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Bovine Mastitis

And There Control

Muhammad Farrukh Hafeez
What’s mastitis ?
n Inflammation of one or more quarters of
the udder

Normal Inflamed
Mammae = breast

-itis = Latin suffix for

inflammation Swelling
What’s the significance of bovine
mastitis ?
The most n Causes significant economic losses
to the dairy industry in the US
dairy dairy
cattle n $ 200/cow/year
the world
n $ 2 billion/year

cull RIP
What are the health concerns
of mastitis ?
n Animal health
u Loss of functional quarter
u Lowered milk production
u Death of cow

n Human health
u Poor quality milk
u antibiotic residues in milk
How severe can mastitis be ?
n Subclinical Mastitis n Clinical Mastitis
u ~ 90 -95% of all mastitis cases u ~ 5 - 10% of all mastitis cases
u Udder appears normal u Inflamed udder
u Milk appears normal u Clumps and clots in milk

u Elevated SCC (score 3-5) u Acute type

F major type of clinical mastitis
u Lowered milk output (~ 10%)
F bad milk
u Longer duration F loss of appetite
F depression
F prompt attention needed
u Chronic type
F bad milk
F cow appears healthy
What causes mastitis ?
n Bacteria ( ~ 70%)
n Yeasts and molds ( ~ 2%)
n Unknown ( ~ 28%)
u physical
F trauma

F weather extremes
Where do these organisms
come from ?

n Infected udder
n Environment
u bedding
u soil
u water
u manure

n Replacement animals
language n Environmental n Contagious
u S. uberis u S. agalactiae
u S. dysgalactiae
u S. equinus n Clinical mastitis
n Cannot live outside
“Environmentals” n More subclinical the udder
mastitis n Treated easily with
Environment penicillin
Strep” n

n Predominant early
and late lactation
Field n Staph. aureus
language u Summer mastitis
u Spread by milking equipment and milker’s hands
u Persistent, difficult to eliminate
u If unattended leads to chronic mastitis
“Staph” n Other Staph
u Found normally on skin
“Staph. u Lowers milk yield
Mastitis” u Elevated SCC
u Easily responds to antibiotics
u Relapse frequently seen
n Groups of organisms
F E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter

n Environmental source (manure,

bedding, barns, floors and cows)
J-5 vaccine

n Coliforms cause acute clinical mastitis

u hightemp, and inflamed quarter
u watery milk with clots and pus
u toxemia
Other organisms
n Pseudomonas aeruginosa
u outbreaks of clinical mastitis
n Serratia
u outbreaks of clinical mastitis
n Corynebacterium pyogenes
n Fungi
n Candida
n Mycoplasma bovis
How does mastitis develop ?
n Cow
u Predisposing conditions
F Existing trauma (milking machine, heat
or cold, injury)
F Teat end injury
F Lowered immunity (following calving,
Organism surgery)
F Nutrition

n Organisms
Cow Environment n Environment
Process of infection
Organisms invade the udder through
teat canal

Migrate up the teat canal and colonize the

secretory cells

Colonized organisms produce toxic substances

harmful to the milk producing cells
The cow’s immune system send white blood cells
(Somatic cells) to fight the organisms

recovery clinical subclinical

How is mastitis diagnosed ?
n Physical examination
u Signs of inflammation
u Empty udder
u Differences in firmness
u Unbalanced quarters

n Cowside tests
u California Mastitis test
How is mastitis diagnosed ?
n Culture analysis
u The most reliable
and accurate
F costly ($ 5-
5 12)
How do you treat mastitis ?
n Clinical mastitis
u Strip quarter every 2 hours
u Oxytocin valuable
u high temp, give aspirin
u Seek veterinary assistance
u Treatment with penicillins

n Subclinical mastitis
u Questionable

Attitude adjustment !!!!!!

Don’t expect SCC to go down ASAP (4-5
(4 weeks !)
Discard milk from treated cows (double jeopardy !)
n ONE: Prepare cows properly for milking
u Udder preparation is pre-dipping
dipping with a dip labeled for
pre-dipping.Pre-dips dips lower the risk of new infections by
70% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
u Pre-dips
F Iodophors 0.0 -1.0 %
F Chlorhexidine 0.2%

F Quats 0.5%

F LDBSA 0.2%

F Hypochlorous acid

F Bleach ?

u Use single service paper towels, dry teats before

n TWO: Have a good milking system
u Milking equipment should be adequate in size,
functioning properly, and regularly cleaned and
u Correctly use proper functioning milking machines and
properly prepare udders
F Attach teat cups after thorough cleaning and drying of
F Provide stable vacuum

F Check for slipping of teat cup liners

F Shut of vacuum before removing teat cups.

n THREE: Apply and remove machine carefully
u Properly
adjust to prevent liner slippage.
u Remove machine when cow is milked out, shut off
vacuum at claw before removal.

n FOUR: Dip each teat after each milking using a germicidal

teat dip.
u Post-dips
dips seal the teat ends temporarily for 6 to 8 hours
u A must for long term mastitis control program

n FIVE: Monitor your mastitis score (DHI-SCC,

(DHI WMT) regularly.
Take action when significant increases occur.
n SIX: Treat clinical cows, follow label recommendations,
treat aseptically. Withhold treated cows' milk from milk

n SEVEN: Segregate chronic mastitis cows, milk them last,

cull when necessary.
u cows with chronic mastitis serve as reservoirs of
organisms and could infect susceptible cows

n EIGHT: Dry treat each quarter using partial insertion

techniques with an approved dry cow treatment at drying off.
u Cure rate is twice high as that during lactation
u Lowers the risk of clinical and subclinical mastitis during
subsequent lactation
n NINE: Keep cows clean, udders free from soil and
u Fence off wet, swampy areas.
u Keep free stalls and stanchions bedded properly.
u Keep calving areas clean, properly bedded (straw

n TEN: Properly feed and care for cows.


n Mastitis is primarily a management


n Mastitis can be controlled

n Prevention programs work best when

correctly followed
Milking Procedures for
Quality Milk
Milking Procedures for Quality Milk
Maintain clean, well ventilated bedded areas for cows

Segregate known infected cows. Milk them last or with

designated equipment

CMT all fresh cows by the 6th milking


Milk all treated cows last


Change rubber inflations every 60 days or 1000 cow

milkings whichever comes first

Check the milking systems or units periodically for

function and reliability

Clip or singe the udder hair


Examine periodically teats and teat ends


Mastitis treatments should be done by one or two

persons and should be done after milking

Cloth towels should be washed after every use

Simple Steps
“Two trips to each cow will provide a
routine to Maxmize Milk Quality and
Parlor Performance”…. Dr. Andy Johnson
Step One………Strip and Predip

Step Two………Dry and Apply

Standardized Milking Procedures
Stanchion / Tiestall Parlor
n Wear Gloves n Wear Gloves
n Wipe off excess dry manure, n Wipe off excess dry
straw and bedding manure, straw and bedding
n Strip each teat into a n Strip each teat into a
stripcup stripcup
n Dip teats with an approved n Dip teats with an approved
pre-dip pre-dip
n Allow the pre-dip to react for n Dip 3-4 cows
at least 30 sec. n Allow the pre-dip to react
for at least 30 sec.
Stanchion/ Tiestall Parlor
n Clean teat and teat ends n Return to the first cow and
using single paper towel or clean teat and teat ends
individual towel cloth using a single paper towel
or individual towel cloth
n The teats must be dried for n The teats must be dried for
at least 15 sec at least 15 sec
n Attach milking machines n Attach milking machines
immediately after teats are immediately after teats are
dried dried
n Dip teats with post-dip n Dip teats with post-dip
immediately after milking immediately after milking


based concepts for
implementing proper
milking procedures in
Steps involved in employing HACCP-based
concepts for establishing proper milking

u Educate owners and milkers about implementing a
standardized milking procedure (Benefits !!!!!!)

u IF a dairy farm initiates and shows sustained interest

F Establish ground rules
F They will have to be proactive and adopt changes


u Establish a team ( owner, milkers, veterinarian,
u Mission statement
u Goals and timeline
u Written Procedures
F Protocols

F Critical Limits ( SCC > 250,000)

u Recording Keeping
F Milking time/milking
F Bulk Tank Temp; end of 1 hr of milking

F Sanitation

u Schedule team meetings to review the process

u Train
milkers and owners in implementing the
standardized milking procedure
u Monitor
the application of the standardized milking
F Floortests (each step is a critical point !)
F Laboratory tests (SPC or BTSCC)

F Monitor records

u Establishcorrective actions to be implemented if milk
quality critical limits have exceeded.