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# ~~,173

MAR 01 1993

UNSOLICITED

FOR

## ESTIMATING BOTTOM-HOLE COORDINATES

IN

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

BY
DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERINct

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY

## The problem of accurate determination of bottomhole

coordinates of directed wells is addressed in this paper, using
a Monte Carlo simulation technique.The technique is incorporated'
into a three dimensional radius of curvature model developed by
Rivero 4

## accommodated in this model.

The Monte Carlo simulation technique is .applied to five
sample cases - two idealized wells used by Mcmillian?; and three
real wells s B

## coordinates are calculated, first, by direct calculation and then

by Monte Carlo simulation using various simulation runs for each
sample case.
A computer plot of bottomhole coordinates is made to
illustrate the shape of the wellbore for each of the three sample
cases using an optimized simulation run.

I..tITBODU'CTION

## Over the years, problem of accurate determination of

bottomhole position of directed wells have been the focus of
studies in directional drilling research. To this end, three
sources of error

## of directed wells have been identified1-9.1s-16. These are: (1)

instrument error, (2) error inherent in the mathematical model
used as a result of its stated assumptions; and (3) Statistical
error in the measurement of the inclination angle and
azimuthal angle, 8 of a well. Instrument error can be minimized
by use of hi.gh precision survey instrument. Errors inherent in
,

## the mathematical models have been addressed by several

literaturea 1 - e .
However, in contrast to the many references on model errors.
there is a notable dearth of articles discussing statistical
error in measured survey data. Only one literature has discussed
this problem.
In 1967, Walstrom et a1 11 used two approaches - an
analytical method and a Monte Carlo simulation approach to show
that there is an ellipse of uncertainty in calculated bottomhole
position of directed wells. They stated that this uncertainty was
due to statistical error in reading of inclination angle, t'and

## azimuthal angle, 8, of a well. Hence there is the need to further

investigate how the statistical error in the measurement of
bottomhole coordinates of directed wells can be minimized or
eliminated.
It i8 thu ob.iective pf this paper to demonstrate how the
Monte Carlo elmulation technique can be used to minimize
statistical error in measured survey data.

## tiOJiTE CARW SIMULATION

In theory, statistical error in meaBUred survey data may be
minimized by resurveying the hole several times and finding the
average of the meaaured inclination angle,

## with the vertical

and azimuthal angle, 8 with the north. Two problems will however
prohibit such a practical procedure. (1) The optimum number of
surveys required for a particular point is difficult to
determine; and (2) the operation is very tedious and highly
uneconomical.
Alternatively, the Monte Carlo simulation technique can be

## used to simulate this procedure and find the optimum number of

surveys required to minimize the statistical error in measured
survey data. The Monte Carlo

s~lation

technique is a variant'

## of simulation and can be used in oil exploration ventures.

drilling and financial analysis of all types of projects that
involve risk and uncertainty.

MQDEL-...EQRM!lI.JlT.lQN

..

In the development
. of this simulation model the following general
L

## The wellbore axis is assumed to be" curved in either or both

vertical and horizontal projections.

2.

## The wellbore axis is assumed to be adequately represented

by a large number N, of curved sections joined end to end
from the top to the bottom of the hole and closely following

## the course of the hole. Errors due to this approximation are

assumed negligible.
3.

.~

8~

are

distribution.
4.

l~e

L~

## Following assumption (2), the borehole coordinates can be

computed as follows:

z ..

1:Zj
1

r= Er

S = ESj

) (1)

.~

## For this studY, the random variables

are considered to

61

and

## b1. Similarly, the random variables 8~ are considered to be

uniformly distributed between lower and upper limits of C1 and
d1.
Thus:
8

~: . 1 ~

bj

e1

dj

01 ~

) . . . . . (2)
"

4h

and 81 by taking

## into consideration the specification of error and the degree of

precision of directional survey equipments, the upper and lower
limits may be defined as follows for a well maintained
single shot directional survey equipment

12:

:;

## -,1 = max [(. rO. 00-63625) ,0]

b1

...

Cj

=8

41

..

+ 0.0043625
j

3.14.1

1 for 8.1
c,1 ..

11,1

lS:

0.0043625

8,1 + 3. 14.1

e.l -

= 8,1

0.34.9

1for o. 004.3625

0.0174.5

+ 0.34.9

oJ. = 8

111 = 8

+ 0.034.9

0.034.9

........ . (3)

Inverse tran8fQrmatj~D
UnifQrmly distributed random numbers,

r~

generated by a

## mixed cQngruent method can be transfQrmed

into
unique
values
,
representing the inclination angle, .1 and azimuthal angle, 91

## using inverse transfQrmation .

Suppose that we divide the interval frQm a1tQ b:1. and C1 tQ
d1 intQ n equal sub

interval~

.1,

## that the probability that the randQm variables will take on a

value in the sub-interval containing .1,. 9~, respectively, is

## Then the probability that the randQm variableB .1 and 91

with which we are concerned will take on a value Qn the interval
frQm a1 tQ b1 and C1 tQ d1 respectively is given by

,J ,(.)
=

and
t~

9~.

and

.~

9~

defined as:
IJ

.P(a t

s: ~1 s:

b.t)

!(.1)~.I.

] (5)

II

P(Ol

s: e 1 s: d j

f (e

1)' del

11

## The cumulative distribution function

random variables,

t~

.P'( .I.)

FCt~)

and F(91)

o~the

..

.Jf

Let) . ~t;

] (6)

"

## If both the generated random number r, F<t1) and F(91) are

defined over the range 0.0 to 1.0. the random variables t1 and
9~

thus:

J .......... (7)

## For any particular value of r. ~ and 8 can be generated by the

inverse transformation:

:i

81.

,-1

,-1 (r )

(rj

] .. (8)
1

i-Cx)

## The uniform distribution represents the range of the random

variables ~1 and 81.
The probability density function fC~1). f(81) for a uniform
distribution can be defined as:
'(~ 1)

,(8 1)

z;

1
b C a1
1

d 1 -C1

) .... . (9)

F(~1.)

## obtained by integrating f(t1.) and f(91.) respectively

.. f b. 1

-.

dt ..

C 41

] . . . . . . . . . (10)

rj

..

rj

= ,(9 1)

1-

..

r(1)

aj
b 1 -a1

. 8 raJ.
d/-C1

Therefore.
~j

..

r 1 (b1 -a1 )

c1)

-1
]

r j (cf1

p .

(11)

c1

## From the 3-dimensional Radius of Curvature model 4

Cases 1 and 2:

. . . . . . . . . . . . (12)

cas.

8,

e,

(-1t

(8,-8,)

'It]

(La -

## La) (Co 1 - eo" a ) (Cos81

. (~a - .1) (82 - 8 1)

. (L:a -

## ~) (eo 1 - eoS. a) (S1.n8a

(~2 - .1) (82 - 8 1 )

CO'&a)

- B.1.D91 )

. . . . . . . (14.)

## (~ - ~) (CO.~l - eo~2) (S.1J:l9:a)

. . . . . . . . . . . . (15)

(~2 - .1)

(La -

~ (13)

~) (Co 1 -

eo..a )

(COs8a )

............ . (16)

(~2 - .1)

Case 3 and 4:

(0. -

82 - 8 1

## (0. - Lt)( Sin8 2

- Sin8})

...

~(17)

. . . . . ( 18)

. . . . . . _ . ( 19)

8 2 - 8}

Case 4:

82 " 81

. . (20)

. . . . . (21)

10

## A change in azimuth <.2 -91) is limited to 180

(or R

radians) since any change greater than this would imply a change
in the opposite direction.

1.

of the study.

2.

&

## can be used to solve this problem

. taking into consideration,
the constraints and restraints on the model on the basis of
their stated assumptions.
3.

4.

## Identifying the influential input parameters of the chosen

model; in this case, t1 and 81.

5.

## Cumulative probability distribution curve for each input

parameter .:1. and 8:1.

## pseudo-random numbers are generated by a multiplicative

congruential method and then assigned to represent the
probability range of the inclination angle

.1

and azimuthal

angle 8:1..
6.

## The simulation experiment is then conducted by random

sampling. Probability values are chosen randomly and
translated by means of cumulative distribution into unique
values of the inclination angle

\$1

## and azimuthal angle

61

11
using inverse transformation - equations (2) and (11).
7.

~~

and

## azimuthal angle, 8:1. for each particular survey point. i is

then calculated thus:

Ct .....

N
] . . . . . (22)

.
8.

...

..

~~

## substituted into expressions for calculating bottomhole

coordinates X, Y7 Z equations (12) through (21).
The various mathematical models that have been used to
calculate bottomhole coordinates of directed wells include:
1.

2.

3.

4.

The

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

## Careful evaluation of each of these models have been made

in several papers 1 -

B.

12
Rivero 4

simulation.

~.lLGENERATlON

## There are basically three methods for generating random

numbers: (a) manual or mechanical methods, (b) electrical analogcomputer methods, and (c) digital computer methods. Of these
three, only the first two methods yield numbers that are truly
random. The third method yields sequences of numbers that do not
completely conform with the definition of ' random sequence, i.e
they are predictable.
,

~echanical

## cumbersome for the analysis of the problem under study. The

electrical analog-computer method, although quite fast, cannot
produce the same starting values. A reproducible sequence is
required in

~he.Monte

Carlo

s~ulation

## computer methods are therefore chosen in preference to

the other methods because they are superior in this' respect.

## Multiplicative congruent method

The multiplicative congruent method is one of the best
digital methods for producing pseudo-random numbers.
The method is based on the general relationship:
r:s.+1

ar:1. (Modulo M)

## ..... _... (23 )

Where
r:s. - a pseudo-random number
i-subscript of successive pseudo random numbers produced .

13
H

a large integer

a constant

## For binary computers, H is chosen as 2 b where b is the number of

binary digits in a computer word.
In order to obtain meaningful results, the pseudo-random
numbers generated by the multiplicative congruent method is
subjected to statistical tests for randomness and uniform
distribution (see appendix A ).

RESULTS ANALYSlS
~idatjon

## In order to.see the trend in the results of different

simulation runs by the use of the Monte Carlo technique, the
radius of curvature model was first tested using three wells as
sample cases: (1) a Calif _ Lambert ~one 6 well, (2) a high angle
"kick and hold",

borehol~

## The results obtained are compared with the results of the'

ZarembaB and Callas 9
For the Calif. Lambert zone 6 well (Table 1), the Radius
of Curvature and Circular Arc models both gave similar results
for the X, Y, and Z coordinates. The Tangential IDOdel gave
similar results for the Y and Z coordinates but departed by
-12.95 ft from the average of the other two models in the X
coordinate.

## For the high

angle "Kick and Hold" borehole (Table 2), the
.
values obtained for the Z and X coordinates for the three models

14
'are very close.

## best result for the Y coordinate. The value obtained approximates

the average for the Helical Arc and Circular Arc models.
In the sample case 3 study (table 3), the Radius of
Curvature model again gives better values for the three well
coordinates X, Y and Z respectively. The values obtained for the
X and Z cqordinates approximate the average obtained by the
Circular Arc and Helical Arc models. A more accurate resolution
is obtained for the Y coordinate by the Radius of Curvature
model. There is as much as a 16.4 ft improvement on the
resolution of the y axis. This is due to the fact that

## constraints and restraints on the CiTcular Arc and Helical Arc

models in an "S" shaped well are eliminated in the Radius of
Curvature model.
Monte Carlo Simulation

Runs

## The Monte Carlo simulation technique was first tested on two

idealized wells - an "S" well with helical turn and a slant well.
Figure 1 shows

## scatter of likely bottomhole positions of the

idealized "S" well with helical turn generated with 200 simulated
survey data. For each of the two sample cases, the bottomhole
position was simulated using several number of simulation runs.
Figures 2 and 3 show the trend obtained. 500 runs represents the
optimum number of simulation runs necessary to obtain the best
average for the simulated inclination angle, and azimuthal
angle, 8.
The Monte Carlo simulation technique was next applied to
three real well sample cases -

## of Reference 8; (2) A high angle "kick and hold" borehole and

15
(3) A low angle "S" borehole appearing in Reference 9 _ The
computer results for the three sample cases using 500 aimulation
runs is. given in Appendix B. Figures 4 through 10 repreaent

## two dimensional cross-sectional views of wellbore geometry for

the sample cases considered. The main use of these plots is to
illustrate the shape of the hole. locate important sections of
the wellbore and visualize problem areas such as a dogleg
severity in the wells studied.
For the three real wells the bottomhole position calculated
by the Monte Carlo model improved on the results obtained by

## direct calculation using the radius of curvature model(aee Tables

4. 5. and 6)

CONCWSION
The random errors in the reading of inclination angle ~
and azimuthal angle. 8:1. were minimized. by the use of the Monte
Carlo simulation technique,_ The technique is rigorous, utilizing
between 0.6 minutes to 30 minutes on a Vax1 VX/VHS 16 bits
computer; And is perhaps the best technique for minimizing random
errors associated with measuring survey data of directed wells.
Results obtained by simulation of actual wells proves this point_
However. one fault of the Monte Carlo technique lies in the
large number of function calls required in the simulation run.
This results in long computation time and hence high cost in
running the simulation on a small computer_ This can be over
looked considering the high accuracy required in defining
wellbore geometry of directed wells.
Comparison of the results by direct calculation with those

16

## obtained by Monte Carlo simulation shows that a certain minimum

number of simulation runs was required before meaningful results
could be obtained.
For the simulation runs, a general trend was observed.

~be

## results obtained improved with increase in number of simulation

runs until an optimum result was obtained. This is expected. 'lbe
larger the number of random numbers generated the closer the
distribution of the simulated inclination angles,

.~

and

distribution.

17
NOMENCLATURE

X
Y

## departure east (displacement), ft

= departure

north (latitude), ft

+aV8

= average

8aV8

= average

az~uthal

## = cumulative probability function

= lower limit of inclination angle
= upper limit of inclination angle

F
a

18

RE.EERKNCES
1.

## Craig, J. T. and Randall, B. V.: "Direct ional Survey .

Calculation", PEl (march, 1976), pp. 38-54.

2.

## Wilson, G.J.: "An Improved Method for Computing Directional

Surveys", Trans. AlME Vol. 243, pp. 871-876.

3.

## Walstrom, J.E., Harvey, R.P., and Eddy, H.D.: "Directional

Survey Methods: (I) The Balance Tangential Method;

(II) A

## Comparison of Various Methods", SPE 3379 paper presented at

SPE 46th Annual Fall Meeting, New Orleans, Oct. 3-6, 1971.

4...

de~ermine

True

5.

## Walstrom, J.E., Harvey, R.P., and Eddy, H.O.: .. A Comparison

of Various Directional Survey Models and An Approach to
Model Error Analysis", JPT (Aug., 1972),

6.

~p .

935-943.

## Callas, N.P. et al: "Directional Survey Methods Compared and

Programmed", Oil and Gas Journal (Jan., 1979), pp. 53-58.

7.

## McMillian, H.W.: "Planning The Directional Well A

calculation Method", JPT (June,1981), pp. 952-962.

8.

## Zaremba, W.A.: "Directional Survey by the Circular Arc

Method", SPEJ (Feb., 1973) Trans. AlME Vol. 255, pp. 5-11

9.

## Callas, N.P.: "Computing Directional Survey With a Helical

Method", SPEJ (Dec., 1976), pp. 327-336.

10.

Thorogood, J.L.:

19
11.

Thorogood, J.L.:

12.

## Kumar, T.: "Principles of Simulation Applied to Oil Field

Venture Analysis With Systems Approach", JPT (Oct., 1986)
pp. 1111-1112.

13.

## Walstrom, J.E . Huller, T.O., and Mcfarlane, R.C.:

"Evaluating Uncertainty in Engineering Calculations", JPT
(Dec~,1967),

14.

2~O,

pp. 159?-1603.

## Walstrom, J.E., Brown; A.A., and Harvey, R.P.: "An Analysis

of Uncertainty in Directional Survey", Trans. AlME Vol. 246,
pp: 515-523.

15.

## Wolff, C. J. and Wardt, J. P.: "Borehole Position Uncertainty

- Analysis of Measuring Methods and Derivation of Systematic

..

16.

## James, R.E. and Rogers, L.S.: Design and Use' of Computer

Simulation Models", Hacmillian Publishing Co., Inc. New
York, pp. 170-183.

20

APPENDIXA
The statistical method used to test for uniform distribution
and randomness of pseudo-random numbers generated by a
multiplicative congruential method is presented below from Ref.
16:
Test for uniform distribution
. Suppose we have a sequence of 1'1 single digit random numbers that
we want to evaluate.
Let'f~
E~

## = frequency that digit i occurred in the frequency

= expected number of times digiti would have occurred if
the sequence were completely random.

= number

of sub intervals.

## Then the frequency test is :

xa,

(A.1)

Null Hypothesis:
Level of significance, a = 0.05
Degrees of freedom

= k-1

## The pseudo-random numbers are uniformly distributed if the

calculated value of X2 F exceeds the tabulated X2 value for k-1
degrees of freedom at the pre-determined level of confidence.

21
Test for

ran~

## Suppose we want to test the independence of consecutive pairs of

in a sequence of M single digit random numbers.
The serial test is:

xa,

(A,2)

Where

E 1 .:!

M!lOO

and
9

~
E j .:1 = MilO
-0

Null Hypothefiia;
Ho

H1

= Numbers
= Numbers

are random
are not random

Significant level
Degree of freedom
The

## value of X2 for k 2 -k degrees of freedom at the pre-selected level

of significance.
A computer program RANDTEST is written to implement this
test.

APPENDIX B

.,

## RESUlT OF SA"PlE CASE 1:

S-WELL CALCULATION NIT~ HELICAL TURN
rIcr OFF porNT c 10.0.5001
TARBET LOCATION = 12000.2000.~OOOI
"AXI"U" BUILD AND DROP CUAVATURE.T : 3 1100ft
"AII"U" lpRN CURVATURE z 1.15 I 100ft

01 =.40
01 = 0
02=U

~.

'.! ..___------------------------

. ..

I------~-------__--_ ~-~-_
i
SURVEY DATA J .
.J

## : STATIQN DEPTH lNeLl

NU"BER
IFTl DEJi.

AlJ"UTH
. DEB.

WELL COORDINATE I
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
EAST.
NORTH.
DEPTH.
UFTI
Y (FTI 1 IFTI

.
.
.
I-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
.00
40.00
.00
.00
500.00
~oo.o

2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
~8

29
30
31
32
33

517.0
883.0
1042.0
1165.0
1269.0
1362.0
1'45.0
1523.0
1595.0
166'.0
J729.0
1773.0
1836.0
1899.0
1962.0
2025.0
2088.0
209.5.0
2102.0
3112.0
'122.0
5133.0
5196.0

.50

40.00

11.49.

40.00

16.27

5905.0 15.03

40.00 #~
40.00
'0.00
10.00
40.00
40.00
40.00
'0.00
40.00
40.00
41.17
42.34
43.51
14.6B
45.8C
'5.'17
46.JO
16.10
46.JO
46.JO
46.10
46.10
46.1"
'6.10
46.10
16.10'
46.10
a6.10
C6.10

5q~6.0

46.10

19.~5

23.08
25.85
28.36
30.69
32.86
34.92
36.97
38.20
38.20
38.20

3P.70

5666.0

3B.20
3B.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
38.20
36.31
3 33
32.24
30.03
27.65
25.07
21.21

~77'.O

la.9~

~262.0

5331.0
5405.0
548'.0
~570.0

JS.~O

.05
24,5'-1
53.80
83.08
112.30
t'1.7b
170.81
2"0.18
229.28
25B.69
ZR7.92
30'1.85
335.20
161,14
3B7.67
41',79
C'2 .6
445.57
448.68
898.73
13'8.78
1799.28

.06
517.00
2'1.2'01
BtlO.U
58.50 -1034.75
87.79 1151.64
117.00 12'8.39
11~.50
1333.02
175.'7 1'06.~0
21,'l1.'11 1474.77
2~3.96
1535.'17
263.43 1593.25
292.62 1645.90
313.16 . 1690.79
342.74 1730.30
371.81 177'1.81
100,33 J829.32
419.31 1979.83
455.7' 1928.34
458.75 1933:8':
'61.75 193'1.3.
894.85 2733.05
1327.9' 3526.77
17bl.'6 4321.27
~788.9.
1787.91 4371.41
181~.IO . 181 1.36
.425.76
1841.65 184".62 4482.94
1868.19 1967.15 4~46.28
1894.61 J8'13.57 4615.'7
1911."9 1920.05 4692.52
19'7.78 1'0146.7' 4780.46
197'.09 1973.06 18~1.55
20 0 0.63 19'19.59 ~006.81
)QQQ.7B

lq~q.77

~007.7S

SLANT WELL CALCULATION
IICKOr, POINT = IO.O.500l

## " TARGET LOCATION = 12000,2000.5000l

RADIUS OF CURVATURE 'f3 IIOOl = 1910

..

01 = 45
. 01 = 0

---------------------------------------------------------------------WELL COORDINATE :
SURVEY DATA :
.. LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
NORTH. DEPTH.
EAST.
STATION DEPTH INCLI AZIMUTH
"IFTl
llFTl
DEG.
Y ("1 Z 1fT)
DEG.
NUMBER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------.00 500.00
.00
500.0
.00 45.00
1
.05
.05 517.00
2 517.0 .50 45.00
.58
.58 555.99
556.0 1.68 45.00
3
1. 67
1.67 594.96
595.0 2.85 45.00 .
4
3.32 633.89
3.32
634.0 4.03 45.00
5
5.54
5.54 672.76
673.0 5.20 45.00
6
713.0 6.38 45.00
8.39
8.39 712.56
7
11. 74 751. 27
11. 74
752.0 7.55 45.00
8
791.0 8.73 45.00
15.64
15.64 789.88
9
~28.36
20.11
20.11
830.0 9.91 45.00
10
25.13 866.71
869.0 11.08 45.00
25.. 13
11
30.85 905.88
909.0 12.26 45.00
30.85
12
36.98
36.98 943.90
13 948.0 13.43 45.00
43.66 981. 74
43.66
987.0 14.61 45.00
14
SO.89
50.89 101?38
15 1026.0 15.79 45.00
58.67
58.67 1056.79
16 1065.0 16.96 45.00
67.20
67.20 1094.93
1105.0 18.14 45.00
17
76.05
76.05 1131. 87
18 1144.0 19.31 45.00
85.44
85.44 1168.54
19 1183.0 20.49 45.00
95.35
95.35 1204.93
20 1222.0 21.66 45.00
105.80 105.80 1241. 02
45.00
1261. 0 22.84
21
117.04 117.04 1277.72
22 1301. 0 24.02 45.00
128.52 12~.52 1313.18
23 1340.0 25.19 45.0Q
152.51 152.51 13R3.42
1418.0 26.37 . 45.00
24
141~.1P,
165.01
165.~1
25 1457.0 27.54 45.00
178.01 . 178.01 1452.57 "
26 1496.0 28.72 45.00
191. BE 1487.45
27 " 1536.0 29.89 45.00
191.86
1521. 06
205.84
205.84
1575.0
31.07
45.00
28
1~,56.81
221.
43
221.
43
45.00
29 1617.0 32.25
237.55 237.55 15~7..0~
30 1659.0 33.51 45.00
254.62 254 .62 1627.67
171r2.0 34.78 45.00
31
45.00
683.23 683.23 2480.12
32 2748.0 36.05
1118.49 1118.49 3325.81
33 3794.0 36.05 45.00
1553.76 1553.76 4171. 51
4840.0 36.05 45.00.
34
1989.03 1989.03 5017.20
35 5886.0 36.05 45.00

## RESULT OR SAMPLE CASE 3: CALIF. LAMBERT ZONE 6WELL

NO. OF SIMULALION RUN = 500

---------------------------------------------------------------------SUllVKY DATA :
STATION DEPTH INCLI, AZIMUTH
NUMBEft 1FT! DIG.
DEG.

WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
EAST.
NORTH. DEPTH.
Ifm

IfnI

un)

-------------------.---------------------------------------------------1
2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

..

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

.0
108.0
139.0
170.0
202.0
233.0
265.0
296.6
. 327.0
358.0
390.0
421.0
452.0
483.0
515.0
547.0
578.0
609.0
640.0
671.0
703.0
. 735.0
766.0
797.0
828.0
860.0
892.0
923.0
954.0
985.0
1016.0
1046.0
1077.0
1108.0
1139.0
1171.0
1203.0
1234.0
1265.0
1296.0
1327.0
1359.0
1391.0
1422.0
1453.0
1483.0
1515.0
1547.0
1689.0
1814.0
1924.0
2007.0

.00
.00
1.00
3.00
4.00
5.25
6.00
8.00
9.00
11.00
11.75
13.75
15.75
17.00
18~50

20.00
21. 75
24.00
24.25
25.75
25.25
26.00
27.00
28.00
30.00
33.00
36.00
38.00
40.00
42.75
45.00
47.75
60.00
52.25
54.75
56.50
'58.50
60.00
62.00
64.00
66.00
67.25
68.00
68.50
68.75
69.00
69.30
70.00
70.25
68.75
67.25
68.00

N .00 E
N .00 E
S 59.30 Ii
S 59.30 Ii
S 60.30 Ii
S 78.30 Ii
~ 83.30 W
N88.30 Ii
S 85.30 W:
S 85.30 Ii
N89.80 Ii
N86.80 Ii
S 85.30 t1
N88.80 Ii
S 88.30 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 89.80 II
S 89.90 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 85.30 Ii
S 79.30 W
S 75.80 Ii
S 77 .60 Ii
S 80.30 If
S 80.30 \I
S 80.30 Ii
S 80.30 \I
S 79.30 Ii
S 77.80 Ii
S 76.30 II
S 75.30 II
S 75.30 II
'S 74.30 W
S 74.30 If
S 74.80 Ii
S 74.30 Ii
S 73.60 Ii
S 74. 30 Ii
S 74.80 Ii
S 74.30 It
S 74.30 W
S 73.80 It
S 73.80 II
S 73.80 W
S 73.30 It
S 72.80 It
S 72.80 Ii
S 72.30 II
S 72.30 Ii
S 72.30 Ii
S 77.80 Ii
S 79.30 II

.00
.00
-.14
-.69
-1.67
-2.55
-3.05
-3.22
-3.34
-3.78
-4.03
-3.83
-3.93
-4.20
-4.24
-4.83
-5.30
-5.33
-5.86
~6.94

-8.78
-11.77
-14.92
-17 .64
-20.18
-22.99
-26.05
-29.35
-33.22
-37.81
-43.09
-48.60
-~4.72

-61.25
-67.89
-74.92
-82.34
-89.66
-96.88
-104.24
-111.85
-119.92
-128.17
-136.21
-144.38
-152.54
-161.38.
-170.38
-210.99
-246.58
-272:89
-288.12

.00
.00
.00 108.00
-.23 139.00
-1.16 . 169.98
-2.85 201. 92
-5.18 232.82
-8.28 264.66
-12.12 296;02
-16.61 326.09
-21.97 356.62
-28.28 387.99
-35.12 418.22
-43.00 448.20
-51.73 477.94
-61. 49 508.42
-72.02 538.63
-83.05 567.59
-95.10 596.15
-107.76 624.44
-120.81 652.54
-134.46 681.42
-147.97 710.27
-161.44 738.02
-175.49 765.51
-190.30 792.63
-206.78 819.91
-224.65 846.28
-243.01 871. 03
-262.13 895.12
-282.09 918.38
-302.92 940.73
-323.92 961. 42
-346.46 9Rl. 81
-369.69 1001. 27
-393.71 1019.70
-419.16 1037.77
-445.11 1054.96
-470.72 1070.81
-496.86 1085.84
-523.48 1099.91
-550.52 1113.01
-578.77 1125.71
-607. :8 1137.89
-634.83 1149.36
-662.52 1160.68
-689.28 1171. 49
-717.85 1182.88
-746.47 1194.01
-873.69 1242.28
-985.23 1286.06
-1083.73 1327.26
-1158.95 1358.86

## RRSULT OF SAMPLE CASE 4: HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE.

NO OF SIMULATION RUN = 500

---------------------------------------------------------------------WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDK DEPARTURE VERTICAL
DEPTH.
EAST.
NORTH.
YUTI zlm
xlm

SURVEY DATA :
STATION DEPTH INCLI
NUMBER 1FT \ DEG.

AZIMUTH
DEG.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

.
~

,~

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
46
49

1259.0 .00
1309.0 .00
1350.0 2.25
1381.0 3.00
1442.0 4.25
1473.0 5.25
1503.0 6.05
1534.0 8.05
1565.0 9.05
1688.0 ,13.05
1781.0 14.25
1907.0 16.05
2060.0 18.15
2152.0 24.00
2182.0 24.25
2368.0 28.45
2441.0 30.00
2502.0 30.00
2618.0 32.00
2803.0 34.05
3111.0 43.75
3297.0 47.05
3364.0 45.00
3600.0 41.75
3773.0 49.15
3836.0 50.00
4020.0 47.05
4269.0 44.75
4546.0 43.25
4701. 0 42.00
4949.0 42.00
5285.0 41.05
5657.0 39.05
584? 0 40.00
6026.0 40.25
6214.0 39.75
6583..0 41.25
6954. 0 45.05
7015.0 45.25
7565.0 45.75
7705.0 45.25
8080.0 45.75
6269.0 44.00
8641.0 44.00
9023.0 44.00
9212.0 43.25
9400.0 43.00
9587.0 42.75
10222.0 40.00

II .00 E
N .00 E

K28.00 K
K35.00 K
N55.00 K
N68.00 K
N68.00 E
N71.00 E
K70.00 K
N71.00 K
N13.00 E
N71.00' K
N71.00 K
N62.20 E
N62.0~ K
M63.00 E
N68.00 K
N83.00 K
N83.00 K
N85.00 E
N87.00 E
N88.00 K
N88.00 E
N88.00 K
M88.00 E
N88.00 K
II 87.~ K
It 87.00 E
N87.00 K
M~~.OO E
N66.00 K
N90.00 K
S 89.00 E
S 88.00 E
'S 89.00 K
S 89.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 87.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 86.00 K
5 89.00 E
5 88.00 K
S 88.00 K
S 67.00 K
S 87.00 E
S 87.00 E
S 86.00 K
S 87.00 K
S 87.00 E

.00
.00
.71
1.92
4.63
5.86
6.96 '
8.30
9.83
17.70
24.48
34.66
49.56
62.86
68.59
.106.71
121.4R
129.10
136.38
146.92
160.40
166.18
167.86
'173.83
178.37
180.05
186.07
195.43
205.50
210.08
215.68
219.77
217.68
214.60
211. 47
209.38
203.11
192.05
190.17
176.48
173.81
166.87
162.22
150.96
137.07
130.25
124.65
119.10
97.14

.00
.00
.38
1.12
3.83
6.08
8.82
12.39
16.73
38.95
59.82
91.13
134.39
165.12
115.96
249.17
281.59
311.04
370.33
470.60
663.30
795.59
843.77
1014.49
1144. 47
1192.61
1330.32
1508.88
1701.03
1805.90
1971. 74
2194.44
2433.72
2551. 42
2671.24
2790.78
3030.34
3283.78
3326.98
3719.03
3818.85
4086.22
4219.49
4477.65
4742.65
4872. 61
5Q01. 26
5128.37
5547.48

1259.00
1309.00
1349.99
1380.96
1441.83
1472.73
1502.58
1533.34
1564.00
1684.69
1175.07
1896.68
2042.67
2128.31
2155.69
2322.33
2386.03
2438;86
2538.29
2693.39
2932.80
3063.38
3109.90
3272.71
3386.77
3421.37
3549.22
3722.49
3921.74
41135.79

4220.09
4471.63
4756.38
4899.08
5041.30
5183.78
5464.36
5734.98
5778.00
6163.50
6261. 63
6524.47
6658.40
6925.99
7200.78
7337.59
7474.80
7611. 84
8088.30

## RESULT OF SAMPLE CASE 5: LOW ANGLE "S-CURVED" BOREHOLE.

NO OF SIMULATION RUN = 500

-------.--------------------------.----------------------------------SURVEY DATA :
STATION DEPTH
IFT\

NUMBER

I~CLI

DEG.

'AZIIflJTH

DEG.

WELL COORDINATE :
LATITUDE DEPARTURE VERTICAL
DEPTH.
EAST.
NORTH.
UFTl
YIFT\ zlm

----------------------------------------~-------------

4031.0
4591.0
5026.0
52g.C
4
5 5648.0
6 6667.0
7 671'J.0
8 6748.0
9 6812.0
10 6881.0
6934.0
11
12 7028.0
13 7154.0
14 7279.0
15 7467.0
16 7529.0
17 7591.0
18 7622.0
19 7795.0
20 8202.0
8265.0
21
22 8484.0
23 8733.0
24 9003.0
25 9315.0
26 9646.0
27 9989.0
28 10140.0
29 10358.0
30 10451.0
31 10826.0
32 11045.0
- 33 11140.0
34 11725.0
35. 11962.0
36 12257.0
37 12523.0
38 12715.0
39 12877.0
40 13088.0
41 131.00.0
42 13175.0
43 13292.0
44 13322.0
45 13445.0
46 13515.0
47 13785.0
48 13936.0
49 14129.0
50 14267.0
51 14354.0
52 14562.0
1
2
3

.00 S .00
2.25. S 50.00 II
2.00 S 42.00 It
2.00 .N62.00 W
1.75 N72.00 w
1.25 S 74.00 Ii
2.25 N40.00 II
3.0G N39.00 W
5.00 N38.00 Ii
7.25 N25.00 Ii
8.00 N32.00 Ii
9.00 N30.00 W
10.25 N29.00 W
11.00 N23.00 Ii
12.25 N16.00 'I
11.25 N21.00 II
13.25 N25.00 It
13.75 K26.00 II
14.00 N25.00 II
14.00 'N 22.00 II
14.25 N21.00 Ii
14.00 N21.00 II
13.75 N21. 00 Ii
13.75 N21.00 II
13.00 N17.00 Ii
13.25 N15.00 II
13.75 N14.00 W
12.75 1I 14.00 W
13.75 N14.00 \I
14.00 N14.00 II
15.00 N14.00 II16.00 N14.00 II
16.25 N14.00 II
18.00 N13.00 'I
18.00 N13.00 II
q.25 N18.00 II
11. 00, N22.00 Ii
11.15 N24.00 V
9.25 N30.00 V
9.00 N36.00 V
8.75 N33.00 V
9.00 M36.00 II
8.75 011 38.00 II
9.00 N40.00 II
8.00 M43.00 II
7.00 N27.00 'I
6.00 R33.00 B
3.00 M59.00 E
5.00 S 61.00 oK
6.25 S 85.00 I!
6.25 S 83.00 I!
3.25 S 80.CO E

.00
-7.07
-18.26
-19.32
-13.78
-13.32
-12.~0

-11.80
-8.31
-2.04
4.13
16.04
34.38
55.08
90.77
102.74
114.85
121.38
158.82
249.11
263.41
313.30
369.05
428.96
497.19
569.43
646.96
680.54
729.02
750.66
841. 76
898.55
924.15
1091.64
1163.00
1239.52
1292.01
1325.96
1351.50
1379.55
1381. 08
1390.61
1405.03
1408.63
1422.24
1429.70
1458.85
1467.01
1467.23
1463.31
1462.32
1459.77

------------------

.00
-8.42
-20.01
-26.01
-39.07
-65.36
-66.74
-67.64
-70.42
-74.26
-77.61
-84.77
-95.14
-105.24
-117.88
-121.88
-127.02
-130.14
-148.00
-187.26
-192.89
-212.05
-233.45
-256.45
-279.94
-300.66
-320.71
-329.08
-341.17
-346.57
-369.28
-383.44
-389.82
-430.04
-446.51
-467.74
-486.84
-501.25
-514.27
-532.49
-533.54'
-540.09
-550.95
-553.87
-565.91
-571.14
-569.61
-561.16
-548.31
-535.47
-526.05
-509.01

4031. 00
4590.86
5025.56
5213.44
5647.21
6665.86
6715.83
6746.80
6810.64
6879.24
6931. 77
7024.74
7148.96
7271.82
7455.96
7516.66
7577.24
7607.39
7775.34
8170.25
8231.34
8443.72
8685.46
8947.72
9251.25
9573.61
9907.13
10054.11
10266.30
10356.59
10719.64
10930.67
11021.93
11580.97
11806.37
12090.39
12350.44
12538.86
12698.30
12906.63
12918.48
12992.58
13108.18
13137.82
13259.47
13328.87
13597.13
13747.65
13940.17
14077.50
14163.99
14371.25

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

2102.0
2221.0
2344.0
2498.0
2655.0
2810.0

66.75
66.75
68.00
67.75
67.75
67.50
~924.0 66.50
3035.0 64.75

S 79.30
S 78.80
S 78.30
S 78.30
S 77.30
S 75.30
S 79.30
S 82.30

II
II
Ii

II
II
If

II
Ii

~304.52

-325.59
-348.29
-377.22
-407.93
-441.88
-464. 95
-481.11

-1245.73
-1354. 61
-1466.68
-1606.38
-1748.40
-1887.65
-1989.99
-2089.78

1393.67
1437.00
1482.33
1540.33
1599.77
1658.78
1703.32
1749.13

TABLIL.1
SAMPLE CASE 1: CALIF. LAMBERT ZONE 6 WELL
HODEL:

NORTH

EAST

X (Ff)

VERTICAL

Z (F.rl

(Ff)

TANGENTIAL

-2102.1

-479.6

1744.1

CIRCULAR ARC

-2088.9

-482.9

1749.2

CURVATURE

-2089.4

-481.1

1749.2

## SAMPLE CASE 2: HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE

MODEL:

NORTH

EAST
X (Ff)

CIRCULAR ARC

5547.0

101.4

HELICAL ARC

5546.5

94.6

CURVATURE

5547.5

97.0

VERTICAL

(FI')

(Fl')

8088.1
8088.8
8088.3

TABLE -3
SAMPLE CASE 3: LOW ANGLE "S" CURVED BOREHOLE

MODEL:

EAST
X (Ff)

NORTH
y

(FI')

VERTICAL
Z (Fl')

CIRCULAR ARC

-510.0

1459.9

14,371.4

HELICAL ARC

-513.5

1453.0

14,370.8

CURVATURE

-500.0

1473.0

14,371.3

TABLE-4
SAMPLE CASE 1: CALIF LAMBERT ZONE 6 WELL
EAST

MODEL:

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

X (Ff)

NORTH
Y (Ff)

CURVATURE

-2089.40

-481.10

1749.20

MONTE CARLO
SIMULATION

-2089.78

-481.11

1749.13

## SAMPLE CASE 2'. HIGH ANGLE "KICK AND HOLD" BOREHOLE

MODEL:

NORTH

EAST
X

(Ff)

(F.f)

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

CURVATURE

5547.50

97.00

8088.30

MONTE CARLO
SIMULAXION

5547.48

97.14

8088.30

,
TABLE 6
SAMPLE CASE 3-. LOW ANGLE "S" CURVED BOREHOLE
EAST
X (Fr)

NORTH
Y (Ff)

CURVATURE

-500.00

1473.00

14,371.30

MONTE CARLO
SIMULATION

-509.01

1459.77

14,371.25

MODEL:

VERTICAL
Z (Ff)

.....

U'1

i'Q

'-

..,

i \
i- \

i \.

i I

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I
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