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Teachers especially working at university level are under a great deal of stress related to various
occupational stressors. Occupational stressors contribute to organizational inefficiency, high staff
turnover, absenteeism due to sickness, decreased quality, and quantity of practice, increased costs
of health care, and decreased job satisfaction. When there is a prolonged experience of
occupational stress, it leads to professional burnout.
This increase negative orientation to work is probable due to the fact that man no longer finds
meaning or a sense of him/herself in the community or as Freud (1962) ones suggested, but
which does not seen to exist today, his work at least gives him a secure place in a portion of
reality in the human community. It is because of the dramatic changes that have taken place in
society over the last decade or two that work and life stress have become more immediate
focal points of interest. This interest has reflected itself in an ever increasing research
orientation into occupational stress, the impact of life events, stress with a burgeoning and
desperate range of investigations being undertaken into the sources and manifestation of stress, it
was felt that we should step back and reflect on what should or needs to be done, that is to
focus on priorities or issues or problem areas of importance
The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers. The
study was carried out via online questionnaire and includes a representative sample of 60
professors employed by Mumbai University. This included all teaching positions. Fifty-seven
percent of the samples were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own
design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at
work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organization, and social
recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Full professors, reported lower
exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.

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Todays life is full of challenges. In everyday life we come across many situations. The
work of a teacher is a physically and mentally challenging. A teacher needs to use a lot of
energy in his daily chores in the classroom coupled with his personal and family commitments.
This trend which is a routine for a teacher forwards a lot of stress to the teacher. More than
ever before work is not seen as the root of infinite satisfaction and fulfillment, but rather a
source of stress, discontentment and humiliation.
The work of university teachers has largely changed recently. Thorsen was among the first to
observe that the occupation of academics had lost the characteristics for which it was
traditionally considered stress-free and beneficial for work well-being and he determined that
the quantity of work rather than its quality had become a source of stress for the members of the
academic community. In recent years, many other authors have confirmed this increasing
pressure on university teachers, which is a result of a change in the policy and social status of
higher education. The growing number of students and teachers and stronger connections with
industry make the academic community less isolated and elite and the working conditions at
universities are becoming similar to those of other professions.
By all definitions the profession of teaching has a very prestigious place in all professions. A
teacher is a kingpin in the entire system of education. Almost all cultures of the civilized world
have considered their teachers in a very high esteem. They are very often been given names
like Master Mentor and Guru. To achieve this status teachers throughout the history of
civilization have come up to the expectations of the world around them. Most thinkers and
philosophers of the past who are still remembered are because they had their disciples and
The globalization and privatization of the education system in different countries and in India
forced the higher education to be more competent so as to produce the stakeholders with better
knowledge, accommodativeness, skills and competencies which are essential for survival in the
world market. In tune with this, the Indian higher education system had undergone rapid

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changes in terms of expansion, privatization, commercialization, curricular reforms and

Innovations. These changes have challenged the universities in terms of quality education,
shortage of faculty of high caliber, ineffective teaching methods, outmoded curricular and
evaluation system, lack of appropriate reading materials, poor infrastructure facilities, faulty
administration, faculty admission criteria, inability to attract and retain talented minds and
absence of academically conducive atmosphere.
Further, the increasing role played by latest knowledge, skills, innovation and research in
economic growth and development, the emergence of the information society and the need for
quality education results in increased pressure on the higher education system and teachers in
particular. These factors in-turn adversely affects the quality of our higher education system and
creates various stressors and strain in teachers which further deteriorates their performance.
Continuous stress leads to strain which in turn make the individual to burnout in their workplace
which further brings in job dissatisfaction.
Occupational stress is defined in different ways over the years. In the Guidance on Work-related
Stress issued by the European Commission in 2002, work-related stress is defined as a
pattern of emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physiological reactions to adverse and
noxious aspects of work content, work organization and work environment, the main emphasis
is on the workplace as the source of stress.
The United States National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, on the other hand, in
its 1999 publication entitled Stress at Work, defines work-related stress as the harmful
physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the
capabilities, resources or needs of the worker, and expresses the view that working conditions
are a primary factor, but that personal factors are also influential. Thus, by considering the
purpose of the present study, the investigators refers university teachers occupational stress
as a negative emotional state experienced by them out of

challenged organizational

structure and climate, inadequate personal and professional efficiency, strained intra and
interpersonal interactions and, environmental factors existing within the university in
which they are working.

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For the purpose of the study, the investigator randomly selected 60 professors with
specialization. All the teachers working in the faculties of Commerce and Science in the
sample universities were professors taken as the sample of the study. There is much scope for
future research by developing for example a comparative analysis of public and private sector
universities. In addition, cross-cultural dimensions can also be taken into consideration while
studying various facets of ORS contributing to stress and burnout faced by academic staff in
different countries.

Furthermore other variables such as coping behaviors or social support could be included as
moderating variables. The relationship between job stress, coping skills and performance could
also be analyzed with reference to different types of teaching (technical and non technical) and
different types of universities (aided and self-aided). In future studies, the study could be
extended to non-academic staffs that have a lower salary, fewer opportunities for professional
growth and receive less respect than academic staff.

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2.1 Literature Review

Occupational stress is one of the largely discussed areas by various educationists, researchers,
psychiatrists, physicians and management gurus. They have highlighted different sources and
symptoms of stress faced by various professionals. Blip et al. (1994) in their research on
occupational stress among university teachers found out that two third of the university
faculty reported that they perceived job stress at least half of the scheduled time. Faculty also
expressed burnout, health problems caused by job stress, decreased work output, low capacity
to manage the work stress and basis of job change. According to Blix et al., over workload is
one of the most frequently quoted reasons for considering job change? Female teachers
reported more tendencies to consider job change due to work stress. Research related activities
described to be more stressful than either teaching or service.
Slicskovic and Sersic (2011): Conduct a research on work stress, they found that teachers in
higher education are exposed to high level of occupational stress, middle positions and women
in particular.
Kousar, Fatima and Bashir (2004) conducted a study of stress management strategies adopted
by elementary school principals. The study identified that job-related stress has negative impact
on the personality of elementary school heads. The study also revealed that female school
administrators take more stress as compared to male heads. Male teachers having support of
their staff members can easily manage stress as compare to female heads. The results also show
that workload is the major cause of stress, and male heads can better manage their stress as
compared to female heads.
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Mondel, Shreshtha and Bhaila (2011): Conduct a study on Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of the
teacher of the school and they found that teachers were party satisfied with responsibility for
their worker relationship. They had with students and the work itself. But they need some more
support and recognition from the institution or management. The participating school teachers
were experiencing mild to moderate stress from their job overall.

Among the sources of teachers stress identified by research, student discipline problems,
student apathy, lack of time management, paper work, unclear administrative expectations and
lack of cooperation among teachers have been mentioned frequently (Glasser, 1986, as cited in
Duke, 1990). Arnold and Feldman (1986.p.461) explored number of potential sources of job
stress experienced by different persons.

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Among the three major source of stress include:

1) Role under load, role overload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and job characteristics;
2) To deal with people in other organizational and departments climate, amount of contact

others, and interpersonal relationships;

3) Rate of life change, geographical mobility, career concerns, and personal factors.
Stress is an unavoidable characteristic of life and work. In any job, there are wide variety of
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potential causes of stress, some of which are common to both men and women, and others are
specific to each group. Occupational stress describes physical, mental and emotional wear and
tear brought about by incongruence between the requirement of job and capabilities, resources
and needs of the employee to cope with job demands (Akinboye et al., 2002).
The word coping has been used mainly with two meaning- ways of dealing stress and the effort
to master harmful conditions, heat or challenge (Pareek,1997).
Successful individuals demonstrate exceptionally effective interpersonal skills. Above and
beyond their technical expertise, they are adept at positively influencing other people. In the
work place this means understanding the underlying motivations of others, their thoughts and
feelings, communicating effectively about these, which includes giving and receiving the
effective feedback and enrolling people in doing what needs to be done with minimal stress,
conflict and resistance.


Percentage Response

Not doing the kind of work, I


want to
Coping with current job


Working too hard


Colleagues at work


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3.1 Impact of stress on performance:
How does Stress Affect Performance?

The relationship between stress and performance has been portrayed by the stress
response curve created by Nixon P. in 1979. In addition, pressure, an important stressor,
has also a crucial influence on an individual's response to stress.
One of the most noticeable effects of stress in ones life is the changes in his performance.
While we can easily recognize the consequences of normal or excessive amounts of stress
through mere observation, its best to learn about the scientific relationship between stress and

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The Stress Response Curve

To better understand the effects of stress to performance, Nixon, P. (1979) created the following
graph of the stress performance curve explaining how stress affects performance in theoretical


Figure 1: The Stress Response Curve

The curve shows that as the level of stress increases, the performance level also increases, to the
point of eustress, or healthy tension. Near the point of fatigue, an identified area called the
Comfort Zone indicates the range of stress levels that we can absolutely manage and facilitates
good performance levels.
As stress begins to be perceived as overwhelming or excessive, the person reaches a fatigue
point wherein the performance levels starts to decline. The ultimate end of overwhelming stress,
called burnout, can be exhaustion, ill-health or breakdown.

Positive Effects
As shown by the graph, performance levels increase when stress management is effective.
Stressors such as pressure and demands can facilitate better stress response and thus, higher
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levels of performance. For instance, a basketball player tries to run faster, shoot a three-point
shot and succeeds in it because of the pressure he has obtained from the audience, the close
scores and the tough opponents.
Another example is the short but adequate deadline given to an employee, which motivates and
encourages her to work actively and efficiently on the project assigned to her. Yet another
instance is an approaching major examination which leads a college student to double time on
studying and reviewing of lessons.

Negative Effects
When stress is perceived as uncontrollable or unmanageable, the person begins to experience a
gradual to drastic decrease in performance levels, causing a decline in productivity and
enthusiasm to respond to the stress.
For instance, a very tight deadline is given to an office employee who has to take care of her
four children at home and a sick mother at the hospital. This overwhelming mix of situations, if
not managed carefully and totally, will result to a poor performance at work, bad relationships
with other members of the family, ill health, and burnout.

Pressure and Performance

Pressure, one of the significant life stressors, affects performance, as shown by the Inverted
graph below, which was created by Robert Yerkes and John Dodson in 1908.

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Figure 2: The Inverted-U Model or the Yerkes-Dodson Law

Looking at the left side of the graph, you will notice that low pressure or low levels of stress
results to s persons stress response as boredom or unchallenging. Even if the task is of great
important, in the absence of an appropriate level of pressure, attention and concentration to
perform the task are significantly low.
On the other hand, extreme levels of pressure doesnt mean high performance levels; rather, its
the same as the result from low pressure low performance levels due to unhappiness or
negative feelings due to overwhelming stress.
However, theres a region called the area of best performance. In this region, moderate
pressure resulting to optimum stress or stress that is totally manageable leads to the highest
level of performance.

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Stressors like workload, people issues, lack of work/life balance and job insecurity can cause a
dip in productivity at work, according to ComPsychs 2012 Stress Pulse survey.

Effect of stress on daily productivity

41% lose 15 to 30 minutes of productivity a day
36% lose one hour or more each day
23% report their productivity is not affected by

Effect of stress on attendance

55% miss one or two days a year to stress
29% miss three to six days a year
16% miss more than six days a year

Effect of stress on effectiveness

46% come to work one to four days per year when too stressed to be effective
30% show up that way five or more days per year
24% say stress does not influence their effectiveness

Effect of personal tasks on daily productivity

41% lose less than 30 minutes a day to personal tasks
40% lose 30 minutes a day

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19% lose more than an hour a day

3.2 Stress Management

What is stress management?
Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demands made upon it. It is the result
of our reaction to outside events, not necessarily the events themselves.
Not all stress is bad. We each function best and feel best at our own optimal level of
physiological arousal. We need some stress to get everyday things done. Too little can lead to
boredom and "rust out" - but too much can produce "burn out".
Adaptive stress helps us rise to life's challenges. Adrenaline, nor-adrenaline and glucose flow
into our blood: we get a buzz of energy and feel alert, focused, and creative. Negative stress
occurs when our ability to cope with life's demands crumbles. If we don't break down the stress
chemicals (e.g. through physical activity) they stay in the blood, preventing us from relaxing.
Eventually this results in a permanent state of stress. That initial buzz turns to worry, irritability
or panic. Challenges become threats; we doubt our ability to do even simple things and
problems appear insurmountable.

How to identify the sources of stress in your life?

Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life. This isnt as
easy as it sounds.
Your true sources of stress arent always obvious, and its all too easy to overlook your
own stress-inducing thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

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Sure, you may know that youre constantly worried about work deadlines. But maybe its
your procrastination, rather than the actual job demands, that leads to deadline stress.
To identify your true sources of stress, look closely at your habits, attitude, and excuses:

Do you explain away stress as temporary (I just have a million things going on
right now) even though you cant remember the last time you took a breather

Do you define stress as an integral part of your work or home life (Things are
always crazy around here) or as a part of your personality (I have a lot of nervous
energy, thats all).

Do you blame your stress on other people or outside events, or view it as entirely
normal and unexceptional?

Until you accept responsibility for the role you play in creating or maintaining it, your
stress level will remain outside your control. While unchecked stress is undeniably
damaging, there are many things you can do to reduce its impact and cope with
First of all you have to learn how to manage your stress. As you may feel like the stress in
your life is out of your control, but you can always control the way you respond.
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Managing stress is all about taking charge of your thoughts, your emotions, your









problems. Stress

management involves changing the stressful situation when you can, changing your
reaction when you cant, taking care of yourself, and making time for rest and relaxation.
There are various techniques for relieving or managing stress in your life.

3.3 Stress Management Techniques

1. Organize Yourself.
Take better control of the way you're spending your time and energy so you can handle stress
more effectively.

2. Control Your Environment by controlling who and what is surrounding

In this way, you can either get rid of stress or get support for yourself.

3. Love yourself by giving yourself positive feedback.

Remember, you are a unique individual who is doing the best you can.

4. Reward yourself by planning leisure activities into your life.

It really helps to have something to look forward to.
5. Exercise Your Body since your health and productivity depend upon your

body's ability to bring oxygen and food to its cells.

Therefore, exercise your heart and lungs regularly, a minimum of three days per week for 15-30
minutes. This includes such activities as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics, etc.

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6. Relax yourself by taking your mind off your stress and concentrating on

breathing and positive thoughts.

Dreaming counts, along with meditation, progressive relaxation, exercise, listening to relaxing
music, communicating with friends and loved ones, etc.

7. Rest yourself as regularly as possible.

Sleep 7-8 hours a night. Take study breaks. There is only so much your mind can absorb at one
time. It needs time to process and integrate information. A general rule of thumb: take a ten
minute break every hour. Rest your eyes as well as your mind.

8. Be Aware of You.
Be aware of distress signals such as insomnia, headaches, anxiety, upset stomach, lack of
concentration, colds/flu, excessive tiredness, etc. Remember, these can be signs of potentially
more serious disorders (i.e., ulcers, hypertension, and heart disease).

9. Feed Yourself / Do Not Poison Your Body.

Eat a balanced diet. Avoid high calorie foods that are high in fats and sugar. Don't depend on
drugs and/or alcohol. Caffeine will keep you awake, but it also makes it harder for some to
concentrate. Remember, a twenty minute walk has been proven to be a better tranquilizer than
some prescription drugs.
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10. Enjoy Yourself.

It has been shown that happier people tend to live longer, have less physical problems, and are
more productive. Look for the humor in life when things don't make sense. Remember, you are
very special and deserve only the best treatment from yourself.

4.1 Analysis of the study

Following is the analysis done on the basis of responses for individual questions, received from
a sample size of sixty Professors teaching at degree college level at Mumbai University.

Table No. 5.1

Q1. Do you suffer from any of the following?

Neck ache
Inability to



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Table No. 5.2

Q2. Do you find any of the following cause problems?




Shift work




Inadequate break













Very heavy work
Job insecurity

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Chart No. 5.3

Q3. Do you feel you are under paid?









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Chart No. 5.4

Q4. Do you feel you are undervalued?





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Chart No. 5.5

Q5. Do you feel you receive appreciation at work?

Get Appreciation




Chart No. 5.6

Q6. Balance between work and home life is just about right.

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Work-Life Balance

strongly agree


Q7. What are the main causes of stress?

The causes respondents stated are as below:

Too much workload

Lack of exercise
Improper planning
Time limit
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Sudden rush of work

Q8. Steps you can think could be taken to ease stress?

The measures respondents think, are likely to reduce stress are:

Indulging into hobbies

Join yoga sessions
Stress management workshops and seminars
Prioritizing work one work at a time
Division of work
Vacation packages
Increase social bonding

4.2 Implications of the study

As majority of the university teachers are experiencing stress due to organizational structure
and climate, it is paving way to follow stress reduction interventions. The interventions like
changing the work environment will reduce the stressors arising out of the organizational
structure and climate of the university departments in which the teachers are working. Also, the
university teachers are challenged with work overload. This may be because of understaffing. It
is observed that in many of the State and Central universities in India, 40 percent of the
teaching posts are vacant and are not filled.

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This can be checked out by filling up the vacancies in the university departments and
recruiting adequate supportive staff. Further, the university administration should provide
adequate facilities to carry out the teaching-learning and research activities. Moreover, the
university administration and head of the respective departments should involve the staff during
decision making process and supervisory activities must be supportive to discharge the
responsibilities of junior staff than showing authority over them. In addition, opportunities for
promotion and career development shall be arranged. Similarly, the rules and regulations should
be relaxed to promote autonomy in workplace. Objectivity and transparency should be observed
in staff selections and promotions so as to develop work ethics, which is one of the essential
aspects to reduce stress among the staff at the universities in India.
Several researches has been conducted to reduce stress in teachers such as
introduction of stress management programmers, say for example emotional intelligence
training which helps the teachers to be

self aware of the abilities and skills required for the

range of roles, responsibilities and demands of their work, manage emotional reactions to
specific situations and people, accurately pick-up on emotions in other people and react to
others emotions and understanding others needs and, socially skilled enough to use awareness
of ones own emotions and the emotions of others to manage interactions successfully.
Also, Steel (2001) suggested for introducing staff support for teachers through supervision in
the field of education. Supervision in other helping professions has been successful in providing
support, changing perceptions, managing emotions and coping with stressful situations and in
so doing has improved relationships with others and work performance.
In addition to these, the cognitive behavioral programmed to enhance teacher stress
management shall be taught to overcome stress. In this technique, the individual is encouraged
to reappraise or restructure the stressful situations so that they are no longer stressful by
removing cognitive distortion such as over-generalizing, magnifying and personalization and
introducing assertiveness training (Travers and Cooper, 1996). Further, the Employee
Assistance Programs or Counseling Services shall be adopted by the university administration
apart from organizing yoga classes and sports activities regularly to reduce the stressors in
university teachers.
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With regard to the professional burnout, the majority of the university teachers are experiencing
moderate and high levels of burnout. For this, the university should develop mechanisms to
detect the stressors causing strain in university teachers. Further, in order to reduce professional
burnout, Green glass and Burke (2003) suggested for social support, where it is seen as the
exchange of information leading a person to believe that he /she is cared for. It can also involve
provision of information, tangible, practical and for emotional help. Social support may also
moderate the impact of stressors on burnout so as to assist people with high stress to cope
Thus the colleagues and the head of the department should be motivated to support the
teachers adequately in their teaching and research activities in order to reduce burnout. Further,
the administration should be supportive and facilitative than authoritative. Also, low selfefficacy is a central factor in the etiology of burnout (Cheeriness, 1990). High self-efficacy was
associated with lower emotional exhaustion, less cynicism, less depression and anxiety (Green
glass and Burke, 2000). Thus there is a need to improve the self-efficacy of the university
teachers which acts as a personal resource, reflects the persons optimistic self-beliefs about
being able to deal with critical demands by means of adaptive actions. It can also be regarded as
an optimistic view of ones capacity to deal with stress (Green glass and Burke, 2003).
In order to reduce burnout caused due to reduced personal accomplishment, the university
teachers should be motivated to set goals and should be supported to achieve the goal. The work
should be allotted in such a manner that suits to their skill and interest which will give scope to
accomplish the task which in-turn will improves their optimistic behavior. Also, involving

university teachers


group discussions and decision making process will enhance

their social interaction which will lead to accomplish the task allotted.

Further, the results revealed significant positive relationship between occupational

Stress and professional burnout. Thus to prevent professional burnout of the university teachers,
their occupational stress should be checked from time to time. Also, occupational stress has
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Predicted the professional burnout of the university teachers which once again recommend the
policy makers, national bodies, university administrators & teachers and researchers to work
towards managing the stressors causing prolonged stress in university teachers which in turn
prevent their burnout.

5.1 Suggestions

To combat stress from university managements end:

Professors should receive motivation for their work

Professors should be allotted work in such a manner that suits their interest and skills
Periodical leaves should be given
Recreational activities may be conducted at work
Workshops should be arranged for stress and time management
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Workshops should be conducted to polish their skills and to keep them updated with recent

trends in teaching
Working environment should be good
Frequent meeting should take place between top management and professors so their
problems are addressed on time

To combat stress from Professors end:

Professors should indulge into hobbies at free time

Routine exercise is suggested for proper blood circulation
Planning and prioritizing work will be of great help
Yoga and meditation for relaxation of mind
Socializing and enjoying life to its fullest
Keep realistic goals

Annexure: Case study





The study on factors influencing stress and coping strategies was conducted on a random
sample of 200 (100 each of male and female) degree college teachers of Dharma city.
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Questionnaire for Demographic characteristic and Coping Strategies were used along with
Employment Organization Sources of Stressors scale (Telaprolu and George, 2005). Frequency,
percentage, t-test, correlation and step wise regression were used for analysis. The factors that
caused stress always were mainly due to the interference of the employment organizational
responsibilities with their family organizational role, lack of their involvement in decision
making that reduced their responsibilities and the participatory model in their organizational set
up which enhanced their responsibilities to the point of exhaustion. Majority of the teachers
revealed that stress was basically due to their laziness and also they were happy with fewer
responsibilities. The overall results of stress level revealed that, higher percentage of teachers
was in low stress category.
Gender wise significant difference was obsevered in case of personal development
stressor and inter-personal relation stressors, while it was no significant in case of work, role and
organizational climate stressors. Age was the influencing factor on the total stressors which was
statistically highly significant. Keeping ready well ahead, taking rest, avoiding strenuous posture,
taking balanced diet, walking, using sleeping pills and hot water therapy were practiced by the
teachers when they were physically stressed. Offering prayer, positive thinking, working ingroup, avoiding painful reminders, delegating the tasks and listening songs were practiced when
they were mentally stressed. There was no significant gender difference found with respect to
physical stress management where as it was significant in case of mental stress management

Study of Occupational Stress among Degree
College Professors
Confidential Questionnaire Stress Survey
Name *
Gender *
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1. Do you suffer from any of the following?

Please tick the appropriate box.




Neck ache
Inability to

2. Do you find any of the following cause problems?

Please tick the appropriate box.

Shift work

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Very heavy
g work
Job insecurity
3. Do you feel you?
Please tick the appropriate box.




Are underpaid
Are undervalued
appreciation for
good work

4. The balance between work and home life is about right

Please tick the appropriate box.

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Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
5. Please list below what you feel are:
(a) The main cause of stress in your job?

(c) The steps you think could be taken to ease the situation.

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5.3 Conclusion
Stress is common for all organizations which play a vital role in developing economy of our
country and lives of the people. Among those organizations, the educational institutions face
more problems, due to teachers stresses. Teachers, they are the backbone of our country. They
produce great leaders that can change the fate of our country. Now-a-days, stress among school
teachers is becoming popular.

The result of occupational stress gives some negative effects, viz., absent- theism, teachers
turnover, illness and early retirement. In order to reduce the stress factor job satisfaction, job
security and proper environment should be given to them. In order to produce their output and
also to make their duty perfectly, they should be away from stress factors. The study can be
taken as a guide for further improvement and strategies can be changed and developed as the
environment is dynamic.

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5.4 Bibliography

Jayashree Nayak (July 2008) : factors influencing stress and

coping strategies among the degree college teachers of dharwad
city, karnataka
Dhrub Kumar (February 2011) special issue, 78-85 : Stress and
Work life of College Teachers
Surinder Kaur (2001) : Study of Occupational Stress among
Degree College Teachers in Rajasthan, Singhania University,
Muhammad Umair Manzoor , Muhammad Usman ,Muhammad
Akram Naseem, Malik Muhammad Shafiq (September 2011)
: A study on job satisfaction among universities faculty, Pakistan
A.Q CHAUDHARY( June 2013): Analysis of occupational stress
of university faculty to improve the quality of their work,
university of punjab
Books :
Relieving Classroom Stress: A Teacher's Survival Guide
Teachers Managing Stress and Preventing Burnout
Teacher Stress Tips

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