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Automatic Sprinkler Design

Topics in this session


Components of a sprinkler system
Component of sprinkler and classification
In Rack Automatic Sprinklers (IRAS)
Water Supply & Pump
Managing Change
Sprinkler Acceptance Test and
Documentation

What makes up a sprinkler system?

Cr
os
s

M
ai
n

A Typical Sprinkler System


Feed Main
Branch Lines

Automatic Sprinklers

Yard
Hydrant
Public
Hydrant

Riser
Water Flow
Alarm
Valve Sprinkler
Control
Valve
ITC
Divisional
Valves

Supply Control
Valve
Public Water Main

Yard Main

Pumper
Connection
Check Valve

Fire
Pump

Suction
Tank

Cr
os
s

M
ai
n

A Typical Sprinkler System


Feed Main
Branch Lines

Automatic Sprinklers

Yard
Hydrant
Public
Hydrant

Riser
Water Flow
Alarm
Valve
Sprinkler
Control
Valve
ITC
Divisional
Valves

Supply Control
Valve
Public Water Main

Fire
Pump

Yard Main
Pumper
Connection

Suction
Tank

Parts of a sprinkler
Deflector

Fusible Link
Valve Cap
Orifice

Sprinklers are Differianted by


Installation position
Temperature Rating
Thermal Sensitivity
Orifice
Classification

Two main type of sprinkler position

Upright

Pendant

Upright Sprinklers - Installations


Sprinkler system are
exposed.
Above ceiling.

Upright Sprinklers - Water discharge

Pendent Sprinklers - Installation


Finished ceiling

Pendent Sprinklers - Water discharge

Sprinkler Temperature Ratings


Fusible Link

Liquid in bulb-type

Sprinkler Temperature Rating/Code


Max.
Ceiling
Temp.
F

Temperature Rating

Temperature
Classification

Color Code

Glass Bulb
Colors

100

38

135 to 170

57 to 77

Ordinary

Uncolored or
Black

150

66

175 to 225

79 to 107

Intermediate

White

Yellow or Green

225

107

250 to 300 121 to 149

High

Blue

Blue

300

149

325 to 375 163 to 191

Extra High

Red

Purple

375

191

400 to 475 204 to 246

Very Extra High

Green

Black

475

246

500 to 575 260 to 302

Ultra High

Orange

Black

625

329

Ultra High

Orange

Black

650

343

Orange or Red

Location of Temperature Rating

Temp. Rating vs. Operating Area

68C Heads

141C Heads

Thermal Sensitivity
Based on Response Time Index (RTI)
Generally two class:
Fast Response or Quick Response (QR)
(RTI <50)
Standard Response (SR) (RTI >80)

Sprinkler Orifice

20 mm
(17/32 in)
K = 115 (8.0)

15 mm
(1/2 in)
K = 81 (5.6)

Extra Large Orifice

ELO
K = 161 (11.2)

Very Extra Large Orifice

7/10

17/32

VELO 18 mm / 0.7 in
K = 199 (14.0)

1/2

Sprinkler Spray Patterns

Criteria of Sprinkler Design - NS


Occupancy ?
The type of use of a
facility.
Different occupancies
present different
levels of hazard to
challenge the
Automatic Sprinkler
System
Affect the design of
Automatic Sprinkler
System

Criteria of Sprinkler Design - NS


Density ?

The rate at which water


is released over a given
area.
Usually expressed as
gpm/ft2 or mm/min
Occupancy
Office
Electronic
Manufacturing
Machine shops

Density

Area of
Operation

4 mm/min
(0.10
gpm/ft2)
12 mm/min
(0.30
gpm/ft2)
6 mm/min
(0.15
gpm/ft2)

140 m2
(1500 ft2)
230 m2
(2500 ft2)
230 m2
(2500 ft2)

Criteria of Sprinkler Design -NS


Sprinkler temperature rating & density?
Plant utility and equipment
rooms

Sprinkler
Temperature
High

Intermediate
Ordinary

Density

8 mm/min
(0.20
gpm/ft2)
8 mm/min
(0.20
gpm/ft2)
8 mm/min
(0.20
gpm/ft2)

Area of
Operation
280 m2
(3000 ft2)

330 m2
(3500 ft2)
370 m2
(4000 ft2)

Sprinkler Classifications

Control Mode Sprinklers


Features
Is the traditional way of fighting a fire
Pre-wets combustibles surrounding the actual fire area to
limit fire spread
Cools the roof directly over the fire to prevent
structural damage to roof.
Cools the roof area remote from the fire area to prevent
too many sprinklers from opening.
Based on design density ( e.g. 0.45 gpm / sq. ft) over
demand area (e.g. 2,000 sq. ft)
Fire control largely achieved with less than 10 operating
sprinkler heads

Fire Area & Pre-Wetted Zone


Inner Ring
- Fire Area
(50 ft2)

Pre-wetted
Zone (20005000 ft2)

Control-Mode (Density/Area)

Control-Mode (Density/Area),
Specific Occupancies

Control-Mode (Specific Applications)

Suppression Mode Sprinklers


Features
Formerly known as Early Suppression Fast
Response (ESFR)
Latest technology
Suppresses fire by opening sprinklers directly
over the fire
Operates very early in a fire
Discharges large amounts of water with high
momentum
Less smoke and water damage
Greater flexibility in commodities & storage
arrangements
May eliminate need for in-rack sprinkler
Moderate cost.

Suppression Mode Sprinklers


Considerations

Research continuing regarding capabilities &


applications
Building height & storage height should not
exceed standards
Wet systems only
No solid shelves
Strong water supply needed
Retrofitting expensive

Suppression-Mode (earlier known as ESFR)

Mixing of sprinklers
Sprinklers should not be mixed within the same
area.
sprinklers having different temperature
response ratings
different types
However, if separate areas within the same
building,
extend the installation of 141C rated
sprinklers beyond the storage being protected.
a draft curtain

Others pointers on sprinklers


Special Coatings.

FM Approved corrosion-resistant sprinklers


should be installed in locations where chemicals,
moisture, or other corrosive vapors sufficient to
cause corrosion
Applied only by the manufacturer

Escutcheon Plates

Nonmetallic escutcheon plates should be FM


Approved.
The use of the wrong type of escutcheon with
recessed or flush type sprinklers can result in
severe disruption of the spray pattern.

Guards and Shields

Sprinklers subject to mechanical injury should be


protected with FM Approved guards.

In-Rack Automatic Sprinklers (IRAS)

In-rack Automatic Sprinkler

Type of Rack Storage


Single Row

Double Row

Multiple Row

Fire Triangle
Heat Generated

Heat of
Ignition

Oxygen
(Air)

Heat Loss
Conduction
Convection
Radiation

Fuel
Preheats the fuel

Heat Feedback

Why rack fire is more severe?


Proximity/Aisle Space

Why rack fire is more severe?


Vertical
Arrangement

Why rack fire is more severe?


Surface Area
Palletized
Storage

Rack
Storage

In-rack sprinkler installation


Minimum end head pressure of 0.5 bar
System size limited to 3700 m floor area
If more that 20 IRAS, provide separate
Control Valve
FM Approved IRAS (68C, DN 15 or DN 20)
Located at the intersect of flue spaces
System balanced with ceiling at pressures
Stagger if more that one tier

Sprinklers Design Storage


Factors affecting Automatic sprinkler design

Commodity (product being stored)


Storage Arrangement
Storage Height
Clearance
Flue spaces
Aisle width
Solid Shelves

Commodity
Heat Release Rate (HRR)
HRR = Heat Content X Burning Rate
Heat Content (Paper) = 6000-8000 Btu/lb
Heat Content (Plastic) = 8000-20000 Btu/lb
Burning rate (plastic) = 3XBurning rate (paper)
HRR (Plastic) = 4-9 HRR (Paper)

Storage arrangement

Solid pile
Pallet storage
Shelf storage
Bin Box storage
Rack storage

Storage Height
Effects HRR
Height increase
laterally while
HRR increases
exponentially.

Building Height/Clearance

50 MPH

Flue Spaces

Aisle Width

Solid Shelves

Flexibility of sprinkler designs


CMDA

Suppression
Mode

CMSA

Possible

OK

Problems

Height

Best

Good

Handling &
arrangement

Best

Good

Unlimited
w/in-racks
Low

Portable
rack storage

Compatible

Compatible

Not best
choice

Eliminated
in most cases

May still
be needed

Needed
over 3m

Mixed storage

Need for
in-racks

Some key points in AS design


Commodity
HRR dependent on product being stored
Storage Arrangements
Rack storage presents greatest challenge
Solid shelves shield material from AS discharge
Solid pile/palletised reduce air access and pile collapse
help smother fire
Storage Height
HRR increases exponentially as height
Rack/solid pile/pallet storage of plastics require very
high water discharge

Some key points in AS design


Clearance from top of storage
Affects how much water reaches the top of the
burning array
Flue spaces
Key consideration for rack storage of any
commodity
Aisle width
Aisle width affects protection guidelines in double
row racks.
Solid shelves
Obstruct flue gases and water flow
In-rack sprinklers

Sprinkler Installation

Sprinkler installations

L min. 2.1 m
L max. 4.5 m

9.3 m - 21 m

S min. 2.1 m
S max. 4.5 m

Distance to walls:
max.: S/2
min.: 100 mm

Sprinkler Spacing
Light Hazard.

Storage.

4.5 x 4.5 = 20.25 m2


(15 x 15 = 225 Sq. Ft.)

3 x 3 = 9 m2
(10 x 10 = 100 Sq. Ft.)

Sprinkler Coverage Area Non


Storage
Maximum Area of
Coverage, per
Sprinkler

Minimum Area of
Coverage, per
Sprinkler

Standard sprinkler
Low

20.1 sq m

4.6 sq m

Standard sprinkler Ordinary

12.1 sq m

6.5 sq m

Standard sprinkler Extra

9.3 sq m

6.5 sq m

Type of
Sprinkler/Hazard

Sprinkler Spacing Non Storage


Maximum
Spacing
Between
Sprinkler
s or
Branch
Lines

Minimum
Spacing
Between
Sprinkler
s or
Branch
Lines

Maximum
Distance
from
Walls.

Minimum
Distance
from
Walls.

Standard sprinkler
- Low

4.5 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Standard sprinkler
- Ordinary

4.5 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Standard sprinkler
- Extra

3.6 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Type of Sprinkler Hazard

Sprinkler Coverage Area - Storage


Maximum Area of
Coverage, per
Sprinkler

Minimum Area of
Coverage, per
Sprinkler

Suppression Mode 50 psi (3.45 bar)

9.3 sq m

7.4 sq m

Suppression Mode 75 psi (5.17 bar)

9.3 sq m

7.4 sq m

Suppression Mode 90 psi (6.1 bar)

9.3 sq m

7.4 sq m

Large-Drop

9.3 sq m

7.4 sq m

Standard 15 mm
(12 in.)

9.3 sq m

4.6 sq m

Standard 20 mm
(1732 in.)

9.3 sq m

6.5 sq m

Extra-Large Orifice

9.3 sq m

6.5 sq m

Type of Sprinkler

Sprinkler Spacing - Storage


Type of Sprinkler

Maximum
Minimum
Maximu
Spacing
Spacing
m
Between
Between
Distance
Sprinklers or Sprinklers or
from
Branch Lines Branch Lines
Walls.

Minimum
Distance
from
Walls.

Suppression Mode 50 psi (3.45 bar)

3.7 m

2.4 m

S/2

100 mm

Suppression Mode 75 psi (5.17 bar)

3.1 m

2.4 m

S/2

100 mm

Suppression Mode 90 psi (6.1 bar)

3.1 m

2.4 m

S/2

100 mm

Large-Drop

3.7 m

2.4 m

S/2

100 mm

Standard 15 mm
(12 in.)

3.7 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Standard 20 mm
(1732 in.)

3.7 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Extra-Large Orifice

3.7 m

2.1 m

S/2

100 mm

Sprinkler spaced too close

Distribution pattern for Standard


Sprinkler.

Deflector position

25 mm to 305 mm
0.9 m to 6 m

Sprinkler Spacing - measurement


Distance Between Sprinklers - measured along
the slope of the ceiling.
Distance from Walls - measured perpendicular
to the wall.

3.7 m

1.8 m

Sprinklers at ceiling
Deflectors of sprinklers can be aligned
parallel to ceilings or roofs incline.
Pipe to be pitched at least
Branch lines at least 4 mm/m (12-inch per 10
feet )
Mains at least 2 mm/m (14-inch per 10 feet).

Roof slope should no exceed 158 mm/m (2 in.


per ft) or 9.

Distribution pattern for Standard


Sprinkler.

Obstructions - Side of Obstruction

a
Avoid obstructions
Check
Value for a
Value for b

Sprinkler Position - Obstructions to


Discharge
Distance (a)

Max. allowable distance (b)

Sprinkler - Obstruction

Deflector- top of obstruction

< 30 cm

30 cm < 45 cm

6 cm

45 cm < 60 cm

9 cm

60 cm < 75 cm

14 cm

75 cm < 90 cm

19 cm

90 cm < 105 cm

24 cm

105 cm < 120 cm

30 cm

120 cm < 135 cm

35 cm

135 cm < 150 cm

42 cm

> 150 cm

45 cm

Example
Sprinkler deflector is located 22 cm above
the top of the beam
Q: What is the min. horizontal distance from
the deflector to the closest edge of the
beam?

Solution
b = 22 cm
Therefore, a ] 90 cm
Ok, since a [ s/2*

ceiling
deflector

b = 22

* half allowable
distance between
sprinklers

obstruction

a=?
elevation view

Obstructions
Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Development.
Less than 460 mm below deflector
a > 3c or 3d
b
Sprinkler

obstruction

Plan view of column

Obstructions
Suspended/Floor Mounted Vertical

Sprinkler

Ceiling of roof

b
obstruction

a
Floor

Suspended/Floor Mounted - Continued


Horizontal Distance
a

Minimum Vertical Distance


below Deflector
b

150 mm or less

75 mm

More than 150 mm to 225 mm

100 mm

More than 225 mm to 300 mm

150 mm

More than 300 mm to 375 mm

200 mm

More than 375 mm to 450 mm

240 mm

More than 450 mm to 600 mm

320 mm

More than 600 mm to 750 mm

400 mm

More than 750 mm

460 mm

Other Obstructions
Additional
sprinklers under
fixed obstruction
over 1.2 m (4 ft)
wide
Eg. ducts, decks,
cutting tables, and
overhead doors.

>1.2 m

Changes effecting Sprinkler Design


New walls or partition
Removing walls or
partition
Barrier
Changes in occupancy
Utility service

New Wall Partitions


Situation in Office:
Sprinkler spacing of 3.6 m (12 ft).
New wall installed between the centre of the sprinklers.

3.6 m

eq
1.8 m

eq
1.8 m

Solution:
No change to sprinkler as spacing on both sided is S/2 or 1.8 m (6
ft)

New Wall Partitions


Situation in Office:
Sprinkler spacing of 3.6 m (12 ft).
New wall installed at 0.8 from a sprinkler. Problem ?

3.6 m
2.8 m

0.8 m

Problem:
Sprinkler on left side is more than S/2. See next slide...

New Wall Partitions


Solution:
Relocate sprinkler to within 1.8 m of wall and additional
point within 3.6 m of the sprinkler.

2.1 m

< 1.8 m

to 3.6 m
2.8 m

0.8 m

Removing a Partition Wall


Situation in Office:
Sprinkler on both sides of wall, at 1.0 m from the wall.
Existing wall removed. Problem ?

3.6 m
1.0 m

1.0 m

2.0 m

Solution:
Sprinkler spacing is less than 2.1 m. See next slide...

Removing a Partition Wall


Solution:
Relocate a sprinkler to achieve the distance of at least
2.1 m

3.6 m

2.1 m to 3.5 m

>2.1 m
to 3.6 m
2.0 m

Pipe Material
Schedule 10 and 40 pipe should be used when
available.
Galvanized piping (including the inside of the
pipe) should be used in all new dry-pipe and
preaction systems where the ambient
temperature does not exceed 54C (130F ).
corrosion of zinc is greatly accelerated
Piping should be installed such that
the system can be drained.
arranged such that it is possible to drain to the
main drain valve.

Pipe joint and hangers.

Mechanical coupling
Rolled Groove.
Cut Groove

Hanger

Min. one hanger per pipe


section
5 times weight of water
filled pipe plus 114 kg

Anchor

Do not attach to metal


roof decking/sheet
Do not attach to other
service.

Alarm Check Valve (ACV)

2 Drain

FM Approved device for


detecting water flow.
Holds the water above the
riser for consistent
system pressure
Should be complete with
all trim and fittings.
Gong line to be provided
separate drain line.
Drain to suitable location.
Gauges to be within range
of sprinkler system.

Alarm Check Valve (ACV)


Location
Outside of buildings.
Accessible location.
At grade or ground level

Wet System limit to floor area of


4,800 m for Office, Production & Utility Room.
3,700 m for Warehouse and other storage areas

Dry system
limit to 2840 liters of system pipe volume
or water can reach inspectors test within 60 s
no gridded systems

Alarm Check Valve (ACV) - inaccessible

Alarm and Notification Appliances


An alarm activates when water flows in a sprinkler
system.
Alarms may be:
Mechanical
Electrical
Both of the above

Alarm and Notification Appliances


Automatically sends an alarm to Fire
Department/ERT

Alarm and Notification Appliances


Enables firefighters to respond promptly
and reach the fire in its initial stage

Inspectors Test Connection


Located at the
hydraulically most remote
point in the sprinkler
piping.
Install a valve and an
orifice that equals the
sprinkler k-factor
Piped to safe location with
flow visible
Readily accessible, this
outlet should not be
concealed.
Get alarm within 90
seconds of water flow.

Flushing connections
At the ends of cross
mains with either:
Approved mechanical
groove end cap
Threaded capped nipple
flushing connections to a
fixed drain pipe with a
valve.

Same diameter as the


end pipe but not larger
than 50 mm.

Sprinkler Control Valves


FM Approved indicating
type valves
To be accessible
(preferably outside of
buildings).
Avoid above ceiling spaces.
Locked open

Sprinkler Control Valves


Inside valves to:
Equipment
Special rooms
Special areas
Describe what it
protects and size
to be clearly
labeled.
Example

Spray booth 50 mm OS&Y


Carousel storage 80 mm
IBV
Dip painting room 100 mm

Sprinkler Mains

Pipe Size to be at least DN 150


Pipes, joints, working pressure, restraints
Restraining with adequate thrust blocks
Location to be min. 1.5 m from building
foundation

Determining Water Supply


Combustibility

Extinguishability

Determining Water Supply

Volume Flow

Pressure

Duration

Reliability

Public Supply

Low pressure
No control
Questionable maintenance
Limit usage

Gravity Tank
Limited pressure
Limited volume
Limited duration

Booster Pump

Improper maintenance
Limited control
Limit usage
Draw down pressure

Pump and a Dedicated Water Supply


Limited reliability
Selection of proper pump,
driver, and controller critical
Improper maintenance

Water Supply Comparison


Public
Volume

Pressure

Duration

Reliability

Cost

Booster

Pump & Tank

Gravity

Water Supply
Fire
Pump
Suction
Tank

Suction Valve

Discharge
Valve

Water Demand
(SD + HD) x D = effective tank volume
The water tank volume should be nett.
SD*= Max. ceiling + IRAS sprinkler demand
HD = Hose demand (HD)
D = Duration of water demand
* single Sprinkler system, based on data sheet requirements

Fire Pump

What is a Fire Pump Package?

Driver
Pump
Controller

Fire Pumps
Horizontal split case diesel-driven pump
preferred
Selection: 90% to 130% of rated capacity
Pressure: 1 bar safety margin
Based on highest demand (of one AS system)

Pump selection

90%
1 bar
130%
Demand

Pump under static suction lift


Suction lift exists where the total suction
head is below atmospheric pressure.
This happens when the water level is lower
than the pump inlet level.
Centrifugal pumps should not be used.
Vertical shaft turbine pump should be used.
Vertical shaft turbine pump do not require
priming.

Pump House and Pump Installation

Above ground
Detached, NC building,
Provide Automatic Sprinkler
Access from outside
Ventilation
Lockable
Containment for diesel fuel tank.
Avoid flexible joints with rubber bellows.
Disable timer on controller and pump for
manual stop only.
Discharge of engine cooling and packing line
to drain and should be visible as needed.
Pressure Reducing Valve discharge to drain
and should be visible.

Hydrants & Pumper Connection


Hydrants
90 m spacing
Size of pipe to be at least DN 150
min. 1900 l/min at 1.4 bar
5-10m away from building
Pumper Connection
FM Approved check valve
located and arranged so that hose lines
can be readily and conveniently attached
without interference from nearby objects

Fire Department Pumper Connection

Types of Automatic Sprinkler Systems


Wet
Dry
Deluge
Pre-action

Wet System

Dry System

Deluge System

Preaction System

Smoke/Heat Vent

Allows heat to
be vented
before sprinkler
operation.
Sprinkler
operation
delayed.

System Acceptance
Hydrostatic Test (13.8 bar for 2 hours)
Flushing of all pipes at:

Yard main & Hydrants


Lead in
Riser 2
Cross main
ITC

Flushing with full flow. Flow throttling with


valves or at pump is discouraged.
Flushing of mains should achieve full pump
flow.

Contractors Material and Test


Certificate for Aboveground and
Underground Mains

Documentation on site
Metal plate attached to riser
Data

Date of installation
Sprinkler contractor (company name)
Density
Demand Area
Flow and pressure at BOR (base of riser)
Hose demand l/min (included or not)

Metal Plate at Riser


XYZ
27.7.00

00000
Test Company

999

Test warehouse, test city

18
mm/min

186 m
6000 l/min
5.2 bar
1900 l/min

Design Reference
FM Global Data Sheets

2-8N Installation of Sprinkler Systems


2-81 Fire Safety Inspections and Sprinkler
System Maintenance.
3-2 Water Tanks for Fire Protection
3-7N Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
3-10 Installation and Maintenance Of
Private Fire Service Mains and Their
Appurtenances
8-9 Storages (Class 1-4 & Plastic
Commodity)
3-26 Non-storage areas
occupancy data sheets - special hazards

Sprinklers Operating in a Fire

75%

1-5

95%

1-25

Automatic Protection Systems

Always Ready

Prompt Action

Sends Alarm

THIS END UP

Operates Over Fire

Pre-wets

Uses Less H2O

Summary
Use FM Approved equipment and components.
Design the system right, as well as for
expected future needs.
The system should be designed with the end
user in mind ease of operation and
maintenance.
Changes to occupancy and area would likely
effect the sprinkler system as well and
needs to be reevaluated.
Use appropriate Data Sheet check with
local FM Global Office if unsure.

Thank you
Question?
I got some

Quiz

1. In a fire do all installed closed head


sprinklers operate at the same time ?
Yes
No
Not sure

Quiz

2. If no one is around when sprinklers


operate, they may discharge water for
hours undetected.
True
False

Quiz

3. When sprinklers operate, they


discharge water throughout the
building.
True
False