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1)Ascribedstatusreferstoapersonwhicheverythingtheyhaveweregiveninadvance,andsocial

statususuallycannotbechangedsuchasgenderandrace.Aperson'ssocialstatusisveryimportantinthe
sociology,itisrelatedtothepersonalpower,behaviorandresponsibility.Itdeterminestheroleofthe
individual.Duringthecourseofaman'slifewhichcanchangethesocialstatusbytheirhardworks.The
differencebetweenachievestatusandascribedstatus,isthat,itcanchangebyindividualshardwork.For
example,Amywantstobeadoctor,butsheborninapoorfamily,throughherhardwork.Shebecomea
doctoreventually.Areferencegroupisagroupwhowecomparetoourselves.Andtheiraretwomaintypes
ofgroups,primaryandsecondary.Ingroups,theirarelotsofpeople,whofromdifferentplace,race,and
country,theysharetheirexperiencestoeachotherswhichmakereferencegroupsexperiencedinsociety.
(ZhiWang)
2)Asocialroleisasetofexpectedbehaviorsforpeopleinagivensocialstatus.Forexample,we
expectthatalibrarianwillknowhowtofindcertainbooksandfindotherscholarlydocumentsthroughonline
databases.Anotherexamplecanbethatweexpectadoctortobeabletodiagnoseandtreatpeoplefor
medicalconditionsandsymptomsthatmayhave.Whensomeonebeginstodisengagefromarolethatis
centraltotheirselfidentityinordertoestablishanewroleandidentity,thatisknownasroleexit.An
exampleofaroleexitcouldbeadivorce;whichisaprocesswhenoneorbothpeopleinamarriageare
voluntarilyleavestheirsocialroleinamarriage.Asocialroleexitrelatestothesocializationprocessbecause
duringthesocializationprocess,onelearnstheattitudes,values,andbehaviorsappropriateforaparticular
culture.Asoneroleexits,theyareleavingbehindwhattheylearnedthroughtheinitialsocializationprocess
andwillhavetodoitagainastheyfindanewrole.Agroupisdefinedasanynumberofpeoplewithshared
norms,values,andgoalswhointeractwithoneanother.Aprimarygroupconsistsofintimatefacetoface
interactionsandcooperationwithasmallamountofpeople.Anexampleofaprimarygroupwouldbea
family,asportsteamoranyotherteamrelatedactivitycantendtobehavelikeaprimarygroup.Asecondary
groupismuchlarger,formal,andinterpersonalgroupwithlittlesocialintimacy.Anexampleofasecondary

groupcouldbewhenaclubororganizationgrowssolargethatitnolongerisconsideredaprimarygroup
becausetheybecomeimpersonal.(CeciliaValle)
3)Ingroupisacategoryofpeoplewhohaveacommonidentityorfeelliketheybelonginsociety.
Outgroupisacategoryofpeoplewhodonotfitinwithsocietyordonotfeelasiftheydo.Ifpeopleare
classifiedintheingroup,theynormallyfeelasthoughtheyareabovepeopleintheoutgroup.Ingroupsare
connectedtoprimarygroupsbecauseprimarygroupsarelonglastinggroupsinvolvingmuchinteractionsuch
asfamiliesorveryclosegroupsoffriends/teammates.Thesekindsofpeoplefeelliketheybelongintheir
groupsandshareacommonfeel.Outgroupsareconnectedtosecondarygroupsbecauseinsecondary
groups,thepeoplemaynotgetalongaswellandthereisnotmuchinteractionorclosenessinthegroup.A
goodexampleofthisisgroupsforaclassprojectwheretheyarenotnecessarilyfriendsorknoweachother
thatwellandmaynotfitinwitheachotherspersonalities.(VincentDemars)
4)AFunctionalPrerequisiteisataskneededbysocietyforittosurvive.Therearefivefunctional
prerequisites.1)Replacingmemberswhenapersonbecomesilldiesorleavessocietymustreplacethem.2)
SocializingnewmembersNewmembersmustbesocializedintosocietytoestablishbehaviorandcustomsof
itsgroup.Socializationcanbedonethrougheducation,religion,andfamily.3)Producinganddistributing
goodsApermanentsocietymustgeneratedesiredgoodsandservicesforitsmembers.4)Preserving
orderanimportantfunctiontosociety.Protectingitselffrominternalorexternalattack.5)PurposeAsociety
mustprovideandmaintainasenseofpurposeforitsmembers.Peoplemustfeelmotivatedtocontinueas
membersandtoachieveotherprerequisites.
EmileDurkheimproposedtwodifferentformsofsolidarityacohesivenessofsociety.Mechanical
societyisapremodernideawheresocietyisboundtogetherbysimilaritiessuchasvalues,experiences,
viewsandvisions.Organicsolidarityisamoremodernsocietyinwhicheveryoneismoreindependentbutis
boundtogetherbecausetheystillrelyoneachotherfordifferentcommonneeds.(LauraRuiz)