Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank to all the SUPERVISORS and STAFF of UPSRTC


WORKSHOP AZAMGARH. Who accorded us permission to undergo practical
training at UPSRTC WORKSHOP AZAMGARH, We would like to acknowledge
gratefully the kind help and full cooperation rendered to us by the workshop staff.
We are thankful to pump section staff for imparting the training to us at full gratitude
of valuable guidance.

INTRODUCTION
UPSRTC is a public sector passenger road transport corporation providing services in the state of
Uttar Pradesh and other adjoining states in North India. With a fleet size of around 7668 buses
we operate over 2.5 million kilometers catering to the travel needs of over 1.3 million people and
earning over Rs. 38.3 million everyday. Provision of adequate, efficient, well co-ordinated,
comfortable and economical services to our passengers, while earning enough for self-sustenance
& growth, is our motto.
Passenger road transport services in the state of U.P. started on 15th May, 1947 with the
operation of bus service on the Lucknow - Barabanki route by the erstwhile U.P. Government
Roadways.
Subsequently, during the fourth Five Year Plan, the erstwhile UP Government Roadways was
rechristened as Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) on 1-6-72 under the
provisions of the Road Transport Act, 1950 with the following objectives:

For the development of the road transport sector correlated to which would be the overall
development of trade & industry.
For coordination of the road transport services with other modes of transport.
For providing or causing the provision of an adequate, economical & efficiently
coordinated road transport service to the residents of the state.

At the time of establishment of the Corporation it had a fleet of 4253 buses which were operating
on 1123 routes. The corporation's earned kilometers operated at that time were 228.8 million
kilometers. While the total number of passengers carried by its buses totalled 251.3 million.

THE CHASIS CONSTRUCTION


The chassis also known as carrying unit is a French term & was initially used to denote the frame
or main structure of a vehicle
The term chassis is now extensively used to denote the complete vehicle except the body for
heavy vehicle having separate body the chassis contain all the major units as necessary to propel
the vehicle, direct its motion, consist of slope it ,& allow to it run smoothly over uneven surface.
The chassis of a automobile the following components suitably mounted such as
1. Frame
2.Front axle
3. Steering system
4.Rear axle
5. Suspension system
6.Transmission system
7. Break system
8.Engine
9. Electrical system

Motor vehicle chassis with its suspension, exhaust system, and steering box
In the case of vehicles, the term chassis means the frame plus the "running gear" like engine,
transmission, driveshaft, differential, and suspension. A body (sometimes referred to as
"coachwork"), which is usually not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis
to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have chassis only, cowl and
chassis, as well as "cab and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies.
These include motor homes, fire engines, ambulances, box trucks, etc.

FRONT AXLE
Train wheels are affixed to a straight axle, such that both wheels rotate in unison. This is called a
wheelset.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in
position with a bearing or bushing sitting inside the hole in the wheel or gear to allow the wheel
or gear to rotate around the axle. In other cases the wheel or gear may be fixed to the axle, with
bearings or bushings provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. Sometimes,
especially on bicycles, the latter type is referred to as a spindle.
Vehicle axles
Axles are an integral structural component of a wheeled vehicle. The axles maintain the position
of the wheels relative to each other and to the vehicle body. Since for most vehicles the wheels
are the only part touching the ground, the axles must bear the weight of the vehicle plus any
cargo, as well as acceleration and braking forces. In addition to the structural purpose, axles may
serve one or more of the following purposes depending on the design of the vehicle.

Drive
One or more axles may be an integral part of the drivetrain. A mechanical system
(typically a motor) exerts a rotational force on the axle, which is transferred to the
wheel(s) to accelerate the vehicle.
Braking
Conversely a vehicle may be slowed by applying force to brake the rotation of the axle.
Consumer vehicles' brakes are part of the wheel assembly and therefore exert friction on
the wheels directly, but engine braking may still be effected via the axle.
Steering
The front axle of most automobiles is a steering axle. The vehicle is maneuvered by
controlling the direction of the front wheels' rotational axis relative to the body and rear
wheels.

STEERING

Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which will allow for a
vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car) to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of rail
transport by which rail tracks combined together with railroad switches provide the steering
function.
The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the front wheels using a handoperated
steering wheel which is positioned in front of the driver, via the steering column, which may
contain universal joints to allow it to deviate somewhat from a straight line. Other arrangements
are sometimes found on different types of vehicles, for example, a tiller or rearwheel steering.

Tracked vehicles such as tanks usually employ differential steering that is, the tracks are made
to move at different speeds or even in opposite directions to bring about a change of course.
RACK & PINION TYPE
Rack and pinion animation
Rack and pinion unit mounted in the cockpit of an Ariel Atom sports car chassis. For most high
volume production, this is usually mounted on the other side of this panel
Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering wheel turns the
The steering linkage connecting the steering box and the wheels usually conforms to a variation
of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a turn, the inner wheel is actually
traveling a path of smaller radius than the outer wheel, so that the degree of toe suitable for
driving in a straight path is not suitable for turns.
Power steering
As vehicles have become heavier and switched to front wheel drive, the effort to turn the steering
wheel manually has increased - often to the point where major physical exertion is required. To
alleviate this, auto makers have developed power steering systems. There are two types of power
steering systemshydraulic and electric/electronic. A hydraulic-electric hybrid system is also
possible.
A hydraulic power steering (HPS) uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump to
assist the motion of turning the steering wheel. Electric power steering (EPS) is more efficient
than the hydraulic power steering, since the electric power steering motor only needs to provide
assistance when the steering wheel is turned, whereas the hydraulic pump must run constantly. In
EPS the assist level is easily tunable to the vehicle type, road speed, and even driver preference.
An added benefit is the elimination of environmental hazard posed by leakage and disposal of
hydraulic power steering fluid.
Speed Adjustable Steering
An outgrowth of power steering is speed adjustable steering, where the steering is heavily
assisted at low speed and lightly assisted at high speed. The auto makers perceive that motorists
might need to make large steering inputs while manoeuvering for parking, but not while traveling
at high speed. The first vehicle with this feature was the Citron SM with its Diravi layout,
although rather than altering the amount of assistance as in modern power steering systems, it
altered the pressure on a centring cam which made the steering wheel try to "spring" back to the
straight-ahead position. Modern speed-adjustable power steering systems reduce the pressure fed
to the ram as the speed increases, giving a more direct feel. This feature is gradually becoming
commonplace across all new vehicles.

POWER UNIT

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer
(typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction
creates gases at high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. Internal
combustion engines are defined by the useful work that is performed by the expanding hot gases
acting directly to cause the movement of solid parts of the engine.
Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and
portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous since it can
provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy-density. Generally using
a petroleum called All-Petroleum Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles or APICEVs, these
engines have appeared in transport in almost all automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a
wide variety of aircraft and locomotives.
Combustion
All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the
reaction of a fuel, typically with oxygen from the airalthough other oxidizers such as nitrous
oxide may be employed. The combustion process typically results in the production of a great
quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at
very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the
fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry).
The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from
petroleum. These include the fuels known as dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer
use of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that
are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major
modifications. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel
that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some
engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas.

All internal combustion engines must achieve ignition in their cylinders to create combustion.
Typically engines use either a spark ignition (SI) method or a compression ignition (CI) system.
In the past, other methods using hot tubes or flames have been used.
Gasoline Ignition Process

Energy Efficiency
Once ignited and burnt, the combustion productshot gaseshave more available thermal
energy than the original compressed fuel-air mixture (which had higher chemical energy). The
available energy is manifested as high temperature and pressure that can be translated into work
by the engine. In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the
engine's pistons.
Once the available energy has been removed, the remaining hot gases are vented (often by
opening a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows the piston to return to its previous
position (top dead center, or TDC). The piston can then proceed to the next phase of its cycle,
which varies between engines. Any heat that isn't translated into work is normally considered a
waste product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system.
Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways but it usually involves a comparison of

Ignition system
An internal combustion engine can be classified by its ignition system. Today most engines use
an electrical or compression heating system for ignition. However, outside flame and hot-tube
systems have been used historically.
Compression
Ignition comes from the heat derived from oxidation and the mechanical compression of the air
or mixture. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is
mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes
from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity is more important
than fuel costs, use special fuels to control ignition timing.
Ignition Timing
For reciprocating engines, the point in the cycle at which the fuel-oxidizer mixture is ignited has
a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the idealized
Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a
high temperature, resulting from compressionnear top dead center. The speed of the flame
front is directly affected by the compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane or cetane
rating of the fuel. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly requiring more
advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front
(deflagration), not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called
detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or knocking.

Precaution during engine service


1.Hot engine part should be carefully handled.
2.Care should be exercised while taking out lubricating oil from the hot engine,
3.Be careful while removing radiator cap of a hot engine.
4.USE PROPER EQUIPMENT & methods to handle heavy components.
5.Engine mating surface should be handled with utmost care to avoid damage.
6.Electrical system re-connections must be done correctly.
7.Utmost care should be taken to maintain cleanliness of not only engine parts, but also the
entire service area. A small amount of dirt on a critical component may cause damage by
excessive friction, while slight spilling of a lubricating oil may result in injury by slipping.

Engine cooling
Engine cooling is cooling an engine, typically using either air or liquid.
Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water
wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are not

perfectly efficient, so more heat energy enters the engine than comes out as mechanical power;
the difference is waste heat and must be removed. Internal combustion engines remove waste
heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, and explicit engine cooling.
Cooling is also needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants.
Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting temperature of engine materials,
and hot enough to set fire to lubricants. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep
temperatures low so the engine can survive.
Some high-efficiency engines run without explicit cooling and with only accidental heat loss, a
design called adiabatic. For example, 10,000 mile-per-gallon "cars" for the Shell economy
challenge are insulated, both to transfer as much energy as possible from hot gases to mechanical
motion, and to reduce reheat losses when restarting. Such engines can achieve high efficiency
but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight, durability, and emissions.
Advantages

Oil has a higher boiling point than water, so it can be used to cool items 100C or higher
Oil is an electrical insulator, thus can be used inside of or in direct contact with electrical
components.

Lubrication Systems
Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation to allow moving parts to slide
smoothly over each other. Insufficient lubrication will subject the engine to rapid wear and
ultimately, it may even seize up entirely.
Several different types of lubrication systems are used. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated
by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. Early slow-speed
stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers similar to those
used on steam engines at the timewith an engine tender refilling these as needed. As engines
were adapted for automotive and aircraft use, the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to
increased speeds, higher temperatures, and greater pressure on bearings which in turn required
pressure-lubrication for crank bearings and connecting-rod journals. This was provided either by
a direct lubrication from a pump, or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the
connecting rod ends which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as the engine speed
increased.

Fuel injection system


Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. It has
become the primary system used in automotive engines, having almost completely replaced
carburetors in the late 1980s.
A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will
handle: gasoline (petrol), Autogas (LPG, also known as propane), ethanol, methanol, methane

(natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel
applications. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware
has become similar. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used
with multiple different fuels. For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to
meter fuel before the widespread use of fuel injection. However, a wide variety of injection
systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.
Engine operation
Operational benefits to the driver of a fuel-injected car include smoother and more dependable
engine response during quick throttle transitions, easier and more dependable engine starting,
better operation at extremely high or low ambient temperatures, increased maintenance intervals,
and increased fuel efficiency. On a more basic level, fuel injection does away with the choke
which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be operated when starting the engine from cold and
then adjusted as the engine warms up.
A multipoint fuel injection system generally delivers a more accurate and equal mass of fuel to
each cylinder than can a carburetor, thus improving the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution. Exhaust
emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the
concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine, and because exhaust cleanup
devices such as the catalytic converter can be optimized to operate more efficiently since the
exhaust is of consistent and predictable composition.

Multi-point fuel injection


Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of the cylinder's intake
valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold, referred to as SPFI, or single point
fuel injection. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to
coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke, batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in
groups, without precise synchronisation to any particular cylinder's intake stroke, or
Simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Clutches
A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged.
Clutches are useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is
typically driven by a motor or pulley, and the other shaft drives another device. In a drill,
forinstance, one shaft is driven by a motor, and the other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects
the two shafts so that they can either be locked together and spin at the same speed

Single plate friction clutch


This type of clutch is used almost exclusively in automobiles and trucks and has three main
parts:
1. Driving member
2. Driven member
3. Operating member
The clutch plate is lined with a friction material with the output shaft running through the center.
This type has the advantage of a lever that allows the operator to manually engage and disengage
the drive via the pressure plates. This type of clutch allows for a smooth take away and gear
changes.lot mix
Multiple plate friction clutch
This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved with several driven members. It is
used in motorcycles and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmission.
Vehicular
There are many different vehicle clutch designs but most are based on one or more friction discs,
pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. The friction material varies in
composition depending on whether the clutch is dry or wet, and on other considerations. Friction
discs once contained asbestos, but this has been largely eliminated. Clutches found in heavy duty
applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly
increased friction coefficient, however these have a "grabby" action and are unsuitable for road
cars. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or
pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate, depending on type, and the friction plate is released
and allowed to rotate freely.

WET & DRY CLUTCH


A 'wet clutch' is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid, which also keeps the surfaces clean and
gives smoother performance and longer life. Wet clutches, however, tend to lose some energy to
the liquid. A 'dry clutch', as the name implies, is not bathed in fluid. Since the surfaces of a wet
clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil), stacking multiple clutch
disks can compensate for slippage.

GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY


Transmission (mechanics)
Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horsepowered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, milling, and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes either reduce an unsuitable high speed and low torque of the prime
mover output shaft to a more stable lower speed with higher torque, or do the opposite and
provide a mechanical advantage (i.e increase in torque) to allow higher forces to be generated.
Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the physical direction in which power is
transmitted.

UNIVERSAL JOINT

U joint, Cardan joint, Hardy-Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the
rod to 'bend' in any direction, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.
It consists of a pair of ordinary hinges located close together, but oriented at 90 relative to
each other.
History
The main concept of the universal joint is based on the design of gimbals, which have been in
use since antiquity. One anticipation of the universal joint was its use by the Ancient Greeks on
ballistae. The first person known to have suggested its use for transmitting motive power was
Gerolamo Cardano, an Italian mathematician, in 1545, although it is unclear whether he
produced a working model. Christopher Polhem later reinvented it and it was called "Polhem
knot". In Europe, the device is often called the Cardan joint or Cardan shaft. Robert Hooke
produced a working universal joint in 1676, giving rise to an alternative name, the Hooke's joint.
Though the first use of the name universal joint is sometimes attributed to American car
manufacturer Henry Ford, the term appeared in patent documents as early as 1884 when Charles
H. Amidon was awarded United States Letters Patent No. 298,542 for a bit brace.
The configuration of the universal joint can be specified by three variables:

1 The angle of rotation of axle 1


2 The angle of rotation of axle 2
The angle of the axles with respect to each other, zero being parallel, or straight
through.

PROPELLER SHAFT
A driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical device for
transferring power from the engine or motor to the point where useful work is applied. Most
engines or motors deliver power as torque through rotary motion: this is extracted from the linear
motion of pistons in a reciprocating engine; water driving a water wheel; or forced gas or waterin
a turbine. From the point of delivery, the components of power transmission form the drive train.
Driveshafts are carriers of torque: they are subject to torsion and shear stress, which represents
the difference between the input force and the load. They thus need to be strong enough to bear
the stress, without imposing too great an additional inertia by virtue of the weight of the shaft.

Most automobiles today use rigid driveshafts to deliver power from a transmission to the wheels.
A pair of short driveshafts is commonly used to send power from a central differential,
transmission, or transaxle to the wheels.
Early automobiles often used chain drive or belt drive mechanisms rather than a driveshaft.
Some used electrical generators and motors to transmit power to the wheels.
In British English, the term "driveshaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft which transmits power

DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBALY
An epicyclic differential uses epicyclic gears to split torque asymmetrically between the front
and rear axles. An epicyclic differential is at the heart of the Toyota Prius automotive drive train,
where it interconnects the engine, motor-generators, and the drive wheels (which have a second
differential for splitting torque as usual). It has the advantage of being relatively compact along
the length of its axis (that is, the sun gear shaft).

In the image, the yellow shaft carries the sun gear, which is gray and almost hidden. The blue
gears are called planetary gears.
Epicyclic gearing is used here to split torque asymmetrically.The input shaft is the green hollow
one, the yellow is the low torque output and the pink is the high torque output. The force applied
in the yellow and the pink gears is the same, but since the arm of the pink one is 2x-3x bigger the
torque will be 2x-3x higher.

SUSPENTION SYSTEM
Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that
connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose contributing to the
car's handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle
occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations.

These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right
compromise. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from
damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different.

WHEEL & TYRES


A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating movement or
transportation whilst supporting a load (mass), or performing labour in machines. A wheel,
together with an axle overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. In order for wheels to
rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity, or by
application of another external force. Common examples are found in transport applications.
More generally the term is also used for other circular objects that rotate or turn, such as a Ship's
wheel, steering wheel and flywheel.
.Mechanics and function
The wheel is a device that enables efficient movement of an object across a surface where there