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Computer simulation of HV circuit breaker

interruption
>> HV CB Simulation <<
by
EnergoBos ILJIN d.o.o. Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina
www.energobos.com

Sarajevo, August 2016.

EnergoBos ILJIN d.o.o. Sarajevo

Contents

Introduction

Main application diagram

The Main mask of HV CB Simulation

Modules

Input data

Gas flow - universal model

Automatic calculations

Breakdown withstand voltage calculation

The travel measurement system and control

KEMA oscillogram viewer

Help files

Results & verification

Prediction of thermal breakdown

Conclusion

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Introduction

Computer simulation is a an economic way in research and development of modern SF6 circuit breakers.

Work on computer simulations started on early 80 used first available PCs and simple Basic programming language.

With limited number of short circuit tests and results of those tests, program can help us with:

prediction of interruptions for other arcing times and other values of short circuit currents,

prediction of breakdown withstand voltage after capacitive current interruption,

calculation of interaction between interrupting unit and driving mechanism,

optimization of an existing interrupting unit and driving mechanism,

calculate influence of any design changes on circuit breaker performance,

calculation of state of SF6 gas in circuit breaker chambers,

electric arc influence on gas mass flow,

pressure build up calculation,

nozzle ablation,

contact erosion,

driving mechanism behavior during interruption of high short circuit currents.

HV CB Simulation has more then 220 output results.

Program can not predict result of interruption in advance, but program results combined with other calculations can
help us in this.

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Main application diagram

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The main mask of HV CB Simulation


The program consists the following modules:
New-Open-Save-Exit module,
Interrupter unit,
Driving mechanism-Travel,
Gas SF6,
Electrical current,
Data analysis,
Calculation-Automatic calculation,
Vbd- Breakdown voltage estimation
EB measurement system control
KEMA oscillogram viewer
Help.

HV CB Simulation Version 3.1.0.

Main mask
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Modules

New Open Save Exit module (clear open - save all input data about circuit breaker and close program)

Interrupter unit (interrupter unit geometry, nozzle ablation, contact erosion, heating and cooling of interrupter unit
chambers)

Driving mechanism Travel (coordinates, lengths, angles, masses and moments of inertia of mechanical parts,
kinematic calculations, compression force calculation, data about spring(s), calculation of opening, single or three
phase operated, using experimental travel instead mechanism simulation, model of shock absorber, double speed
model)

Gas SF6 (equations of state, thermodynamic characteristics of SF6 gas, gas flow process, calculation of state of SF6
gas in all interrupter chambers)

Electrical current (analytical presentation of single or three phase short circuit currents, model of synthetic circuit:
serial and parallel with current injection, data from experiment used as input data in calculation)

Data Analysis (graphical representation of program results and experimental results, open & save results, comparison
between calculated i measured results)

Calculation Automatic calculation (more then 220 simulation results)

Vbd (breakdown voltage estimation, visualization of dielectric stresses inside a circuit breaker nozzle)

Measure Travel measurement system and control is being used to control the measurement process including the
tripping of the test object's opening and closing coils, measurement data acquisition from several linear and rotary
encoders, digital processing, filtering and fitting of raw measurement data, as well as determining of the corresponding
velocity and acceleration curves for every travel record.

KEMA Osc - KEMA Oscillogram viewer allows the user to import experimental data from KEMA type tests.

Help Help files.

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Input data interrupter unit nozzle and arcing contact geometry

Calculation of contact erosion

Nozzle and arcing contact


geometry - input data

Interrupter unit properties input data


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Calculation of nozzle ablation

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Input data Chamber and Connections

Defining interrupter unit chambers and connections between them

V8

V15

V10

V9

V3

V16

Gas flow universal model


Easy scheme drawing for any type of SF6 interrupter
Calculation of state of SF6 gas (pressure, temperature, density...) in all interrupter chambers
Calculation of gas flow for every SF6 interrupter with a known geometry configuration

Chamber data

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Input data Chamber and Connections

There are four types of connections that can be chosen:


Valve
Nozzle
Variable
Constant.

Connection data Type Valve

Connection data Type Variable


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Input data driving mechanism


Absorber input data

Spring - input data

Mechanism input data

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Mechanism geometry input data

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Input data electrical current

Electrical current

The arc model

The arc model - simple integral arc model: modified Frost Liebermans enthalpy flow arc model, system of equations,
thermodynamic characteristics of SF6 plasma, arc voltage and arc diameter, input of data from experiments.

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Automatic calculations

The program module for Automatic


calculation
of
opening
operations
provides multiple calculations where one
input parameter varies in a defined range
with predefined number of steps.

The program module for Test duty


calculation offers the possibility of
automatic calculation of test duty
operations or calculation of sequence of
operation tests during one shift in the
laboratory.

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HV CB Simulation results combined with other calculations (CFD, Electrical field


calculation...) - Breakdown voltage estimation procedure
HV CB Simulation

HV CB Simulation results
as initial conditions for
CFD (p0, T0, 0)

Circuit
breaker
design

CFD

E field calculation results (E)

CFD Results (p, T, )

Breakdown voltage
Ubd=f(E, )

Uapplied > U bd
Electric field
calculation
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YES

BREAKDOWN

NO

NO
BREAKDOWN
Next project
phase
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Breakdown withstand voltage estimation procedure

CFD
E field

Recovery voltage in time (capacitive current interruption):

Breakdown voltage in time:

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The travel measurement system and control module implemented in HV CB Simulation

This form is used to prepare, initialize, activate and to control EBs travel
measurement system and the test object.

Loading, digital post-processing and filtering of raw measurement data is


also implemented. Additionally, information about specific travel-related
parameters are being calculated and displayed for each travel record.

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KEMA oscillogram viewer

The form KEMA Oscillogram viewer allows the user to import experimental data from KEMA type tests in three different
frequency ranges (low, middle and high).
After selecting one of these frequency ranges, available oscillograms in the chosen range are automatically detected in
the folder KEMA and are ready to be imported. This can be done by selecting the name from the Osc. number dropdown
combo box.
The next step is to add channels from the chosen oscillogram that will be displayed on the Analysis form: Mode 4: KEMA
type-testing results.

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HV CB Simulation User Manual, Technical Manual and Input Data Description

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Results

List of output diagrams:


013 - Arc voltage [V]
014 - Arc energy [J]
015 - Minimal flow cross-section
in main nozzle [mm2]
056 - Total nozzle ablation mass
in segment 1 [g]
108 - Temperature of SF6 gas in
heating chamber [K]
114 - Pressure of SF6 gas in
heating chamber [Pa]

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Results & verification

Comparison (on load three phase 40 kA)


between experimental and calculated travel and speed
(puffer type)

Comparison (no load) between experimental and


calculated travel and speed (puffer type)

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Results & verification


Comparison between experimental and calculated pressure
(peak value) in thermal chamber

Breaking
current,
rms [kA]

Test No:

1.
2.
3.
4.

31.9
31.9
32.3
35.5

Pressure rise in thermal chamber, L90 test No 4,


experiment versus calculation

GCB 245 kV 40 kA, SLF tests


Max
Max
Arc
pressure
pressure
duration
Experiment Calculation
[ms]
[MPa]
[MPa]
11.6
3.952
11.6
3.89
3.888
10.6
3.98
3.694
10.4
4.06
4.090

Total mass loss [g]


Mass loss of stationary and
moving contact [g]

Calculation

Calculation

Decreasing length of stationary


contact [mm]
Calculation

Measured

Measured

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Comparison between experimental and calculated mass loss of


contacts and decreasing length of stationary contact

Measured

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Results & verification


Main nozzle cross section, calculation
and experiment, T100s phase C

Calculated (vertical) and measured (horizontal) increase in main


nozzle throat diameter

Calculated (vertical) and measured (horizontal)


mass loss of main nozzle

Calculated (vertical) and measured (horizontal) increase in


auxiliary nozzle throat diameter

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Program results combined with other calculations


Prediction of thermal breakdown
Model verification
1. Computer simulation

2. Calculation of parameters

3. Composite black box


model

P1, t1
P2. t2
P3, t3

P, l, Mg
Characteristic
quantities

Parameters
black box
model

4. MatLAB simulation

5. Results of MatLAB simulation


and CZ measurement

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Source: Correlation of Black Box and Integral Physical Arc Model Parameters for a Real SF6 Circuit-Breaker,
Doctoral disertation, Almir Ahmethodi, Faculty of electrical engeering Sarajevo

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Program results combined with other calculations


Prediction of thermal breakdown - puffer
Quantitatively :The accuracy of prediction of success of the interruption
18
2

90

Correct prediction in 18 out of 20 cases

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Source: Correlation of Black Box and Integral Physical Arc Model Parameters for a Real SF6 Circuit-Breaker,
Doctoral disertation, Almir Ahmethodi, Faculty of electrical engeering Sarajevo

EnergoBos ILJIN d.o.o. Sarajevo

Program results combined with other calculations


Prediction of thermal breakdown self blast

No:
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Pol
A
A
A
A
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Test No. Struja [kA] t luka [ms] Ispitivanje/Simulacija


36.1
13.8
4021
R*
36
14.9
4022
R/I**
36.4
16.6
4029
I/I
35.8
25.3
4033
R/I
4003
36.2
15.2
I/I
4004
35.8
14.2
I/I
4005
36
23.1
I/I
4006
36
18.6
I/I
4008
36
18.4
I/I
4012
36
27.6
I/R
4013
36
18.2
R/R

8
2
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Conclusion

General lack of knowledge and experts for arc modeling and the simulation of high voltage SF6 circuit breakers is
already evident.

A team for arc modeling and the simulation of high voltage SF6 circuit breakers consisting of some dozen experts is
very expensive for any company in the world.

The idea is to organize a team which will continuously work on arc modeling and the simulation of high voltage SF6
circuit breakers with the support of several companies interested in the project.

The Team will treat fairly all companies and we do commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional codes.

Our goal is a universal software to provide calculations and simulations of high voltage circuit breaker interruption for
different companies in the world,

and why not even for YOUR COMPANY?

All we need is:


kinematic chain data (coordinates, angles, lengths, masses and moments of inertia),
spring and absorber characteristics,
volumes of interrupter unit chambers and cross sections between them,
nozzle and arcing contact geometry ...
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