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UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,KANCHEEPURAM

(A CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF ANNA UNIVERSITY)


KANCHEEPURAM

ADVANCED VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

SUBMITTED BY:
NAGENDRAN.O.S(osnagendranmech@gmail.com)
RAJA SEKAR.C(raja.popcity@gmail.com)
PH.NO:9600727023,8870184751
PRE FINAL YEAR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,KANCHEEPURAM.

ADVANCEMENTS IN VEHICLE
TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT :
Nowadays vehicles become the heart beat for all
countries.In recent times automobile sector had
developed a lot.The car manufacturers working
hardly to enhance new technologies that satisfies
the peopleneeds in terms of safety,economy,
comfort. These innovations and advancements
can be found in most of the new cars .

hydroplaning. ESC estimates the direction of the


skid, and then applies the brakes to individual
wheels asymmetrically in order to create
torqueabout the vehicle's vertical axis, opposing the
skid and bringing the vehicle back in line with the
driver's commanded direction. Additionally, the
system may reduce engine power or operate the
transmission to slow the vehicle down.

2.Antilock Braking System:


This helps in preventing skidding by

Here are some of the upcoming new technologies


and advancements in car technologies

preventing locking up of wheels

INTRODUCTION:

on slippery and icy roads. This advancement in


brakes is helpful in enhancing steering and
directional control. Anti-lock braking system(ABS

In this paper we discussed clearly about the


upcoming technologies of safety, economic and
comfort features. In India an average of about 1.25
lakhpeople die per year(15 per hour) . So in order to
reduce these death rates we have to give more
importance to safety.Then the next priority is given
to economy as nowadays fuels getting exhausted.

SAFETY:
1.Stability Control:
This helps in avoiding car crashes
and the function is regulated through electronic
computerized technology. It also becomes
functional when the driver loses steering and
directional control. During normal driving, ESC
works in the background, continuously monitoring
steering and vehicle direction. ESC compares the
driver's intended direction (by measuring steering
angle) to the vehicle's actual direction (by
measuring lateral acceleration, vehicle rotation
(yaw), and individual road wheel speeds).
ESC only intervenes when it detects
loss of steering control, i.e. when the vehicle is not
going where the driver is steering. This may
happen, for example, when skidding during
emergency evasive swerves, understeer or oversteer
during poorly judged turns on slippery roads, or

) pumps brakes automatically in case of a panic stop


so that driver can concentrate more on the steering.
The anti-lock brake controller is also known as the
CAB (Controller Anti-lock Brake). A typical ABS is
composed of a central electronic control unit
(ECU), four wheel speed sensors one for each
wheel and two or more hydraulic valves within the
brake hydraulics. The ECU constantly monitors the
rotational speedof each wheel, and when it detects a
wheel rotating significantly slower than the others a
condition indicative of impending wheel lock it
actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic pressure to
the brake at the affected wheel, thus reducing the
braking force on that wheel. The wheel then turns
faster; when the ECU detects it is turning
significantly faster than the others, brake hydraulic
pressure to the wheel is increased so the braking
force is reapplied and the wheel slows. This process
is repeated continuously, and can be detected by the
driver via brake pedal pulsation. A typical anti-lock
system can apply and release braking pressure up to
20 times a second.The ECU is programmed to
disregard differences in wheel rotative speed below
a critical threshold, because when the car is turning,
the two wheels towards the center of the curve turn
slower than the outer two. For this same reason, a
differentialis used in virtually all
roadgoingvehicles.If a fault develops in any part of
the ABS, a warning light will usually be illuminated

on the vehicle instrument panel, and the ABS will


be disabled until the fault is rectified

Distance Display in feet


Perfect for backing up, street parking,
parallel parking, garage parking, and
parking in tight spot
Wired LED Digital Display with Built-in
Audible Alert (Beeper) and Volume On/Off
Switch. Digital display shows the exact
distance from an obstacle in front or rear of
the vehicle
7 LED Lights (Green/Yellow/Red) on each
side of distance display indicating
orientation of obstacles and
Safe/Warning/Stop zone
6 sensors (2 in front and 4 in rear bumper)
giving good coverage of both front and rear
end of your vehicle when parking
In-bumper type sensors providing the look
of factory installed system

4.Airbags:
These are very useful because they automatically
form cushions to protect the car occupants in case
of car crash or accidents. These airbags are either
fitted on the doors, rear seatbacks or in front of the
drivers seat.

3.Back up Sensing System:


This advancement in safety and security features
help in producing warning signals when any car or
vehicle gets too close to the car equipped with back
up sensing system. The sensor is fitted in the rear
and front portion. The various sensors are

Sensor Detection Range: 1.0 - 4.9 feet (0.3m


- 1.5m)

The design is conceptually simple; a


central "Airbag control unit"(ACU) (a specific type
of ECU) monitors a number of related sensors
within the vehicle, including accelerometers, impact
sensors, side (door) pressure sensors, wheel speed
sensors, gyroscopes, brake pressure sensors, and
seat occupancy sensors. When the requisite
'threshold' has been reached or exceeded, the airbag
control unit will trigger the ignition of a gas
generatorpropellant to rapidly inflate a nylon fabric
bag. As the vehicle occupant collides with and
squeezes the bag, the gas escapes in a controlled
manner through small vent holes. The airbag's
volume and the size of the vents in the bag are
tailored to each vehicle type, to spread out the
deceleration of (and thus force experienced by) the
occupant over time and over the occupant's body,
compared to a seat belt alone.
The signals from the various sensors are fed
into the Airbag control unit, which determines from
them the angle of impact, the severity, or force of
the crash, along with other variables. Depending on
the result of these calculations, the ACU may also
deploy various additional restraint devices, such as

seat beltpre-tensioners, and/or airbags (including


frontal bags for driver and front passenger, along
with seat-mounted side bags, and "curtain" airbags
which cover the side glass). Each restraint device is
typically activated with one or more pyrotechnic
devices, commonly called an initiator or electric
match. The electric match, which consists of an
electrical conductor wrapped in a combustible
material, activates with a current pulse between 1 to
3 amperes in less than 2 milliseconds. When the
conductor becomes hot enough, it ignites the
combustible material, which initiates the gas
generator. In a seat belt pre-tensioner, this hot gas is
used to drive a piston that pulls the slack out of the
seat belt. In an airbag, the initiator is used to ignite
solid propellant inside the airbag inflator. The
burning propellant generates inert gas which rapidly
inflates the airbag in approximately 20 to 30
milliseconds. An airbag must inflate quickly in
order to be fully inflated by the time the forwardtraveling occupant reaches its outer surface.
Typically, the decision to deploy an airbag in a
frontal crash is made within 15 to 30 milliseconds
after the onset of the crash, and both the driver and
passenger airbags are fully inflated within
approximately 60-80 milliseconds after the first
moment of vehicle contact. If an airbag deploys too
late or too slowly, the risk of occupant injury from
contact with the inflating airbag may increase. Since
more distance typically exists between the
passenger and the instrument panel, the passenger
airbag is larger and requires more gas to fill it.

5.Adaptive Cruise Control:


The innovation used a long radar sensor to control
the speed of the moving car in accordance to the car
detected within a safe distance. The system uses
throttle and brakes to maintain a safe distance
between two cars or vehicles running on road.

6.Traction Control:
This also works in conjunction with the antilock
brakes to prevent wheel locking, skidding and loss
of traction. The basic idea behind the need of a
traction control system is the difference between the

slips of different wheels or an apparent loss of road


grip that may result in loss of steering control over
the vehicle. Difference in slip may occur due to
turning of a vehicle or differently varying road
conditions for different wheels. At high speeds,
when a car tends to turn, its outer and inner wheels
are subjected to different speed of rotation, that is
conventionally controlled by using a differential. A
further enhancement of the differential is to employ
an active differential that can vary the amount of
power being delivered to outer and inner wheels
according to the need (for example, if, while turning
right, outward slip (equivalently saying, 'yaw') is
sensed, active differential may deliver more power
to the outer wheel, so as to minimize the yaw (that
is basically the degree to which the front and rear
wheels of a car are out of line.) Active-differential,
in turn, is controlled by an assembly of
electromechanical sensors collaborating with a
traction control unit.

Use of traction control:

In road cars: Traction control has


traditionally been a safety feature in highperformance cars, which would otherwise
need very sensitive throttle input to keep
them from spinning the driven wheels when
accelerating, especially in wet, icy or snowy
conditions. In recent years, traction control
systems have become widely available in
non-performance cars, minivans, and light
trucks.
In race cars: Traction control is used as a
performance enhancement, allowing
maximum traction under acceleration
without wheel spin. When accelerating out
of turn, it keeps the tires at the optimum slip
ratio.
In off roadvehicles: Traction control is used
instead or in addition to the mechanical
limited slip or locking differential. It is often
implemented with an electronic limited slip
differential, as well as other computerized
controls of the engine and transmission. The
spinning wheel is slowed down with short
applications of brakes, diverting more torque
to the non-spinning wheel. This form of
traction control has an advantage over a
locking differential, as steering and control
of a vehicle is easier, so the system can be

continuously enabled. It also creates less


stress on the drivetrain, which is particularly
important to the vehicles with an
independent suspension that is generally
weaker compared to solid axles. On the
other hand, only half of the available torque
will be applied to a wheel with traction,
compared to a locked differential, and
handling is less predictable

7.Crumple Zones:
Car makers have come up with features where in
the car gets crumple up in a predetermined pattern
to absorb the collision energy by displacing the
crash impact and diverting it from the passenger
compartment, keeping the occupants safe. This
devices are one of the most underrated safety
features in modern vehicles since vehicles are
designed to crumple in order to absorb the impact
from a crash accident nevertheless maintains the
entirety of the passenger compartment thus ensuring
the safety of the driver as well as the passengers.

8.All-Wheel Drive:
This provides power to all the four wheels in order
to maximize traction during high acceleration and
prevents car skidding .

ECONOMY:

1.LOW WEIGHT AND HIGH


STRENGTH MATERIALS:

9.Emergency Response:
Different responses are required during
different emergencies. The emergency response
system helps in detecting the cause and responds in
accordance. Depending on the emergency cause, the
system automatically turns on the interior lights,
unlocks doors, cuts down fuel flow, switches hazard
lights, and makes the crash details available to the
driver in advance.

10.Automatic Locking Retractor and


Emergency Locking Retractor Seatbelts :
This device is best suited for couples with children
since it is important to ensure the safety of the your
children since you will never know just when
accident will befall you. And also this device comes
with seatbelts that are especially designed to
automatically adjust and then lock in place to ensure
that the child seat is kept in place especially during
higher than normal speed driving. And also it is
important that when installing a child safety seat to
make sure that the belts are locked as tightly as
possible.

In order to get even greater mileage


and lower emissions than we're capable of today,
cars will have to become lighter in weight. But with
consumers demanding more creature comforts
inside their vehicles, it would be a bad business
move to stop offering the latest technical wizardry
and sound-deadening material that make for a
comfy ride.
One solution is to make body
components of lighter materials like carbon fiberreinforced plastic (or polymer), abbreviated as
CFRP or just CRP.
CFRP works much like fiberglass -the carbon fiber is spun into long strands and then
arranged in a cloth-like weave for strength. A gooey
plastic material (the polymer) is soaked into the
carbon fiber around a shaped mold. When the
combination hardens, the resulting part is strong and
quite light -- perhaps 50 percent lighter than
forming the part out of metal alloy. It's very
expensive, and therefore still uncommon on massproduced cars
However, the Z06 version of the
Chevrolet Corvette already makes limited use of
carbon fiber right from the factory. And Lexus is
using CFRP extensively throughout its 2011-release
supercar, BMW has used carbon fiber for the roof
on it M3 sports car, and plans to use it on a wide
scale for its "Megacity" eco-friendly city car
expected sometime around 2015.

2.ALTERNATIVE FUELS:
Today, several technologies compete
to replace current dependence on fossil fuels,
which are environmentally unfriendly and will
eventually run out. Renewable fuels including
biodiesel and ethanol have made significant inroads
on the premise that we can always grow more. But

these fuels are also controversial. A strong debate is


brewing about the science and ethics of using crops
to make fuel rather than food. (Soybeans provide
the raw material for biodiesel while corn is used to
produce ethanol.)

Using a tiny camera behind the windshield to


detect lane markers, this system alerts the driver to
an unintended lane departure and will even nudge
the vehicle back to safety. It is available in the 2011
M. Other manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz
and Audi feature similar systems.

Not unique to Acura, this system uses two


microphones inside the cabin to monitor lowfrequency engine noise. When noise is detected, the
system transmits an opposing frequency through the
audio system speakers, canceling out the engine
noise. It is available on the TL and TSX.

3.HYBRIDS:
Hybrids combine a traditional
internal combustion engine with an electric motor to
deliver increased fuel efficiency. Currently, allelectric cars are the "Holy Grail" of clean
transportation. They produce zero direct emissions
and automakers have made wall-socket recharging
capability a must on the vehicles they plan to
release to the public. What's even more enticing
about electric cars is the potential to make them
completely non-polluting by recharging them with
emissions-free solar or wind energy.

Acura's Active Sound Control:

Mercedes-Benz Splitview
Technology:
Because U.S. regulations prohibit frontseat passengers from viewing video media unless
the vehicle is parked, Mercedes-Benz has developed
a screen that displays two images: one over the top
of the other. From the driver's perspective, only the
navigation map is seen, while the passenger sees
only the movie or whatever video has been
programmed.

OTHER SMART TECHNOLOGIES:

To deal with a world that's getting


ever more crowded and complex, our cars are
becoming smarter. Or to be more precise, they're
getting more computers and more software so that
they can do more stuff.

New technology that is either in vehicles now or


coming soon includes:

Kia's UVO System:

Developed with Microsoft, this infotainment


system is sort of Ford Sync Lite. A hands-free
system, it can oversee operation of cell phones and
music sources. It will feature a backup camera and a
4.3-inch color touch screen display and appear in
the 2011 Kia Sorrento.

Infiniti's Lane Departure Warning


and Prevention:

BMWs night vision system:


It really reduces more accidents that happens during
darks.both rear and front cameras located at the
bumpers plays the role.

Using WLAN technology, this system


communicates directly with all other relevant
vehicles in the vicinity, allowing it to send warnings
to vehicles behind it regarding traffic jams, black
ice on the road or a sudden rain storm.

GM's Enhanced Head-up Display:


Using a vehicle's full array of sensors and cameras,
this system will create a full-windshield head-up
display to aid drivers in extremely low visibility
events. For example, in a fog situation the vehicle
would use infrared cameras to identify the edges of
the road and those lines would then be "painted"
onto the windshield.

Audi's GPRS/EDGE:
An optional modem for Audi's MMI navigation plus
system will allow the user direct access to Google
for points ofinterest. The results are displayed on
the navigation map. It will be available in the 2011
Audi A8.

CONCLUSION:

BMW's Car-to-car
Communication:

Thus I conclude by saying that, these are


all the new existing technologies in recent
automobiles. In future many more advanced
technologies will come and the driving will become
more safe and economical.