'MPORTSb

Mllhoo doilars

ConSfant
1981

Current

1981

Current

ARMS
'MPORTS

TOTAL
'MPORTS

MtlhOn dollars

Mtlbon dollars

Constant

TOTAl EXPORTSb

COnstant
19111

Current

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
HPORTS

1981

...

Ccnslant

JAMAICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

610
677
936
1124
913
860
891
992
1171
1473
1372

1186
1246
1584
1745
1341
1193
1151
1181
1280
1473
1294

376
390
664
835
633
755
820
818
963
974
710

731
718
1124
1296
929
1047
1059
974
1052
974
669

0.0
0.0
'0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

90
60
80
60
180
120
170
230
340
675
600

175
110
135
93
264
166
219
273
371
675
565

10
20
20
30
10
30
90
50
60
200
60

19
36
33
46
14
41
116
59
65
200
56

23863
38389
61982
57842
64894
71340
79923
109831
141295
142866
131516

46419
70687
104949
89810
95331
98984
103253
130819
154477
142866
124054

29088
37017
55426
55729
67321
81083
98353
102299
130441
151495
138403

56583
68160
93848
86529
98897
112503
127063
121847
142610
151495
130551

0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4

0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
40
70
70
140
120
170
100
260
1100
825

58
73
118
108
205
166
219
119
284
1100
778

0
5
10
20
5
0
10
0
0
0
0

0
9
16
31
7
0
12
0
0
0
0

274
331
489
732
1006
1381
1499
1962
2395
3202
3242

533
609
828
1136
1477
1916
1936
2336
2618
3202
3058

48
74
155
153
207
249
297
402
573
744
932

93
136
262
237
304
345
383
478
626
744
879

10.9
12.0
14.3
9.5
13.9
8.6
11 .3
5.0
10.8
34.3
25.4

0.0
6.8
6.5
13. 1
2.4
0.0
3.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

110
150
290
300
5
10
40
20
10
0
20

214
276
491
465
7
13
51
23
10
0
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

80

155

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

7
7

13
12

137.5

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

JAPAN

JORDAN

KAMPUCHEA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

74

NA
NA
NA
NA

20

25

200.0

0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

CUJTent

TOTAlIMPORTS b

Constant

'961

Cun...

Constant

196'

Current

TOTAL EXPORTSb

Constant

1981

Current

ARMS
IMPORTS

-TOTAl
IMPORTS

Ml'lImn dOHars

MIl/IOn doflars

Mlliiondoilars

Mllbon doUar5
VEAR

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

1981

KENYA
10
0
30
10
0
10
50
90
60
130
70

19
0
50
15
0
13
64
107
65
130
66

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

554
655
1026
987
973
1285
1710
1660
2332
2135
1745

1077
1206
1737
1532
1429
1782
2209
1977
2549
2135
1646

372
516
661
647
825
1195
1023
1107
1389
1183
1047

723
950
1119
1004
1212
1658
1321
1318
1518
1183
987

1.8
0.0
2.9
1.0
0.0
0.7
2.9
5.4
2.5
6.0
4.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

170
210
130
140
80
120
70
170
80
190
270

330
386
220
217
117
166
90
202
87
190
254

0
0
0
10
80
20
90
90
190
470
480

0
0
0
15
117
27
116
107
207
470
452

640
835
1300
1090
850

1245
1537
2201
1692
1248

400
500
720
785
605

778
920
1219
1218
888

26.6
25.1
10.0
12.8
9.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
13.2

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

350
170
80
190
340
300
525
525
480
390
380

680
313
135
295
499
416
678
625
524
390
358

0
0
0
5
5
110
70
190
250
250
400

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

5
0
0
50
80
310
300
60
40
120
130

9
0
0
77
117
430
387
71
43
120
122

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

KOREA. NORTH
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

902
1300

1165
1548

967
1320

1249
1572

7.8
13.1

9.3
6.8

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

0
0
0
7
7
152
90
226
273
250
377

2522
4240
6852
7274
8774
10811
14972
20339
22297
26131
24319

4905
7807
11601
11294
12889
15000
19342
24225
24377
26131
22939

1624
3225
4460
5081
7715
10047
12711
15055
17505
21268
21761

3159
5938
7551
7889
11333
13940
16421
17931
19138
21268
20526

13.8
4.0
1. 1
2.6
3.8
2.7
3.5
2.5
2. 1
1.4
1.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
1. 1
0.6
1.3
1.4
1 .2
1.8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

797
1052
1552
2390
3324
4840
4595
5200
6530
6978
8453

1550
1937
2627
3710
4883
6715
5936
6193
7139
6978
7973

2558
3826
'10959
9185
9847
9760
10428
18404
19666
16158
10862

4&76
7045
18556
14261
14465
13542
13472
21920
21500
16158
10245

0.6
0.0
0.0
2.0
2.4
6.4
6.5
1.1
0.6
1.7
1.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

KOREA. SOUTH

KUWAIT

75

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

Current

TOTALiMPORTS b

Mllhon dollars

MrllJ(ln dollars

YEAH

Constant
1981

Current

MIlIJOn dollars

Constant

Current

1981

Constant
1961

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL

- -

Mllhondoilars

IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

Current

Constant
1981

LAOS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
19 7 8
1979
1980
1981
1982

140
150
130
20
20
40
20
10
80
10
10

272
276
220
31
29
55
25
11
87
10
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

61
57
52

118
105
88

7
9
16
48
85
13
15
41

229.5
263.2
250.0

95

4
5
10
31
58
10
12
35

12.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

80

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA

20
20
10
10
10
0
20
20
40
50
40

38
36
16
15
14
0
25
23
4.3
50
37

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

924
1541
2355
2048
612
1539
1922
2700
3650
3499
3337

1797
2837
3987
3179
8.99
2135
2483
3216
3990
3499
3147

377
837
1487
1121
496
691
755
773
868
782
645

733
1541
2517
1740
728
958
975
920
949
782
608

2. 1
1.2
0.4
0.4
1 .6
0.0
1.0
0.7
1.0
1.4
1. 1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

56
8.7
120
160
206
229
272
360
463
532

108
160
203
248
303
318
352
429
507
532

7
12
14
12
16
14
31
45
58
51

15
23
24
19
24
19
41
53
63
51

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

179
193
288
332
399
464
481
507
534
477

348
355
487
515
586
643
621
603
583
477

244
324
400
394
460
447
504
537
589
531

474
596
677
611
675
620
651
639
644
531

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

LEBANON
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NA
NA
NA
0
0

LESOTHO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0

LIBERIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

76

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL IMPORTSb

TOTAL EXPORTSb

I
I

Million <:toUars
YEAk

Current

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
\981

Current

Mtibon dollars

MtlhondOilars

MJlilon dollars

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS

~
TOTAl
IMPORTS
%

ARMS
EXPORTS

-TOTAl
EXPORTS

LIBYA
160
180
330
550
1000
1200
2000
2500
2200
2400
2400

311
331
558
853
1469
1665
2583
2977
2405
2400
2263

5
0
0
5
0
20
10
90
5
60
290

9
0
0
7
0
27
12
107
5
60
273

1043
1806
2762
3542
3212
3773
4603
5311
6777
8382
8206

2028
3325
4676
5499
4718
5235
5946
6325
7409
8382
7740

2945
4007
8263
6840
9562
11421
10208
16085
21919
15576
13948

5728
7378
13991
10620
14047
15846
13187
19158
23964
15576
13156

15.3
9.9
11 .9
15.5
31.1
31.8
43.4
47.0
32.4
28.6
29.2

0.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.4
2. 1

0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
8

0
0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA

12

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
Nt.
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
10
5
20
20
30
50
10

0
0
0
0
14
6
25
23
32
50
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

205
203
281
366
285
347
443
641
600

398
373
475
568
418
481
572
763
656

166
203
244
301
275
338
388
394
401

322
373
413
467
404
469
501
469
438

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.5
1.4
4.5
3. 1
5.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
5
20
10
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
6
23
10
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

129
140
188
253
206
233
338
398
440
360
307

250
257
318
392
302
323
436
474
481
360
289

80
98
120
140
166
200
185
223
285
285
244

155
180
203
217
243
277
239
265
311
285
230

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.4
5.0
2.2
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

LUXEMBOURG
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0.0
125.0

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

77

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
IIAMS 'MPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

Cl,Jrratlf

TOTALlMPOfITS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
'MPORTS

-
Million dollars

Million dollars

YEAH

Constant
1981

Current

Conslant

'981

Current

TOTAL
'MPORTS

Mdbon dollars

Mlloondollars

Constant
1981

Current

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

Constant
1981

MALAYSIA
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

30
40
40
10
40
60
80
110
150
80
40

58
13
61
108
58
83
103
202
163
80
31

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9

1665
2508
4144
3554
3828
4542
5909
1849
10119
11581
12463

3238
4618
1016
5518
5623
6302
1633
9348
11184
11581
11755

1122
3046
4236
3830
5295
6080
1414
11019
12945
11111
12044

3349
5608
1112
5946
1718
8436
9518
13196
14152
11111
11360

1.8
1 .5
0.9
1.9
1.0
1.3
1.3
2. 1
1.3
0.6
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
o 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1

1912
1913
1914
1975
1916
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

5
5
0
10
20
30
60
10
10
10
0

9
9
0
15
29
41
11
11
10
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

19
107
180
116
150
159
286
361
439
365
330

153
191
304
213
220
220
369
430
480
365
311

34
53
64
53
84
125
112
148
205
155
146

66
97
108
82
123
173
144
116
224
155
;37

6.3
4.6
0.0
5.6
13.3
18.8
20.9
2.7
2.2
2.7
0.0

0.0
0.0
o 0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1914
1975
1976
1917
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

176
239
361
375
423
516
515
159
938
834
191

342
440
611
582
621
116
142
904
1025
834
746

68
98
134
166
228
289
342
424
483
449
421

132
180
226
251
334
401
441
505
528
449
397

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
0
20
30
30
10
0
5
10

0
0
0
0
29
41
38
11
0
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

69
128
121
161
179
207
181
259
286
265
213

134
235
204
250
263
287
233
308
312
265
251

100
155
181
176
118
157
123
147
194
259
232

194
285
306
273
261
217
158
115
212
259
218

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
11 . 1
14.4
16.5
3.8
0.0
1.8
3.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

MALI

MALTA

MAURITANIA
1912
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

78

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTALIMPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTS b

ARMS

IMPORTS

Mlllton dollars

Mlikon dollars

YEAH

current.

Constant
1981

Current

Million dOllars

Million dallars

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Conslanl
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

MAURITIUS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

119
168
309
332
360
447
501
566
614
554
463

231
309
523
515
528
620
647
674
671
55.4
436

106
137
312
298
265
310
326
377
435
324
365

206
252
528
462
389
430
421
449
475
324
344

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
5
10
20
20
10
5
10
20
50
190

0
9
16
31
29
13
6
11
21
50
179

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2719
3814
6057
6571
6028
5883
7555
12086
19460
24068
14559

5289
7022
10255
10202
8855
8162
9760
14395
21275
24068
13733

1699
2261
2987
2904
3418
4518
5958
8982
15570
19383
21580

3305
4163
5057
4509
5021
6:.:!68
7697
10698
17022
19383
20355

0.0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
1.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

5
5
5
10
10
30
60
70
80
90
260

9
9
8
15
14
41
77
83
87
90
245

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

280
360
365
410

544
662
618
636

125
140
180
180

243
257
304
279

1.8
1.4
1.4
2.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

0
5
20
50
210
300
440
500
350
320
260

0
9
33
77
308
416
568
595
382
320
245

0
0
0
0
5
5
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
7
6
0
0
5
0
0

779
1144
1904
2567
2618
3199
2970
3678
4261
4400
4315

1515
2106
3223
3985
3845
4438
3837
4380
4658
4400
4070

642
910
1708
1543
1261
1302
1508
1959
2441
2386
2062

1248
1675
2892
2395
1852
1806
1948
2333
2668
2386
1945

0.0
0.4
1.0
1.9
8.0
9,3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0

MEXICO

MONGOLIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

MOROCCO
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

79

14.~

13.5
8.2
7.2
6.0

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982

By Region, Organization. and Country-continued


ARMS IMPORTS a

ARMS eXPORTS a

l,iItlltOO~af$

YEAli

Current

TOTALIMPORTSb

ConSlanf

1961

c"nenl

Constant

Current

1981

Constant
1981

Currenl

ARMS
IMPORTS

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

...

...

TOTAL
IMPOATS

Mrihon dotlars

Mllhon docllars

M"11Oft dotiats

TOT At EXPOf'TS b

TOTAL
EXPORTS

MOZAMBIQUE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NEPAL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

638
440
445

198
150
149

307
220
206

7.2
3.3
9.3

0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

a
a

85
103
134
171
163
168
221
254
342
368
397

165
189
226
265
239
233
285
302
373
368
374

58
63
66
100
98
81
91
109
80
140
86

112
116
111
155
144
112
117
129
87
140
81

0.0
0.0
7.4
2 9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

80
80
30
70
90
60
80
120
190
260
230

155
147
50
108
132
83
103
142
207
260
217

17521
24492
33695
35532
40535
45891
53826
68188
78041
67144
64243

34082
45098
57053
55169
59547
63674
69538
81218
85321
67144
60598

16790
24055
32825
35024
40214
43700
50124
63702
73940
68715
66314

32660
44293
55579
5438t
59076
60634
64756
75875
80838
68715
62551

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.7

0.5
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.3

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1522
2179
3651
3152
3254
3361
3491
4553
5473
5734
5782

2960
4012
6181
4894
4780
4663
4510
5423
5983
5734
5454

1792
2599
2434
2160
2795
3196
3738
4706
5421
5618
5551

3485
4785
4121
3353
4106
4434
4829
5605
5926
5618
5236

3.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

46
14
41
155
71
76
40
56

a
a
0
a
a
a
a

0
10
5

0
16
7

a
a
a
a

0
0
5

0
0
0
0
0
4

80
20
30
70
90
160
150
260
450
400
500

155
36
50
108
132
222
193
309
491
400
471

50
5
10
10
5
20
10
10
10
10
20

97
9
16
15
7
27
12
11
10
10
18

a
a
a
a

a
a
0
a

411
300
321

30
10
30
120
60
70
40
60

0
0

a
a

a
0
a
0
0

a
0
a
0
0
0
0

NETHERLANDS
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

NEW ZEALAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

a
0
0

0
0

a
a
0

a
0
a

80

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Milkon dollars
YEAk

Ctirrenl

ARMS EXPORTS

~"ihlhon

Con Slant
1981

Cunenl

TOTAllMPOATS b

~Jbllton

dollars

Constant

Curfent

1981

dollars

TOTAL EXPORTSb

MllllOOdollilrs

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAl
IMPORTS

TOTAl
EXPORTS

- --

NICARAGUA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
10
10
5
5
30
100

0
0
0
0
0
13
12
5
5
30
94

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

218
327
562
517
532
762
596
360
887
999
776

424
602
951
802
781
1057
770
428
969
999
732

249
278
381
375
542
637
646
448
566
508
408

484
511
645
582
796
883
834
533
618
508
384

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
1.6
1.3
0.5
3.0
12.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
30
5
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
6
0
35
5
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

66
86
97
101
127
197
305
461
594
510
443

128
158
164
156
186
273
394
549
649
510
417

54
62
53
91
134
160
280
494

105
114
89
141
196
222
361
588

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA

NA

455
333

455
314

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.5
0.0
6.5
0.8
1.9
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
20
20
90
50
10
50
110
70
400
210

38
36
33
139
73
13
64
131
76
400
198

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0

1505
1862
2776
6041
8213
11095
12821
10231
16635
20915
14456

2927
3428
4700
9379
12065
15394
16563
12186
18187
20915
13635

2178
3524
9699
7775
10087
11780
10538
17584
26527
19512
16374

4236
6488
16422
12072
14818
16344
13614
20944
29001
19512
15445

1.3
1.0
0.7
1.4
0.6
0.0
0.3
1.0
0.4
1.9
1.4

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
50
40
50
50
60
70
40
240
230
350

58
92
67
77
73
83
90
47
262
230
330

10
20
30
10
30
20
30
60
70
40
30

19
36
50
15
44
27
38
71
76
40
28

4373
6289
8421
9705
11121
12883
11497
13706
16926
15650
15475

8506
11580
14258
15068
16337
17875
14853
16325
18505
15650
14597

3283
4725
6282
7232
7951
8880
10882
13546
18542
18217
17586

6386
8700
10636
11229
11680
12321
14058
16134
20271
18217
16588

0.6
0.7
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.2
1.4
1.4
2.2

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2

NIGER

NA
0.0
0.0

NIGERIA

NORWAY

81

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
AFIMS IMPORTS

Million oollars

vEAfi

Currenf

AFIMS EXPORTS

TOT... IMPORTS b

MillIOn dOIlar$

Constant
1981

Current

MllhondOllars

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

TOT... EXPORTSb

MiIltOn dollar,
Current

Constant
1981

_S
IMPORTS

EXPORTS

TOTAl.
IMPORTS

TOTAl.
EXPORTS

-- --

OMAN
5
10
10
40
10
50
270
20
100
50
100

9
18
16
62
14
69
348
23
109
50
94

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

49
116
393
670
667
875
947
1246
1732
2288
2682

95
213
665
1040
979
1214
1223
1484
1893
2288
2529

231
329
1137
1442
1566
1573
1512
2166
3294
4422
4109

449
605
1925
2239
2300
2182
1953
2579
3601
4422
3875

10.2
8.6
2.5
5.9
1.4
5.7
28.5
1.6
5.7
2.1
3.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

110
130
100
100
190
220
210
240
380
300
440

213
239
169
155
279
305
271
285
415
300
415

0
0
0
5
0
5
30
10
10
40
20

0
0
0
7
0
6
38
11
10
40
18

666
971
1729
2158
2181
2446
3285
4056
5350
5523
5378

1295
1787
2927
3350
3204
3393
4243
4831
5849
5523
5072

675
955
1108
1052
1167
1189
1475
2056
2618
2880
2336

1313
1758
1876
1633
1714
1649
1905
2448
2862
2880
2203

16.5
13.3
5.7
4.6
8.7
8.9
6.3
5.9
7.1
5.4
8.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.4
2.0
O.S
0.4
1.4
0.9

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
5
0
5
0
0
30
5
10

0
0
0
7
0
6
0
0
32
5
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

440
502
822
892
848
861
942
1184
1449
1540
1570

855
924
1391
1385
1245
1194
1217
1410
1584
1540
1480

123
138
211
286
238
251
256
303
360
328
372

239
254
357
444
349
348
330
360
393
328
350

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.3
0.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

30
20
10
10
30
20
0

44
27
12
11
32
20
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

502
642
770
903
1176
1270
1202

737
890
994
1075
1285
1270
1133

551
683
714
883
1128
840
708

809
947
922
1051
1233
840
667

5.9
3.1
1.2
1.1
2.5
1.5
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1917
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

PAKISTAN

PANAMA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1.982

82

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMSIIoIPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAlIMPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
IMPORTS

-
~doIlars

MtlIKln dollars
YEAH

Currenl

ConSlanl
1981

Cunenl

Mtlltoo dOllars

Mdltondollars

Constant
1981

Currenl

TOTAL
IMPORTS

COnslan!
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

PARAGUAY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
5
0
10
10
40
5
0

0
0
0
0
7
0
12
11
43
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

83
122
198
206
220
308
383
521
615
600
672

161
224
335
319
323
427
494
620
672
600
633

86
127
170
177
182
279
257
305
310
296
330

167
233
287
274
267
387
332
363
338
296
311

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
0.0
2.6
1.9
6.5
0.8
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

80
80
80
120
260
420
310
90
260
290
280

155
147
135
186
381
582
400
107
284
290
264

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
60

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
56

797
1019
1531
2551
2037
1911
1959
1820
2500
3447
3601

1550
1876
2592
3960
2992
2651
2530
2167
2733
3447
3396

945
1112
1503
1291
1360
1726
1941
3491
3898
3255
3230

1838
2047
2544
2004
1997
2394
2507
4158
4261
3255
3046

10.0
7.8
5.2
4.7
12.7
21.9
15.8
4.9
10.4
8.4
7.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.9

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
20
30
40
60
50
50
50
60
60
60

19
36
50
62
88
69
64
59
65
60
56

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1419
1800
3471
3756
3942
4270
5144
6571
8295
8469
8272

2760
3314
5877
5831
5791
5924
6645
7826
9068
8469
7802

1101
1885
2725
2295
2555
3127
3401
4567
5741
5655
4969

2141
3470
4614
3563
3753
4338
4393
5439
6276
5655
4687

0.7
1.1
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

260
410
360
350
390
370
180
200
170
440
250

505
754
609
543
572
513
232
238
185
440
235

140
230
190
170
330
440
650
550
525
700
575

272
423
321
264
484
610
839
655
574
700
542

5350
7902
10429
12752
13823
14767
16489
18164
19437
16158
14960

10407
14550
17658
19799
20306
20489
21302
21635
21250
16158
14111

4948
6471
8260
10510
10969
14527
14488
16860
17249
13654
15626

9625
11915
13986
16318
16113
20156
18717
20081
18858
13654
14739

4.9
5.2
3.5
2.7
2.8
2.5
1. 1
1.1
0.9
2.7
1.7

2.8
3.6
2.3
1.6
3.0
3.0
4.5
3.3
3.0
5.1
3.7

PERU

PHILIPPINES

POLAND

83

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Cu",,",

TOTAL IMPORTS b

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
IMPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

0;..,

- -
Million dollars

Million OOIlars

MilltOndoilars

MIllion dollars
YEAI!

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant

Current

1981

Constant
1981

CUrlltt'll

Conslant
1981

PORTUGAL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
0
20
50
40
10
50
20
50
50
60

19
0
33
77
58
13
64
23
54
50
56

5
0
0
0
30
60
70
20
30
20
100

9
0
0
0
44
83
90
23
32
20
94

2250
3072
4684
3840
4221
4951
5237
6534
9309
9800
9514

4376
5656
7931
5962
6200
6869
6765
7782
10177
9800
8974

1308
1862
2298
1939
1811
2023
2414
3480
4640
4148
4165

2544
3428
3891
3010
2660
2806
3118
4145
5072
4148
3928

0.4
0.0
0.4
1.3
0.9
0.2
0.9
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.6

0.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
3.0
2.9
0.6
0.6
0.5
2,4

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
10
0
40
20
20
90
130
250

0
0
0
15
0
55
25
23
98
130
235

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

141
195
271
413
817
1225
1185
1424
1423
1526
1951

274
359
458
641
1200
1699
1530
1696
1555
1526
1840

397
619
2015
1809
2210
2012
2320
3744
5672
5691
4279

772
1139
3411
2808
3246
2791
2997
4459
6201
5691
4036

0,0
0.0
0.0
2.4
0.0
3.2
1.6
1.4
6.3
8.5
12.8

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

70
140
160
170
140
160
260
160
310
120
10

136
257
270
264
205
222
335
190
338
120
9

50
30
50
30
20
40
70
80
150
625
1100

97
55
84
46
29
55
90
95
164
625
1037

2625
3490
5111
5418
6062
7060
8926
11168
13037
12547
9745

5106
6426
8654
8412
8905
9795
11531
13302
14253
12547
9192

2600
3725
4840
5420
6175
7064
8093
9949
11792
12611
11559

5057
6859
8195
8415
9071
9801
10455
11850
12892
12611
10903

2.7
4.0
3.1
3. 1
2.3
2.3
2.9
1.4
2.4
1,0
0.1

1.9
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.3
0.6
0.9
0.8
1.3
5.0
9.5

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
197!;l
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
5
0
10
5
10
0
0

0
0
0
0
7
0
12
5
10
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

35
34
58
99
106
123
179
192
243

68
62
98
153
155
170
231
228
265

20
33
36
42
80
92
72
114
76

38
60
61
65
117
127
93
135
83

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.7
0.0
5.5
2.6
4.1

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

QATAR

ROMANIA

RWANDA

84

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 19721982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IUPORTS

M.II,oo dollars

Millton doilats

YEAH

Current

TOT A~ ,"PORTS b

AR"S EXPORTSB

Constant
1981

Cun"'"

CUfrent

Constant
'981

AIWS
It.APORTS

ARt.AS
exPORTS

- -
Mfllklndollars

.....Iton dollars

Constant
198,

TOTAL EXPORTSb

Current

Constanl
1981

TOT~

TOT~

."PORTS

EXPORTS

""

""

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

8
23
21
27

17

13
19
23
23
20
17

11
31
27
32
18
9

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

4559
8868
2209
7842 14439
3636
4842 31217 52857
6543 29838 46329
12771 38905 57153
20335 44061 61135
26289 37816 48855
28892 58652 69860
32980 102012 111529
35268 113230 113230
38346 75838 71535

8.8
4.0
11 .8
5.9
5.0
5.9
6.3
4.9
5.9
7.6
6.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.5
0.0

420
359
662
715
712
865
545
637
521
442
449

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
2.6
2. 1
0.9
2.3
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

227
239
243
195
149
170
214
229
235
153
104

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1. 1
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

9
14
18
20
19

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100
80
340
250
440
875
1300
1200
1800
2700
2600

194
147
575
388
646
1214
1679
1429
1967
2700
2452

0
0
5
10
0
20
90
0
525
0

0
0
8
15
0
13
25
107
0
525
0

1136
1975
2860
4214
8694
14656
20349
24257
30166
35268
40653

0
0
0
0
0
10
20
20
10
20
0

0
0
0
0
0
13
25
23
10
20
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

280
361
498
583
636
764
755
931
1052
861
974

544
664
843
905
934
1060
975
1108
1150
861
918

216
195
391
461
485
624
422
535
477
442
477

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

118
156
220
185
153
181
278
316
427
328
297

229
287
372
287
224
251
359
376
466
328
280

117
130
144
126
102
123
166
193
215
153
111

17

SAUDI ARABIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10

SENEGAL
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

SIERRA LEONE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

85

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTALIMPORTS b

TOTALEXPORTS b

ARMS
IMPORTS

-
Mdbon doNars

MIllIon dollars

YEAH

Cuneo!

Constanl
1981

Current

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL
IMPORTS

MIllion dotlars

Mdl;on dotLars

ConSianl
1981

CUHent

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS
%

SINGAPORE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

50
50
20
60
30
50
30
100
40
90
50

97
92
33
93
44
69
38
119
43
90
47

10
0
0
10
20
10
10
10
0
40
5

19
0
0
15
29
13
12
11
0
40
4

3398
5147
8380
8134
9070
10471
13048
17635
24003
27572
28167

6610
9477
14189
12629
13324
14528
16856
21005
26242
27572
26569

2191
3667
5810
5376
6586
8241
10134
14233
19375
20967
20788

4262
6752
9837
8347
9675
11434
13092
16952
21182
20967
19E08

1.4
0.9
0.2
0.7
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.1

0.5
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0

20
40
90
70
100
80
240
130
190
50
70

38
73
152
108
146
111
310
154
207
50
66

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

75
102
129
155
156
228
241
287
275
199
264

145
187
218
240
229
316
311
341
300
199
249

43
54
62
89
95
63
107
1 11
141
200
187

83
99
105
138
139
87
138
132
154
200
176

26.6
39.2
69.7
45.1
64. 1
35.0
99.5
45.2
69.0
25.1
26.5

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

130
80
100
130
180
130
120
20
0
0
0

252
147
169
201
264
180
155
23
0
0
0

5
5
0
0
5
120
5
90
0
0
0

9
9
0
0
7
166
6
107
0
0
0

3948
5163
7856
8293
72i!5
6270
7615
8989
19246
22616
18532

7679
9506
13301
12876
10702
8699
9837
10706
21041
22616
17480

4196
6114
8760
8959
7975
9987
12875
18397
25680
20856
17694

8162
11258
14832
13910
11715
13857
16633
21912
28075
20856
16690

3.2
1.5
1 .2
1.5
2.4
2.0
1.5
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.2
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

240
220
210
300
500
750
1100
1000
975
875
975

466
405
355
465
734
1040
1421
1191
1066
875
919

2900
5300
4100
4000
5300
6600
7700
11300
10000
9900
10900

5641
9759
6942
6210
7785
9157
9947
13459
10933
9900
10281

16104
20980
24861
37070
38212
40926
50798
57958
68473
73158
77848

31326
38631
42095
57558
56135
56785
65626
69033
74861
73158
73431

15409
21332
27374
33407
37269
45227
52435
64913
76437
79399
87170

29974
39279
46350
51870
54749
62752
67741
77317
83568
79399
82224

1.5
1.0
0.8
0.8
1.3
1 .8
2.2
1.7
1 .4
1.2
1.3

18.8
24.8
15.0
12.0
14.2
14.6
14.7
17.4
13. 1
12.5
12.5

SOMALIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

SOUTH AFRICA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

SOVIET UNION
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

86

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued

!
i
YEAH

ARMS IMPORTS a

TOTAL IMPORTSb

ARMS EXPORTS a

TOTAL EXPO'lTsb

ARMS
IMPORTS

-~llbon

Current

Million dollars

dollars

Constant
1981

Current

Conslant
1981

Currenl

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Million dollars

Mdll()(l dollars

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

SPAIN
80
110
100
160
220
300
160
200
250
390
470

155
202
169
248
323
416
206
238
273
390
443

10
10
20
80
90
30
70
60
80
100
550

19
18
33
124
132
41
90
71
87
100
518

6829
9667
15428
16265
17474
17836
18712
25438
34078
32146
31466

13284
17800
26123
25254
25670
24747
24174
30299
37257
32146
29680

3817
5198
7091
7691
8730
10223
13114
18208
20720
20335
20498

7425
9571
'12006
11941
12824
14;84
16942
21687
22653
20335
19335

1.1
1. 1
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.6
0.8
0.7
0.7
1.2
1.4

0.3
0.2
0.3
1.0
1.0
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.5
2.7

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
10
0
0
10
0
0
10
5
0
0

19
18
0
0
14
0
0
11
5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

366
429
720
753
579
695
967
1451
2057
1908
1998

712
789
1219
1169
850
964
1249
1728
2248
1908
1884

337
410
527
566
570
753
845
981
1062
1089
1031

655
754
892
878
837
1044
1091
1168
1161
1089
972

2.7
2.3
0.0
0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.2
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
10
30
0
50
190
120
110
100
160
170

38
18
50
0
73
263
155
131
109
160
160

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

339
436
711
1033
980
1081
1194
1110
1576
1511
1285

659
802
1203
1603
1439
1499
1542
1322
1723
1511
1212

357
434
350
438
554
661
518
535
543
658
499

694
799
592
680
813
917
669
637
593
658
470

5.8
2.2
4.2
0.0
5. 1
17.5
10.0
9.9
6.3
10.5
13.2

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.0

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
10

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

252
294
398
406
411
504
568
511

391
431
552
524
489
551
568
482

277
276
310
369
444
514
474

430
405
430
476
528
562
474

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0,0

NA

NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
0.0
1.9

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

SRI LANKA

SUDAN

SURINAME
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

87

NA

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS .MPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

Million dotlars

YEA><

Currenl

TOTAL .MPORTSb

Current

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

- -

MilbondoUars

Constant
1981

TOTAL EXPORTSb

MIlItonOOUat$

MtIlM'J(1 dollars

Consiaol
1981

Curren!

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

SWAZILAND
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

69
96
138
180
200
224
311
435
602
596
526

134
176
233
279
293
310
401
518
658
596
496

82
107
179
196
191
180
197
234
359
379
315

159
197
303
304
280
249
254
278
392
379
297

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
20
20
20
40
60
60
70
140
110
90

38
36
33
31
58
83
77
83
153
110
84

50
10
70
90
50
50
110
120
120
100
170

97
18
118
139
73
69
142
142
131
100
160

8110
10907
16683
17450
19628
20140
20589
28735
33497
28834
27554

15776
20083
28248
27094
28834
27944
26599
34226
36622
28834
25990

8769
12201
15939
17384
18435
19082
21786
27602
30911
28627
26786

17057
22466
26988
26991
27081
26476
28145
32876
33794
28627
25266

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.3

0.6
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.6

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

30
50
50
50
80
70
80
270
40
130
110

58
92
84
77
117
97
103
321
43
130
103

50
40
60
150
240
310
290
350
675
320
280

97
73
101
,232
352
430
374
416
738
320
264

8468
11621
14445
13303
14775
17940
23804
29356
36360
30682
28678

16472
21398
24458
20655
21705
24891
30752
34965
39752
30682
27051

6842
9525
11934
12953
14835
17614
23560
26538
29632
27049
26019

13309
17538
20206
20111
21793
24439
30437
31609
32396
27049
24542

0.3
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.9
0.1
0.4
0.3

0.7
0.4
0.5
1 .2
1.6
1.8
1.2
1 .3
2.3
1.2
1.1

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

280
1300
825
380
625
650
900
2000
2700
1900
2300

544
2393
1396
590
918
901
1162
2382
2951
1900
2169

0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
10
0
120

0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
10
0
113

540
613
1227
1685
2383
2674
2459
3329
4124
5172
4028

1050
1128
2077
2616
3500
3710
3176
3965
4508
5172
3799

299
351
782
930
1074
1070
1060
1644
2108
2103
2026

581
646
1324
1444
1577
1484
1369
lS58
2304
2103
1911

51.8
212.0
67.2
22.5
26.2
24.3
36.6
60.0
65.4
36.7
57.1

00
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
5.9

SWEDEN

SWITZERLAND

SYRIA

88

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPOATS

MIllion dollars
YEAH

Current

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL 'MPORTS

'981

Current

Militon dollars

Constant
'981

TOTAL EXPOATSb

ARMS
'MPORTS

Mtlitondollats

Constant

Current

TOTAL
'MPORTS

MIllion dollars

Constant
1981

Current

Constanl
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

-
TOTAL
EXPORTS
%

TANZANIA
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

10
20
5
10
50
60
80
240
60
20
20

19
36
8
15
13
83
103
285
65
20
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

404
491
154
114
638
146
1148
1100
1258
1155
NA

185
915
1216
1201
931
1035
1483
1310
1315
1155
NA

324
361
403
310
490
541
418
544
508
519
NA

630
615
682
514
119
150
611
648
555
519
NA

2.4
4.0
0.6
1.2
1.8
8 0
6.9
21.8
4.1
1.1
NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
NA

THAILAND
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

10
100
40
40
80
50
120
130
320
340
200

136
184
61
62
111
69
155
154
349
340
188

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1484
2049
3143
3280
3512
4616
5356
1158
9214
9955
8548

2886
3112
5321
5092
5241
6404
6919
8525
10013
9955
8063

1081
1564
2444
2208
2980
3490
4085
5298
6505
1031
6949

2102
2819
4138
3428
4311
4842
5211
6310
1111
1031
6554

4.1
4.8
1.2
1.2
2.2
1.0
2.2
1 .8
3.4
3.4
2.3

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0
0
10
20
10
10
5
5
40
5

0
0
0
15
29
13
12
5
5
40
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

85
101
119
114
185
284
441
518
550
433
NA

165
186
201
210
271
394
511
611
601
433
NA

50
61
189
126
105
159
240
218
335
201
NA

91
112
320
195
154
220
310
259
366
201
NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
5.1
10.8
3.5
2.2
0.9
0.9
9.2
NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
NA

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

156
185
1841
1411
1916
1809
1961
2105
3116
3125
3430

1410
1445
3121
2284
2902
2510
2541
2501
3412
3125
3235

558
698
2038
1113
2213
2183
2040
2610
4015
3161
3239

1085
1285
3450
2152
3251
3028
2635
3108
4455
3161
3055

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

TOGO
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1911
1918
1919
1980
1981
1982

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


1912
0
1913
0
1914
0
1915
0
1916
0
1911
0
1918
0
1919
0
1980
20
1981
0
1982
0

89

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

Current

TOTALIMPORTSb

MtlbQn~iars

MtIIK>n dollars

MIllion doIl3IS

YEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

Currenl

TOTALEXPORTSb

1981

Current

Constanl
1981

ARMS

--

--

...

,.

TOTAl
I!'!PORTS

Mtlltoo dollars

Constant

ARMS
IMPORTS

EXPORTS

TOTAl.
EXPORTS

TUNISIA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
5
10
10
10
50
5
100
140
60
60

19
9
16
15
14
69
6
119
153
60
56

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

466
683
1128
1424
1529
1825
2138
2849
3526
3791
3438

906
1257
1910
2211
2246
2532
2762
3393
3855
3791
3243

315
422
921
856
788
929
1126
1791
2231
2500
1960

612
777
1559
1329
1157
1289
1454
2133
2439
2500
1848

2. 1
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.6
2.7
0.2
3.5
3.9
1 .5
1.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

150
50
150
220
320
140
220
170
290
340
420

291
92
253
341
470
194
284
202
317
340
396

10
10
0
5
10
0
10
10
150
150
160

19
18
0
7
14
0
12
11
164
150
150

1563
2086
3778
4739
5129
5796
4600
5070
7667
8911
8843

3040
3841
6397
7358
7534
8042
5942
6038
8382
8911
8341

885
1317
1532
1401
1960
1753
2288
2261
2910
4696
5746

1721
2425
2594
2175
2879
2432
2955
2693
3181
4696
5420

9.5
2.3
3.9
4.6
6.2
2.4
4.7
3.3
3.7
3.8
4.7

1. 1
0.8
0.0
0.4
0.5
0.0
0.4
0.4
5.2
3.2
2.8

1972
.1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

5
5
10
70
30
5
20
10
10
20
20

9
9
16
108
44
6
25
11
10
20
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

162
163
210
200
169
247
255
197
293
388
377

315
300
355
310
248
342
329
234
320
388
355

283
291
315
257
359
587
349
436
345

550
535
533
399
527
814
450
519
377

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA

3.0
3.0
4.7
35.0
17.7
2.0
7.8
5.0
3.4
5.1
5.3

19
18
84
46
146
180
64
178
185
220
37

0
0
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
8
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

482
821
1705
2669
3327
5048
5364
6952
8746
9648
9086

937
1511
2886
4144
4887
7004
6929
8280
9562
9648
8570

1082
1807
6392
6970
8684
9708
9154
13595
20748
20240
16837

2104
3327
10823
10822
12757
13469
11826
16192
22683
20240
15881

2.0
1.2
2.9
1.1
3.0
2.5
0.9
2. 1
1.9
2.2
0.4

0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

TURKEY

UGANDA

NA
NA

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES


1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

10
10
50
30
100
130
50
150
170
220
40

90

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS 'MPORTS

TOTAL'MPORTSb

Constant

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPOfITS

TOTAL
IMPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

- -
M!llIon dollars

MIllIOn dollars

Mdhon OOHars

MIllion dollars

YEAH

ARMS EXPORTS

Con
1981

Consta:;!

Constar;;

1981

Currenl

110
90
90
90
240
140
160
280
360
480
500

213
165
152
139
352
194
206
333
393
480
471

460
600
550
525
675
875
1400
1200
1800
2600
2000

894 28230 54914 24745 48135


1104 39371 72495 31031 57138
931 55018 93157 39397 66707
815 53341 82821 44523 69130
991 55744 81890 46696 68598
1214 63191 87678 58205 80759
1808 75813 97944 67887 87704
1429 99600 118633 86397 102907
1967 115545 126324 110137 120412
2600 102646 102646 102201 102201
1886 99645 93991 96980 91478

0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

1.9
1.9
1.4
1.2
1.4
1.5
2.1
1.4
1.6
2.5
2.1

160
170
120
140
110
120
120
130
140
210
430

311
313
203
217
161
166
155
154
153
210
405

4000
4900
4600
4800
5900
6800
6400
6300
6500
8300
9500

7781
9022
7788
7452
8667
9435
8268
7503
7106
8300
8961

59328
74280
110875
105880
132493
160411
186045
222228
256984
273352
254884

115408
136774
187735
164398
194637
222571
240354
264694
280959
273352
240423

49783
71404
98552
108112
115413
121232
143766
182025
220786
233739
212276

96840
131479
166870
167863
169546
168210
185733
216809
241384
233739
200233

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1

8.0
6.9
4.7
4.4
5.1
5.6
4.5
3.5
2.9
3.6
4.5

0
0
0
5
0
0
0
5
10
10
0

0
0
0
7
0
0
0
5
10
10
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

69
98
145
151
144
209
227
301
359
338

134
180
245
234
211
290
293
358
392
338

20
25
36
44
53
55
42
77
90
74

38
46
61
68
77
76
54
91
98
74

0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
2.7
2.9

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
NA

0
0
0
5
5
20
0
5
40
60
20

0
0
0
7
7
27
0
5
43
60
18

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

212
285
487
557
587
730
774
1206
1625
1641
1052

412
524
824
864
862
1012
999
1436
1776
1641
992

214
322
382
384
547
608
686
788
1059
1215
1027

416
592
646
596
803
843
886
938
1157
1215
968

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.8
2.7
0.0
0.4
2.4
3.6
1.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Current

Current

1981

Curren!

1981

UNITED KINGDOM
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

UNITED STATES
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

UPPER VOLTA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

URUGUAY
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

91

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS iMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAL 'MPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
'MPORTS

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
'MPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS

Constant
1981

- -
Million dollars

Mill;oo dollars

YEAH

Current

Constant
1981

Curren!

Million dollars

Million dollars

I Cot9~~n'

Current

Constant
1981

Curren!

VENEZUELA
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

60
90
100
90
60
100
30
30
130
290
240

116
165
169
139
88
138
38
35
142
290
226

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2434
2799
4141
6004
7663
10938
11766
10670
11827
13106
12623

4734
5153
7011
9322
11257
15176
15200
12709
12930
13106
11906

3151
4727
11071
8800
9299
9551
9188
14317
19221
20125
18692

6129
8704
18745
13663
13660
13252
11870
17052
21014
20125
17631

2.4
3.2
2 4
1.4
0.7
0.9
0.2
0.2
1.0
2.2
1.9

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1200
270
150
80
40
20
70
1200
1000
575
800

2334
497
254
124
58
27
90
1429
1093
575
754

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

692
616

1346
1134

13
58

25
106

173.4
43.8

0.0
0.0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

900

1162

300

387

7.8

0.0

0
10

0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
9

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

1600
2700
825
850

3112
4971
1396
1319

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA

20
40
40
40
40
120
140
250
240
120
50

38
73
67
62
58
166
180
297
262
120
47

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

149
171
419
323
412
544
575
925
1527

289
314
709
501
605
754
742
1101
1669

96
100
228
172
177
181
193
467
779

186
184
386
267
260
251
249
556
851

13.4
23.3
9.5
12.3
9.7
22.0
24.3
27.0
15.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

VIETNAM
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

VIETNAM. SOUTH
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

YEMEN (ADEN)
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

92

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Total Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS

ARMS EXPORTS

TOTAllMPORTS b

TOTAL EXPORTSb

ARMS
IMPORTS

-
Million dollars

Million dollars
YEAH

Current

Constant
1981

Currenl

Militon dollars

Million dollars

Constant
1981

Current

TOTAL
IMPORTS

Constant
1981

Current

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

TOTAL
EXPORTS
%

YEMEN (SANAA)
10
5
10
20
20
30
90
450
550
800
240

19
9
16
31
29
41
116
535
601
800
226

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20
0

80
123
190
294
413
1040
1284
1492
1853

155
226
321
456
606
1443
1658
1777
2025

4
8
13
11
8
11
7
14
23

7
14
22
17
11
15
9
16
25

12.5
4.0
5.2
6.8
4.8
2.8
7.0
30.1
29.6

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

NA
NA

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

40
80
80
140
150
110
90
120
180
70
180

77
147
135
217
220
152
116
142
196
70
169

10
30
10
90
130
240
190
180
350
400
150

19
55
16
139
191
333
245
214
382
400
141

3233
4511
7542
7697
7366
9634
9988
12863
15064
15829
13390

6289
8306
12770
11951
10821
13367
12903
15321
16469
15829
12630

2237
2853
3805
4072
4878
5254
5671
6491
8978
10940
10276

4351
5253
6442
6322
7166
7290
7731
9815
10940
9693

1.2
1.8
1.1
1.8
2.0
1.1
0.9
0.9
1.2
0.4
1 3

0.4
1.1
0.3
2.2
2.7
4.6
3.4
2.8
3.9
3.7
1.5

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

40
20
50
30
120
30
30
30
50
50
90

77
36
84
46
176
41
38
35
54
50
84

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

625
754
1051
905
667
609
589
597
835
668
480

1215
1388
1779
1405
979
845
760
711
912
668
452

738
1013
1381
865
889
988
925
1323
1632
662
569

1435
1865
2338
1343
1306
1370
1195
1575
1784
662
536

6.4
2.6
4.7
3.3
17.9
4.9
5.0
5.0
5.9
7.4
18.7

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

20
10
10
20
40
20
60
30
190
40
20

38
18
16
31
58
27

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

677
649
968
1138
789
787
730
906
1308
1256
998

1316
1195
1639
1767
1159
1092
943
1079
1430
1256
941

758
1148
1407
810
1037
897
844
1376
1403
1055
1059

1474
2113
2382
1257
1523
1244
1090
1638
1533
1055
998

2.9
1.5
1.0
1.7
5.0
2.5
8.2
3.3
14.5
3.1
2.0

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

197.2
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

YUGOSLAVIA

7~26

ZAIRE

ZAMBIA

77

35
207
40
18

93

TABLE II. Value of Arms Transfers and Tolal Imports and Exports, 1972-1982
By Region, Organization, and Country-continued
ARMS IMPORTS a

Current

Constant
1981

Current

co,,;:~~nl

Current

TOTAL EXPORTSb

COnSlanl

1981

Curren,

ARMS
IMPO'!j8
TOTAL'
IMPORTS

Million dOllars

MIllion dotlars

Mlliton dotlars

Militon dollars

YEAI<

TOTALlMPOFlTsb

ARMS EXPORTS a

Constant
1981

ARMS
EXPORTS

--

TOTAL
EXPORTS

ZIMBABWE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982

5
5
10
5
0
10
5
20
50
70
80

9
9
16
7
0
13
6
23
54
70
75

NA Not Available.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

479
605
868
927
703
710
685
929
1448
1796
1639

. Pre-independence.

931
1114
1469
1439
1032
985
885
1106
1583
1796
1546

516
687
867
927
974
877
900
1053
1415
1403
1276

1003
1265
1468
1439
1430
1216
1162
1254
1547
1403
1:203

1.0
0.8
1.1
0.5
0.0
1.4
0.7
2.1
3.4
3.8
4.8

o Nil or negligible .

a To avoid the appearance of excessive accuracy. arms transfer data have been independ
ently rounded. with greater severity for large numbers. Beca'Jse of this rounding and the
fact that they are obtained from different sources, world arms exports do not equal world
arms imports.
b Total imports and exports are total trade figures as reported by individual countries. The
extent to which arms are included may differ from country to country. Country imports
are reported "cif" (includes the costs of shipping, insurance. and freight) and country
exports are reported "fob" (excludes these costs). For these reasons and because of
divergent sources. world totals for imports and exports are not equal.
c In order to reduce distortions in trends caused by data gaps, the totals for the world.
regions. and organizations include rough approximations for those countries and years
in which data are unavailable. and available data for years in which countries were not
independent

94

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

It

TABLE III. Value of Arms Transfers. Cumulative 1978-1982, By Maior Supplier


and Recipient Country
(Million Current Dollars)

TOTAL

SOVIET

FRANCE

UNITED
STATES

UNION

UNITED
KINGDOM

WEST
GERMANV

CZECHO

ITAlV

POLAND

ROMANIA

SLOVAKIA

OTHERS

CHINA

RECIPIENT

WORLD TOTALS
DEVELOPED'"
DEVELOPING

149,600 49,80037,60013,5009,0005,6004,200 4,1003,0002,0001.90017.900


29.400 5. 400 13, 700
650
320 1.500 1.000
1602,9001,900
- 1.900
120 ,200 44. 500 23 . 800 13 , 200 7 ,400 4,600 4, 100 1, 2()0 1, 100 1, 300 1 , 900 16,000

NATO
WARSAW PACT
OPEC""

16,200
- 11, 400a 340
925 1,600
190
80
12,100 6,300
50
90
10
- 2, 900 1 , 900
650
50,600 16,900 7,300 6,000 3 ,300 2, 300 2. 300
470
725 1.100

1,600
180
850 8.300

AFRICA

27,300 14.000

575 3.900

ALGERIA**
ANGOLA
BENIN
BOTSWANA
BURUNDI
CAMEROON
CAPE VERDE
CENTRAL AFRICAN REP
CHAD
CONGO
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
ETHIOPIA
GABON**
GAMBIA
GHANA
GUINEA
GUINEA-BISSAU
IVORY COAST
KENYA
LESOTHO
LIBERIA
LIBYA**
MADAGASCAR
MALAWI
MALI
MAURITANIA
MAURITIUS
MOROCCO
MOZAMBIQUE
NIGER
NIGERIA**
SOUTH AFRICA*
RWANDA
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE
SENEGAL
SIERRA LEONE
SOMALIA
SUDAN
SWAZILAND
TANZANIA
TOGO
TUNISIA
UGANDA
UPPER VOLTA
ZAIRE
ZAMBIA
ZIMBABWE

3,800
1.100
160
20
40
50
60
20
10
120
50
2,400
110
100
40
30
410
400
5
20
11,500
140
40
90
60
5
1,900
340
50
850
140
30
80
5
675
650
410
70
360
70
30
250
350
230

900 3,100

3.200
950
140
10
20

30
10

6251,6001,500
30

470

390

340

10

50

50

370

100
80
10
5
5
20

5
10
10

10
10

5
5

60
10
5

120
10
2,200

10
30
5

50

10
5

40
30

30

50

20
5

380
60

90

825
10
10

50
20
20

430

470 1,100

20

40
250

150

10
280

40
120

30

5
6,000
90
80

775

430

330

240

5
10

20
50

20
310 2,100
20
5
5
30

10

240
90

250
90

20
5

40
20

10

50
5

10
150

40
10

90

50
120

30

60

260

50
220

95

10
110
20
30

10

5
330

380
10

10

10

20

30
110
50
30

5
100

5
5

5
20
10
10
20
160

5
20
10
10

70
50
5

20

40
70

180
80

30
5
10

110
10
40
30
10
20

30
30
20

60

60

TABLE III. Value of Arms Transfers, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Major Supplier


and Recipient Country-continued
(Million Current Dollar.)

TOTAL

SOVIET
UNION

UNITED
ST"re3

FRANCE

UNITED

CZECHOSlOllAKIA

ITALY

WEST

KINGIlOIoI GERMANY

I'O!.AND

ROMANIA

CHINA

OTHERS

RECIPIENT

EAST ASIA
BURMA
CHINA
MAINLAND
TAIWAN
INDONESIA"
JAPAN
KAMPUCHEA
KOREA. NORTH
KOREA, SOUTH
LAOS
MALAYSIA
MONGOLIA
PHILIPPINES
SINGAPORE
THAILAND
VIETNAM
EUROPE
NATO EUROPE
BELGIUM
DENMARK
FRANCE
GERMANY. WEST
GREECE
ICELAND
ITALY*
LUXEMBOURG
NETHERLANDS
NORWAY
PORTUGAL"
TURKEY
UNITED KINGDOM
WARSAW PACT
BULGARIA
CZECHOSLOVAKIA*
GERMANY. EAST*
HUNGARY
POLAND'"
ROMANIA*
SOVIET UNION
OTHER EUROPEAN
ALBANIA
AUSTRIA*
FINLAND*
IRELAND
MALTA
SPAIN
SWEDEN'"
SWITZERLAND
YUGOSLAVIA

16.000

4.700

110
600
2.300
1.300
2.000
80
775
2.300
130
525
550
290
320
1.100
3.700

7.300

380

10

150
1.500
250
1.900

480

120

250

120

80
20

290

150

30

30

70
725
675

140
40

10

50
260

60
2.100

10

50

20

190

110

40

10

10

210
230
825

5
10

10
5
70

10

130

10
240
80
10
160

550
5

5
110

3,600

30

7.000 11.700

900

925 1.400

270 2.900 1,900

13,600

- 10.200

340

440 1.200

180

1,400
725
360
2.200
1.700

1.100
600
170
1.700
925

90

190
30
20

20

625
5
1.800
925
240
1.400
1.800

575
5
1.400
800
100
750
1,600

50
90

6.300

1.200
1.200
1.700
1,000
1.200
875
4,900

1.200
1.200
1.500
875
1,000
600

4.000

675

1,500

290
480
50

200

80
10

20
40
160
30
20

220

10
20

10

140

90

90

525

380

20

250
20

10

80

40
30
10
390
370
40

20

90
90
10
80
50

110
- 2. 900 1. 900
5
90
90
120
220
50
40
2,400 1.700

10
120

10
90

20

10

96

650

180

10
10
5
625

10
150

90

775

70

140
20

10
5

5
220
180
80
120

10

470

2.200
1.200

10

130
500

80

90

50

625
210
550
10

725

10
130
30
5

50

12. 100

470

50
70
90
5

29.700

1.500
470
625
650

2.200

GO

20
210

310

60

110

10

TABLE III. Value of Arms Transfers, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Major Supplier


and Recipient Country-continued
(Million Current Dollars)

TOTAL

SOVIET
UNION

UNITED
STATES

FRANCE

UNITED

KINGOOM

WEST
GERMANY

ITAlY

CZECHQ.
SLOVAKIA

POlANO

ROMANIA

OTHERS

CHINA

RECIPIENT

LATIN AMERICA

10,200

ARGENTINA
BARBADOS
BOLIVIA
BRAZIL
CHILE
COLOMBIA
COSTA RICA
CUBA
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
EL SALVADOR
ECUADOR**
GUATEMALA
GUYANA
HAITI
HONDURAS
JAMAICA
MEXICO
NICARAGUA
PANAMA
PARAGUAY
PERU
SURINAME
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
URUGUAY
VENEZUELA**

1,800
10
220
675
1,100
170
5
2,700
10
100
725
70
10
10
30

MIDDLE EAST
BAHRAIN
CYPRUS
EGYPT
IRAN**
IRAQ**
ISRAEL
JORDAN
KUWAIT,;-*
LEBANON
OMAN
QATAR"'*
SAUDI ARABIA**
SYRIA
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
YEMEN (ADEN)
YEMEN (SANAA)
NORTH AMERICA
CANADA*
UNITED STATES*

270
150
40
60
1,200
10
20
120
725

3,200

650 1,900

750

400

950

100

575

160
10

120

170

10
70
20
50

60
500

410
40
10

40

20

- 2,300

10

650

200
60
460
100

5
70
30
20

2,600

40
10
60
50
10

30
340
5

10

10
10
220
50
5
10
10

20

160
80
10
60
50
10
20
60
50

70

40

10

5
10

90

20

70
30
525

60

260

5
90

60
30

5
180

150

550

56,300 17,500 14, 100 6, 500 5.000 1. 400 1.300


100
30
4.200
30
6,700 1,000
13,600 6,500
4,400
2.400
90
650
30
170
550
525
9.600 b
9.800 8,200
625
775
800
2,100
900

10

40

800
600
1.500
140
3,100
230
- 1,800
220
4,400
850
600
850
300
150
90
50
10
10
460
60
190
5
310
3,500 1.900 1,900
550
200
380
60
20

20

10

260
120
240

290
350
240
10

5
40
5

525

30

650

380

925

7506.700

20
40
825

20
30
480
200
50 1,700
490 2,900
5

60
20

110
5

550
70
110

200

10

10

490

20

20

250

10

30

20

20
10
550
270
20
10
650

230

70

2,600

1,300

480

360

10

420

1,500
1,000

1,300
5

20
450

190
180

10

30
390

97

TABLE III. Value of Arms Transfers, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Major Supplier


and Recipient Country-continued
(Million Current Dollars)

TOTAl

SOIIIET

UNt<:lI<

FRANCE

UNITED
STATES

UNlTED
KINGOOU

WEST
GERt.tANY

ITAlY

CZECH().
SlOVAKIA

POtANO

ROMANIA

CHINA

OTHERS

RECIPtENT

OCEANIA
AUSTRALIA*

FhlI
NEW ZEALAND*
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
SOUTH ASIA
AFGHANISTAN
BANGLADESH
INDIA
NEPAL
PAKISTAN
SRI LANKA

1.600

1,200

190

40

10

80

1,400
10
60
60

1,200

190

40

10

10
5

50

5
60

410

700

525

650
10
2,800

40

10
500

20

370

5
60
5
650

6,000

3,500

675
80
3,600
5
1,600
10

- None or negligible.

190

80

120

300

140
10

10
5

'Developed country.

60
5

40

190

40

"OPEC country.

NOTE:
To avoid the appearance of excessive accuracy, all numbers in this table are independently
rounded, with greater severity for larger numbers. Therefore, components may not add to
totals.

a Includes transfers to NATO agencies as such and not attributed to any recipient country.
b Includes some purchases of equipment by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from inde
terminable supplier countries for use in construction projects in Saudi Arabia and
recorded in U.S. accounts as imports to the U.S.

98

60

110
230
5

70

TABLE IV. Number of Arms Delivered. Cumulative 1978-1982, By Selected


Supplier, Recipient Developing Region b, and Major Weapon Type

TOTAL

SOl/lET
UNION

OTHER
WARSAW
PACT

UNITE!)
STATES c

UNrTE!)

fRANCE

KINGDOM

OTHER
NATO

CHINA

EQUIPMENT TYPE

ALL DEVELOPING RECIPIENTS

LAND ARMAMENTS

-------------

TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLERyd
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS
NAVAL CRAFT
----- ...
MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS!
OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTs9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS

12.335
6,890
12,100
19,615

6,895
3, i 75
5.245
9,065

2,065
795
890
185

2.145
1,025
3.745
6,555

180
65
430
2,285

385
130
180
595

280
325
815
925

385
1,375
795
5

125
497
20
94

32
134
8
53

5
7

27
97

17
48
2
16

13
35

31
155
7
11

21
2
8

3,505
565
1,665
2,435

2,160
225
380
1,065

25
15
280
115

655
205
225
235

255
70
110
655

55
45
140
30

395
330

355
5
135
5

17 ,830

11,255

100

4,610

1,040

750

20

5
5
235
1,240

60
25
80
140

75
115
235
480

7
26

2
2

12
82

AIRCRAFT
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HE LI COPTE RS

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

MISSILES
SURFACE-TO-AIR

75

AFRICA

LAND ARMAMENTS
----- ------
TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLERyd
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS

2,355
2,150
3.640
4.825

1,610
1,585
2.415
2.800

430
215
415
75

36
156
5
27

12
44
5
20

850
160
580
530

685
75
110
255

15
150
70

3,965

3,660

100

50
90

155
205
210

NAVAL CRAFT
----------

MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS!


OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTS9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS

AIRCRAFT
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HELICOPTERS
MISSILES
-- ---
SURFACE-TO-AIR

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

99

15
5

85
45
20
80

65
25
40

205

245
120

10
5

TABLE IV. Number of Arms Delivered, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Selected


Suppliers, Recipient Developing Region b, and Major Weapon Type-continued

TOTAL

SOVIET
UNION

OTliER

WARSAW

UNITED
STATES c

FRANCE

KINGOOM

UNITED

OTHER
NATO

CHINA

95
175
65

245

140
15
105
60

PACT

EAST ASIA AND OCEAN IA

LAND ARMAMENTS
- --- --- -- -

TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLERyd
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS
NAVAL CRAFT
------- --MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS!
OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTs9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS

1,915
330
1,775
1,230

860
140
835
720

790

30

770
195

10

24
147
3
15

6
47

15
69

19

600
225
395
515

250
55
115
165

2,775

980

3
10
3
3

2
4

AIRCRAFT

- -

COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HELICOPTERS

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

MISSILES
-------
SURFACE-TO-AIR

35
40

270
155
40
155

20
60

1,715

10
65

30
95

60

20

LATIN AMERICA

LAND ARMAMENTS
- --- TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLERyd
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS

255
350
925
495

145
230
285
185

43
74
7
11

20

40
20

570
15

40
165

15

3
30
3
11

7
11

9
3

8
8

190
55
335
335

150

10
30
100
60

30
15
30
185

10
5
15

1,010

655

50

305

45
100
30
115

NAVAL CRAFT
MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS!
OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTS9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS
AIRCRAFT
- -----COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HELICOPTERS

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

65
45

30

MISSILES
--

---

SURFACE-TO-AIR

tOO

80
5
90

16
22
4

105
30

TABLE IV. Number of Arms Delivered, Cumulative 1918-1982, By Selected


Supplier, Recipient Developing Reglonb, and MalorWeapon Type-continued

TOTAl

SOVIET

OTtiER

WARSAW

U..ION

PACT

=gc

OTHER
NATO

CHINA

55
890
465

19~

20
95
285
270

1
25

41

4
2

360
25
75
20

100
10
35
125

5
5
10

2,895

990

180

FRANce

UNITED

KINGDOM

EOUIPMENT TYPE

MIDDLE EAST

LAND ARMAMENTS
TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLERyd
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS

6,985
3,525
5,365
12,020

3,635
790
1,565
4,760

1,615
580
475
110

1,230
1,025
2,320
5,815

9
105
3
37

2
13

2
5

3
17
1

1.400
130
255
735

815
95
60
490

9,770

5,670

105
60
155
870

325
85
100

NAVAL CRAFT
MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS I
OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTS9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS

14

AIRCRAFT
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HELICOPTERS

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

MISSILES
-------
SURFACE-TO-AIR

25
65
5

95
15
85

35

SOUTH ASIA

LAND ARMAMENTS

-------------
TANKS
ANTI-AIR ARTILLE Ry 6
FIELD ARTILLERye
ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS
NAVAL CRAFT
- - -----
MAJOR SURFACE COMBATANTS!
OTHER SURFACE COMBATANTS9
SUBMARINES
MISSILE ATTACK BOATS
AIRCRAFT
-------
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
COMBAT AIRCRAFT:
OTHER AIRCRAFTh
HELICOPTERS

SUPERSONIC
SUBSONIC

825
535
400
1,045

645
430
145
600

40
445

13
13
2
4

465

260

105
320

30
110

310

290

100
160

80
105
55

2
1:3
2
4

10

40

50

115

5
205

25
5

30

MISSILES
SURFACE-TO-AIR

101

20

TABLE IV. Number of Arms Delivered, Cumulative 1978-1982, By Selected


Suppliers, Recipient Developing Region b, and Major Weapon Type-continued

a The suppliers included are the five largest single exporters of major weapons in terms of
magnitude of deliveries as well as other countries of the two major alliances.
b Totals include the "developing" countries. as previously listed in Table III. with the
exception of Albania. Greece. Malta. Spain. Turkey. and Yugoslavia.
c U.S. data are by fiscal years 1978-1982. while other suppl iers' data are by calendar years
1978-1982.
d Air defense artillery includes weapons over 23 mm.
e Field artillery includes mobile rocket launchers. mortars. and recoiless rifles over
l00mm.
f Major surface combatants include aircraft carriers. cruisers. destroyers. destroyer
escorts. and frigates.
9 Minor surface combatants include motor torpedo boats. subchasers. and minesweepers.
h Other aircraft include reconnaissance aircraft. trainers. transports. and utility aircraft.

102

STATISTICAL NOTES

The following notes are integral to the preceding


tables. The tables should be used with caution
and only after consideration is given to these ex
planatory details.
COVERAGE AND GROUPING OF COUNTRIES
The statistical tables report data for 145 countries.
These countries include most members of the
United Nations as well as nonmembers North and
South Korea, Switzerland and Taiwan. UN mem
bers not covered are generally small, not consid
ered militarily significant and relevant data for
them are frequently unavailable. 1
Of the reported countries, nine became inde
pendent since 1972. Data for them are normally
shown in the tables beginning with the first year in
which they were independent for more than six
months. However, estimates for pre-independence
years are used, where appropriate, in calculating
regional and group totals so that their trends are
not distorted by the newly independent country
series.
Countries are grouped into normally defined
geographical regions except for the following: North
America co.sts only of the United States and
Canada; Mexico is included in Latin America to
gether with Central and South American countries;
Egypt is assigned to the Middle East rather than
to Africa; and Oceania includes only Australia,
New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. A full
listing of specific countries in each region may be
found in Table III, page 95.
The following political and economic groups
are included: NATO, the Warsaw Pact, OPEC,
and OECD. NA TO (North Atlantic Treaty Organ
ization) consists of Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
France, West Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
(Spain became a member only at the very end of
the time frame of this report.) The Warsaw Pact
consists of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Ger
many, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet
Union. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Export
ing Countries) includes Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon,
Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates,
and Venezuela. OECD (Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development) comprises the
NATO countries and Australia, Austria, Finland,

t ,

'The UN member countries not covered are Antigua and


Barbuda, the Bahamas, Belize, Bhutan, Comoros, Djibouti,
Dominica, Grenada, Maldives, Santa Lucia, Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and
Western Samoa. Also excluded are nonmember countries
Andorra, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino,
Tonga, and Vatican City, the territories with unresolved sov
ereignty of Namibia and Western Sahara, the dependencies
and areas of special sovereignty of Bermuda, Brunei, Hong
Kong, Macau, Puerto Rico, and numerous others, many being
very small islands in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, and


Switzerland.
The 28 countries classed as developed in this
publication are: the members of NATO except
Greece and Turkey; all the Warsaw Pact except
Bulgaria; all in Oceania except Fiji and Papua
New Guinea; Austria, Finland, Ireland, Japan, South
Africa, Sweden, and Switzerland. All other na
tions are classed as developing. For non-Communist
countries, assignment' to one or the other cate
gory follows the practice employed by the Devel
opment Assistance Committee of the OECD. This
assignment is based partly on gross national prod
uct (GNP) per capita, but also reflects factors such
as literacy rates, mortality rates, and levels of
ind ustrialization.
Most of the data are for calendar years. For
some countries, however, expenditure data are
available only for fiscal years which diverge from
calendar years. In such cases, the fiscal year which
contains the most months of a given calendar year
is assigned to that year; e.g., data for the fiscal
year April 1977 through March 1978 would be
shown under 1977. Fiscal years ending on June 30
are normally listed in the calendar year in which
they end.
SOURCES AND DEFINITIONS
Military Expenditures
Military expenditure data for some years of the
decade are provided for all but two countries
(Suriname and Vietnam), and for most years of
the decade for all but eight. Data on NATO coun
try military expenditures were obtained from NATO
publications and are based on NATO definitions.
In summary, (a) civilian-type expenditures of each
NATO defense ministry are excluded but military
type expenditures of other ministries are included;
(b) grant military assistance is included in the ex
penditures of the donor country; and (c) purchases
of military equipment for credit are included at
the time the debt is incurred, not at the time of
payment.
For other non-Communist countries, data are
generally the expenditures of the Ministry of
Defense. When these are known to include the
costs of internal security, an attempt is made to
remove these expenditures. As in the past, the
files of the Agency for International Development
(AID) are a major source of data for these coun
tries. In view of a recent deemphasis on the collec
tion of such data by that Agency, a number of
other sources have also been consulted. These
include the Government Finance Statistics Year
book, Vol. VII, 1983, issued by the International
Monetary Fund, and the publications and files of
other US government agencies.
It should be recognized by users of the statisti
cal tables that the military expenditure data are of
uneven accuracy and completeness. For example,
103

there are indications or reasons to believe that the


military expenditures reported by some countries
consist mainly or entirely of recurring or operat
ing expenditures and omit all or most capital ex
penditures, including arms purchases. In the cases
of several countries (Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Iraq,
Iran, Libya, Syria) special note of this possibility
is made in Table 1.
In some of these cases (as indicated in the foot
notes of Table I), it is believed that a better esti
mate of total military expenditures is obtained by
summing the value of arms imports shown in
Table II (as converted to local currency by current
exchange rates) with nominal military expendi
tures. It must be cautioned, however, that this
method may over- or underestimate the actual ex
penditures in a given year due to the fact that
payments for arms may not coincide in time with
deliveries, which the data in Table II reflect. Also,
in some cases, arms acquisitions may be financed
by other countries.
A new feature in the statistical tables is the use
of the symbol "E" to denote these and other esti
mates made on the basis of such partial or uncer
tain data.
In subsequent editions of this report, we hope
to be able to make further improvements in the
quality of the military expenditure data presented
for countries throughout the world. This will be
difficult to achieve without better reporting by
countries. As stated in a recent article examining
the problems of accounting for such expenditures,
"There is growing evidence that important amounts
of security expenditures may not enter the ac
counts or the national budgets of many develop
ing countries."2 Among the common mechanisms
used to obscure such expenditures, according to
this article, are: double-bookkeeping, use of extra
budgetary accounts, highly aggregrated budget
categories, military assistance, and manipulation
of foreign exchange.
Particular problems arise in estimatin~ the mili
tary expenditures of Communist countrIes due to
the exceptional scarcity and ambiguity of release.d
information. As in the past seven editions of thiS
publication, data on Soviet military expenditures
are based ufon Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
estimates 0 what it would cost in the United States
in dollars to develop, procure, staff and operate a
military force similar to that of the Soviet Union.'
Estimates of this type- that is, those based entirely
on one country's price pattern without regard to
the second country's pattern - generally overstate
the relative size of the second country's expendi
'Nicole Ball, "Measuring Third World Security Expenditure:
A Research Note," World Development, February 19~4, pp.
157-164 (Pergamon Press, Londonl.
JS ee CIA, Soviet and US De/ense Activities. 1971-80: A Dol
lar Cost Comparison, January 1981. The CIA dollar estimates
as shown in this source have been updated and augmented by
estimated retirement pay at US rates in order to improve com
parability with expenditures by NATO countries which include
retirement pay.

tures in intercountry comparisons. 4 Also, such es


timates are not consistent with the methods used
here for converting other countries' expenditures
into dollars. An alternative series reflecting both
the US and Soviet rrice patterns was provided in
previous editions 0 this publication. s
For Warsaw Pact countries other than the So
viet Union, the estimates of military expenditures
are from Thad P. Alton et al." The military ex
penditures shown here refer only to the officially
announced state budget expenditures on national
defense. These figures understate total military
expenditures in view of defense outlays by non
defense agencies of the central government, local
governments, and economic enterprises. Possible
subsidization of military procurement may also
cause understatement. The dollar estimates were
derived by calculating pay and allowance at the
current full US average rates for officers and for
lower ranks. After subtraction of pay and allow
ances, the remainder of the official defense budg
ets in national currencies was converted into dollars
at overall rates based on comparisons of the vari
ous countries' GNPs expressed in dollars and in
national currencies. The rates are based in part
on the purchasing power parities estimated by the
International Comparison Project of the United
Nations. These conversion rates are not as spe
cific as might be desired, and when the problems
mentioned above are taken into account, the re
sulting estimates must be considered subject to
limitations. Another omission in all Warsaw Pact
data is that the nonpersonnel component of mili
tary assistance is not covered.
The data used here for China are US Govern
ment estimates of the dollar costs of Chinese forces,
weapons, programs and activities. 7 Due to excep
tional difficulties in making comparative estimates,
caution should be used in comparing Chinese mili
This tendency is widely recognized in both government and
nongovernment circles. For recent commentaries by academic
and government witnesses on this and other problems in esti
mating and comparing Soviet military expenditures, see the
hearings before the Subcommittee on Priorities and Economy
in Government. Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the
United States, "Allocation of Resources in the Soviet Union
and China-1980," Part 6, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session;
"..
1981" Part 7, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session;
"... -1982," Part 8, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session;
and "... -1983," Part 9 (forthcoming). See also hearings be
fore the Subcommittee on Oversight of the Permanent Select
Committee on Intelligence, Congress of the United States,
"CIA Estimates of Soviet Defense Spending," Ninety-Sixth
Congress, Second Session.
, See table captioned "Alternative Estimates of Soviet Military
Expenditures," World Military Expenditures and Arms Trans
/ers. /969-/978, p. 27: and the essay, "Soviet Military Expendi
tures," World Military fxpenditures and Arms Transfers. /968
1977. pp. \319.
b The estimates are updates and substantial revisions of those
in their article, "East European Military Expenditures, 1965
1978," (published in the Joint Economic Committee of Congress
Compendium, East European Economic Assessment, Part 2,
July 10, 1981. pp. 409-433) and particularly in their most recent
Occasional Paper, No. 75, Table 14B (published by the Re
search Project on National Income in East Central Europe),
4

104

tary expenditure data with other indicators.


Other sources include the Government Finance
Statistics Yearbook issued by the International
Monetary Fund, the SIPRI Yearbook: World Ar
maments and Disarmament issued by the Stock
holm International Peace Research Institute, and
The Military Balance issued by the International
Institute for Strategic Studies.
Gross National Product ,GNP)
GNP represents the total output of goods and
services produced by residents of a country and
valued at market prices ultimately paid by the
consumer. The source of GNP data for most non
Communist countries is the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).
For a number of countries whose GNP is domi
nated by oil exports, the World Bank's estimates
of deflated (or constant price) GNP in domestic
currencies tend to understate the increase in the
monetary value of oil exports, and thus of GNP,
that resulted from oil price increases. These World
Bank estimates are designed to measure real (or
physical) product. An alternative estimate of
constant-price GNP was therefore made using the
implicit deflators for ys GNP (fo.r lack of a goo~
national deflator). ThIs was conSidered appropn
ate because a large share of the GNP of these
countries is realized in US dollars. These coun
tries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. In
the cases of Iraq and Iran, where oil exports are
also large but constitute a smaller share of total
GNP, oil exports in current dollars were deflated
by the US GNP deflator while the remainder of
GNP was deflated by the domestic consumer price
index (for lack of a broader index). After recon
verting the deflated oil export values into domes
tic currency, the two portions were summed to
obtain total constant-price GNP.
GNP estimates of the Soviet Union are from
the CIA Handbook o( Economic Satistics 1983; A
Reference Aid, p. 31.The data have been updated.
GNP data for other Warsaw Pact countries are an
updated and substantially revised version of esti
mates in "East European Military Expenditures,
1965-1978" by Thad P. Alton and others, op. cit.
GNP estimates for Taiwan and a few non
Communist countries are from the CIA's Hand
book of Economic Statistics cited above. Estimates
for the other Communist countries are rough
approximations.

See the series of Hearings before the Subcommittee on Priori


ties and Economy in Government of the loint Economic Com
mittee, US Congress, "Allocation of Resources in the Soviet
Union and China-;" 1975, Part 1, pp. 212-38; 1976, Part 2, pp.
17-25,7685; 1977, Part 3, pp. 16-27,36-41,74-81; 1979, Part 5,
pp. 54-56,66-72; 1980, Part. 6, pp. 75-80,151-153,.1981, P.art 7,
pp. 185-187; Part 8, passim; Part 9 (forthcommg) (Nmety
Fourth through Ninety-Eighth Congresses).
'The implicit deflator is the ratio of GNP in current prices to
GNP in constant prices.
7

Military.Expenditures-to-GNP Ratio

It should be noted that the meaning of the ratio


of military expenditures to GNP, shown in Table I,
differs somewhat between most Communist coun
tries and non-Communist countries. For non
Communist countries, both military expenditures
and GNP are converted from the national cur
rency unit to dollars at the same exchange rate;
consequently, the ratio of military expenditures
to GNP is the same in dollars as in the national
currency. For Communist countries, however, mili
tary expenditures and GNP are converted differ
ently. Soviet military expenditures, as already noted,
are estimated in a way designed to show the cost
of the Soviet armed forces in US prices, e.g., as if
purchased in this country. On the other hand, So
viet GNP estimates traditionally have been de
signed to show average relative size when US and
Soviet GNP are valued and compared in both dol
lars and rubles.
For Eastern European countries, the ratios of
military expenditures to GNP in dollars are about
twice the ratios that would obtain in domestic
currencies. (See Alton and others, op. cit.) How
ever, since official military budgets in these coun
tries probably substantially understate their actual
military expenditures, the larger ratios based on
dollar estimates are believed to be the better ap
proximations of the actual ratios.
Central Government Expenditures (CGE)

These expenditures, reported for all but five


countries, include current and capital (develop
mental) expenditures plus net lending to gov
ernment enterprises, by central (or federal)
governments. This definition is used by AID, the
primary source for these data. Also a major source
is the International Monetary Fund's Government
Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. VII, 1983. The
category used here is "Total Expenditures and
Lending minus Repayment, Consolidated Central
Government."
Other sources for these data are the Interna
tional Monetary Fund monthly, International Fi
nancial Statistics; OECD, Economic Surveys; and
CIA, The World Fact Book: 1983. Data for War
saw Pact countries are from national publications
supplied by Thad P. Alton and others. For all
Warsaw PaCt countries, conversion to dollars is at
the implicit rates used for calculating dollar esti
mates of GNP.
For all countries, with the same exceptions as
noted above for the military-expenditures-to-GNP
ratio, military expenditures and central govern
ment expenditures are converted to dollars at the
same rate; the ratio in dollars thus remains the
same as in national currency.
It should be noted that for the Soviet Union,
Iraq, Jordan, and possibly others the ratio of mili
tary expenditures to central government expendi
tures may be overstated, inasmuch as the estimate
for military expenditures is obtained independ
ently of nominal budget or government expendi
105

ture data, such and it is possible that all estimated


military expenditures do not pass through the nomi
nal central government budget.
Population

Population estimates are for midyear and are


made available to ACDA by the US Bureau of the
Census.
Armed Forces

Armed forces refer to active-duty military per


sonnel, induding paramilitary forces if those forces
resemble regular units in their organization, equip
ment, training, or mission. Reserve forces are not
included unless specifically noted.
Figures for the United States represent midyear
totals and ,are taken from the Department of
Defense, Selected Manpower Statistics, Fiscal Year
1981 and ... 1982 (forthcoming).
Estimates of the number of personnel under
arms for other countries were provided by US
Government sources. In last year's edition of
WMEA T, the armed forces series for the Soviet
Union was revised for all years. The new series in
cludes all special forces judged to have national
security missions (e.g., KGB border guards) and
excludes uniformed forces primarily performing
noncombatant services (construction, railroad, civil
defense, and internal security troops). The result
ing series corresponds more closely to the armed
forces definition and to the military expenditure
estimates used in this report.
Arms Transfers

Arms transfers represent the international trans


fer (under terms of grant, credit, or cash) of mili
tary equipment, usually referred to as "conven
tional," including weapons of war, parts thereof,
ammunition, support equipment, and other com
modities considered primarily military in nature.
Among the items included are tactical guided mis
siles and rockets, military aircraft, naval vessels,
armored and nonarmored military vehicles, com
munications and electronic equipment, artillery,
infantry weapons, small arms, ammunition, other
ordnance, parachutes, and uniforms. Also included
are transfers of equipment for defense industries.
Excluded by definition are nuclear, chemical, and
biological weapons, and strategic missile systems.
Also excluded are foodstuffs, medical equipment,
and other items potentially useful to the military
but with alternative civilian uses. Services such as
construction, training, and technical support are
not included for the United States, whose services
consist mainly of construction (primarily for Saudi
Arabia). Services of other countries, which are of
a much smaller magnitude, are included.
The statistics published here are estimates of
the value of goods actually delivered during the
reference year, in contrast both to the value of
programs, agreements, contracts, or orders which
may result in future deliveries, and to payments
made during the period. Also, the data represent

arms transfers to governments and do not include


the value of arms obtained by subnational groups.
Figures for the US are for fiscal years and are
obtained from official trade statistics on military
transfers compiled by US Departments of Defense
and State.9 The data for 1976 include transfers
during the transition quarter July-September 1976.
The US data include commercial deliveries of items
on the US Munitions Control List, some of which
may be intended for civilian rather than military
use. ACDA used official US Government sources
for data on foreign countries. The Soviet arms
transfers data are approximations. JO
Close comparisons between the estimated val
ues shown for arms transfers and for GNP and
military expenditures are not warranted. Frequently,
weapons prices do not reflect true production costs.
Furthermore, much of the international arms trade
involves barter arrangements, multiyear loans, dis
counted prices, third-party payments, and partial
debt forgiveness. Acquisition of armaments thus
may not impose the burden on an economy, in the
same or in other years, that is implied by the esti
mated equivalent US dollar value of the shipment.
Therefore, the value of arms imports should be
compared to other categories of data with care.
Tolallmports and Exports

The values for imports and exports cover mer


chandise transactions. Those for non-Communist
countries come from International Financial Sta
tistics published by the IMF. The Communist trade
figures are from the CIA Handbook of Economic
Statistics, 1983 edition.
Aid

Data on foreign aid refer to net disbursements


of official development assistance as set forth by
the Development Assistance Committee of the
"The data for Foreign Military Sales (FMS), Military Assist
ance Program (MAP), and commercial sales components of
US arms exports (compiled prior to 1974 by the US Depart
ment of Commerce under contract to ACDA, and since then
by the US Department of Defense for FMS and MAP and by
the Department of State for commercial sales), may differ
from data published by State and Defense under those catego
ries for the following f<,asons. (I) The ACDA data reflect FMS
and MAP exports of military equipment only, while Depart
ment of Defense data may include the value of training. con
struction and other services. For example, in 1982 ACDA did
not count FMS transfers of such services with a value of $3.1
billion. an amount equal to 33 percent of the value of counted
arms transfers. The bulk of this amount. or $1.8 billion. consists
of construction services for Saudi Arabia. (2) Pre-1974 data
are for calendar years while subsequent data are for fiscal
years; and (3) Pre-I974 data include some categories of dual
civil-military use equipment, e.g . certain categories of trans
portation and communications equipment, that are not on the
US Munitions Control List and thus are not included in the
Department of State and Defense data.
lUSoviet arms transfers and foreign trade data are taken from
sources which present them directly in dollars: hence, particU
lar caution should be Ilsed in comparing these statistics for
arms transfers and foreign trade with other Soviet data. Soviet
trade data (which ignore arms transfers) are available in "ex
ternal" ruble terms from Soviet sources: such data do not
reflect Soviet domestic prices in internal rubles,

106

Organization for Economic Cooperation and De


velopment (OECD). The sources were the 1981
and 1983 editions of Development Cooperation
Review, published by the OECD.

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES FOR


VALUE DATA
All value data in this report are expressed in US
dollars. Users of these data should keep in mind
that international statistics have not yet reached a
stage where currency conversion can be done with
the accuracy that could be desired. The approach
used in this series of reports for most countries
consists essentially of three steps:
a) Data expressed originally in the national cur
rency and at current prices are "deflated" or
put into constant-price terms, usually by means
of the implicit deflator for national GNP as a
whole. This GNP price index is used for other
variables-military and central government
expenditures- because more appropriately
specialized price indices are not generally
available. National currency data for all years
are expressed in prices of the base year (1981
in this issue).
b) These data are then converted by the ex
change rate between the national currency
and the US dollar for the base year in order
to obtain a measure of constant base-year
dollars. The exchange rate used is the annual
average par/market rate, (the "rf" rate as
designated by the International Monetary
Fund).
c) Data in constant dollars are then expressed
in current dollars by applying the US implicit
GNP deflator, as supplied by the World Bank.
Thus, conversion to current dollars involves two
prices indices and a single exchange rate. The
calculation may be illustrated by an example, as
suming the following data:
1972 national military expenditures,
in national currency and at
current (i.e., 1972) prices
4,590
1972 GNP implicit deflators
(1981 :::: 100):
National .. 59.3
U.S...... 51.4
1981 exchange rate, national currency
units perUSdollar .............. 15.93
Then
1972 national military expenditures:
In constant (1981) dollars =
4,590..;.. (59.3/100) ..;.. 15.93 485.9
In current (1972) dollars
485.9 x (51.4/100) 249.7
This method has the advantages that it takes
into account national differences in the behaviour
of prices and avoids the distorting effect that can
result from changes in exchange rates during the
decade. It does not, however, allow for a number
of other factors. One is that any within-country
differences between the price indices for military

or central government expenditures and for GNP


are not taken into account. For example, indices
for compensation of military personnel or prices
of imported arms might behave differently from
the overall index.
Another and probably more serious factor is
that exchange rates in many cases do not ade
quately reflect the relative purchasing power of
currencies. This has been demonstrated by a de
tailed study of purchasing power parities (PPPs)
for the GNPs of a large number of countries. lI
This study found that the greater the disparity in
the per capita income of countries, the greater
the tendency for exchange rates to understate the
value of the poorer country's product, and that
the understatement can be very large, reaching as
much as threefold in some cases. However, since
this study did not estimate PPPs for military ex
penditures as such, it does not shed much light on
how PPPs specific to military expenditures or arms
purchases might differ from exchange rates or from
either overall or other specific-sector PPPS.12
The use in this report of the same rate for con
verting all variables from national currencies to
US dollars (with the exceptions noted below) has
the virtue that the relationships among variables
in national currency terms remain the same when
those variables are expressed in dollars.
There are several exceptions to the general pro
cedures outlined above. Data on arms transfers in
value terms for all countries are obtained by this
Agency already expressed in current dollars.
(Original data in foreign currencies have gener
ally been converted by the source at current ex
change rates.) These current dollars are converted
to constant 1981 dollars in the manner shown above.
For the Soviet Union, GNP estimates in rubles are
converted by the source into constant dollars at
what is in effect an average US-and-Soviet-weighted
PPP for GNP as a whole. This same conversion
rate is also used for Soviet central government
expenditures. Soviet military expenditures are in
effect converted by the source at a military-sector
PPP using only Soviet weights. (See also the dis
cussion of Military Expenditures. above.)
For other Warsaw Pact countries and China,
the available estimates for GNP and military ex
penditures are also already in terms which accounted
for domestic price changes and have been converted
to constant dollars using estimated purchasing
power parities, rather than official exchange rates.
"These PPPs have been estimated by the United Nations Inter
national Comparisons Project, a cooperative undertaking of
the United Nations, the World Bank and the University of
Pennsylvania. See Irving Kravis, Alan Heston, and Robert
Summers, World Product and Income: internalional Compari
s()ns ()f Real Gross Product, published for the World Bank by
the Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London,
1982.
"A United Nations expert group study of the feasibility of
constructing purchasing power parities and price indices for
military expenditures as such is currently underway. See UN
document A/."l/li3S4. September 7. 1983 for a progress report
on this effort.

107

The previously noted problem inherent in com


paring arms transfer data with GNP and military
expenditure estimates for any country are particu
larly significant for transfers between Communist
and non-Communist countries, because of the
computational differences employed in the two
cases.
It may be noted that in all cases the relationship
between current and constant dollars in this re
port is determined entirely by the US GNP defla
tor index. To facilitate reconversion to other
constant-dollar bases if desired, this index, as pro
vided by the WorId Bank, is as follows (where
1981 = 100):
1972 51.4
1979
84.0
1980
91.5
1973 54.3
1974 59.1
1981 100.0
1975 64.4
1982 106.0
1976 68.1
1983 110.3*
1977 72.1
1984 (115.9)*
1978 77.4
ACDA estimate and projection.

ESTIMATES OF WORLD MILITARY


EXPENDITURES FOR 1983 AND 1984
These estimates, which are cited in the High
lights and shown in Figure 1 above (although not
in the main tables), are largely based on available
or estimated data for eleven countries, account
ing for about 80 percent of total world military
expenditures' in 1982. The remaining 20 percent
wef(~ projected on the basis of trends in the years

1979-1982 for the remaining countries in the four


listed below.
ese estimates are as follows (in billions of
dollars):
Constant
(1981)
Current
su~oups

World
Developed
Developing
NATO
Warsaw Pact

1983
1984
1983
1984
1983
1984
1983
1984
1983
1984

889.6
967.0
683.4
749.1
206.2
216.9
345.7
386.3
318.1
341.8

806.4
834.6
619.5
647.4
186.9
187.1
313.4
334.4
288.4
295.0

GROWTH RATES
The average annual rates of real growth shown
in Tables A and C of the Highlights are based on
data in constant 1981 dollars in Tables I and II,
respectively. The rates are calculated by a least
squares fit of the log form of the following equation
to all years of the decade:
Y A (l + rIlOO)T
where Y is military expenditures (or arms imports),
A is the initial value, T is time in years, and r is the
growth rate in percent. This formula was used in
all cases to provide a consistent measure of change
and is not necessarily the best fit for projection
purposes.

108

ESSAYS

The Soviet economy has been experiencing low


growth rates for the past ten years. Explanations
include reduced increments of skilled labor, de
creasing factor productivity growth rates, and
unwise investment decisions. Low growth rates
have most severely affected civilian end uses of
GNP. Furthermore, the great emphasis on mili
tGl:V expansion over the years has caused diver
sion of resources from civilian consumption and
producer durables requirements. Professor Cohn s
essay reviews the problems of the Soviet economy,
particularly decreasing investment productivity
growth rates. and the role played by the Soviet
militaly-irtdustrial complex in intenSifying those
problems.

One of the fastest growing industries ill the


Warsaw Pact countries is the arms industry. While
all six countries produce arms for export. Poland,
Czechoslovakia, and the German Democratic
Republic are the principal suppliers. Since nearly
all of the arms produced in Eastern Europe are of
Soviet design, the arms industries are integrated
extensions of Soviet Union defense ministeries.
Dr. Snitch s essay provides insight into the nature
of Eastern European arms production, the range
of weapons produced, and the destination of
exported arms.
These essays reflect the personal views of the
authors and not necessarily those of A CDA or
any other US Government agency.

109

DECLINING SOVIET CAPITAL PRODUCTIVITY AND

THE SOVIET MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Stanley H. Cohn*
Soviet Capital Productivity Imperative
The Soviet economic model of central planning
was able to achieve rapid rates of economic
growth only so long as it could draw upon an
underutilized rural labor reservoir. The ability of
the system to mobilize these manpower resources
in combination with its ability to mobilize capital
through imposition of a high rate of forced saving
on the population enabled the USSR to enjoy
annual GNP growth rates in excess of 5 percent
until the nineteen seventies. Since then, the ex
haustion of the manpower pool has rendered this
strategy obsolete with consequent declining growth
performance. Projections of Soviet growth in the
eighties and beyond by western analysts foresee
economic stagnation with rates not much above 2
percent. I This dismal prospect has been con
firmed recently by the candid estimates of percep
tive Soviet economists. l
Low rates of increase in employment and GNP
necessarily lead to commensurately lower rates of
growth in capital stock and investment. Since
1960, growth rates for both investment and its vital

growth component of producer durables have


fallen by half (Table 1). In the current Eleventh
Five-Year Plan they are slated to drop even lower
to 2.1 percent annually. Similar trends have been
observed for rat.es of increase in capital stock.
The latter have been sustained artificially by low
rates of asset retirement, which. as will subse
quently be explained, is a self-defeating practice.
If the unlikely prospect of significant decentrali
zation of central planning is ruled out, the only
recourse available to overcome stagnation is im
provement in productivity. The key to this chal
lenge lies in improved productivity of capital.
Past performance has been most unpromising in
this respect. While the Soviet trend in growth of
labor productivity has been positive and only
somewhat below the average for the seven major
market economies, its capital productivity trend
has been constantly negative and far worse than
those for the principal market economies1 (Table 2).
The abysmal historical investment productivity
record can be explained by a combination of
ineffective investment policies and by overriding
external influences. the most important of which
is the superior priority accorded to defense
production. A major contribution to poor per
formance has been asset retirement policies. On
the average. fixed assets have been retained in
service twice as long as those in the major market
economies. Since productivity advancement de
pends upon the additions of new capital incorpo
rating recent technology and the timely discard of
technologically obsolescent old assets, such a
policy clearly retards productivity improvement.
This policy has been reinforced by the low
proportion of investment devoted to replacement
of obsolescent assets, as distinct from the creation
of new plant and equipment. In recent years the
replacement share has been about a fifth, com
pared with nearly half in the United States. Together
these two policies explain about half of the nega
tive productivity trend growth rate. 4
Productivity has also been depressed by the
rapid additions to capital stock compared with
additions to employment. The attempt by Soviet
planners to compensate for the growing man
power dearth by maintaining high rates of invest
ment growth has expectedly diminishing returns.
In addition, industrial investment has neglected
mechanization of auxiliary supporting operations,
such as material supply and repair, in favor of
direct production activities. This mechanization
imbalance reduces productivity of both labor and
capital. Capital productivity has been further
lowered by the rising proportion of investment
immobilized in uncompleted construction projects.
The system of construction incentives encourages
the proliferation and initiation of investment proj

Table 1
Trends in Growth Rates for Soviet Fixed
Investment~ Capital Stock, and Their Producer
Durables Components
(Annual average rates)
Fixed Investment
Producer Durables

Total
Period Economy Industry
1960-65
6.3
6.8
1965-70
7.6
6.8
1970-75
6.9
6.8
1975-80
3.5
3.9

Economy Industry
11.1
7.6
8.9
6.3

10.7
7.9
7.5
6.7

Capital Stock
Producer Durables

Total
Period
1960-65
1965-70
1970-75

1975-80

Economy In dustry

8.5
7.5
7.9
6.7

9.1
8.7
8.6
7.5

Economy Industry
10.6
9.7
9.7
8.2

11.4
9.4
9.3
8.6

Sources: Stanley Cohn. "Sources of Low Productivity in Soviet


Capital Investment." SOl'iet Economy ill the /980s:
Problems and Prospects. 1982. Appendixes A and B.
Narodnoe Khoziai.m'o, 1IJ22-/982.
*Professor of Economics. State University of Nt:w York,
Binghampton.

111

'fable 2
Comparative Trends in Labor and Capital Productivity
(Annual average percentage rates of change)

Labor Productivityil
Country
United States
France
Germany
United Kingdom
Italy
Japan
Soviet Union

1960-7.3

1960-73

1974-78

0.3
0.7
1.6
-1.0
0.9
1.4
-3.2

-0.7
-1.7
-2.3

3.1

lA

S.l)

4.0

S.~

4.2

3.1'1

2.0
0.9
3.6
2.3

7.~

9.9
3.7

Capital Productivityb

1l)74-7~

-1.9
-1.2
-3.4
-4.5

a. Defined as output per man'year of employment in husiness sectors of market economics and lhlnservice sectors of the
Sovkt economy.
b. Defined as output per unit of fixed husiness capital in markct economks and per unit
productive capital stuek in the Soviet
economy.

ur

Sources: f\-larket economies-- Estimatesof John W. Kendrick prepared for the New York Stock Exehange study. "U.S. Ecunomic
('erformance in a Glohal Perspective:' 1%1.
Soviet Union-Manhours: Stephen Rapawy. "Civilian Employment in the USSR. 1<l:'()197H." Foreign Demographic
Analysis Division. February 191)0.
Capital: Souree for Tahle I.
PrmJuction: Central Intelligence Agency. Net F()reign Assessment Center. Ham/boo" (1/ Ecollomic Statistics. / 'Nil.

ects, but provides insufficient stimulus for theIr


completion.
These inefficient policies of capital usage have
been compounded by the inability of Soviet ma
chinery industries to produce the high technology
machinery and equipment required to realize the
productivity gains from a heavier emphasis upon
replacement and more rapid rates of retirement.
The heavy dependence in recent years upon
imports of technology in such key sectors as
ener~y extraction, synthetic chemicals and
fertilIzers, computers, and motor vehicles pro
vides strong confirmation of domestic technologi
cal inadequacies. One Soviet economist estimates
that only 40 percent of investment, directed to re
place obsolete assets or to expand existing plant,
has utilized new technology.' Furthermore. many
newly introduced machinery products have not
increased productivity.r' By contrast, military tech
nology has advanced smoothly at a pace sufficient
to maintain defense parity with the United States.
Superior development of military technology is
explained not only by higher resource priorities,
but also by more effective organization at both
the production and research levels. The superior
organizational environment for defense produc
tion is obtained by methods which exacerbate the
disadvantages under which producer durables
production occurs.
Technological progress in producer durables
production suffers from deficiencies in organiza
tion and incentives which plague the entire Soviet
system. Willingness of managers to innovate is
deterred by a propensity toward "self-reproduction,"
i.e. toward the perpetuation of the existing compo

sition of production and production technology


with their assured sources of supply and near
certainty of customary bonuses. The same Soviet
critic observes that existing incentives lack the
necessary stimuli to compel the producer to im
prove existing output and introduce new products.
Slow technological progress is also explained
by the chronic seller's market which prevails for
producer durabJes production. The tradition of
taut planning has been characterized as 'planned
scarcity' by a Soviet scholar.' Under such circum
stances there is little pressure from effective
consumer demand for technologically improved
products. This perceptive economist points out
that a glaring weakness of economic organizations
is the absence (If effective consumer sanctions
and choices." In contrast, there is a potent con
sumer for military production.
Organizationally the main deficiency for secur
ing tcchnological advance is the low level of
product specialization. Although there are over
20 machinery-producing ministries. product spe
cialization does not match administrative
specialization. The prevailing production pattern
is one of generalized machinery production by
most ministries. Again in contrast, this conclu
sion is less applicable to those machinery ministries
exclusively engaged in defense production: Minis
tries of General Machine Building, Defense
Industry, and Medium Machine Building.
Even in the production of general purpose semi
fabricate inputs, such as gears. castings. forgings,
and stampings, the degree of specialization is far
lower than in U.S. industry. There is no organized
arrangement for production of single unit

112

customized equipment by specialized machinery


enter{,rises. Instead, such needs are met by small
machine shops within the consuming organizatiori
with the expected results of high cost and re
tarded technological standards.
This reliance on high cost, technologically back
ward internal sources of supply reflects the sys
tematic propensity toward self-sufficiency, or
vertical integration, in Soviet production practice.
Such behavior arises in response to the unreliabil
ity of deliveries of planned input flows. One
Soviet economist has decribed reliance on such
supply sources as "insurance capabilities."lU Suc
cessful development of production specialization
is contingent upon development of a tradition of
reliable sub-contracting."
Technological backwardness is also explained by
deficiencies in research and development and in
innovation. In market economies most technical
progress arises from sales pressure by suppliers of
equipment, as distinct from demands of users.
Within the Soviet system, as already noted, the
taut atmosphere weakens consumer-supplier
relationships, leading either to self-sufficiency or
to purchases from non-specialist producers with
little incentive to innovate. The absence of com
petition among producers and of direct supplier
customer ties strongly impedes innovation in the
Soviet system. Brezhnev decried this tendency in
salty language, "Innovation is avoided as the devil
flees from incense."12
Unlike arrangements in military production,
there is organizational separation between re
search and development and production in non
military production. Furthermore, there is no
central coordinating mechanism for interrelating
Rand D and production in the planning process.
Not only have planners been derelict in making R
and D relevant to future technological needs, but
also the incentive system for Rand D stresses
utilization of budget appropriations, not comple
tion of projects.1J Such rewards clearly encourage
proliferation of projects and dispersion of resources.
Incentives for design bureaus, which develop
working models, are based upon the number of
designs produced, with higher rewards being paid
for inclusion of new non-standardized components.
The isolation of research institutes from pro
duction tends to impart an academic ethos in
their orientation. There is preoccupation with
scientific originality, rather than technical feasibil
ity or economic viability.'4 Thus, there is an
absence of innovative drive from the supply side,
which compounds that induced by faulty incen
tives on the demand side. In defense production,
organizational arrangements have evolved to (wer
come these innovation disincentives.

Economic Drain of Defense Expenditures


Technology and Resource Priorities
The leadership role of the Soviet Union in the
Warsaw Pact alliance thrusts upon the USSR
principal responsibility for production and deploy

ment of such technologically intensive weapons


systems as missiles, aircraft, submarines, and nu
clear warheads. The resulting drain on the
economy's technological and innovative energies
will have its principal impacts on production of
producer durables, which also draw heavily on
the same scarce technological resources.
There are several approaches, proceeding from
macroeconomic to progressively more micro
comparisons, for estimating the resource trade
offs between productivity of investment and de
fense claims on resources. At the macro level, a
cross section study for 13 market economies plus
the Soviet Union for the 1960s and 1970s esti
mated rank correlations for defense expenditures
and other selected economic variables. I.' There are
statistically significant and strongly negative cor
relations between rank orders for defense outlays
as shares of GNP (defense spending ratios) and
rank orders for GNP growth rates. These relation
ships are explained by similar negative correlations
between rank orders for military spendiflg ratios
and investment ratios (shares of GNP) and equally
strong positive correlations between investment
ratios and GNP growth rates. Finally there are
strong negative correlations between defense ra
tios and manufacturing productivity growth rates.
The linkage between the latter pair of variables is
explained by the strongly positive correlations
between investment ratios and manufacturing pro
ductivity growth rates.
Soviet experience is consistent with these gen
eral findings. If the USSR is fitted into the sample,
it would rank first in its defense/GNP ratio and
sixth in its GNP growth rate. It would rank tenth
in its manufacturing productivity growth rate.
Therefore, at first approximation the burden of
defense is empirically evident in terms of con
straint on srowth of both national product and
manufactUrIng productivity. However, more micro
comparisons are required to focus upon the tech
nological impact.
While the rate of growth of investment and its
producer durables component has fallen by half
in the past twenty years, the share of GNP
devoted to investment has risen considerably,
along with a modest rise in the share claimed by
defense, according to Central Intelligence Agency
estimates. 16 Such trends would imply that defense
has not been a constraint on investment, yet
capital productivity trends have worsened in the
seventies. In order to explain this performance a
more focused tradeoff approach must be pursued.
Since the resource competition between de
fense and investment centers around machinery
production, analytical clues may be found in
trends in output and trends in its distribution
among major users. Over the past twenty years
machinery output growth rates have fallen by
half. 17 Even more significantly, the proportion
consisting of military durables has been sharply
rising, almost entirely offset by smaller propor
tions of producer durables. The military share
rose from 19.0 percent in 1965 to 30.1 percent in
113

1980 and is projected to rise to a range of 32.8 to


37.2 percent by 1985. Commensurately, the pro
ducer durables share fell from 70.2 percent in
1965 to 60.9 percent in 1980 and is projected to
fall to a range of 46.6 to 56.8 percent by 1985Y' By
contrast the U.S. share of machinery devoted to
military hardware production fell from 20.7 per
cent in 1967 to 13.9 percent in 19721~ and is
estimated to have fallen further to 9.9 percent by

1979.20

A more sensitive indicator of the opportunity


cost of military durables production is provided
by estimating its share of the growth in machinery
output. In the 1965-72 period military durables
absorbed a fifth of total machinery output growth.
The share doubled in the 1972-80 penod. At the
same time the producer durables share of the
general machinery increment fell from two-thirds
to about half.
Alternative projections of machinery output
and its principal uses in the Eleventh Five-Year
Plan (1981-85) show further rises in military claims
to the growth in machinery output. Within the
likely machinery production growth range of 30-40
percent, the producer durables annual growth
range of 10-12 percent, and the consumer durables
annu.al growth range of 5-6 percent, military
durables will absorb between 43 and 71 percent of
incremental machinery output. At the same time
the producer durables share will be further eroded
to a range of 28-43 percent, a trend with unfavor
able implications for future investment growth
prospects.
Since producer durables are the carriers of
technology, their lessened availability will thwart
the possibility of reversing the worsening capital
productivity trend. However, even this more sensi
tive measure is inadequate as a technology proxy,
since it obscures any indication of quality of
capital. What is required is some product break
down of total machinery output, particularly the
high technology products and their distribution
among the principal claimants.
For the year 1966 it is possible to derive tenta
tive estimates of the division of final demand
between investment and defense for key high
technology machinery products. The derivation is
based upon information provided by the recon
structed official Soviet input-output table for 196621
and a machinery product breakdown of invest
ment demand for that year by a Soviet scholar.22
The derivation shows that for four key machin
ery categories-electrotechnical machInery and
equipment, precision instruments, transportation
machinery and equipment, and communications
equipment-over half of final demand probably
consisted of military procurement. 2, Of course,
these high technology sectors are also vital in the
production of those producer durables which can
have the greatest capital productivity impact.
Since 1966 the competition for output of these
sectors has certainly intensified. The rapidly ris
ing technological intensity of weaponry would

require disproportionate increases in purchases


from these sectors. At the same time there has
been a major shift in the proportion of investment
durables deliveries toward such production sec
tors as instruments, automation equipment. and
computers. 24
This possible distribution of military durables
procurement comprises well over 80 percent
of estimated military durables purchases for 1966.
If so, there is a close analogy with the composi
tion of U.S. military procurement. In 1967 over
half of U.S. military procurement consisted of
communications equipment plus aircraft and air
craft parts. Another quarter consisted of ord
nance products. Electrical, electronic, and scientific
equipment comprised another 7 percent,2:i
The qualitative impact on investment produc
tivity arising from major defense claims on such
machinery sectors as communications equipment,
transportation equipment, precision instruments
and electrical equipment IS decidedly adverse.
Increased productivity of producer durables is
dependent upon production of these high technol
ogy machinery sectors. The rising technological
intensity of military durables intensifies the diffi
culty of satisfying this requirement.

The Adverse Economic Impact of the Military


Industrial Complex
Not only can the superior development of mili
tary technology be explained by higher resource
priorities, but also by more effective organization
10 both production and research. The Soviet
military-industrial complex has been insulated
from the rigidities and strains which characterize
the central model in general. It enjoys organiza
tional privileges denied to the rest of the system.
The barriers of inadequate incentives and or
ganization which have constrained civilian
technological advance have been surmounted in
defense production not through basic organiza
tional reforms, but by overcoming and circum
venting existing channels of central planning. The
methods used result in further intensifying the
systemic inefficiencies which hinder civilian tech
nical progress.
At all levels of decision-making there exist
institutional arrangements, formal and informal,
to enforce defense production priorities. 2h
1. The Politburo, the Party's supreme policy
making body, is intimately involved in detailed
defense program decisions. Selected key lower
level personnel in defense production have direct
access to this top level.
2. The Defense Council (Soviet Oboronvj, is, in
effect, a sub-committee of the Politburo. It is
believed to be primarily responsible for weapons
development. Leading Politburo members and
leaders in defense operations and production are
represented on this body. Innovation, therefore,
stems from pressure by the Ministry of Defense
and the Party leadership.
114

3. Under the Council of Ministers, the Military


Industrial Commission is primarily responsibie
for meshing defense production and research and
development with overall economic planning. This
organization has members from defense produc
tion ministers, the Ministry of Defense, Gosplan
(State Planning Commission), the Central Com
mittee and the Secretariat of the Party.
4. Within Gosplan there is a separate defense
production division. In the detailed planning proc
ess defense needs have the highest priority.
S. At the enterprise level, there are inspectors
in uniform from the Ministry of Defense in all
production units of interest to the militarY. They
are mainly experienced engineering officers. They
have the right to re~use delivery of defective
products.
It is obvious from the foregoing series of pres
sure points along the full length of the economic
hierarchy that the Ministry of Defense is a
clamorous, innovating customer who can shape
production and technology to satisfy its needs.
This pressure, together with the supplier initiative
to be described in the analysis of defense Rand
D, effectively overcomes the inertia toward "self
reproduction" endemic in non-military production.
Managerial bonuses reward defense production
risk takers, because the bonuses are structured to
favor production of new products. In effect, the
risk is partially borne by the consumer and is also
lessened by a more effective linkage to Rand D.
The other serious productivity deterrent of
self-sufficiency, or vertical integration. is over
come by the high priority access of defense
producers to necessary material and human inputs.
They do not have to resort to the "insurance
capabilities" of their civilian production
counterparts. Therefore, defense production is
able to take advantage of the economies of
specialization.
Technical progress in defense production is
further aided by giving defense production minis
tries direct control over related research and
development organizations. In effect. Gosplan
cedes this margin of control which it exercises
over civilian production sectors to intermediate
defense production echelons (ministries).
The key role in defense Rand D and produc
tion coordination is played by the Chief Designer.
He is nominally in charge of the unit in the
technology development stage in which produc
tion prototypes are developed. In effect, he plays
the same role in the Soviet system exercised by an
innovating supplier in a market economy. Non
military production has no counterpart to such
supplier initiative. Rather, this function is held by
Gosplan, which chooses to subordinate such initi
ative to the more pressing challenge of allocating
current technology among high priority claimants.
Given its annual taut planning challenge. Gosplan
cannot expend its energies on furthering techni
cal advancement.
Of course, an effective Chief Designer can only

successfully exert his entrepreneurial role with


the strong backing of the party leadership, includ
ing direct access to the highest echelons. Since his
efforts would be in vain without high resource
priorities, the possibility of transferability of his
role to general application is limited.
The effectiveness of defense Rand D is also
favored by ample endowment with experimental
production shops, which confer qualitative advan
tages in prototype development. Even more unique
within the Soviet system is the encouragement of
competition among Chief Designers, This clear
spur to technological quality requires provision of
adequate Rand D and production capacities, in
effect, requiring excess capacity, This is a lUXury
denied to civilian industry in which supply con
straints and demand overcommitment is the rule.
The unwillingness of non-military managers to
assume risks of innovation is a major barrier to
technical progress. In defense production, risks
are absorbed by innovative imtiative taken by
Party leaders and defense customers, by fewer
supply uncertainties thanks to high priorIties, by
direct coordination with Rand D activities, and
by superior resource endownment in Rand D.
Military production is provided with a risk cush
ion at the expense of other resource claimants.
The superior performance of defense produc
tion has impressed the Soviet leadership. At the
XXIV Party Congress in 1971 Brezhnev stated,
"taking into consideration the high scientific and
technical level of the defense industry, the trans
fer of its experience, inventions and discoveries to
all spheres of the economy acquires paramount
importance."27 The General Secretary was either
disingenuous or wishful, for implementation of
his hopes would require widely sweeping reforms
by him and his colleagues.
Even within existing institutions, the dissemina
tion of information and professional interchange
between defense and non-defense production sec
tors has been hampered by the security barrier
which effectively insulates the former from the
rest of the system. The possibilities for spin-offs
from defense Rand D are, thereby, diminished.
Conclusions and Policy Implications
Improved investment productivity is vital if the
stagnation in Soviet economic growth is to be
reversed. The rising proportions of investment
resources that will be devoted to energy extrac
tion and distribution and to belated expansion of
the transportation network will lead to continued
rises in the capital-output ratio (investment re
quirement per ruble for additional output). The
likelihood that these tendencies can be counter
balanced by qualitative improvements in the pro
duction of producer durables is a dim one, unless
managerial incentives are reordered and taut
planning is relaxed. The Central Committee
resolution on industrial decentralization of July 16,
1983 provides more flexibility for managers to use
earmarked developmental funds to pay bonuses to

115

personnel who effectively innovate new products.


In addition, enterprises will be evaluated in terms of
sales of products mcorporating new technologies. 2x
The practical impact of these measures will
depend upon the degree to which they are
implemented.
However, such measures will be merely cosmetic
so long as defense production continues to en.ioy
overriding resource priorities and effective supe
rior political support. The central planning decision
making structure is capable of promoting
technological advance in only a narrow band of
the economic spectrum. In the past there have
been selective episodes in which capital goods
production has been accorded high priority and
administrative guidance, but campaignology is
not an effective solution to the chronic poor
productivity performance in producer durables
production. It just shifts the impact of the sys
temic deficiencies to other economic sectors.
Some rartial improvements would be possible
if capita goods producers were given control
over their pertinent Rand D activities. However,
for such coordination to be effective, there would
have to be changes in incentives for Rand D
organizations and provision for ample production
capacity for development of prototypes. Local
initiative in technological innovation would re
quire establishment of an equivalent of the Chief
Designer in producer durables production. As the
experiment with Scientific-Production Associa
tions (NPOsl has evolved, Gosplan has been
reluctant to grant such necessary decision-making
authority.
The achievements in defense production have
been attained at high opportunity cost for non
military resource claimants. The systemic defi
ciencies of the Soviet system are magnified for
less favored sectors, including producer durables.
Therefore, the prospect for improved technologi
cal progress and investment productivity appears
to be unfeasible within the central planning model
while defense continues to receive top resource
priorities and the devoted attention of the plan
ners and Party leadership. Recent suggestions of
downward revisions of trends in defense expendi
tures by intelligence analysts imply some shading
of defense priorities. However, reductions in de
fense growth rates from four to two percent per
annum may reflect realistic recognition of declin
ing GNP growth rates and potential rather than
any shift in priorities to investment, because the
official investment growth rates for the Eleventh
Plan were also revised downward.
The prospect for improved investment produc
tivity is also dimmed by the rising incremental
proportion of machinery output allotted to mili
tary durables. This trend is magnified by the large
defense claims to production of high technology
industries, as revealed in interindustry matrixes.
However, even if this increasing resource drain
were reversed, the superior organizational envi
ronment for defense production means that non
military production labors under an inefficiency
handicap that thwarts any hopeful prospects of

improved technical progress. Thus, the impact of


high defense priority on Soviet economic growth
is both potent and negative.
FOOTNOTES

'Joint Economic Committee. U.S. Congress, Soviet Economy


il1lhe 1')8()s; Problems alld Prospects. 19H2. Vol. I, p. 7.
'Nel\' York Times, Aug. S. 1983.
'Ibid., Joint Economic Committee, So riel Economl' in the
11J8IJs: Problems and Pro.\pecis. contribution by Stanley Cohn,
"Sources of Low Productivity in Soviet Capital Invesment."
p.173.
'Ihid.. p. 170.
'V.1. Poltorygin, Ej/ektil'llost' tekhl1icheskogo perel'Oorllzheniia
sotsialisticheskogo IJroi:rod.IfI'a. 1975. p, 41.
'D, Palterovich. "Obnovlenie oborudovaniia i tekhnicheskoe
perevooruzhenie proisvodstva." Plal101'Oe k ho:iaist 1'0, Sept.
19HO. p. 105.
~S,A. Kheinman, "Organizational and Structural Factors in
Economic Growth:' JPRS 76JHIl, USSR Report, Economic
A/Mn. No, 9J7, Sept. 9, 19HO. p. 65,
'Ibid., p, 65.
"S,A. Kheinman. "Zadachi razvitiia mashinostroeniia:' Voprosy

Ekollomiki. Aug, 19111. p, 31.

'''lu.V, Suhotskii, "Role of Production Specialization in Re

du<:ing S,cat,tering," JPRS H007H, USSR Report. Economic

A(lm/'s, No, Nil. Feb. 14. 19H2. p, 34.

"G. la, Kurbatova, "Mashinostroenie i investitsionnie protsessy."


Ekollomika i Orgalli:atsiia Prol11yshlellllogo ProiZl'odSlVQ,

March 19H2, p, HJ,

"L.1. Brezhnev. Prell'da. March .11. 1971.

"R. Amann, J,M. Cooper. Industrial InllOl'alioll ill the Soviet

Unioll, Yale University Press. 19R2. p, 14,

"Ihid., p, 196,

"Stanley H, Cohn. Sol'iet IIIIe.l/mellt Productivity Imperalil'e

alld the Ecollomic Burdell 0/ De/ellse, National Council for


Soviet and East European Research, July 19RJ. p, II.

"Joint Economic Committee. USSR: ,"'leasHre of Economic

Groll,th IIml Derelopment, ItJ,",()80. 19112, pp, 4H and 121.

'~Ibid" pp. 57SR,


"Daniel Bond and Herhert Levine. "The Soviet Machinery
Balance and Militarv Durables." contribution to Joint Eco
nomic Committee. 5'()\'iet Econol/1\' ill the I WlOs: Problems
ami Pl'Ospects, 191l2, pp, J() 1-.304, ,
"U,S, Department of Commerce. The Input-Output Slructure
of the U,S, Economy: 11)67. Also The InputOutput Strucllll'e
of tile US. Ecol1omy: 11)72.
2"U.S, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industrial
Economics, Sectoral Implicalions of' DeFense Expenditures,
1982.
Barry Koslinsky, The ReCOilS/meted 111M Sol'iel Input
Output Tables: Rel'ised Purchasers' ami Produce/:!" Prices
Tables (Foreign Economic No, L\I, U,S. Department of
Commerce, 1976,
"V.K. Fal'tsman. Potelltsial ill\'estitsiollllogo IIImhinoslroellie,
Nauka, I 9H I.
"See Stanley H. Cohn. SOl'iet linc.ltme/I! Pl'Oductil'it)' Impera
lil'e olld Ihe Ecollomic Burdell of De/elise, National Council
for Soviet and East European Research. July I<JHJ,

'Y.K, Fal'tsman. and Y. Bonsov. "Mobil'nost' mashinostroeniia."


PlallOI'Oe Khoziaisll'o. November I <JR2. p, Hi.
"U,S, Department or Commerce. The hlpli/-OUlplit Structure
oftite U.S. Ecollomy: 1967. 1976,

20 Arthur Alexander. Decision-Making in SOl'iel Weapon.. .

Procul'cmenl. International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Adelphi Papers Nos, 147 and 14H, 197H, pp, 9-23,

"Materialy XXIV S'ezda KPSS (1971). p. 46, Quoted in

Amann and Cooper, Op,Cil" p,408,

"Plm'da. July 26. 19H3.

116

EAST EUROPEAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE

WORLD'S ARMS MARKET

Tholl/as H. Snilch*

Overview
In April 1983 Libyan aircraft carrying East Ger
m~n and Czech weapons into Nicaragua were
selze~ b~ Brazil. This incident highlights the
growing Involvements of the nations of Eastern
Europe in the international arms market. I The
six East Europeans members of the Warsaw Pact.
Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the
German Democratic Republic, and Romania, pres
ently account for about 8 percent of the world's
arms trade. While this is considerblv less than the
shares held by the Soviet Union or the United
States: it is. indicativ.e of the increasing number
of natIons Involved In the manufacture and ex
port of conventional weapons. 2 Moreover, in the
case of these six Eastern European nations, the
types of weapons being manufactured and their
ul~imate ~estinations throughtout the Third World
raises senous concerns about regional and global
stability.'
This ess.ay will examine the types of weapons
pr~duced In Eastern Europe, the role the Soviet
Union plays, and the destination of these arms in
the developi.ng world. ~t is not designed to be a
comprehensive report Since much of the informa
tion on particular weapons transfers is either
e~tremely sketch~ or is publicly unavailable:
Nonetheless, certaIn trends can be identified and
some preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Three
of the most telling findi!1gs. are: (1) weapons and
weap.ons-rela~ed Industnes In Eastern Europe are
growmg contInually, V) these efforts by the East
Europeans allow Soviet weapons facilities to con
centrate ~n the production of new, more sophisti
cated equipment, and (3) East European weapons
are now found on everv continent and in the
hands of numerous terrorist organizations.
~here are many theories on the motivations of
natIOns to sell weapons. Obviously there is a
belief that weapons can be used as rewards or to
exe.rt political inf1~ence. It is a way to p~oject
national power without direct commitment of
military personnel. It is also good business. The
ma.iority of Soviet and East European Bloc arms
s~les are for hard currency, or as in the case of
Libya, weapons are bartered for oil. Given the
currently bleak economic situation in Eastern
Europe, these nations can ill-afford to allow exist
ing weapons factories to lie idle when there are
willing customers ready to pay cash.
The.Eastern bloc arms industries are integrated
extensions of those of the Soviet Union. Much of
the work in the weapons factories of Eastern
Europe involves either the licensed production of
close c,?pies of Soviet weaponry, such as the
AK-47 nfle, or arms which the Soviets no longer
*Assistant Professor of International
UmversHy. Washington. D.C.

Relations, The American

prodt,Ice. T-55 ta.n.ks for example. The similarity


and mteroperablhty between Soviet and Bloc
arll!s allow th.e East Europeans to fill the ~ap
which may anse when Moscow decides agamst
providing weapons for political reasons, or when
the Soviet.s d.ecide to embark on a new weapons
program. fhls was the case early in the Iran-Iraq
War when the Soviet Union decided not to di
rectly fill Iraqi requests for large amounts of
weaponry, but to employ East European surrogates.
~It~ough Iraq had been a steady purchaser of
Soviet weapons throughout the 1970s, in 1981
they were forced to turn to the rest of the Warsaw
Pact for heavy ground weapons and massive
quantities of ammunition. In 1982, as relations
between Baghdad and Moscow began to return to
normal, the Soviets once again were ready to
supply weapons. The key point is that while the
Soviets avoided choosing sides in that war, arms
which were nearly identical to those that had
been supplied previously continued to flow into
Iraq from Eastern Europe.
Ther~ are a n~m~er of other advantages which
the Soviets realIze from weapons productions in
Ea~tern Europe. One important benefit is a broad
enmg of the overall base of production, which can
decrease the lead time necessary to get the weap
ons to the recipients. Recipients can also depend
on long-term spare parts supply from Eastern
Europe since the Bloc nations maintain the same
equipment in their own inventories. Another ad
vantage is that the Pact can market downgraded
versions of .front-line Soviet equipment and thereby
lessen t~e nsk <;Jf tech~<;Jlogical c~n:p'romise. Fina.lly,
the Soviets gam addItIOnal fleXibilIty by allowmg
Third World. nations to upgrade older East
~u!~)pean-Sovlet systems. For example, Soviet
1-:':"\ tanks can be fi~ted with new engines or larger
guns. and older aJ.rcr~ft can be supplied with
more advanced aVIOl1ICS packages provided by
the East Europeans.
All of these factors make Soviet-controlled
cqt.Iipment mor~ attractive to a potential buyer.
Third World natIOns have begun to realize that East
European weapons can be obtained quickly, spare
parts ar~ av~Ilable, and the systems can be
Inexpensively Improved through continual upgrad
ing. and modernization programs. When these
vana.bles are added .to. the well-tested design and
relatIvely low cost, It IS easy to understand why
these systems are becoming increasingly popular
in the Third World.
A large proportion, estimates range up to 70
percent of weapons produced by members of the
Warsaw Pact remain within the Bloc. However
in terms of regional stability issues it is instructiv~
to focus on those exports destined for nations
out.side the Bloc and especially those going to the
Third World. Eastern European arms deliveries

117

to non-Communist developing countries have in


creased more than tenfold over the last decade.
This is demonstrated in Table 1. The past ten years
have seen a steady growth in the yearly dollar
value of consummated agreements. The tremen
dous rise in sales agreements in 1981 is due largely
to the aforementioned sales of armor and ammuni
tion to Iraq.
There is a strong geographical bias in the pat
tern of military agreements, as shown in Table 2.
Over 90 percent of all Eastern Bloc agreements
are with nations in Northern Africa and the
Middle East. primarily Syria and iraq. It should
also be noted that Libya is well known for re
transferring East European weapons to third-party
countries. In terms of providing military advisers
in 1981. the distribution is less skewed. The
largest concentration of East European military
advisers is in Mozambique and Angola, although
there are numerous advisers in Libya and Syria
maintaining Bloc-supplied equipment.

Table 2
East European Military Agreements
and Advisers in LDCs, 1981
Military
Agreements
(Million US s)a
Total
North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Latin America
Middle East
South Asia

60
500
NA

Following is an analysis of the production of


weapons in Eastern Europe and their distribution
within the Warsaw Pact and the Third World.
It is especially noteworthy to focus on the role
which Czechoslovakia plays in this area. A recent
study notes that the Czech arms industry is second
in production and sophistication only to that of
the Soviet Union.' Specific examples of particular
weapons transfers are designed to be illustrative
of the breadth of the distribution network. and
the data should not be construed as being
comprehensive. b

1,040
75

130
210

280
335
355
550
635
525
775
4,905

"Because of rounding. components may not add to totals


shown.
Source: l;.S. Department of State. SOl'iet and East European
Aid 10 the Third World, 19M, February 19H~. p. 4.
iTable II in this report contains annual data on the arms trade,
not on arms sales agreements, I

Although this weapons transfer activity has


been fairly concentrated. there is an increasing
number of cases of Eastern Bloc arms deliveries
to other areas of the world. Polish T-55 tanks and
Libyan-supplied Polish helieopters have been seen
in Nicaragua; Czech. Bulgarian, and East German
assault rifles were found in Vietnam; and recently,
East German trucks were found in Grenada.
As more Third World nations discover that mod
ern sophisticated weapons are not only expensive
to purchase but also difficult to maintain. they
may turn toward the more plentiful. less sophisti
cated East European alternatives.

600
765

Source: U.S. Department of State. SOl'iet and East European


Aid to fhe Third World. 1981. February 19H~, p. 2,

East European Military Relations with Non


Communist Developing Countries
Arms Sales
Agreements
Arms
(Million US $)
Year
Deliveries
1.115
I
130
600
635
355
650
565
675
710
2.030
7.630

1.925

a Because of rounding. components may not add to totals.

Table 1

1955-71
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
Total a

2,030
650
5
10
1.365
5

Military
Advisers

Aircraft
A wide variety of aircraft is produced or assem
bled in Eastern Europe. with the majority of the
activity centered in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
The level of sophistication of aircraft varies from
the Czech production of MIG-21 fighters to the
Polish assembly of a simple Soviet transport plane.
Nearly all the aircraft are licensed for production
by the Soviet Union and in most cases they
represent a deliberate move by the Soviets to
relocate the production of less sophisticated air
craft out of the USSR and into Eastern Europe.
This frees the Soviets to concentrate their produc
tion efforts and facilities on more advanced air
craft programs.
An example of this behavior is found in the
case of the Polish version of the ANTONOV
AN-2 COLT. a multipurpose. small transport plane.
The COLT has been produced almost exclusively
for the Bloc at the Polish PZL factory in Mielec
since 1960, although a very small number are still
produced by the Soviets. Prior to 1960. the COLT
was produced only in the Soviet Union. By 1973.
Poland had delivered over 5.000 COLTs to the
Soviet Union while exporting thousands of others
to the German Democratic Republic. Hungary.
Bulgaria. Czechoslovakia. Egypt, North Korea.
Mongolia. Romania. Yugoslavia. Sudan. and
Tunisia. As of 1981. over 90 percent of the 9.000
produced in Poland had been exported and the

118

production line is still open. Orders were recently


received from Czechoslovakia for 22 aircraft and
from Venezuela for five. The Poles also produce
the ANTONOV AN-28 CASH transport at the
Mielec complex. First flown by the Soviets in
1969, series production was shifted to Poland in
1978 and it is believed that Poland will produce
some 1,200 AN-28s for export to the Soviet Union
by 1990.
Two other Polish aircraft are heavily exported,
the TS-l1 ISKRA SPARK jet trainer and the MI-2
HOPLIGHT helicopter. The TS-ll is a two-seat
jet trainer and some 500 have been produced at
Mielec since 1963. In 1976, 50 aircraft designated
as the ISKRA BIS D were delivered to India.
That particular version was equipped with a
23mm cannon, 7.62mm guns. eight-barrel rocket
pods, and underwing stores to accommodate
bombs up to 100 kgs.
Poland has been the exclusive producer of the
HOPLIGHT helicopter since 1963 and over 3.000
aircraft, in 24 different versions, have been
assembled. It is built by PZL Swidnik which also
produced components for the MIG-IS and which
presently supplies parts for the Soviet ILYUSHIN
86 wide body jet. The HOPLIGHT has been
exported to Romania, Czechoslovakia. Bulgaria.
Iraq, and the USSR. The Poles maintain in their
inventory a version armed with air-to-ground mis
siles and rockets. Present plans will continue
production at 300 aircraft per year through 1985.
The Czechs presently manufacture the L-39
ALBATROS, the standard jet trainer for the
Soviet Union, the German Democratic Republic,
and their own forces. The L-39 program. in series
production since 1972. includes an integrated
training system which also includes flight simu
lators, pilot ejector ground trainers. and mobile
test equipment. By any standard, the L-39 pro
gram has been an overwhelming success with
over 1,000 aircraft presently in use worldwide. In
fact, the Czechs have been advertising the
ALBA TROS for export in various Western de
fense magazines and publications." It has been
exported to Iraq and Libya in the L-39Z version
which is armed with a 23mm cannon, a maximum
bomb load of 1110 kgs . infrared air-to-air missiles.
or, as an alternative. with four pods with 16 S-5 air
to-surface rockets. There are also reports of the
L-39C being in the Afghan air force and at least
two armed L-39s were on board the Nicaragua
bound Libyan transporters siezed by Brazil in
April 1983.
The MIG-21 FISHBED jet fighter is produced
in two versions in Czechoslovakia. The MIG-21F
is the earliest production version and is armed
with either 57mm rockets or air-to-air missiles and
twin NR-30mm cannons. The Czech MIG-21 PFM
or FISHBED F is an upgraded version which
differs from earlier MIG-21s in terms of better
radar and more effective pilot ejection seats. At
least 33 nations presently fly the MIG-21. and the
Czechs were responsible for over 20 percent of
all that were ever produced. Over 1,000 of these

MIG-2Is have been exported back to the Soviet


Union and it is likely that many of the Czech
planes were subsequently re-exported by the Sovi
ets to the Third World.
In an interesting development, Romania and
Yugoslavia have become involved in a joint proj
ect to develop a new tactical figher. The ORAO
IAR-93 is a twin-jet ground-attack aircraft pow
ered by Rolls Royce Viper engines. The engines
are produced in Yugoslavia under a licensing
agreement with Great Britain. Armament includes
two 23mm cannons and a maximum bomb load of
2,500 kgs. It is estimated that over 200 aircraft will
be built for each country; at the present time.
however, the 0t\AO's export potential is not
known.s
,;,~",,':':
Romania is alSQlicensed to produce the Soviet
Yakovlev Y AK-52~trainer. This two-seat aircraft
is in the process of replacing the Y AK-18 as the
standard initial trainer for the Soviets. Manufac
ture of the YAK-52, which be~an at Bacau in
1978, is now at the series productIon stage.
It is evident that the East Europeans are mov
ing in the direction of producing both greater
numbers of aircraft and more sophisticated varie
ties. While some aircraft, such as the Yugoslavian
Romanian ORAO are believed to be primarily for
domestic use, others such as the Czech L-39
ALBATROS or the MIG-21s are clearly pro
duced for export. As Third World nations seek to
improve their air forces, it is likely that more will
turn to Eastern European aircraft as an alterna
tive to expensive, sophisticated Western planes.
Heavy Armor
The nations of Eastern Europe have probably
made their greatest impact on Third World mili
tary arsenals in the area of main battle tanks,
reconnaissance vehicles, and armored personnel
carriers (APCs). For the past thirty years, the
Eastern Bloc hfl~J;)\;;en producing literally thou
sands of copieS't1t;<.Soviet main battle tanks and
APCs. A great number of these have remained
within the Warsaw Pact, some were sent to the
Soviet Union, and many were exported around
the world.
The T-54/55 main battle tank is now seen
throughout the Third World. Czechoslovakia be
gan producing them at their Martin Tank Plant in
the early 1960s, while the Poles began as early as
1956 at their Lebady facilities. By 1976, their
combined production was over 800 tanks per
year. This was followed by Czech production of
the more advanced T-62 tank in the late 1970s
and. beginning in early 1980, by Czech-Polish
production of the sophisticated Soviet T-n main
battle tank. Romania has recently begun to up
date some of its 1,400 T -54/ 55s, but it is not known
whether its version of the T-55, designated the
M-77, will be availeable for export.
The T-54/55;~nsl T-62 are no longer in series
production in Easten'1;,Europe. Plants in Polsen,
Czechoslovakia .~t;ld:J:::ebady, Poland have been
retooled to produce T~64s and T-ns and the export
119

of these two tanks is underway. Nations which


possess T-54/55 or the T -62s include among others:
Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Libya. Mongolia, Somalia,
Cyprus, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali,
Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan. and Zimbabwe. The
T-64s and the T-72s are presently in the hands of
India, Iraq, Libya, Syria, and all the Warsaw Pact
nations. There can be no doubt as to the vast
number of Eastern European and Soviet tanks
throughout the Third World. including Sub-Saharan
Africa and more recently in Latin America. Since
1972, some 4,550 tanks and self-propelled guns
have been sent abroad by the natIons of Eastern
Europe. This is in addition to the over ten thou
sand exported by the Soviet Union.
The Czechs produce two APCs which are
nearly identical to their Soviet counterparts. The
OT-62 and the OT -64 have been in production for
almost twenty years and they are presently in use
in Uganda, Angola, Sxria, Libya. Bulgaria, Iran,
and Iraq. Recent modIfications suggest that these
armored carriers now may be equipped with
Soviet SAGGER anti-tank missiles. If this is true,
it will add a potent anti-armor capability to the
nations which have these APCs. It has been
estimated that about 950 Bloc-produced APCs
have been delivered to the Third World in the
past 10 years.
Infantry Weapons
The production of small arms, rifles, anti-armor
guns, anti-aircraft guns and artillery has prolifer
ated throughout the Eastern Bloc. Because the
level of technology required to produce these
weapons is considerably less than is needed for
aircraft or armor production. these weapons have
become major export items. While it is difficult to
track the flow of Czech rifles or Romanian fist{)ls,
it is clear that hundreds of thousands 0 these
weapons are in circulation around the world.
Primary reasons for this are that they are inex pen
sive, unsophisticated, and reliable.
The Soviet AK-47 assault rifle and its spinoff,
the AKM rifle, have become almost standard
issue items for any nation that does not employ
the American M-16 rifle. Poland, Hungary, Czech
oslovakia, Romania, and the German Democratic
Republic all produce locally-made versions of the
7.62mm assault rifle. Each version is nearly identi
cal to the Soviet AK-47 except for slight localized
modifications, such as different stocks or si~hts.
The different versions are used in each natIon's
army but they subsequently may end up in the
inventory of another Bloc state. For example. the
Polish version of the AK-47 is used presently by
the Bulgarian armed forces. These rifles have
turned up in Vietnam, Syria, Cuba. Nicaragua.
Libya, Nigeria, and in the hands of the such
extremist groups as the Polasarios in Western
Africa and the Palestine Liberation Organization.
The production of field artillery and anti-aircraft
guns is concentrated in Czechoslovakia. The Czechs
have produced the SU-lOO self-propelled assault

gun for years in their Martin Tank Plant. They


also recently began manufacturing the 152mm
DANA self-propelled howitzer. The DANA was
first deployed In late 1981 to the Czech Kiev
Batallion at Tabor. The gun is mounted on a
Czech T ATRA 813 truck, which itself is a major
export item. Finally, in a joint venture, the Poles
will be assisting the Czechs in the production of a
new version of the Soviet 122mm self-propelled
howitzer, designated as the M-1974.
The production of heavy artillery is a relatively
new phenomenon in the Warsaw Pact. However,
the recent development of two indigenously pro
duced Czech howitzers may be indicative of greater
involvement in this area. What has been far more
important to these nations in recent decades has
been the manufacture of massive quantities of am
munition for Soviet-made field guns. It is clearly
evident that a large percentage of the heavy am
munition, explosives, and mines expended by Iraq
against Iran In the past two years has come from
Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia.
These nations have also emphasized the produc
tion of anti-aircraft guns and light portable field
artillery pieces. Once again, Czechoslovakia domi
nates in this area. Beginning in the late 1950s, the
Czechs began producing the M53/59 Twin 30mm
self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. Like their DANA
howitzer, the M53/59 is mounted on a Czech truck,
the PRAGA, and a number of these guns have
been spotted in Libya and Yugoslavia. The Czech
57mm towed anti-aircraft gun has been sold to
Cuba, Guinea. and Mali, while the 30mm M53
anti-aircraft (AA) gun has ended up in Vietnam,
Romania, and Cuba. Probably the most widely
distributed Czech anti-aircraft gun is the Quad
12.7mm M53 AA machine gun. This lightweight
piece is ideal for Third World nations who are
see~ing a system whic_h is simple to operate and
easy to move. The M:,3 has been sold to Egypt,
Vietnam, and Cuba, but many analysts believe
that some M53s are in the inventory of nearly
every nation in the Middle and Far East.
Although no longer in production, the Czech
85mm M1944 AA gun has also seen global
distribution. A partial list of confirmed recipients
includes: Afganistan, Albania, Algeria, China,
Cuba, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan,
Syria, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen,
and the Warsaw Pact nations. More significant is
the growth of the Czech Multiple Launch Rocket
System effort. At the present time two versions
are being exported, the 32-round 132mm M51 and
the more modern 40-round 122mm MI972, which
is featured in the Libyan arsenal.
Naval
The production of naval vessels in the Eastern
Bloc is dominated by the Poles and the East
Germans. Poland has concentrated primarily on
building ships for her own navy. In the early
1970s, a program was begun that has resulted in
the construction of a number of patrol boats as

120

well as 5 OBLUZE large patrol craft and ten


WISLA Class fast attack torpedo boats. Poland
has provided Cuba with one "KS" class mine
sweeper and Romania with eight "TR-40" class
minesweepers.
In addition to Poland, the German Democratic
Republic has been the source for a considerable
portion of Tanzania's naval assets, including three
"P6" class fast attack gunboats, two "SCHWALBE"
class coastal patrol boats and two 50-ton patrol
craft which arrived via Portugal.
The Eastern Bloc's naval transfers are rela
tively minor when compared to recent Soviet and
Chinese activities. Nonetheless, it is instructive to
note the growing distribution of the Bloc's vessels,
especially fast-attack gunboats, around the world.
Because fast-attack boats are presently in such
great demand and they are manufactured by
relatively few countries, it is likely that this may
be an area of potential export growth for the East
Europeans.
Conclusions
Tracing the flow of weapons throughout the
world is an arduous task. Nations are usually un
willing to divulge the contents of their arms inven
tories lest their military capabilities be compro
mised. At the same time, few nations wish to be
viewed as major weapon suppliers or arms traf
fickers, and the nations of Eastern Europe are no
exception. Yet, the Soviet Union has found them
a useful outlet in that it can indirectly bring about
the transfer of weapons and exert influence while
politically distancing itself from the actual arms
transfers.
In the years ahead, the number of nations
producing weapons is bound to increase. As these
nations satisfy their own need for weapons, they
will undoubtably search for new export markets
in order to provide support to their industries.
Once the military and economic infrastructure is
in place, it becomes a difficult task to disengage.
This is equally true both in the free market

." u.s. GOVERN;lENT PRINTING OFFIce:

1984-421-412: 10003

121

economies of the West and in the centrally planned


systems of the East. It is probable that the six
nations examined here will continue to manufac
ture and export weapons of war. The arms they
produce for themselves will probably become
increasingly sophisticated and more technologically
advanced. The need for hard currency, given the
debt problems of the Eastern Bloc, will be an
additional driving force to increase sales. Finally,
the Soviet Union will carefully monitor this activ
ity to insure that their global interests are well
served. The Western world should expect ever
growing involvement by the East Europeans in
the global arms market in the years to come,
especially in unstable regions of the Third World.

FOOTNOTES
"'Behind Nicaraguan Buildup: Soviet-Bloc Aid Cited" THE
NEW YORK TIMES. April 27.1983. p. 17. Also, "East Bloc
Troops Aid Nicaragua", THE WASHINGTON TIMES, May
13, 1983, p. I.
lFor a detailed analysis by year, individual nation, and region
see Tables II, III, and IV in this volume.
'U.S. Department of State. Conventional Arms Transfers in
the Third World. 1972'1981. Special Report No. 102, August,
1982.
'The data on the inventories and deliveries of specific
weapons systems was compiled from a review of the Jane's
Weapons Series 1980-1983, including Armor, Fighting Ships,
Aircraft, and Infantry Weapons. The International Institute
for Strategic Studies. The Military Balance, 1982 was also
used. Other sources of this information which were useful
were De/ense and Foreign Af/airs Daily. Air International,
and A viation and Space Weekly.
'Stephen Tiedtke, "Czechoslovakia," in The Structure 0/ The
Defense Industry, An International Survey, ed. Nicole Ball
and Milton Leitenberg (New York: St. Martins Press, 1983)
'See the discussion above and footnote 4.

'For an example see lane's Defense Review. Vol. 3, No, 5,

1982, p. 536,

'Kenneth Munson. "Renaissance of Romania's Aircraft In


dustry", lane's Defense Review. Vol. 4, No.3, 1983. pp.
225230. Also. "Balkan Belligerent . . . The YuRom Close
Support Fighter", Air International. August, 1983, pp. 68-71.