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Yarn testing in short

Yarn occupies intermediate position in manufacture of fabric from raw material. Yarn results are
therefore essential, both for estimating quality of raw material & for controlling quality of fabric
produced. The important characteristics of yarn being tested are,

Yarn twist
Linear density
Yarn strength
Yarn elongation
Yarn evenness
Yarn hairiness etc.

In order that results obtained are reproducible & give reliable information about material, sampling
must be true and representative of bulk lot. Sampling procedure should be designed to take account of
& to minimize known sources of variability such as variation between spindles, variation along length
of bobbin, etc. procedure for sampling & number of test carried out are given under each characteristic.

Ambient conditions for yarn testing:

Some textile fibres are highly hygroscopic & their properties change notably as a function of moisture
content. Moisture content is particularly critical in case of properties, i.e. yarn tenacity, elongation, yarn
evenness, imperfections, count etc. Therefore conditioning & testing must be carried out under constant
standard atmospheric conditions. standard atmosphere for textile testing involves a temperature of
20+-2o C, & 65+-2% RH. In tropical regions, maintaining a temperature of 27+-2o C, 65+-2%RH is
legitimate. Prior to testing, samples must be conditioned under constant standard atmospheric to attain
moisture equilibrium. To achieve this it requires at least 24 hours.

"Twist is defined as spiral disposition of components of yarn, which is generally expressed
as the number of turns per unit length of yarn, e.g. turns per inch, turns per meter, etc.
Twist is essential to keep the component fibres together in a yarn.
Strength, dyeing, finishing properties, feel of finished product etc. are all dependent on twist in yarn.
With increase in twist, yarn strength increases first, reaches a maximum and then decreases.
Depending on end use, two or more single yarns are twisted together to form "plied yarns"
orfolded yarns" and a number of plied yarns twisted together to form "cabled yarn".
Among plied yarns, the most commonly used are doubled yarns, wherein two single yarns of
identical twist are twisted together in a direction opposite to that of the single yarns.
Thus for cabled & plied yarns, direction of twist & number of turns per unit length of
resultant yarn as well as of each component have to be determined for a detailed analysis.
Direction of twist is expressed as "S"-Twist or "Z"-Twist. Direction depends upon direction of
rotation of twisting element.
Twist take up is defined as, "decrease in length of yarn on twisting, expressed as a percentage
of the length of yarn before twisting.

Yarn testing in short

Compiled by: M. Rezaul Karim Tutul

Linear density or count of yarn:

The fineness of the yarn is usually expressed in terms of its linear density or count.

There are a number of systems & units for expressing yarn fineness. But they are classified as follows

Direct system:
1. English count(Ne)
2. Metric count(Nm)
3. French count(Nf)

Indirect system:
1. Tex
2. Denier

Ne : No of 840 yards yarn weighing in One pound

Nm : No of one kilometer yarn weighing in One Kilogram
Nf : No of one kilometer yarn weighing in 0.5 kilogram
Tex : Weight in grams of 1000 meter(1 kilometer) yarn
Denier: Weight in grams of 9000 meter(9 kilometer) yarn

For determination of count of yarn, it is necessary to determine weight of a known length

of yarn. For taking out known lengths of yarns, a wrap-reel is used. Length of yarn reeled off
depends upon the count system used.

Another factor which determines length of yarn taken for testing is type of balance used. Some
balances like quadrant balance, Beesley's balance have been specially designed to indicate yarn
count directly from tests on specified short lengths of yarn & are very useful for determining
counts of yarn removed from fabrics. minimum accuracy of balance required is 0.001mg

One of the most important requirements for a spinner is to maintain average count & count
variation within control. Term count variation is generally used to express variation in weight
of a lea & this is expressed as C.V%. This is affected by number of samples & length being
considered for count checking. While assessing count variation, it is very important to test
adequate number of leas. After reeling appropriate length of yarn, yarn is conditioned in
standard atmosphere for testing before its weight is determined.

The minimum number of sample required per count is 20 and per machine is 2.

Yarn strength and elongation:

Breaking strength, elongation, elastic modulus, resistance abrasion etc are some important
factors which will represent performance of yarn during actual use or further processing.
Strength testing is broadly classified into two methods
1. Single end strength testing

Yarn testing in short

Compiled by: M. Rezaul Karim Tutul

2. Skein strength or lea strength

Tensile strength of single strands of yarn:

During routine testing, both breaking load and extension of yarn at break are usually recorded
for assessing yarn quality. Most of instruments record the load-elongation diagram also.
Various parameters such as initial elastic modulus, yield point, tenacity or elongation at any
stress or strain, breaking load, breaking extension etc can be obtained from load-extension diagram.
Two types of strengths can be determined for a yarn
1. Tensile strength -load is applied gradually
2. Ballistic strength - applying load under rapid impact conditions
Tensile strength tests are the most common tests and these are carried out using either a single
strand or a skein containing a definite number of strands as the test specimen.
An important factor which affects test results is length of specimen actually used for carrying out
test. Strength of a test specimen is limited by that of the weakest link in it. If test specimen is
longer, it is likely to contain more weak spots, than a shorter test specimen. Hence test results
will be different for different test lengths due to the weak spots.
Amount of moisture in yarn also influences test results. Cotton yarn when fully wet show
higher strength than when dry, while opposite is case with viscose rayon yarns. Hence, to
eliminate effect of variation due to moisture content of yarn, all yarn strength tests are carried
out, after conditioning in a room where the standard atmospheric condition is maintained.
Rate of loading as determined by "time-to-break", which is time interval between
commencement of application of load & rupture of yarn, is an important factor, which
determines strength value recorded by using any instrument. Same specimen will show a
lower strength when the time-to-break is high, or higher when the time-to-break is low.
Instruments used for determining tensile strength are classified into three groups, based on the
principle of working.
o CRT - Constant rate of traverse
o CRE - Constant rate of extension
o CRL - Constant rate of loading
In instruments of CRE type, application of load is made in such a way that rate of elongation
of specimen is kept constant. In instruments of CRL type, application of load is made in such a
way that rate of loading is constant throughout duration of test. This type of instruments is
usually preferred for accurate scientific work. In CRE & CRL types of instruments, it is easy to
adjust "time-to-break" while this adjustment is not easy in CRT types of instruments.
Uster Tensorapid applies CRE principle of tensile testing. Constant Rate of Extension describes
simple fact that moving clamp is displaced at a constant velocity. As a result, specimen between
stationary & moving clamp is extended by a constant distance per unit of time & force required
to do so is measured. Apart from single values, this instrument also calculates mean value coefficient
of variation & 95% confidence range of maximum force, tenacity, elongation and work done
Total coefficient of variation describes overall variability of a tested lot, i.e. within-sample
variation plus between-sample variation. If 20 individual single-end tensile tests are performed
on each of ten bobbins or packages in a sample lot, total coefficient of variation is calculated from
the pooled data of the total number of tests that were carried out.
In tensorapid, breaking tenacity is calculated from peak force which occurs anywhere
between beginning of test & final rupture of specimen. Peak force or maximum force is not
identical with force measured at very moment of rupture. Breaking elongation is calculated from

Yarn testing in short

Compiled by: M. Rezaul Karim Tutul

clamp displacement at point of peak force. Elongation at peak force is no identical with
elongation at very moment of rupture (elongation at rupture).
Work to break is defined as area below stress/strain curve drawn to point of peak force &
corresponding elongation at peak force. Work at point of peak force is not identical with work at
very moment of rupture. To compare tensorapid test results with other results,

a measurement must be performed according the CRE princple

testing speed must be exactly 5 m/min
the gauge length or the length of the specimen should be 500 mm
the pretension should be 0.5 cN/tex

There are two fundamental criteria which affect compatibility between different measurements
of tensile yarn properties.
1. Testing conditions, i.e. testing principle (CRE, CRL), testing speed, gauge length, & pre-tensioning.
2. Second criteria, which also affects magnitude of differences, relates to specific stress/strain
characteristic of yarn itself, which is determined by fibrous materials, blend ratio, & yarn construction.

Skein strength or Lea strength:

Skein breaking strength was the most widely used measure of yarn quality in cotton textile industry.
Measurement of yarn quality by this method has certain drawbacks. Firstly, in most of subsequent
processing, such as winding, warping or weaving, yarn is used as single strand & not in form of a skein
except occasionally when sizing, bleaching, mercerizing or dyeing treatments are carried out on hanks.
Secondly, in method used for testing skein strength, rupture of a single strand at a weak place affects
result for whole skein. Further, this method of test does not give an indication of extensibility & elastic
properties of a yarn, characters which play & important role during weaving operations. However,
since a large size sample is used in a skein test as against that in a single strand test, sampling error is
less. Skein used for strength test can be used for determination of linear density of yarn as well.
In addition to factors influencing yarn strength, size of skein(lea) will affect to a large extent
strength recorded. usual practice is to use a lea(120 yards) of yarn prepared by winding 80 turns
on a wrap-reel having a perimeter of 1.5 yards(54 inches), so that during a test, there are 160
strands of 27 in.(") length. There are different systems in use. But actual breaking strength
recorded on machine would depend on type of skein used as both number of strands and test
length may differ. Instruments most commonly used for this test is CRT type, where bottom hook
moves at 12 inches per min.
After finding out skein strength, broken skeins are also weighed to determine linear density. The
most common skein used is lea & results of lea strength tests are expressed as C.S.P., which is the
product of linear density (count)of yarn in English system (Ne) & lea breaking strength expressed
in lbs. In view of fact that C.S.P. is much less dependent on yarn count than on strength,
especially when count differences are small, C.S.P. is mostg widely used measure of yarn quality.

Yarn testing in short

Compiled by: M. Rezaul Karim Tutul