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~~,173

MAR 01 1993

UNSOLICITED

A MOt-."'TE CARLO SIMULATION APPROACH


FOR

ESTIMATING BOTTOM-HOLE COORDINATES


IN

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

BY
OMOLE.O. AND SADIQ. S.O.
DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERINct

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN

IBADAN. NIGERIA

The problem of accurate determination of bottomhole


coordinates of directed wells is addressed in this paper, using
a Monte Carlo simulation technique.The technique is incorporated'
into a three dimensional radius of curvature model developed by
Rivero 4

Constraints on other calculation techniques are readily

accommodated in this model.


The Monte Carlo simulation technique is .applied to five
sample cases - two idealized wells used by Mcmillian?; and three
real wells s B

For the idealized wells, the bottomhole

coordinates are calculated, first, by direct calculation and then


by Monte Carlo simulation using various simulation runs for each
sample case.
A computer plot of bottomhole coordinates is made to
illustrate the shape of the wellbore for each of the three sample
cases using an optimized simulation run.

I..tITBODU'CTION

Over the years, problem of accurate determination of


bottomhole position of directed wells have been the focus of
studies in directional drilling research. To this end, three
sources of error

in the calculation of bottomhole coordinates

of directed wells have been identified1-9.1s-16. These are: (1)


instrument error, (2) error inherent in the mathematical model
used as a result of its stated assumptions; and (3) Statistical
error in the measurement of the inclination angle and
azimuthal angle, 8 of a well. Instrument error can be minimized
by use of hi.gh precision survey instrument. Errors inherent in
,

the mathematical models have been addressed by several

literaturea 1 - e .
However, in contrast to the many references on model errors.
there is a notable dearth of articles discussing statistical
error in measured survey data. Only one literature has discussed
this problem.
In 1967, Walstrom et a1 11 used two approaches - an
analytical method and a Monte Carlo simulation approach to show
that there is an ellipse of uncertainty in calculated bottomhole
position of directed wells. They stated that this uncertainty was
due to statistical error in reading of inclination angle, t'and

azimuthal angle, 8, of a well. Hence there is the need to further


investigate how the statistical error in the measurement of
bottomhole coordinates of directed wells can be minimized or
eliminated.
It i8 thu ob.iective pf this paper to demonstrate how the
Monte Carlo elmulation technique can be used to minimize
statistical error in measured survey data.

tiOJiTE CARW SIMULATION


In theory, statistical error in meaBUred survey data may be
minimized by resurveying the hole several times and finding the
average of the meaaured inclination angle,

with the vertical

and azimuthal angle, 8 with the north. Two problems will however
prohibit such a practical procedure. (1) The optimum number of
surveys required for a particular point is difficult to
determine; and (2) the operation is very tedious and highly
uneconomical.
Alternatively, the Monte Carlo simulation technique can be

used to simulate this procedure and find the optimum number of


surveys required to minimize the statistical error in measured
survey data. The Monte Carlo

s~lation

technique is a variant'

of simulation and can be used in oil exploration ventures.


drilling and financial analysis of all types of projects that
involve risk and uncertainty.

MQDEL-...EQRM!lI.JlT.lQN

..

In the development
. of this simulation model the following general
assumptions are made 12
L

The wellbore axis is assumed to be" curved in either or both


vertical and horizontal projections.

2.

The wellbore axis is assumed to be adequately represented


by a large number N, of curved sections joined end to end
from the top to the bottom of the hole and closely following

the course of the hole. Errors due to this approximation are


assumed negligible.
3.

The inclination angle,

.~

and the azimuthal angle,

8~

are

assumed to be random variables with uniform (rectangular)


distribution.
4.

The drilled length,


l~e

L~

is treated as a determinate value.

subscript variable, i extends from 1 to N.

Following assumption (2), the borehole coordinates can be


computed as follows:

z ..

1:Zj
1

r= Er

S = ESj

) (1)

.~

For this studY, the random variables

are considered to

be unifomly distributed between lower and upper limits of

61

and

b1. Similarly, the random variables 8~ are considered to be


uniformly distributed between lower and upper limits of C1 and
d1.
Thus:
8

~: . 1 ~

bj

e1

dj

01 ~

) . . . . . (2)
"

Defining exPlicit limits for the variablefJ

4h

and 81 by taking

into consideration the specification of error and the degree of


precision of directional survey equipments, the upper and lower
limits may be defined as follows for a well maintained
single shot directional survey equipment

12:

:;

-,1 = max [(. rO. 00-63625) ,0]

b1

...

Cj

=8

41

..

+ 0.0043625
j

3.14.1

1 for 8.1
c,1 ..

11,1

lS:

0.0043625

8,1 + 3. 14.1

e.l -

= 8,1

0.34.9

1for o. 004.3625

0.0174.5

+ 0.34.9

oJ. = 8

111 = 8

+ 0.034.9

0.034.9

........ . (3)

Inverse tran8fQrmatj~D
UnifQrmly distributed random numbers,

r~

generated by a

mixed cQngruent method can be transfQrmed


into
unique
values
,
representing the inclination angle, .1 and azimuthal angle, 91

using inverse transfQrmation .


Suppose that we divide the interval frQm a1tQ b:1. and C1 tQ
d1 intQ n equal sub

interval~

respectively, the points

.1,

Qf widtha 0+1 containing

.2, .n and 91, 92, . 9n; and

that the probability that the randQm variables will take on a


value in the sub-interval containing .1,. 9~, respectively, is

Then the probability that the randQm variableB .1 and 91


with which we are concerned will take on a value Qn the interval
frQm a1 tQ b1 and C1 tQ d1 respectively is given by

,J ,(.)
=

If f is an integrable function defined by all values of


and
t~

9~.

and

.~

the probability that the values of the random variables


9~

fall between a and b; and c and d respectively can be

defined as:
IJ

.P(a t

s: ~1 s:

b.t)

!(.1)~.I.

] (5)

II

P(Ol

s: e 1 s: d j

f (e

1)' del

11

The cumulative distribution function


random variables,

t~

.P'( .I.)

FCt~)

and F(91)

o~the

and 91 can be defined as:

..

.Jf

Let) . ~t;

] (6)

"

If both the generated random number r, F<t1) and F(91) are


defined over the range 0.0 to 1.0. the random variables t1 and
9~

can be determined from their cumulative frequency distribution

thus:

J .......... (7)

For any particular value of r. ~ and 8 can be generated by the


inverse transformation:

:i

81.

,-1

,-1 (r )

(rj

] .. (8)
1

i-Cx)

The uniform distribution represents the range of the random


variables ~1 and 81.
The probability density function fC~1). f(81) for a uniform
distribution can be defined as:
'(~ 1)

,(8 1)

z;

1
b C a1
1

d 1 -C1

) .... . (9)

The cumulative distribution functions

F(~1.)

and F(91.) can be

obtained by integrating f(t1.) and f(91.) respectively

.. f b. 1

-.

dt ..

C 41

] . . . . . . . . . (10)

From equation (7),

rj

..

rj

= ,(9 1)

1-

..

r(1)

aj
b 1 -a1

. 8 raJ.
d/-C1

Therefore.
~j

..

r 1 (b1 -a1 )

c1)

-1
]

r j (cf1

p .

(11)

c1

From the 3-dimensional Radius of Curvature model 4

Cases 1 and 2:

. . . . . . . . . . . . (12)

cas.

8,

e,

(-1t

(8,-8,)

'It]

(La -

La) (Co 1 - eo" a ) (Cos81


. (~a - .1) (82 - 8 1)

. (L:a -

~) (eo 1 - eoS. a) (S1.n8a


(~2 - .1) (82 - 8 1 )

CO'&a)

- B.1.D91 )

. . . . . . . (14.)

(~ - ~) (CO.~l - eo~2) (S.1J:l9:a)

. . . . . . . . . . . . (15)

(~2 - .1)

(La -

~ (13)

~) (Co 1 -

eo..a )

(COs8a )

............ . (16)

(~2 - .1)

Case 3 and 4:

(0. -

Ll) ( Sir92 ) (Coal 1 - Coal 2 )

82 - 8 1

(0. - Lt)( Sin8 2

- Sin8})

...

~(17)

. . . . . ( 18)

. . . . . . _ . ( 19)

8 2 - 8}

Case 4:

82 " 81

. . (20)

. . . . . (21)

10

A change in azimuth <.2 -91) is limited to 180

(or R

radians) since any change greater than this would imply a change
in the opposite direction.

SOLUTION TECHN IQUES

The basic steps involved in the Monte Carlo simulation are 10 :

1.

Identifying the problem and formulating goals and objective


of the study.

2.

Evaluating the various alternative mathematical models that


&

can be used to solve this problem


. taking into consideration,
the constraints and restraints on the model on the basis of
their stated assumptions.
3.

Developing the tlecision model for the chosen method.

4.

Identifying the influential input parameters of the chosen


model; in this case, t1 and 81.

5.

Cumulative probability distribution curve for each input


parameter .:1. and 8:1.

are prepared. For each survey point i,

pseudo-random numbers are generated by a multiplicative


congruential method and then assigned to represent the
probability range of the inclination angle

.1

and azimuthal

angle 8:1..
6.

The simulation experiment is then conducted by random


sampling. Probability values are chosen randomly and
translated by means of cumulative distribution into unique
values of the inclination angle

$1

and azimuthal angle

61

11
using inverse transformation - equations (2) and (11).
7.

The average values ofthe inclination angle

~~

and

azimuthal angle, 8:1. for each particular survey point. i is


then calculated thus:

Ct .....

N
] . . . . . (22)

.
8.

...

..

The average simulated values of

~~

and 6:1. are then

substituted into expressions for calculating bottomhole


coordinates X, Y7 Z equations (12) through (21).
The various mathematical models that have been used to
calculate bottomhole coordinates of directed wells include:
1.

The Acceleration and Compensated Accelerated model

2.

The Tangential model

3.

The Angle-Averaging model

4.

The

5.

The Mercury mode 1

6.

The Two Dimensional Radius of Curvature model

7.

The Helical model

8.

The Three Dimensional Radius of Curvature model.

9.

Circular Arc model

Minimum Curvature model

Careful evaluation of each of these models have been made


in several papers 1 -

B.

The most accurate of these models has Bn

proved to be the three dimensional radius of curvature model by

12
Rivero 4

The model is therefore chosen for the Monte Carlo

simulation.

~.lLGENERATlON

There are basically three methods for generating random


numbers: (a) manual or mechanical methods, (b) electrical analogcomputer methods, and (c) digital computer methods. Of these
three, only the first two methods yield numbers that are truly
random. The third method yields sequences of numbers that do not
completely conform with the definition of ' random sequence, i.e
they are predictable.
,

The manual and

~echanical

methods are much too slow and

cumbersome for the analysis of the problem under study. The


electrical analog-computer method, although quite fast, cannot
produce the same starting values. A reproducible sequence is
required in

~he.Monte

Carlo

s~ulation

technique. The digital

computer methods are therefore chosen in preference to


the other methods because they are superior in this' respect.

Multiplicative congruent method


The multiplicative congruent method is one of the best
digital methods for producing pseudo-random numbers.
The method is based on the general relationship:
r:s.+1

ar:1. (Modulo M)

..... _... (23 )

Where
r:s. - a pseudo-random number
i-subscript of successive pseudo random numbers produced .

13
H

a large integer

a constant

For binary computers, H is chosen as 2 b where b is the number of


binary digits in a computer word.
In order to obtain meaningful results, the pseudo-random
numbers generated by the multiplicative congruent method is
subjected to statistical tests for randomness and uniform
distribution (see appendix A ).

RESULTS ANALYSlS
~idatjon

of the Radius of Curyature Model

In order to.see the trend in the results of different


simulation runs by the use of the Monte Carlo technique, the
radius of curvature model was first tested using three wells as
sample cases: (1) a Calif _ Lambert ~one 6 well, (2) a high angle
"kick and hold",

borehol~

and (3) a low angle "S" c"\U"Ve" borehole.

The results obtained are compared with the results of the'


Circular Arc, Tangential and Helical Arc models published by
ZarembaB and Callas 9
For the Calif. Lambert zone 6 well (Table 1), the Radius
of Curvature and Circular Arc models both gave similar results
for the X, Y, and Z coordinates. The Tangential IDOdel gave
similar results for the Y and Z coordinates but departed by
-12.95 ft from the average of the other two models in the X
coordinate.

For the high


angle "Kick and Hold" borehole (Table 2), the
.
values obtained for the Z and X coordinates for the three models

14
'are very close.

However, the Radius of Curvature model gave the

best result for the Y coordinate. The value obtained approximates


the average for the Helical Arc and Circular Arc models.
In the sample case 3 study (table 3), the Radius of
Curvature model again gives better values for the three well
coordinates X, Y and Z respectively. The values obtained for the
X and Z cqordinates approximate the average obtained by the
Circular Arc and Helical Arc models. A more accurate resolution
is obtained for the Y coordinate by the Radius of Curvature
model. There is as much as a 16.4 ft improvement on the
resolution of the y axis. This is due to the fact that

constraints and restraints on the CiTcular Arc and Helical Arc


models in an "S" shaped well are eliminated in the Radius of
Curvature model.
Monte Carlo Simulation

Runs

The Monte Carlo simulation technique was first tested on two


idealized wells - an "S" well with helical turn and a slant well.
Figure 1 shows

scatter of likely bottomhole positions of the

idealized "S" well with helical turn generated with 200 simulated
survey data. For each of the two sample cases, the bottomhole
position was simulated using several number of simulation runs.
Figures 2 and 3 show the trend obtained. 500 runs represents the
optimum number of simulation runs necessary to obtain the best
average for the simulated inclination angle, and azimuthal
angle, 8.
The Monte Carlo simulation technique was next applied to
three real well sample cases -

(1) A Calif. Lambert zone 6 well

of Reference 8; (2) A high angle "kick and hold" borehole and

15
(3) A low angle "S" borehole appearing in Reference 9 _ The
computer results for the three sample cases using 500 aimulation
runs is. given in Appendix B. Figures 4 through 10 repreaent

two dimensional cross-sectional views of wellbore geometry for


the sample cases considered. The main use of these plots is to
illustrate the shape of the hole. locate important sections of
the wellbore and visualize problem areas such as a dogleg
severity in the wells studied.
For the three real wells the bottomhole position calculated
by the Monte Carlo model improved on the results obtained by

direct calculation using the radius of curvature model(aee Tables


4. 5. and 6)

CONCWSION
The random errors in the reading of inclination angle ~
and azimuthal angle. 8:1. were minimized. by the use of the Monte
Carlo simulation technique,_ The technique is rigorous, utilizing
between 0.6 minutes to 30 minutes on a Vax1 VX/VHS 16 bits
computer; And is perhaps the best technique for minimizing random
errors associated with measuring survey data of directed wells.
Results obtained by simulation of actual wells proves this point_
However. one fault of the Monte Carlo technique lies in the
large number of function calls required in the simulation run.
This results in long computation time and hence high cost in
running the simulation on a small computer_ This can be over
looked considering the high accuracy required in defining
wellbore geometry of directed wells.
Comparison of the results by direct calculation with those

16

obtained by Monte Carlo simulation shows that a certain minimum


number of simulation runs was required before meaningful results
could be obtained.
For the simulation runs, a general trend was observed.

~be

results obtained improved with increase in number of simulation


runs until an optimum result was obtained. This is expected. 'lbe
larger the number of random numbers generated the closer the
distribution of the simulated inclination angles,

.~

and

azimuthal angles, 9~ tend towards a uniform rectangular


distribution.

17
NOMENCLATURE

X
Y

departure east (displacement), ft

= departure

north (latitude), ft

= true vertical depth, ft


= inclination angle, rad

+aV8

= average

inclination angle, rad

azimuthal angle, rad

8aV8

= average

= measured length between two survey statiohs, ft

= difference between two points

az~uthal

angle, rad

integrable probability function

= cumulative probability function


= lower limit of inclination angle
= upper limit of inclination angle

lower limit of azimuthal angle

F
a

= upper limit of azimuthal angle.

= number of survey stations

18

RE.EERKNCES
1.

Craig, J. T. and Randall, B. V.: "Direct ional Survey .


Calculation", PEl (march, 1976), pp. 38-54.

2.

Wilson, G.J.: "An Improved Method for Computing Directional


Surveys", Trans. AlME Vol. 243, pp. 871-876.

3.

Walstrom, J.E., Harvey, R.P., and Eddy, H.D.: "Directional


Survey Methods: (I) The Balance Tangential Method;

(II) A

Comparison of Various Methods", SPE 3379 paper presented at


SPE 46th Annual Fall Meeting, New Orleans, Oct. 3-6, 1971.

4...

Ri vero, R. T .: " Use of Curvature Method to

de~ermine

True

Reservoir Thickness", Trans. AlME, Vol. 251, pp. 491-496.


5.

Walstrom, J.E., Harvey, R.P., and Eddy, H.O.: .. A Comparison


of Various Directional Survey Models and An Approach to
Model Error Analysis", JPT (Aug., 1972),

6.

~p .

935-943.

Callas, N.P. et al: "Directional Survey Methods Compared and


Programmed", Oil and Gas Journal (Jan., 1979), pp. 53-58.

7.

McMillian, H.W.: "Planning The Directional Well A


calculation Method", JPT (June,1981), pp. 952-962.

8.

Zaremba, W.A.: "Directional Survey by the Circular Arc


Method", SPEJ (Feb., 1973) Trans. AlME Vol. 255, pp. 5-11

9.

Callas, N.P.: "Computing Directional Survey With a Helical


Method", SPEJ (Dec., 1976), pp. 327-336.

10.

Thorogood, J.L.:

"How to Get the Best Results from Well

Survey Data", World Oil (April, 1986) pp. 86-108.

19
11.

Thorogood, J.L.:

"How to Specify and Implement Well

Surveys", World Oil, (July, 1986), pp. 44-50.


12.

Kumar, T.: "Principles of Simulation Applied to Oil Field


Venture Analysis With Systems Approach", JPT (Oct., 1986)
pp. 1111-1112.

13.

Walstrom, J.E . Huller, T.O., and Mcfarlane, R.C.:


"Evaluating Uncertainty in Engineering Calculations", JPT
(Dec~,1967),

14.

Trans. AIME Vol.

2~O,

pp. 159?-1603.

Walstrom, J.E., Brown; A.A., and Harvey, R.P.: "An Analysis


of Uncertainty in Directional Survey", Trans. AlME Vol. 246,
pp: 515-523.

15.

Wolff, C. J. and Wardt, J. P.: "Borehole Position Uncertainty


- Analysis of Measuring Methods and Derivation of Systematic

..

Error Model". JPT (Dec., 1981), pp. 2339-2350.


16.

James, R.E. and Rogers, L.S.: Design and Use' of Computer


Simulation Models", Hacmillian Publishing Co., Inc. New
York, pp. 170-183.

20

APPENDIXA
The statistical method used to test for uniform distribution
and randomness of pseudo-random numbers generated by a
multiplicative congruential method is presented below from Ref.
16:
Test for uniform distribution
. Suppose we have a sequence of 1'1 single digit random numbers that
we want to evaluate.
Let'f~
E~

= frequency that digit i occurred in the frequency


= expected number of times digiti would have occurred if
the sequence were completely random.

= number

of sub intervals.

Then the frequency test is :

xa,

(A.1)

Null Hypothesis:
Level of significance, a = 0.05
Degrees of freedom

= k-1

The pseudo-random numbers are uniformly distributed if the


calculated value of X2 F exceeds the tabulated X2 value for k-1
degrees of freedom at the pre-determined level of confidence.

21
Test for

ran~

Suppose we want to test the independence of consecutive pairs of


in a sequence of M single digit random numbers.
The serial test is:

xa,

(A,2)

Where

E 1 .:!

M!lOO

and
9

~
E j .:1 = MilO
-0

Null Hypothefiia;
Ho

H1

= Numbers
= Numbers

are random
are not random

Significant level
Degree of freedom
The

hypothesis of independence is accepted if the calculated

value of X2 for k 2 -k degrees of freedom at the pre-selected level


of significance.
A computer program RANDTEST is written to implement this
test.

APPENDIX B

.,

RESUlT OF SA"PlE CASE 1:


S-WELL CALCULATION NIT~ HELICAL TURN
rIcr OFF porNT c 10.0.5001
TARBET LOCATION = 12000.2000.~OOOI
"AXI"U" BUILD AND DROP CUAVATURE.T : 3 1100ft
"AII"U" lpRN CURVATURE z 1.15 I 100ft

01 =.40
01 = 0
02=U

~.

'.! ..___------------------------

. ..

I------~-------__--_ ~-~-_
i
SURVEY DATA J .
.J

: STATIQN DEPTH lNeLl


NU"BER
IFTl DEJi.

AlJ"UTH
. DEB.

WELL COORDINATE I
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
EAST.
NORTH.
DEPTH.
UFTI
Y (FTI 1 IFTI

.
.
.
I-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
.00
40.00
.00
.00
500.00
~oo.o

2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
~8

29
30
31
32
33

517.0
883.0
1042.0
1165.0
1269.0
1362.0
1'45.0
1523.0
1595.0
166'.0
J729.0
1773.0
1836.0
1899.0
1962.0
2025.0
2088.0
209.5.0
2102.0
3112.0
'122.0
5133.0
5196.0

.50

40.00

11.49.

40.00

16.27

5905.0 15.03

40.00 #~
40.00
'0.00
10.00
40.00
40.00
40.00
'0.00
40.00
40.00
41.17
42.34
43.51
14.6B
45.8C
'5.'17
46.JO
16.10
46.JO
46.JO
46.10
46.10
46.1"
'6.10
46.10
16.10'
46.10
a6.10
C6.10

5q~6.0

46.10

19.~5

23.08
25.85
28.36
30.69
32.86
34.92
36.97
38.20
38.20
38.20

3P.70

5666.0

3B.20
3B.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
36.31
3 33
32.24
30.03
27.65
25.07
21.21

~77'.O

la.9~

~262.0

5331.0
5405.0
548'.0
~570.0

JS.~O

.05
24,5'-1
53.80
83.08
112.30
t'1.7b
170.81
2"0.18
229.28
25B.69
ZR7.92
30'1.85
335.20
161,14
3B7.67
41',79
C'2 .6
445.57
448.68
898.73
13'8.78
1799.28

.06
517.00
2'1.2'01
BtlO.U
58.50 -1034.75
87.79 1151.64
117.00 12'8.39
11~.50
1333.02
175.'7 1'06.~0
21,'l1.'11 1474.77
2~3.96
1535.'17
263.43 1593.25
292.62 1645.90
313.16 . 1690.79
342.74 1730.30
371.81 177'1.81
100,33 J829.32
419.31 1979.83
455.7' 1928.34
458.75 1933:8':
'61.75 193'1.3.
894.85 2733.05
1327.9' 3526.77
17bl.'6 4321.27
~788.9.
1787.91 4371.41
181~.IO . 181 1.36
.425.76
1841.65 184".62 4482.94
1868.19 1967.15 4~46.28
1894.61 J8'13.57 4615.'7
1911."9 1920.05 4692.52
19'7.78 1'0146.7' 4780.46
197'.09 1973.06 18~1.55
20 0 0.63 19'19.59 ~006.81
)QQQ.7B

lq~q.77

~007.7S

RESULT OY'SAMPLE CASK 2:


SLANT WELL CALCULATION
IICKOr, POINT = IO.O.500l

" TARGET LOCATION = 12000,2000.5000l


RADIUS OF CURVATURE 'f3 IIOOl = 1910

..

01 = 45
. 01 = 0

---------------------------------------------------------------------WELL COORDINATE :
SURVEY DATA :
.. LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
NORTH. DEPTH.
EAST.
STATION DEPTH INCLI AZIMUTH
"IFTl
llFTl
DEG.
Y ("1 Z 1fT)
DEG.
NUMBER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------.00 500.00
.00
500.0
.00 45.00
1
.05
.05 517.00
2 517.0 .50 45.00
.58
.58 555.99
556.0 1.68 45.00
3
1. 67
1.67 594.96
595.0 2.85 45.00 .
4
3.32 633.89
3.32
634.0 4.03 45.00
5
5.54
5.54 672.76
673.0 5.20 45.00
6
713.0 6.38 45.00
8.39
8.39 712.56
7
11. 74 751. 27
11. 74
752.0 7.55 45.00
8
791.0 8.73 45.00
15.64
15.64 789.88
9
~28.36
20.11
20.11
830.0 9.91 45.00
10
25.13 866.71
869.0 11.08 45.00
25.. 13
11
30.85 905.88
909.0 12.26 45.00
30.85
12
36.98
36.98 943.90
13 948.0 13.43 45.00
43.66 981. 74
43.66
987.0 14.61 45.00
14
SO.89
50.89 101?38
15 1026.0 15.79 45.00
58.67
58.67 1056.79
16 1065.0 16.96 45.00
67.20
67.20 1094.93
1105.0 18.14 45.00
17
76.05
76.05 1131. 87
18 1144.0 19.31 45.00
85.44
85.44 1168.54
19 1183.0 20.49 45.00
95.35
95.35 1204.93
20 1222.0 21.66 45.00
105.80 105.80 1241. 02
45.00
1261. 0 22.84
21
117.04 117.04 1277.72
22 1301. 0 24.02 45.00
128.52 12~.52 1313.18
23 1340.0 25.19 45.0Q
152.51 152.51 13R3.42
1418.0 26.37 . 45.00
24
141~.1P,
165.01
165.~1
25 1457.0 27.54 45.00
178.01 . 178.01 1452.57 "
26 1496.0 28.72 45.00
191. BE 1487.45
27 " 1536.0 29.89 45.00
191.86
1521. 06
205.84
205.84
1575.0
31.07
45.00
28
1~,56.81
221.
43
221.
43
45.00
29 1617.0 32.25
237.55 237.55 15~7..0~
30 1659.0 33.51 45.00
254.62 254 .62 1627.67
171r2.0 34.78 45.00
31
45.00
683.23 683.23 2480.12
32 2748.0 36.05
1118.49 1118.49 3325.81
33 3794.0 36.05 45.00
1553.76 1553.76 4171. 51
4840.0 36.05 45.00.
34
1989.03 1989.03 5017.20
35 5886.0 36.05 45.00

RESULT OR SAMPLE CASE 3: CALIF. LAMBERT ZONE 6WELL


NO. OF SIMULALION RUN = 500

---------------------------------------------------------------------SUllVKY DATA :
STATION DEPTH INCLI, AZIMUTH
NUMBEft 1FT! DIG.
DEG.

WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
EAST.
NORTH. DEPTH.
Ifm

IfnI

un)

-------------------.---------------------------------------------------1
2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

..

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

.0
108.0
139.0
170.0
202.0
233.0
265.0
296.6
. 327.0
358.0
390.0
421.0
452.0
483.0
515.0
547.0
578.0
609.0
640.0
671.0
703.0
. 735.0
766.0
797.0
828.0
860.0
892.0
923.0
954.0
985.0
1016.0
1046.0
1077.0
1108.0
1139.0
1171.0
1203.0
1234.0
1265.0
1296.0
1327.0
1359.0
1391.0
1422.0
1453.0
1483.0
1515.0
1547.0
1689.0
1814.0
1924.0
2007.0

.00
.00
1.00
3.00
4.00
5.25
6.00
8.00
9.00
11.00
11.75
13.75
15.75
17.00
18~50

20.00
21. 75
24.00
24.25
25.75
25.25
26.00
27.00
28.00
30.00
33.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.75
45.00
47.75
60.00
52.25
54.75
56.50
'58.50
60.00
62.00
64.00
66.00
67.25
68.00
68.50
68.75
69.00
69.30
70.00
70.25
68.75
67.25
68.00

N .00 E
N .00 E
S 59.30 Ii
S 59.30 Ii
S 60.30 Ii
S 78.30 Ii
~ 83.30 W
N88.30 Ii
S 85.30 W:
S 85.30 Ii
N89.80 Ii
N86.80 Ii
S 85.30 t1
N88.80 Ii
S 88.30 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 89.80 II
S 89.90 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 79.30 W
S 75.80 Ii
S 77 .60 Ii
S 80.30 If
S 80.30 \I
S 80.30 Ii
S 80.30 \I
S 79.30 Ii
S 77.80 Ii
S 76.30 II
S 75.30 II
S 75.30 II
'S 74.30 W
S 74.30 If
S 74.80 Ii
S 74.30 Ii
S 73.60 Ii
S 74. 30 Ii
S 74.80 Ii
S 74.30 It
S 74.30 W
S 73.80 It
S 73.80 II
S 73.80 W
S 73.30 It
S 72.80 It
S 72.80 Ii
S 72.30 II
S 72.30 Ii
S 72.30 Ii
S 77.80 Ii
S 79.30 II

.00
.00
-.14
-.69
-1.67
-2.55
-3.05
-3.22
-3.34
-3.78
-4.03
-3.83
-3.93
-4.20
-4.24
-4.83
-5.30
-5.33
-5.86
~6.94

-8.78
-11.77
-14.92
-17 .64
-20.18
-22.99
-26.05
-29.35
-33.22
-37.81
-43.09
-48.60
-~4.72

-61.25
-67.89
-74.92
-82.34
-89.66
-96.88
-104.24
-111.85
-119.92
-128.17
-136.21
-144.38
-152.54
-161.38.
-170.38
-210.99
-246.58
-272:89
-288.12

.00
.00
.00 108.00
-.23 139.00
-1.16 . 169.98
-2.85 201. 92
-5.18 232.82
-8.28 264.66
-12.12 296;02
-16.61 326.09
-21.97 356.62
-28.28 387.99
-35.12 418.22
-43.00 448.20
-51.73 477.94
-61. 49 508.42
-72.02 538.63
-83.05 567.59
-95.10 596.15
-107.76 624.44
-120.81 652.54
-134.46 681.42
-147.97 710.27
-161.44 738.02
-175.49 765.51
-190.30 792.63
-206.78 819.91
-224.65 846.28
-243.01 871. 03
-262.13 895.12
-282.09 918.38
-302.92 940.73
-323.92 961. 42
-346.46 9Rl. 81
-369.69 1001. 27
-393.71 1019.70
-419.16 1037.77
-445.11 1054.96
-470.72 1070.81
-496.86 1085.84
-523.48 1099.91
-550.52 1113.01
-578.77 1125.71
-607. :8 1137.89
-634.83 1149.36
-662.52 1160.68
-689.28 1171. 49
-717.85 1182.88
-746.47 1194.01
-873.69 1242.28
-985.23 1286.06
-1083.73 1327.26
-1158.95 1358.86

RRSULT OF SAMPLE CASE 4: HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE.


NO OF SIMULATION RUN = 500

---------------------------------------------------------------------WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDK DEPARTURE VERTICAL
DEPTH.
EAST.
NORTH.
YUTI zlm
xlm

SURVEY DATA :
STATION DEPTH INCLI
NUMBER 1FT \ DEG.

AZIMUTH
DEG.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

.
~

,~

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
46
49

1259.0 .00
1309.0 .00
1350.0 2.25
1381.0 3.00
1442.0 4.25
1473.0 5.25
1503.0 6.05
1534.0 8.05
1565.0 9.05
1688.0 ,13.05
1781.0 14.25
1907.0 16.05
2060.0 18.15
2152.0 24.00
2182.0 24.25
2368.0 28.45
2441.0 30.00
2502.0 30.00
2618.0 32.00
2803.0 34.05
3111.0 43.75
3297.0 47.05
3364.0 45.00
3600.0 41.75
3773.0 49.15
3836.0 50.00
4020.0 47.05
4269.0 44.75
4546.0 43.25
4701. 0 42.00
4949.0 42.00
5285.0 41.05
5657.0 39.05
584? 0 40.00
6026.0 40.25
6214.0 39.75
6583..0 41.25
6954. 0 45.05
7015.0 45.25
7565.0 45.75
7705.0 45.25
8080.0 45.75
6269.0 44.00
8641.0 44.00
9023.0 44.00
9212.0 43.25
9400.0 43.00
9587.0 42.75
10222.0 40.00

II .00 E
N .00 E

K28.00 K
K35.00 K
N55.00 K
N68.00 K
N68.00 E
N71.00 E
K70.00 K
N71.00 K
N13.00 E
N71.00' K
N71.00 K
N62.20 E
N62.0~ K
M63.00 E
N68.00 K
N83.00 K
N83.00 K
N85.00 E
N87.00 E
N88.00 K
N88.00 E
N88.00 K
M88.00 E
N88.00 K
II 87.~ K
It 87.00 E
N87.00 K
M~~.OO E
N66.00 K
N90.00 K
S 89.00 E
S 88.00 E
'S 89.00 K
S 89.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 87.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 86.00 K
5 89.00 E
5 88.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 67.00 K
S 87.00 E
S 87.00 E
S 86.00 K
S 87.00 K
S 87.00 E

.00
.00
.71
1.92
4.63
5.86
6.96 '
8.30
9.83
17.70
24.48
34.66
49.56
62.86
68.59
.106.71
121.4R
129.10
136.38
146.92
160.40
166.18
167.86
'173.83
178.37
180.05
186.07
195.43
205.50
210.08
215.68
219.77
217.68
214.60
211. 47
209.38
203.11
192.05
190.17
176.48
173.81
166.87
162.22
150.96
137.07
130.25
124.65
119.10
97.14

.00
.00
.38
1.12
3.83
6.08
8.82
12.39
16.73
38.95
59.82
91.13
134.39
165.12
115.96
249.17
281.59
311.04
370.33
470.60
663.30
795.59
843.77
1014.49
1144. 47
1192.61
1330.32
1508.88
1701.03
1805.90
1971. 74
2194.44
2433.72
2551. 42
2671.24
2790.78
3030.34
3283.78
3326.98
3719.03
3818.85
4086.22
4219.49
4477.65
4742.65
4872. 61
5Q01. 26
5128.37
5547.48

1259.00
1309.00
1349.99
1380.96
1441.83
1472.73
1502.58
1533.34
1564.00
1684.69
1175.07
1896.68
2042.67
2128.31
2155.69
2322.33
2386.03
2438;86
2538.29
2693.39
2932.80
3063.38
3109.90
3272.71
3386.77
3421.37
3549.22
3722.49
3921.74
41135.79

4220.09
4471.63
4756.38
4899.08
5041.30
5183.78
5464.36
5734.98
5778.00
6163.50
6261. 63
6524.47
6658.40
6925.99
7200.78
7337.59
7474.80
7611. 84
8088.30

RESULT OF SAMPLE CASE 5: LOW ANGLE "S-CURVED" BOREHOLE.


NO OF SIMULATION RUN = 500

-------.--------------------------.----------------------------------SURVEY DATA :
STATION DEPTH
IFT\

NUMBER

I~CLI

DEG.

'AZIIflJTH

DEG.

WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
DEPTH.
EAST.
NORTH.
UFTl
YIFT\ zlm

----------------------------------------~-------------

4031.0
4591.0
5026.0
52g.C
4
5 5648.0
6 6667.0
7 671'J.0
8 6748.0
9 6812.0
10 6881.0
6934.0
11
12 7028.0
13 7154.0
14 7279.0
15 7467.0
16 7529.0
17 7591.0
18 7622.0
19 7795.0
20 8202.0
8265.0
21
22 8484.0
23 8733.0
24 9003.0
25 9315.0
26 9646.0
27 9989.0
28 10140.0
29 10358.0
30 10451.0
31 10826.0
32 11045.0
- 33 11140.0
34 11725.0
35. 11962.0
36 12257.0
37 12523.0
38 12715.0
39 12877.0
40 13088.0
41 131.00.0
42 13175.0
43 13292.0
44 13322.0
45 13445.0
46 13515.0
47 13785.0
48 13936.0
49 14129.0
50 14267.0
51 14354.0
52 14562.0
1
2
3

.00 S .00
2.25. S 50.00 II
2.00 S 42.00 It
2.00 .N62.00 W
1.75 N72.00 w
1.25 S 74.00 Ii
2.25 N40.00 II
3.0G N39.00 W
5.00 N38.00 Ii
7.25 N25.00 Ii
8.00 N32.00 Ii
9.00 N30.00 W
10.25 N29.00 W
11.00 N23.00 Ii
12.25 N16.00 'I
11.25 N21.00 II
13.25 N25.00 It
13.75 K26.00 II
14.00 N25.00 II
14.00 'N 22.00 II
14.25 N21.00 Ii
14.00 N21.00 II
13.75 N21. 00 Ii
13.75 N21.00 II
13.00 N17.00 Ii
13.25 N15.00 II
13.75 N14.00 W
12.75 1I 14.00 W
13.75 N14.00 \I
14.00 N14.00 II
15.00 N14.00 II16.00 N14.00 II
16.25 N14.00 II
18.00 N13.00 'I
18.00 N13.00 II
q.25 N18.00 II
11. 00, N22.00 Ii
11.15 N24.00 V
9.25 N30.00 V
9.00 N36.00 V
8.75 N33.00 V
9.00 M36.00 II
8.75 011 38.00 II
9.00 N40.00 II
8.00 M43.00 II
7.00 N27.00 'I
6.00 R33.00 B
3.00 M59.00 E
5.00 S 61.00 oK
6.25 S 85.00 I!
6.25 S 83.00 I!
3.25 S 80.CO E

.00
-7.07
-18.26
-19.32
-13.78
-13.32
-12.~0

-11.80
-8.31
-2.04
4.13
16.04
34.38
55.08
90.77
102.74
114.85
121.38
158.82
249.11
263.41
313.30
369.05
428.96
497.19
569.43
646.96
680.54
729.02
750.66
841. 76
898.55
924.15
1091.64
1163.00
1239.52
1292.01
1325.96
1351.50
1379.55
1381. 08
1390.61
1405.03
1408.63
1422.24
1429.70
1458.85
1467.01
1467.23
1463.31
1462.32
1459.77

------------------

.00
-8.42
-20.01
-26.01
-39.07
-65.36
-66.74
-67.64
-70.42
-74.26
-77.61
-84.77
-95.14
-105.24
-117.88
-121.88
-127.02
-130.14
-148.00
-187.26
-192.89
-212.05
-233.45
-256.45
-279.94
-300.66
-320.71
-329.08
-341.17
-346.57
-369.28
-383.44
-389.82
-430.04
-446.51
-467.74
-486.84
-501.25
-514.27
-532.49
-533.54'
-540.09
-550.95
-553.87
-565.91
-571.14
-569.61
-561.16
-548.31
-535.47
-526.05
-509.01

4031. 00
4590.86
5025.56
5213.44
5647.21
6665.86
6715.83
6746.80
6810.64
6879.24
6931. 77
7024.74
7148.96
7271.82
7455.96
7516.66
7577.24
7607.39
7775.34
8170.25
8231.34
8443.72
8685.46
8947.72
9251.25
9573.61
9907.13
10054.11
10266.30
10356.59
10719.64
10930.67
11021.93
11580.97
11806.37
12090.39
12350.44
12538.86
12698.30
12906.63
12918.48
12992.58
13108.18
13137.82
13259.47
13328.87
13597.13
13747.65
13940.17
14077.50
14163.99
14371.25

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

2102.0
2221.0
2344.0
2498.0
2655.0
2810.0

66.75
66.75
68.00
67.75
67.75
67.50
~924.0 66.50
3035.0 64.75

S 79.30
S 78.80
S 78.30
S 78.30
S 77.30
S 75.30
S 79.30
S 82.30

II
II
Ii

II
II
If

II
Ii

~304.52

-325.59
-348.29
-377.22
-407.93
-441.88
-464. 95
-481.11

-1245.73
-1354. 61
-1466.68
-1606.38
-1748.40
-1887.65
-1989.99
-2089.78

1393.67
1437.00
1482.33
1540.33
1599.77
1658.78
1703.32
1749.13

TABLIL.1
SAMPLE CASE 1: CALIF. LAMBERT ZONE 6 WELL
HODEL:

NORTH

EAST

X (Ff)

VERTICAL

Z (F.rl

(Ff)

TANGENTIAL

-2102.1

-479.6

1744.1

CIRCULAR ARC

-2088.9

-482.9

1749.2

RADIUS OF
CURVATURE

-2089.4

-481.1

1749.2

SAMPLE CASE 2: HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE


MODEL:

NORTH

EAST
X (Ff)

CIRCULAR ARC

5547.0

101.4

HELICAL ARC

5546.5

94.6

RADIUS O.F
CURVATURE

5547.5

97.0

VERTICAL

(FI')

(Fl')

8088.1
8088.8
8088.3

TABLE -3
SAMPLE CASE 3: LOW ANGLE "S" CURVED BOREHOLE

MODEL:

EAST
X (Ff)

NORTH
y

(FI')

VERTICAL
Z (Fl')

CIRCULAR ARC

-510.0

1459.9

14,371.4

HELICAL ARC

-513.5

1453.0

14,370.8

RADIUS OF
CURVATURE

-500.0

1473.0

14,371.3

TABLE-4
SAMPLE CASE 1: CALIF LAMBERT ZONE 6 WELL
EAST

MODEL:

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

X (Ff)

NORTH
Y (Ff)

RADIUS OF
CURVATURE

-2089.40

-481.10

1749.20

MONTE CARLO
SIMULATION

-2089.78

-481.11

1749.13

SAMPLE CASE 2'. HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE


MODEL:

NORTH

EAST
X

(Ff)

(F.f)

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

RADIUS OF
CURVATURE

5547.50

97.00

8088.30

MONTE CARLO
SIMULAXION

5547.48

97.14

8088.30

,
TABLE 6
SAMPLE CASE 3-. LOW ANGLE "S" CURVED BOREHOLE
EAST
X (Fr)

NORTH
Y (Ff)

RADIUS OF
CURVATURE

-500.00

1473.00

14,371.30

MONTE CARLO
SIMULATION

-509.01

1459.77

14,371.25

MODEL:

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

.....

U'1

i'Q

'-

..,

i \
i- \

i \.

i I

I
I
I

I
I
i

...

--

7'

)
I

~__

I ":
I'"
III
i

I """

1m

c:

i
I
I

i'

I
I

i
i
.1
I

i
!

I..

i
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