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POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1
POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1
POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1

POWER ELECTRONICS

LABORATORY MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1
POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1
POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY MANUAL http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 1

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 1

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Ex No. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT 1a. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR 1b. CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIAC 1c.
Ex No.
NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT
1a.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR
1b.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIAC
1c.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET AND IGBT
SINGLE PHASE HALF AND FULLY CONTROLLED CONVERTERS
2.
THREE PHASE HALF AND FULLY CONTROLLED CONVERTERS
3
SINGLE PHASE CYCLOCONVERTER
4.
SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
5
CURRENT COMMUTATED CHOPPER
6.
VOLTAGE COMMUTATED CHOPPER
7.
8.
SERIES INVERTER
9.
IGBT BASED SINGLE-PHASE PWM INVERTER
10.
DESIGN OF FIRING CIRCUITS-UJT,R,RC
11.
STATIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS
12.
IGBT BASED FOUR QUADRANT CHOPPER
STATIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS 12. IGBT BASED FOUR QUADRANT CHOPPER http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 2
STATIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS 12. IGBT BASED FOUR QUADRANT CHOPPER http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 2

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 2

Ex No: 1a Date :

CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR

AIM

To obtain the following for a given SCR

a) Forward characteristic

b) Holding current

c) Latching current

APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED

current c) Latching current APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED S. No. Components name Quantity 1 Thyrister-TYN410 1
S. No. Components name Quantity 1 Thyrister-TYN410 1 2 Dual regulated power supply(0-30)V/300mA 1 3
S. No.
Components name
Quantity
1 Thyrister-TYN410
1
2 Dual regulated power supply(0-30)V/300mA
1
3 Resistors-220Ω,6.8Ω,680Ω,10KΩpotentiometer
Each 1
4 Voltmeter-(0-50) V
1
5 Ammeter-(0-1000)µA, (0-100)mA
Each 1
6 Connecting wires
As req.
THEORY
Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) is a four layer PNPN device. It has three
terminals the outermost P layer is the anode, the outermost N layer is the cathode and the
inner P layer is the gate. This device acts as a controlled switch. The switch is made to
close by triggering it under forward biased condition.
to close by triggering it under forward biased condition. V G -I G CHARACTERISTICS (GATE CHARACTERISTICS

V G -I G CHARACTERISTICS (GATE CHARACTERISTICS)

There are various methods of triggering the SCR and among them the most

popular one is the gate triggering method. When a positive voltage is applied to the gate

with respect to the cathode, keeping anode also positive referred to the cathode, a current

flow into the gate and this current trigger the SCR. The relationship between the gate

voltage V G and gate current I G is known as the gate characteristic. There is a PN junction

in between the gate and cathode and hence the gate characteristic will be similar to a

diode. This characteristic is useful in designing the trigger circuit. The values of V G and I G

must be within their maximum values specified in the sheet.

I G must be within their maximum values specified in the sheet. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 3
I G must be within their maximum values specified in the sheet. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 3

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V FB – I G CHARACTERISTICS (BLOCKING CHARATERISTIC)

With the gate circuit open, the SCR remains in the OFF state or block the forward voltage across it. As the forward voltage is increased, the SCR goes to ON state at a voltage V FBO called as forward break over voltage. With gate current, the forward voltage at a fixed value as the gate current is increased, the SCR conducts beyond a certain gate current denoted as I G min. this characteristic between the forward voltage and I G min. is useful in determining the minimum gate current to be supplied for a given forward voltage.

gate current to be supplied for a given forward voltage. In the ON state, the SCR

In the ON state, the SCR offers a resistance between its anode and cathode. This resistance causes a drop in voltage across the device when a current flows through it. The relationship between this voltage drop V F and the anode current I F is known as the V F -I F characteristic. The product of the voltage drop and the current causes a loss of power across the device. This power loss increases the temperature of the device. This power loss and the switching losses are required for selecting the heat sink.

switching losses are required for selecting the heat sink. LATCHING CURRENT (I L ) A SCR

LATCHING CURRENT (I L ) A SCR can be represented by a two transistor analogy as shown above. Here the collector of the PNP transistor feeds the base current of the NPN transistor and the collector of the NPN transistor forms the base current of the PNP transistor. Due to this interconnection there is a regenerative action between the two transistors and this action can be explained as follows.

two transistors and this action can be explained as follows. Let a small current be injected

Let a small current be injected momentarily into the base of NPN transistor. The base current increases the collector current of PNP transistor. This in turn increases the collector current of PNP transistor which form the base current of NPN transistor. This cumulative action continues until both the transistors are saturated. Thereafter the external base current is not required to keep the transistor ON.

external base current is not required to keep the transistor ON. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 4
external base current is not required to keep the transistor ON. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 4

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It can be said that the two transistors are latched ON. This latching action can occur only when the sum of the current gain of the transistors is unity. This occurs beyond a certain minimum anode current which is called as latching current.

In practice when a SCR is triggered and the gate current is maintained, the SCR will remain in ON state even for current less than be latching currents. But when the gate current is removed the S CR will turn off. Repeating the above procedure for increasing values of anode currents, it can be found that the SCR remains is ON state beyond as certain anode current even after removing the gate current. This minimum current is the latching current of the SCR. Thus the latching current can be defined as the minimum anode current required turning ON the SCR and keeping it ON even after the removal of the gate current.

keeping it ON even after the removal of the gate current. HOLDING CURRENT ( I H
keeping it ON even after the removal of the gate current. HOLDING CURRENT ( I H
keeping it ON even after the removal of the gate current. HOLDING CURRENT ( I H

HOLDING CURRENT ( I H)

It has been explained that the SCR is a latching device and it remains in ON state even after the gate current is removed. With the SCR in ON state as the anode current is decreased the SCR will remain in ON state up to certain anode current but it many turn off below a certain current. This minimum anode current at which the SCR remains in ON state is called as the holding current I H . It may be defined as the minimum anode current that can flow through the device without reverting the device to OFF state with the gate circuit open. The hold on current is slightly less than the latching current.

The hold on current is slightly less than the latching current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 5
The hold on current is slightly less than the latching current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 5
The hold on current is slightly less than the latching current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 5

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

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POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 6
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 6
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 6
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 6
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 6

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MODEL CHARACTERISTICS

V-I CHARACTERISTICS Ia(A) Forward conduction ON state Ig3 Ig2 Ig1 I L Igo I H
V-I CHARACTERISTICS
Ia(A)
Forward conduction ON state
Ig3
Ig2
Ig1
I L
Igo
I H
Va(V)
-Va(V)
V BO
Reverse
Forward
Blocking
Blocking
Forward
current
leakage current
Reverse
Leakage
Current
-Ia(A)
V BO - Forward Break over voltage
V BR - Reverse Break over voltage
Ig- Gate current
over voltage V BR - Reverse Break over voltage Ig- Gate current http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 7
over voltage V BR - Reverse Break over voltage Ig- Gate current http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 7

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TABULATION

FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS

Gate current I G (mA) Gate voltage V G-K Anode current Anode Voltage S.NO. (V)
Gate current I G
(mA)
Gate voltage V G-K
Anode current
Anode Voltage
S.NO.
(V) I A (mA)
Av (V)
REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS
S.No.
Anode voltageV A-K (V)
Anode current I a (mA)
S.No. Anode voltageV A-K (V) Anode current I a (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 8
S.No. Anode voltageV A-K (V) Anode current I a (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 8
S.No. Anode voltageV A-K (V) Anode current I a (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 8

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PROCEDURE

FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Initially the gate is at the open condition means that there is no voltage applied to the gate.

3. Apply a positive voltage by adjusting the potentiometer, across the anode and

voltage by adjusting the potentiometer, across the anode and cathode so that the device is forward

cathode so that the device is forward biased.

4. The anode to cathode voltage is increased, until the thyristor starts conduction.

voltage is increased, until the thyristor starts conduction. REVERSE CHARCTERISTICS 1. Apply a reverse voltage across
voltage is increased, until the thyristor starts conduction. REVERSE CHARCTERISTICS 1. Apply a reverse voltage across

REVERSE CHARCTERISTICS

1. Apply a reverse voltage across the anode to cathode, as the same way as like the forward characteristics.

2. Keep on increasing the reverse voltage across that a small leakage current flow, until the reverse break down occurs.

3. Note down the corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings.

INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 9
corresponding voltmeter and ammeter readings. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 9

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VIVA QUESTIONS

1. A thyristor is a

2. A thyristor can conduct current in direction.

3. A thyristor can be turned ON by applying a forward voltage greater than forward

carrier semi controlled device. direction and block voltage in

voltage or by injecting a positive

and block voltage in voltage or by injecting a positive current pulse under forward bias condition.

current

pulse under forward bias condition.

4. To turn OFF a thyristor the anode current must be brought below current and a reverse voltage must be applied for a time larger than time of the device.

5. A thyristor may turn ON due to large forward

the device. 5. A thyristor may turn ON due to large forward 6. Which layer among
the device. 5. A thyristor may turn ON due to large forward 6. Which layer among

6. Which layer among the PNPN layers dissipates more power and which junction supports a higher voltage?

7. Explain whether a SCR can be used in an amplifier or not?

8. Distinguish DC triggering, pulse triggering and multipulse triggering?

9. Define the boundaries of the complete V G -I G characteristic? 10. Explain the significance of average and RMS current ratings of SCR? 11. What is the significance of the I 2 Rt rating of SCR? 12. How does di /dt of the load affect the SCR and how is it taken care of? What is meant by critical rate of rise of forward voltage? How does it affect the operation of SCR? How is its effect minimized? What is the order of current that flows through the SCR in blocking state? Explain series and parallel operation of SCRs?

13. 14. 15.
13.
14.
15.
Explain series and parallel operation of SCRs? 13. 14. 15. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 10
Explain series and parallel operation of SCRs? 13. 14. 15. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 10

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Ex. No: 1b Date:

CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET

AIM

To study the characteristics of MOSFET and observe the waveforms for

1. Transfer characteristics

2. Drain characteristics

for 1. Transfer characteristics 2. Drain characteristics APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED S.NO COMPONENTS NAME

APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED

S.NO COMPONENTS NAME RANGE/TYPE QUANTITY 1 1 MOSFET 3N200 2 Regulated power supply (0-30)V/DC 1
S.NO
COMPONENTS NAME
RANGE/TYPE
QUANTITY
1
1
MOSFET
3N200
2
Regulated power supply
(0-30)V/DC
1
3
Ammeter
(0-10) mA /MC
1
(0-15)V,
4
Voltmeter
(-5-15)V
1
MC
5
Connecting wires
-
As req.
1kΩ/1W
470Ω/1W
6
Resistors
Each 1
5KΩ/1W
10KΩ/1W
THEORY

A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a current controlled device and requires base

current for current flow in the collector. Since the collector current is depends on the

input (or base) current, the current gain is highly dependent on the junction

temperature.

the current gain is highly dependent on the junction temperature. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 11
the current gain is highly dependent on the junction temperature. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 11

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A power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device and requires only a small input current. The switching speed is very high and the switching times are in the order of nanoseconds. Power MOSFET’s are finding its applications in low-power high-frequency converters. MOSFET do not have the problems as in BJT by secondary phenomena. However, MOSFET have the problem of electrostatic discharge and require special care in handling. In addition, it’s relatively difficult to protect them under short-circuited fault conditions.MOSFET are two types:

under short-circuited fault conditions.MOSFET are two types: (1) Depletion MOSFET’s and (2) Enhancement MOSFET’s.

(1) Depletion MOSFET’s and (2) Enhancement MOSFET’s. n-channel depletion-type MOSFET is formed on a p-type silicon substrate with two heavily doped n+ silicon for low resistance connections. The gate is isolated from the channel by a thin oxide layer. The three terminals are called gate, drain and source. The substrate is normally connected to the source. The gate to source voltage, V GS could be either positive or negative. If V GS is negative, some of the electrons in the n-channel area will be repelled and a depletion region will be created below the oxide layer, resulting in a narrower effective channel and high resistance from the drain to source, R DS If V GS is made negative enough, the channel will be completely depleted, offering

enough, the channel will be completely depleted, offering high value of R D S , and
enough, the channel will be completely depleted, offering high value of R D S , and

high value of R DS , and there will be no current flow from the drain to source, I DS = 0. The value of V GS when this happened is called pinch-off voltage, V P . On the other hand,

a

V R
V
R

GS is made positive, the channel becomes wider, and I DS increases due to reduction in

DS . With a p-channel depletion type MOSFET, the polarities of V DS , I DS , and V GS are

reversed. An n-channel enhancement-type MOSFET has no physical channel. If V GS is positive, an induced voltage will attract the electrons from the p-substrate and accumulate them at the surface beneath the oxide layer. If V GS is greater than or equal to a value known as threshold voltage, V TH , a sufficient numbers of electrons are accumulated to

form a virtual n-channel and the current flows from the drain to source. The polarities of

V DS , I DS , and V GS are reversed for a p-channel enhancement-type MOSFET. Power

MOSFET’s of a various sizes.

enhancement-type MOSFET. Power MOSFET’s of a various sizes. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 12
enhancement-type MOSFET. Power MOSFET’s of a various sizes. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 12

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

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Working Of N-Channel MOSFET

When V GS = 0V and V DS = 0V

The drain current I D = 0, because V DS = 0, the depletion region around the PN

junction are of

When V GS = 0V and V DS increase from zero,

The majority carrier flow through N – channel from source to drain. There fore I D flows through the channel from drain to source. Because of the resistance of the channel and applied voltage V DS there is gradual increase of positive potential as we go source to drain. The reverse voltage across the PN junction increase and the thickness of the depletion region increases; hence the channel is wedge shape. At a certain value of the V P , of V DS the cross sectional area of the channel reduced. Then the drain characteristics are drawn.

1)

equal thickness and symmetrical.

2)

are drawn. 1) equal thickness and symmetrical. 2) 3) When V D S = 0V, V
are drawn. 1) equal thickness and symmetrical. 2) 3) When V D S = 0V, V
are drawn. 1) equal thickness and symmetrical. 2) 3) When V D S = 0V, V

3)

When V DS = 0V, V GS is decreased from zero,

Here PN junction is reverse biased. Hence thickness of the depletion region increases. As V GS is decreased. The reverse voltage across the junction increases. Hence the thickness will increase until the two depletion regions make contact. In this condition, the channel is said to be cut off and the V GS is know as cut off voltage.

4) the
4)
the

when V GS is negative and V DS is increased,

The value of V P as well as breakdown voltage is decreased. In this condition we get transfer characteristics.

is decreased. In this condition we get transfer characteristics. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 13
is decreased. In this condition we get transfer characteristics. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 13

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 13

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 14
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 14
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 14
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 14
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 14

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 14

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page
MODEL CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page
MODEL CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 15
CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 15
CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 15
CHARACTERISTICS DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 15

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 15

TABULATION

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

V GS = 0V V GS = 2.5V V GS = -2.5 V DS (V)
V GS = 0V
V GS = 2.5V
V GS = -2.5
V DS (V)
I D (mA)
V DS (V)
I D (mA)
V DS (V)
I D (mA)
V DS = V I D (mA) V GS (V)
V DS = V
I D (mA)
V GS (V)

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

I D (mA) V DS = V I D (mA) V GS (V) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/
I D (mA) V DS = V I D (mA) V GS (V) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/
I D (mA) V DS = V I D (mA) V GS (V) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 16

PROCEDURE

1)

TRASFER CHARACTERISTICS

1)

varying V GG

2)

3)

Here V DS is kept constant at zero voltage and V GS is increased step by step by

at zero voltage and V G S is increased step by step by The gate source

The gate source voltage and I D is noted down. The same procedure is repeated for different value and transfer characteristics are drawn between V GS and I D . Transfer conductance is determined from the transfer characteristics

4)

The transfer characteristic is obtained plotting I D vs. V GS at V DS constant. The drain

rd = V DS / I D Ω V GS constant
rd = V DS / I D Ω
V GS constant
S constant. The drain rd = V DS / I D Ω V GS constant current

current at V GS = 0 is called V DSS . The drain current is given by the formula, I DS = I DS (1- V GS /V P ) 2

i) Drain resistance (rd):

This is the output resistance of the MOSFET and evaluate in the constant drain

current region of the V DS - I D curves. It’s in the order of the 10 to 30 thousand ohms.

ii) Transconductance(gm):

It is the forward transfer characteristics. It will be around the order of 2000 to 6000 micro mhos

gm = I D / V GS Ω

V DS constant

iii) Amplification factor (µ): µ = rd gm = = V DS / V GS
iii) Amplification factor (µ):
µ = rd gm
=
=
V DS / V GS

V DS / I D x I D /V GS

iv) Input resistance r gs:

r gs = V GS / I GSS Ω

It is the order of hundreds of mega ohms and it is a high input impedance.

order of hundreds of mega ohms and it is a high input impedance. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 17
order of hundreds of mega ohms and it is a high input impedance. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 17

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 17

2)

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS

1)

2) To obtain the drain characteristics V GS is kept constant at zero volts, V DS is

The circuit connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram.

increased step by step varying V DD . The drain source procedure is repeated for different V GS values and the curves are drawn between V DS and I D . AC drain resistance is calculated from the characteristics curves.

Pinch-off or saturation Region:

Pinch-off voltage V P is that the voltage applied to the gate which keeps the drain current constant with increase in V DS . V DS at which saturation occurs of I D occurs when V GS = 0 is called Pinch off voltage. Breakdown Region:

We note from the characteristics curves that avalanche breakdown occurs at a higher V DS when V GS is zero and V DS (breakdown) decreases as the reverse bias is applied to gate. This is because the reverse bias externally applied adds to the self bias at V GS = 0 and causes avalanche breakdown. Cut off Region:

The drain current becomes zero when the V GS (reverse bias) is increased making the channel width to decrease. This is the cut of point through there will still be some leakage current. I GSS is of the order of nano amperes.

3)

4)

I G S S is of the order of nano amperes. 3) 4) INFERENCE RESULT
I G S S is of the order of nano amperes. 3) 4) INFERENCE RESULT
I G S S is of the order of nano amperes. 3) 4) INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
INFERENCE

RESULT

S S is of the order of nano amperes. 3) 4) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 18
S S is of the order of nano amperes. 3) 4) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 18

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 18

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. A MOSFET is a

2. Enhancement type MOSFETs are normally depletion type MOSFETs are normally

3. The Gate terminal of a MOSFET is isolated from the semiconductor by a thin layer of

controlled

carrier device.

while

devices

devices.

layer of controlled carrier device. while devices devices. 4. The MOSFET cell embeds a parasitic 5.

4. The MOSFET cell embeds a parasitic

5. The gate-source voltage at which the formed is called the

6. The thickness of the voltage is increased byond the

in its structure. layer in a MOSFET is

voltage. layer remains constant as gate source voltage.

is voltage. layer remains constant as gate source voltage. 7. State MOSFET is the current control
is voltage. layer remains constant as gate source voltage. 7. State MOSFET is the current control

7. State MOSFET is the current control device. Explain?

8. What is the different between BJT and MOSFET?

9. What happens if the positive voltage is applied between gate and source?

10. Define

a. pinch-off or saturation (V P )

b. shorted gate drain current (I DSS )

c. gate source cut off voltage (V GS )

11.

S S ) c. gate source cut off voltage (V G S ) 11. 12. State

12.

State the condition of the channel width at the pinch off region, and the status of the current flowing through it. Compare SCR, MOSFET, IGBT, Power transistor and GTO.

through it. Compare SCR, MOSFET, IGBT, Power transistor and GTO. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 19
through it. Compare SCR, MOSFET, IGBT, Power transistor and GTO. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 19

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 19

Ex No: 1c Date:

CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT

AIM

To draw the static characteristics of IGBT

OF IGBT AIM To draw the static characteristics of IGBT APPARATUS REQUIRED Sl.No. Apparatus Type Range

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Sl.No. Apparatus Type Range Quantity 1 IGBT KIT - - 1 Moving (0-20)V, 2 Voltmeter
Sl.No.
Apparatus
Type
Range
Quantity
1 IGBT KIT
-
- 1
Moving
(0-20)V,
2 Voltmeter
2
Coil
Moving
3 Ammeter
(0-100)mA
2
Coil
4 Variable Resister
-
2.5k/25W
1
As
5 Connecting wires
-
-
required
The major difference with the corresponding MOSFET cell structure lies in the

THEORY

addition of a p+ injecting layer. This layer forms a pn junction with the drain layer and

injects minority carriers into it. The n type drain layer itself may have two different

doping levels. The lightly doped n- region is called the drain drift region. Doping level

n- region is called the drain drift region. Doping level and width of this layer sets

and width of this layer sets the forward blocking voltage (determined by the reverse break

down voltage of J2) of the device. However, it does not affect the on state voltage drop of

the device due to conductivity modulation as discussed in connection with the power

diode. This construction of the device is called “Punch Trough” (PT) design. The Non-

Punch Through (NPT) construction does not have this added n+ buffer layer. The PT

construction does offer lower on state voltage drop compared to the NPT construction

particularly for lower voltage rated devices. However, it does so at the cost of lower

reverse break down voltage for the device, since the reverse break down voltage of the

junction J1 is small.

the reverse break down voltage of the junction J 1 is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 20
the reverse break down voltage of the junction J 1 is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 20

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 20

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 21
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 21
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 21
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 21
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 21

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 21

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/
MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/
MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 22
CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 22
CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 22
CHARACTERISTICS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 22

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 22

Operating principle of IGBT

When the gate emitter voltage is less then the threshold voltage no inversion layer is formed in the p type body region and the device is in the off state. The forward voltage applied between the collector and the emitter drops almost entirely across the junction J2.Very small leakage current flows through the device under this condition. When the gate emitter voltage is lower than the threshold voltage the driving MOSFET of the Darlington configuration remains off and hence the output p-n-p transistor also remains off. When the gate emitter voltage exceeds the threshold, an inversion layer forms in the p type body region under the gate. This inversion layer (channel) shorts the emitter and the drain drift layer and an electron current flows from the emitter through this channel to the drain drift region. This in turn causes substantial hole injection from the p+ type collector to the drain drift region. A portion of these holes recombine with the electrons arriving at the drain drift region through the channel. The rest of the holes cross the drift region to reach the p type body where they are collected by the source metallization. From the above discussion it is clear that the n type drain drift region acts as the base of the output p-n-p transistor. The doping level and the thickness of this layer determines the current gain “.” of the p-n-p transistor.

the current gain “ . ” of the p-n-p transistor. This is intentionally kept low so
the current gain “ . ” of the p-n-p transistor. This is intentionally kept low so
the current gain “ . ” of the p-n-p transistor. This is intentionally kept low so

This is intentionally kept low so that most of the device current flows through the MOSFET and not the output p-n-p transistor collector. This helps to reduced the voltage drop across the “body” spreading resistance and eliminate the possibility of static latch up of the IGBT. The total on state voltage drop across a conducting IGBT has three components. The voltage drop across J1 follows the usual exponential law of a pn junction. The next component of the voltage drop is due to the drain drift region resistance. This component in an IGBT is considerably lower compared to a MOSFET due to strong conductivity modulation by the injected minority carriers from the collector. This is the main reason for reduced voltage drop across an IGBT compared to an equivalent MOSFET. The last component of the voltage drop across an IGBT is due to the channel resistance and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET.

and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 23
and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 23
and its magnitude is equal to that of a comparable MOSFET. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 23

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 23

PROCEDURE

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

Switch on the supply, keep VCE say 10V vary VGE note down the range of VGE.

Keep VGE constant.

Vary VCE step by step at different constant VGE the corresponding readings are noted down.

Plot a graph between VCE and IC for different VGE.

 Plot a graph between V CE and I C for different V GE. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

Switch on the supply vary VGE note down the corresponding value of IC at different constant VCE.

Plot a graph between VGE. and IC for different VCE.

VGE= V VGE= V IC VCE (mA) (V)
VGE= V
VGE= V
IC
VCE
(mA)
(V)
I C for different V CE. VGE= V VGE= V IC VCE (mA) (V) TABULATION OUTPUT

TABULATION

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

VGE= V VCE IC VCE IC (V) (mA) (V) (mA)
VGE= V
VCE
IC
VCE
IC
(V)
(mA)
(V)
(mA)
CHARACTERISTICS VGE= V VCE IC VCE IC (V) (mA) (V) (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 24
CHARACTERISTICS VGE= V VCE IC VCE IC (V) (mA) (V) (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 24

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 24

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

VGE= (v)

VGE= (v) IC ( mA)

IC ( mA)

VGE= (v) IC ( mA)
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS VGE= (v) IC ( mA) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 25
INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS VGE= (v) IC ( mA) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 25
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS VGE= (v) IC ( mA) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 25
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS VGE= (v) IC ( mA) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 25
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS VGE= (v) IC ( mA) INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 25

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 25

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. From the input side the IGBT behaves essentially as a

2. When the gate emitter voltage is below layer is formed in the p type body region.

3. Electrons arriving through the drive MOSFET causes

no

injection from the

to the drain drift region.

causes no injection from the to the drain drift region. 4. In an IGBT most of

4. In an IGBT most of the collector current flows through the and not through the

5. When the gate-emitter voltage of an IGBT is below threshold if operates in the region.

6. In the active region of operation the collector current of an IGBT is determined by

operation the collector current of an IGBT is determined by the characteristics which are reasonably over
operation the collector current of an IGBT is determined by the characteristics which are reasonably over

the

characteristics which are reasonably

over most of the collector current range.

7. For the same load resistance as the vgE of an IGBT is increased it enters region.

8. The forward voltage drop of an IGBT in the saturation region remains approximately

9. An IGBT has small

temperature coefficient of on state

failure mode.

voltage drop. 10. An IGBT does not exhibit

on state failure mode. voltage drop. 10. An IGBT does not exhibit http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 26
on state failure mode. voltage drop. 10. An IGBT does not exhibit http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 26
on state failure mode. voltage drop. 10. An IGBT does not exhibit http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 26

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 26

Ex No: 1d Date :

CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIAC

AIM

To study and verify the characteristics of TRIAC in the possible modes of operation.

characteristics of TRIAC in the possible modes of operation. APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED S. No. Apparatus

APPARATUS / INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED

S. No. Apparatus / Instrument Type Range Quantity 1 TRIAC kit - - 1 Moving
S. No.
Apparatus / Instrument
Type
Range
Quantity
1 TRIAC kit
-
- 1
Moving
(0-50)V,
2 Voltmeter
1,1
Coil
(0-2)V
Moving
3 Ammeter
(0-50)mA
2
Coil
As
4 Connecting wires
-
-
required
An SCR is a unidirectional device as it can conduct from anode to cathode only

THEORY

and not from cathode to anode. A TRIAC can, however, conduct in both directions. A

TRIAC is thus a bidirectional SCR with three terminals. It is used extensively for the

in a SCR.
in a SCR.

control of power in AC circuits. TRIAC is the word derived by combining the capital

letters from the words TRIode and AC. When in operation, a TRIAC is equivalent to two

SCRs connected in anti-parallel. The circuit symbol and its characteristics are shown.

(Fig. 1 & 2 respectively). As the TRIAC can conduct in both directions, the terms anode

and cathode are usually designated as MT 1 (main terminal 1), MT 2 and the gate by G as

With no signal to gate, the TRIAC will block both half cycles of the AC applied

voltage in case peak value of this voltage is less than the break over voltage of V BO2 of

the TRIAC.

less than the break over voltage of V B O 2 of the TRIAC. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page
less than the break over voltage of V B O 2 of the TRIAC. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 27

Mode I MT 2 is positive and gate current is also positive. When MT 2 is positive with respect to MT 1 , junction P 1 N 1 , P 2 N 2 are reverse biased but junction N 1 P 2 is reverse biased. When gate terminal is positive with respect to MT 1 , gate current flows mainly through P 2 N 2 junction like an ordinary SCR as shown in Fig. (a). When the gate current has injected sufficient charge into P 2 layer, reverse biased junction N 1 P 2 breaks down just as in normal SCR. As a result, TRIAC starts conducting in P 1 N 1 P 2 N 2 layers.

starts conducting in P 1 N 1 P 2 N 2 layers. Mode II MT 2

Mode II

MT 2 is positive but gate current is negative. When terminal is negative with respect to MT 1 , gate current flows through P 2 N 3 junction as shown in Fig. (b) And reverse biased junction N 1 P 2 is forward biased as in a normal SCR. As a result, TRIAC starts conducting through P 1 N 1 P 2 N 3 layers initially. With the conduction of P 1 N 1 P 2 N 3 , the voltage drop across this path falls but potential of layer between P 2 N 3 rises towards the anode potential of MT 2 . As the right portion of P 2 is clamped at the cathode potential of MT 1 , a potential gradient exists across layer P 2 , its left hand region behind at a higher potential than its right region.

region behind at a higher potential than its right region. Mode III MT 2 is negative

Mode III

behind at a higher potential than its right region. Mode III MT 2 is negative but

MT 2 is negative but gate current is positive. The gate current I g forward biases P 2 N 2 junction as shown in Fig (c). Layer N 2 injects electrons into P 2 layer as shown by dotted arrows as a result reverse biased junction N 1 P 1 breaks down as in conventional SCR. Eventually the structure P 2 N 1 P 1 N 4 is completely turned ON.

Mode IV
Mode IV

Both MT 2 and gate current are negative. In this mode, N 3 acts as a remote gate, as shown in Fig.(d). The gate current I g closed from P 2 to N 3 as in normal SCR. Reverse- biased junction N 1 P 1 is broken and finally, the structure P 2 N 1 P 1 N 4 is turned ON completely. It can, therefore, be concluded from above that:

ON completely. It can, therefore, be concluded from above that: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 28
ON completely. It can, therefore, be concluded from above that: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 28

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 28

1. Sensitivity of the TRIAC is greatest in the first quadrant when turned on with

positive gate current and also in the third quadrant when turned on with negative gate current

2. Sensitivity of the TRIAC is low in the first quadrant when turned with the negative

gate current and also in the third quadrant when turned on with the positive gate current.

Thus the TRIAC is rarely operated in the first quadrant with negative gate current and in the third with positive gate current.

gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29
gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29
gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29
gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29
gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29
gate current and in the third with positive gate current. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 29

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 29

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 30

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 30
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM MODEL CHARACTERISTICS http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 30

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 30

TABULATION

FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS IG in VG-MT1 IMT2 (mA) in volts in (mA)
FORWARD CHARACTERISTICS
IG in
VG-MT1
IMT2
(mA)
in volts
in (mA)
REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS IG in VMT1-MT2 IMT2 (mA) in volts in (mA)
REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS
IG in
VMT1-MT2
IMT2
(mA)
in volts
in (mA)
CHARACTERISTICS IG in VMT1-MT2 IMT2 (mA) in volts in (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 31
CHARACTERISTICS IG in VMT1-MT2 IMT2 (mA) in volts in (mA) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 31

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 31

MODE-I

1.

Terminal MT1 is made positive with respect to MT2 and the gate is connected

to the positive supply.

2. Initially the gate current is kept at zero.

3. Vary the voltage across the main terminal MT1 and MT2.

4. Note down the forward break over voltage.

5. Vary the gate current and note down the voltage across MT1 and MT2 and the

current through the device.

across MT1 and MT2 and the current through the device. MODE-II 1. Terminal MT1 is made

MODE-II

1.

MT1 and MT2 and the current through the device. MODE-II 1. Terminal MT1 is made negative

Terminal MT1 is made negative with respect to MT2 and the gate is connected to the

with respect to MT2 and the gate is connected to the negative supply. 2. Repeat the

negative supply.

2.

Repeat the steps from 2 to 5 as in MODE I.

INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
2. Repeat the steps from 2 to 5 as in MODE I. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page
2. Repeat the steps from 2 to 5 as in MODE I. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 32

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. A Triac is a

2. A Triac behaves like two

minority carrier device connected thyristors.

3. The gate sensitivity of a triac is maximum when the gate is

with

respect to MT 1 while MT 2 is positive with respect to MT 1 or the gate is

MT 2 is positive with respect to MT 1 or the gate is gate with respect

gate

with respect to MT 1 while MT 2 is negative with respect to MT 1

or the

quadrant the triac is fired with

4. A Triac operates either in the

quadrant of the V-I characteristics.

5. In the current while in the

quadrant the gate current should be

the current while in the quadrant the gate current should be 6. The maximum possible voltage

6. The maximum possible voltage and current rating of a Triac is considerably

of the two

compared to thyristor due to current carrying paths inside the structure of the triac.

7. What is the acronym for TRIAC?

8. TRIAC is a bidirectional device justify.

9. Name the modes of operation of TRIAC. 10. List out the applications of TRIAC. Explain the characteristics of TRIAC in all the possible modes of operation.

11.
11.
of TRIAC in all the possible modes of operation. 11. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 33
of TRIAC in all the possible modes of operation. 11. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 33

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 33

Ex No: 2.a Date :

SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER

AIM

To study the single phase half controlled converter and to observe the waveforms

for

half controlled converter and to observe the waveforms for a) Resistive load b) Resistive and inductive

a) Resistive load

b) Resistive and inductive load

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO Components name Range / Type Quantity 1 Converter kit - 1 2 Voltmeter (0-30)V/MC
S.NO
Components name
Range / Type
Quantity
1 Converter kit
-
1
2 Voltmeter
(0-30)V/MC
1
3 CRO with probe
-
1
4 Patch cords
-
As req

A converter is power controlled equipment which converts AC voltage DC

THEORY

voltage. The output voltage can be either of fixed magnitude or of variable magnitude.

This depends on the devices in converters. If the devices are all diodes, the output voltage

is uncontrollable and if the devices are all SCR’s or diodes and SCR’s it is controllable.

Single phase (ii) Controlled converter
Single phase
(ii) Controlled converter

The input Ac voltage can be of single phase or of three phases. Accordingly the converter

can classify into following categories.

(i) Uncontrolled converter (all diodes).

(a)

Semi controlled (diodes and SCR’s)

(b)

Fully controlled (all SCR’s)

(diodes and SCR’s) (b) Fully controlled (all SCR’s) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 34
(diodes and SCR’s) (b) Fully controlled (all SCR’s) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 34

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 34

Single Phase Semi Converter with R-Load

A single-phase semi converter with two thyristor and three diodes is shown and the two thyristor are T1, T2 and the two diodes are D1, D2. The third connected across load as free wheeling diode FD.The SCR T1 and D2 are triggered in the positive half cycle and the current flows to the secondary A-T1-load-D2-B. For resistive load, the load current becomes zero at zero crossing of the voltage and T1 and D2 are tuned OFF. In the negative half cycle T2 and D1 are triggered. The conduction of T2 and D1 applied reverse voltage across T1 and D2. During this half cycle the current flows through secondary B-T2-load-D1-A. As in the positive half cycle the current becomes zero at the end of negative half cycle. It can be seen Io at those current flows in the load from C to D during both positive and Io negative half cycles. Hence we get a unidirectional voltage across the load from the AC input voltage.

voltage across the load from the AC input voltage. When the input voltage is applied and
voltage across the load from the AC input voltage. When the input voltage is applied and
voltage across the load from the AC input voltage. When the input voltage is applied and

When the input voltage is applied and the thyristor T1 is triggered at a firing angle of α. With T1 ON, load gets connected to source through T1 and D2 For the period ωt = α to π, load current Іo flows through load, D1, source and T1. The load terminal voltage Vo is of the same wave shape as the AC source voltage Vs. Soon after ωt = π, load voltage Vo tends to reverse as the AC source voltage changes polarity. Just as Vo tends to reverse (at ωt = π+). As SCR T1 is reverse biased at ωt = π by natural commutation. After ωt = π during the negative half cycle, T2 will be forward biased, T2 is triggered at ωt = π + α, and starts conducting. Soon after (π + α ), T1 is reverse biased and therefore it turned off, hence load current now shifts to T2, D1. At ωt = 2π, T2 is reversed biased due to natural commutation and the process repeats.

biased due to natural commutation and the process repeats. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 35
biased due to natural commutation and the process repeats. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 35
biased due to natural commutation and the process repeats. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 35

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 35

Single-Phase Semi converter with R-L Load

For this converter, power circuit diagram is shown in fig. For this controller 2- pulse converter, when SCR T1 is triggered at ωt = α, load current builds up from zero, rises to a maximum and then decays to zero at β>π. From α to π, T1 D2 conduct and Vo= Vs tends to become negative, FD is forward biased and starts conducting the load current. When FD conducts from P to B, Vo = 0. From β to π+α, as load current is zero, this makes the load current discontinuous. When T2 is triggered at π+α, no circuit component conducts, therefore Vo = 0 as shown in fig and during β to π+α, as load current is zero, this makes the load current discontinuous. When T2 is triggered at π+α, Io builds as shown. At 2π, FD is forward biased and starts conducting till π+β. During the time FD conducts, Vo = 0. From π+β to (2π+α), no circuit component conducts, therefore Vo=0. At (2π+α), T1 is triggered again and the above process repeats.

T1 is triggered again and the above process repeats. γ = conduction angle = β -
T1 is triggered again and the above process repeats. γ = conduction angle = β -
T1 is triggered again and the above process repeats. γ = conduction angle = β -

γ = conduction angle = β-α

The average output voltage for this converter with R-L load is given by,

= Vm / π (cos α-cosβ)

with R-L load is given by, = Vm / π (cos α -cos β ) The

The average output current Io is given by

Io = V m / πR (cosα – cosβ)

current Io is given by Io = V m / π R (cos α – cos
current Io is given by Io = V m / π R (cos α – cos

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 36

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

RESTIVE LOAD

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 37
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 37
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 37

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 37

MODEL GRAPH

MODEL GRAPH http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 38
MODEL GRAPH http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 38
MODEL GRAPH http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 38
MODEL GRAPH http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 38

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 38

TABULATION

Output Average Firing Type of voltage Firing angle output S.No angle α load amplitude in
Output
Average
Firing
Type of
voltage
Firing angle
output
S.No
angle α
load
amplitude
in (ms)
voltage
In degree
(v)
(v)
R-Load
R-L
Load
in (ms) voltage In degree (v) (v) R-Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 39
in (ms) voltage In degree (v) (v) R-Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 39
in (ms) voltage In degree (v) (v) R-Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 39
in (ms) voltage In degree (v) (v) R-Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 39

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 39

PROCEDURE

1. Study the waveform at salient points of the triggering circuit.

2. Connect the load without free wheeling diode and energize the converter.

3. Observe the voltage waveform across the load for different delay angles.

4. Measure the output dc voltages for different delay angles.

5. Connect a free wheeling diode across the load for different delay angles.

6. Measure the output dc voltages for different delay angles.

7. Calculate the harmonics in the output voltage for the cases with and without free wheeling diode.

voltage for the cases with and without free wheeling diode. INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
the cases with and without free wheeling diode. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 40
the cases with and without free wheeling diode. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 40
the cases with and without free wheeling diode. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 40
the cases with and without free wheeling diode. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 40

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 40

VIVA QUESTIONS

1.

2.

Define conduction angle and extinction angles?

Explain the variation of the V-I waveforms due to the effect of inductance?

3.

The effect of inductance on power factor-explain?

4.

5.

6.

The effect of inductance on power factor-explain? 4. 5. 6. Explain the action of freewheeling diode?

Explain the action of freewheeling diode?

Sketch the current waveforms across the freewheeling diode.

Find the power factor this converter having R-L load?

diode. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 41
diode. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 41
diode. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 41
diode. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 41
diode. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 41

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 41

Ex No: 2.b Date :

SINGLE PHASE FULLY CONTROLLED CONVERTER

AIM

To study the single phase fully controlled converter and to observe the wave forms for

a) Resistive load

b) Resistive and inductive load

forms for a) Resistive load b) Resistive and inductive load APPRATUS REQUIRED S.NO. Components name Range

APPRATUS REQUIRED

S.NO. Components name Range / Type Quantity 1 Converter Kit - 1 2 DC voltmeter
S.NO.
Components name
Range / Type
Quantity
1 Converter Kit
-
1
2 DC voltmeter
(0-30)V/MC
1
3 CRO with probe
-
1
4 Patch
-
As Req

THEORY

A converter is power control equipment which converter AC voltage to DC

voltage. The output voltage can be either of fixed magnitude or of variable magnitude.

1. Single phase

1. Single phase

This depends on the devices used in the converter. If the devices used are all diodes, the

output voltage is uncontrollable and if the devices used are all SCR’s or diodes and

SCR’s it is controllable. The input AC voltage can be of single phase or of three phases.

Accordingly the converter can be classified into the following categories.

(i) Fully controlled (all SCR’s)

When the load has some inductance, the current through it will not become zero at

the zero crossing of the voltage. It will continue to flow for some more duration in the

subsequent half cycle which depends on the amount of inductance. During this extended

conduction period the already conducting SCR’s continue to conduct and the voltage

across the load becomes negative during this period. The appearance of negative voltage

negative during this period. The appearance of negative voltage http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 42
negative during this period. The appearance of negative voltage http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 42

http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

Page 42

causes a reduction in the average DC output voltage. But we have regeneration of the inductive energy during this negative voltage conduction period.

The negative portion of the output voltage can be eliminated by connecting a diode (shown by dotted line) across the load. When the output voltage becomes negative the diode conducts and provides a local path for the inductive energy. The output voltage is clamped to zero during this period. The diode is called as free wheeling diode.

this period. The diode is called as free wheeling diode. Let the equation of the input

Let the equation of the input voltage be V s = 2V s sin t Then the DC output voltage for resistive load is V dc = 1π V m sin t dt

= 2V m /π (1 + cos  ) V dc = 1 / π
= 2V m /π (1 + cos  )
V dc = 1 / π  V m sin t dt
= 2V m / π cos 
) V dc = 1 / π  V m sin t dt = 2V m

The same expression will hold good for the, inductive load with free wheeling diode also. For an inductive load having continuous current and without free wheeling

diode,

The single – phase fully controlled converter consists of four SCR’s. Conduction dose not take place until the SCR’s are fired. During positive half-cycle SCR’s 1 and 2 are forward biased and when these two SCR’s are fired simultaneously at a firing angle, the load is connected to the input supply. During negative half cycle SCR’s 3 and 4 are forward biased and firing of these SCR’s will apply the supply voltage across SCR’s 1 and 2,as reverse blocking voltage.SCR`s 1 and 2 will be turned off due to line or natural commutation. To ensure simultaneous firing, the pair of SCR’s 1&2 and 3&4 is to be fired from the same firing circuit .The output of the gating signals is supplied through a pulse transformer as the cathodes of the respective SCRs are at different potentials in the rectifier circuit. The load may be of resistive (R), R-L Load. The operation of the converter with R, R-L Load and R-L load with free wheeling diode are described in the following.

R-L load with free wheeling diode are described in the following. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 43
R-L load with free wheeling diode are described in the following. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 43
R-L load with free wheeling diode are described in the following. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 43

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POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

RESISTIVE LOAD

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESISTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 44
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESISTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 44
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESISTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 44
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESISTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 44
POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM RESISTIVE LOAD http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 44

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MODEL WAVEFORM Vs 0 ωt α π π+α 2π Vo R LOAD ωt α π
MODEL WAVEFORM
Vs
0
ωt
α
π π+α
Vo
R LOAD
ωt
α
π π+α
Vo
RL LOAD
0
ωt
α
π+α
2π+α
OUTPUT CURRENT
Io
T1 D1
T2 D2
0
ωt
α
π+α
2π+α
OUTPUT CURRENT Io T1 D1 T2 D2 0 ωt α π+α 2π+α http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 45
OUTPUT CURRENT Io T1 D1 T2 D2 0 ωt α π+α 2π+α http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 45
OUTPUT CURRENT Io T1 D1 T2 D2 0 ωt α π+α 2π+α http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 45

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TABULATION Output Average Firing Type of voltage Firing angle output S.No angle α load amplitude
TABULATION
Output
Average
Firing
Type of
voltage
Firing angle
output
S.No
angle α
load
amplitude
in (ms)
B=π+α
voltage
In degree
(v)
(v)
R Load
R-L
Load
in (ms) B=π+α voltage In degree (v) (v) R Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 46
in (ms) B=π+α voltage In degree (v) (v) R Load R-L Load http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 46

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RESISTIVE LOAD

The converter with R- load is shown in fig, during positive half cycles of the input voltage SCR’s 1 and 2 is forward biased and are fired simultaneously at a firing angle delay of .The supply voltage appears across the load resistance R. The load occurring flows from supply through SCR1, load and SCR2.The current waveform will follows the voltage waveform. At the end of positive half cycle, (at t =π) the current falls to zero and SCR’s 1 and 2 turn off by natural commutation. The load voltage is zero from π to π +, until the SCR’s 3 and 4 are fired in the negative half cycle.

the SCR’s 3 and 4 are fired in the negative half cycle. The load current now

The load current now flows from the supply, via SCR3, load and SCR4.Thus the direction of current through the load is the same in both half-cycles. Rectified DC voltage therefore appears across the load. The relevant waveforms, showing the operation of the converter are shown below. The voltage across any non conducting SCR is opposite of the input AC voltage as long as any two SCRs are conducting. When none of the SCRs are conducting this voltage is the half the input AC voltage.

conducting this voltage is the half the input AC voltage. The average DC voltage across the

The average DC voltage across the load is V dc = (2V m / π) (1+cos α)

Where

load is V d c = (2V m / π ) (1+cos α ) Where V

V m – maximum value of the input AC voltage α – firing angle delay

R – L LOAD (DISCONTINUOUS CURRENT MODE)

The converter with R-L load is shown below. The relevant waveforms pertaining to the operation of the converter, during positive half cycle SCRs1 and 2 are forward biased and can be triggered into conduction at ωt = α by applying gating signals to both SCRs simultaneously. Current flows from the supply through SCR1, load and SCR2.Due to the inductive load, SCRs1 and 2 will continue to conduct beyond ωt = π, even through input voltage reverses polarity.

beyond ωt = π, even through input voltage reverses polarity. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 47
beyond ωt = π, even through input voltage reverses polarity. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 47

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If the load inductances are small, the current will reach zero before. The SCRs3 and 4 are fired at π + α. The angle = β, at which the current reaches zero, is known as the extinction angle.

For α <ωt<π the load current is positive and the load voltage is also positive. The power flows from the supply to the load. For π <ωt<β, the load current is positive and the load voltage V L =V ac is negative. The stored energy in the inductor is returned to the supply. The power during this period is negative.

to the supply. The power during this period is negative. For the given firing angle α,

For the given firing angle α, the average DC voltage across the load will be less than that with the resistive load. The average DC voltage across the load is given by V dc = (2V m / π) [ cos α + cos β ]

Where

by V d c = (2V m / π ) [ cos α + cos β
by V d c = (2V m / π ) [ cos α + cos β

V m – Rms value of the input AC VOLTAGE

β – Extinction angle

α – firing angle

The voltage across any non – conducting SCR, is opposite of the input AC voltage, as long as any two SCRs are conducting. When none of the SCRs are conducting this voltage is half the input AC voltage.

as long as any two SCRs are conducting. When none of the SCRs are conducting this

R – L LOAD CONTINUOUS CURRENT MODE

The circuit diagrams are shown below and the relevant waveforms pertaining to the operation of the converter are shown. The load inductance is sufficiently large so that the current is continuous. During positive half cycles SCRs1 and 2 are fired simultaneously.

The current starts flowing from supply, SCR1, load and SCR2.During to the load inductance, the current continue to flow, beyond ωt = π. For α < ωt < π both the load voltage V L and load current I L are positive. The power flows from supply to load. For π < ωt < π + α, the load voltage is negative and the load current is positive. The stored energy in the inductor is returned to the supply.

The stored energy in the inductor is returned to the supply. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 48
The stored energy in the inductor is returned to the supply. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 48

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Since the load inductance is large, the current continuous to flow, until the SCRs 3 and 4 are fired in the negative half cycle. The average DC voltage across the load is given by

V dc = 2V m / π [cos α]

Where

V m – rms value of the input AC voltage α– firing angle delay Waveforms for fully controlled converter with R – L load – continuous current mode.

converter with R – L load – continuous current mode. PROCEDURE 1. Study the waveform at

PROCEDURE

with R – L load – continuous current mode. PROCEDURE 1. Study the waveform at salient
with R – L load – continuous current mode. PROCEDURE 1. Study the waveform at salient

1. Study the waveform at salient point of the trigger circuit.

2. Connect the load without free wheeling diode and energize the Converter.

3. Observe the voltage waveform across the load for different delay angles.

4. Measure the output dc voltages for different delay angles.

5. Calculate the harmonics in the output voltage.

INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
Calculate the harmonics in the output voltage. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 49
Calculate the harmonics in the output voltage. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 49

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VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Sketch the voltage waveform across the SCR.

2. Assuming a constant load current, sketch the waveform of the current through the SCR and ac input current.

3. What are the effects of source inductance on the conduction of SCR’s and the output voltage?

4. Suggest a filter at the output.

5. If S 1 and S 2 are replaced by diodes, what will be the waveform of the output voltage for a highly inductive load?

6. What are the lowest harmonics present in the output voltage for single phase and for three phase rectifiers? Explain

for single phase and for three phase rectifiers? Explain 7. Draw a three phase rectifier circuit
for single phase and for three phase rectifiers? Explain 7. Draw a three phase rectifier circuit
for single phase and for three phase rectifiers? Explain 7. Draw a three phase rectifier circuit

7. Draw a three phase rectifier circuit and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence

and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 50
and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 50
and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 50

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 51
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 51
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 51
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 51
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 51

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Ex. No. 3 Date:

THREE PHASE HALF AND FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE RECTIFIER

AIM:

To study the operation and performance of the three phase half and fully controlled bridge rectifier with R load.

(a)THREE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER:

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

PHASE HALF CONTROLLED CONVERTER: APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO COMPONENTS NAME RANGE QUANTITY 1 PEC14HV5A and 5B
S.NO COMPONENTS NAME RANGE QUANTITY 1 PEC14HV5A and 5B module - 1 2 Patch cards
S.NO
COMPONENTS NAME
RANGE
QUANTITY
1 PEC14HV5A and 5B module
-
1
2 Patch cards
-
As required
3 CRO
-
1
4 Voltmeter
(0-300v) MC
-
5 DC motor
-
-

THEORY:

In the three phase half controlled converter, the frequency of output voltage is

3Fs.The delay angle α can be varied from 0 to π. During the periodπ/6+α≤ωt<7 π/6,

and D1 are turned off.
and D1 are turned off.

thyristor t1 is forward biased. If t1 is fired at wt= (π/6+α), t1 and d1 conduct and the line

to line voltage Vac appears across the load. At wt=7 π/6, V ac starts to be negative and

freewheeling diode Dm conducts. The load current continues to flow through Dm and T1

If there were no freewheeling diode,T1 would continue to conduct until thyristor T2

is fired at wt=5π/6+α and the freewheeling action would be accomplished through T1 and

D2.If α≤π/3,each thyristor conducts for 2π/3 and freewheeling diode Dm does not

conduct.

The average output voltage for0≤α≤180 is given by,

Vdc=3√3 Vm/π (1+cosα)

voltage for0 ≤α≤180 is given by, Vdc=3 √3 Vm/π (1+cosα) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 52
voltage for0 ≤α≤180 is given by, Vdc=3 √3 Vm/π (1+cosα) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 52

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MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT VOLTAGE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg)
MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT VOLTAGE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg)
MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT VOLTAGE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg)

TABULATION:

FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT VOLTAGE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V) TON
FIRING ANGLE (ms)
TYPE OF
FIRING
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
AVERAGE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
LOAD
ANGLE(deg)
(V)
TON
TOFF
(V)
AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V) TON TOFF (V) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 53
AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V) TON TOFF (V) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 53

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PROCEDURE:

1. Check the SCR firing circuit and SCR power circuit phase sequence was (R, Y, B) synchronized then conducts experiment by following procedure.

2. After synchronizing, replace auto transformer and phase sequence (R, Y, B) connected to three phase main supply same phase sequence (R-R, Y-Y, B-B).

3. Switch off the SCR firing and power circuit then set the MCB’s in OFF position.

and power circuit then set the MCB’s in OFF position. 4. Set the SCR firing circuit

4. Set the SCR firing circuit module pot P1in minimum position.

5. Set the SCR firing circuit pot P1 nearer the switch is working for two modes, one is “INT” internal and “EXT” external mode. Set the switch in “INT” mode.

6. Switch ON the SCR firing circuit check the firing pulse and other wave forms at the test positions.

7. Connect the SCR terminals as T1 to T3, T3 to T5, diode anode terminal as D2 to D4, D4 to D6.

8. Connect DC motor across banana connectors T5 and anode terminal of diode

load.
load.
banana connectors T5 and anode terminal of diode load. D6. 9. Voltmeter and CRO with 10:1

D6.

9. Voltmeter and CRO with 10:1 attenuation probe was connected to across of

resistive

10. Connect voltmeter is across the three phase load and connects the CRO with 10:1 attenuation probe across the voltmeter.

Switch on the SCR power circuit and MCB. Vary pot P1 to change the firing angle then vary load. Note down voltmeter readings at various firing angle. Observe voltage waveform in CRO.

11. 12. 13. 14.
11.
12.
13.
14.
firing angle. Observe voltage waveform in CRO. 11. 12. 13. 14. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 54
firing angle. Observe voltage waveform in CRO. 11. 12. 13. 14. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 54

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 55
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 55
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 55
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 55
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 55

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(b) THREE PHASE FULLY CONTROLLED CONVERTER

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO COMPONENTS NAME RANGE QUANTITY 1 PEC14HV5A and 5B module - 1 2
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.NO
COMPONENTS NAME
RANGE
QUANTITY
1 PEC14HV5A and 5B module
-
1
2 Patch cards
-
As required
3 CRO
-
1
4 Voltmeter
(0-300v) MC
-
5 DC motor
-
-
THEORY:

Three phase converters are extensively used in industrial applications up to the

are extensively used in industrial applications up to the 120 KW levels, where two quadrant operations

120 KW levels, where two quadrant operations are required. The load is fed via a three

phase half-wave connection, the return path being via another half-wave connection to

one of the three supply lines, no neutral being required. The circuit consists of two groups

of SCRs, positive group and negative group. The positive groups SCRs are turned ON

when the supply voltage are positive and negative group SCRs are turned on when the

supply voltage are negative. If SCR T1 is triggered at a particular instant, it can conduct

provided there is a return path for the current.

OPERATIONS:
OPERATIONS:

i) Continuous conduction mode (0≤α≤π/3)

ii) Discontinuous conduction mode (π/3≤ α≤ 2π/3), α-->firing angle of thyristor

i) Continuous conduction mode (0≤α≤π/3)

When the phase A and phase B are all over to conduct at α between zeros to π/3, it

continuous to conduct by 60º when the phase C is fired. The phases A&C conduct after

another 60º after which it is replaced by phases B&C when phase B voltage assumes

greater value than C or A. Hence the load current is continuous for α between 0 and π/3.

ii) Discontinuous conduction mode (π/3≤ α 2π/3)

when (π/3≤ α≤ 2π/3), the phases A and B conducts up to angle π after which both

the thyristor T1 and T5 are commutated off due to natural commutation and after 60º

T5 are commutated off due to natural commutation and after 60º http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 56
T5 are commutated off due to natural commutation and after 60º http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 56

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when T6 and T1 are fired, phase A and C conducts also up to angle π .Hence load current remains zero from angle π to the next firing pulse and becomes discontinuous.

MODEL GRAPH:

next firing pulse and becomes discontinuous. MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT
next firing pulse and becomes discontinuous. MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT
next firing pulse and becomes discontinuous. MODEL GRAPH: TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT
TABULATION: FIRING ANGLE (ms) TYPE OF FIRING OUTPUT VOLTAGE AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V)
TABULATION:
FIRING ANGLE (ms)
TYPE OF
FIRING
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
AVERAGE OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
LOAD
ANGLE(deg)
(V)
TON
TOFF
(V)
AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V) TON TOFF (V) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 57
AVERAGE OUTPUT VOLTAGE LOAD ANGLE(deg) (V) TON TOFF (V) http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 57

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PROCEDURE:

1. Check the SCR firing circuit and SCR power circuit phase sequence was (R, Y, B) synchronized then conducts experiment by following procedure.

2. After synchronizing, replace auto transformer and phase sequence (R, Y, B) connected to three phase main supply same phase sequence (R-R, Y-Y, B-B).

three phase main supply same phase sequence (R-R, Y-Y, B-B). 3. Switch off the SCR firing

3. Switch off the SCR firing and power circuit then set the MCB’c in OFF position.

4. Set the SCR firing circuit module pot P1in minimum position.

5. Set the SCR firing circuit pot P1 nearer the switch is working for two modes, one is “INT” internal and “EXT” external mode. Set the switch in “INT” mode.

6. Switch ON the SCR firing circuit check the firing pulse and other wave forms at the test positions.

7. Connect the SCR terminals as T1 to T3, T3 to T5, diode anode terminal as D2 to D4, D4 to D6.

8. Connect DC motor across banana connectors T5 and anode terminal of diode D6.

load.
load.
banana connectors T5 and anode terminal of diode D6. load. 9. Voltmeter and CRO with 10:1

9. Voltmeter and CRO with 10:1 attenuation probe was connected to across of

resistive

10. Connect voltmeter is across the three phase load and connects the CRO with 10:1 attenuation probe across the voltmeter.

Switch on the SCR power circuit and MCB. Vary pot P1 to change the firing angle then vary load. Note down voltmeter readings at various firing angle. Observe voltage waveform in CRO.

11. 12. 13. 14. INFERENCE:
11.
12.
13.
14.
INFERENCE:

RESULT:

voltage waveform in CRO. 11. 12. 13. 14. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 58
voltage waveform in CRO. 11. 12. 13. 14. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 58

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What is mean by phase controlled rectifier?

2. What is meant by delay angle?

3. Give expression for average voltage of single phase full converters.

4. What are the disadvantages of continuous gating signal?

5. What is meant by high frequency carrier gating?

6. Define conduction angle and extinction angles?

7. Sketch the current waveforms across the freewheeling diode.

8. Find the power factor this converter having R-L load?

9. Sketch the voltage waveform across the SCR.

R-L load? 9. Sketch the voltage waveform across the SCR. 10. Assuming a constant load current,
R-L load? 9. Sketch the voltage waveform across the SCR. 10. Assuming a constant load current,

10. Assuming a constant load current, sketch the waveform of the current through the SCR and ac input current.

of the current through the SCR and ac input current. 11. What are the lowest harmonics

11. What are the lowest harmonics present in the output voltage for single phase rectifier? Explain

12. Draw a single phase rectifier circuit and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence

and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 59
and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 59
and number the various devices that will conduct in sequence http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 59

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Ex No: 04 Date :

SINGLE PHASE CYCLOCONVERTER

AIM:

To study and observe the output waveform of the single phase mid point type

Cycloconverter.

waveform of the single phase mid point type Cycloconverter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Single Phase Cycloconverter Module

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Single Phase Cycloconverter Module

2. Single Phase Cycloconverter Firing Circuit

Module 2. Single Phase Cycloconverter Firing Circuit 3. Step down Centre Tap Transformer (30-0-30)V 4. Resistive
Module 2. Single Phase Cycloconverter Firing Circuit 3. Step down Centre Tap Transformer (30-0-30)V 4. Resistive

3. Step down Centre Tap Transformer (30-0-30)V

4. Resistive Load

5. CRO

6. Patch Cords

THEROY:

A converter (or) rectifier is used to convert AC power to DC power. An inverter

is used to convert AC power to DC power. An inverter used to convert DC power

used to convert DC power to AC power or AC power to AC power by means of an

intermediate DC link. But a cycloconverter converts AC power of a certain frequency

without the help of intermediate DC link .that is a device, which converts input power at

one frequency to output power of a different frequency with one stage conversion, is

called a cycloconverter. A cycloconverter is thus a one stage frequency changer.

FREQUENCY DIVISION BY TWO AT THE OUTPUT:

In the circuit SCR1and SCR2 comprise the positive converts and SCR2 and SCR3

are the negative converter. If SCR1 (P1) and SCR2 (P2) operate for a complete cycle and

SCR (N1) and SCR3 (N2) for the next cycle of the input frequency. Varying the firing

angle of Scar’s can alter the magnitude of output voltage.

angle of Scar’s can alter the magnitude of output voltage. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 60
angle of Scar’s can alter the magnitude of output voltage. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 60

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FREQUENCY DIVISION BY 4 AT THE OUTPUT:

When a is positive with respect to 0 forward biased SCR P1 is triggered at t=with this, load current starts building up in the positive direction from A to O. load current to becomes zero at t=>But less than (+),fig©. Thyristor P1 is thus

naturally commutated at t=which is already reverse biased after. After half cycle

which is already reverse biased after  . After half cycle positive with respect to o.

positive with respect to o. now forward biased thyristor P2 is triggered at t= +.

Load current is again positive from A to O and builds up from zero as shown in fig© . At t=+, To decays to zero and P2 is naturally commutated. At 2+, P1 is again turned on. Load current in fig© is seen to be discontinuous.

on. Load current in fig© is seen to be discontinuous. After four positive half cycles of

After four positive half cycles of load voltage and load current, thyristor N2(after P2,N2 should be fired ) is gated at (4+) when 0 is positive with respect to b. as N2 is forward biased, it starts conducting but load current direction is reversed, ie. It is now form 0 to A. after N2 is triggered, load current builds up in the negative direction as shown in the fig©. in the next half cycle, 0 is positive with respect to a but before N1 is fired, io decays to zero and N2 is naturally commutated.

is fired, io decays to zero and N2 is naturally commutated. Now when N 1 is

Now when N 1 is gated at (5+), io again builds up but it decays to zero before thyristor N 2 in sequence is again gated. In this manner, four negative half cycles of load voltage and load current, equal to number of four positive half cycles are generated. Now

to number of four positive half cycles are generated. Now P 1 is again triggered to

P 1 is again triggered to fabricate further four positive half cycles of load voltage and so on. For discontinuous load current, natural commutation is achieved, ie. P 1 goes to

blocking

state

before

P 2

is

gated

and

so

on.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 62

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OUTPUT WAVEFORM

OUTPUT WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 63
OUTPUT WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 63
OUTPUT WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 63
OUTPUT WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 63

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PROCEDURE:

1. Patch the firing units as per the circuit diagram.

2. Switch on the firing circuit unit through the power on indicator switch provided in the front panel.

3. Verify the test points through the CRO it is proper or not.

4. Then press the soft start switch.

it is proper or not. 4. Then press the soft start switch. 5. Study and observe

5. Study and observe the various stages of waveforms through the appropriate test points.

stages of waveforms through the appropriate test points. 6. Observe the firing pulse output and their

6. Observe the firing pulse output and their phase phase sequence through the corresponding terminals using dual channel in CRO.

7. Now switch OFF the firing circuit. And patch the power circuit unit as shown in the patching diagram, also inter link the firing unit and power unit as shown in the patching diagram.

8. 9.
8.
9.

Connect the CRO probe across the load resistor. (It may be a fixed or variable resistor)

Switch on the both firing & power circuit and observe the cycloconverter output in the CRO, and change the firing angle through the firing angle variation (0 – 180’) potmetter.

10. Repeat the experiments for various values for various frequency divider output. Also observe and trace the cycloconverter output and note down the voltage and current readings for various values of R.

down the voltage and current readings for various values of R. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 64
down the voltage and current readings for various values of R. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 64

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TABULATION S.No Frequency Amplitude (P – P)V Triggering Conduction Total Output Firing Division Time Time
TABULATION
S.No
Frequency
Amplitude
(P – P)V
Triggering
Conduction
Total
Output
Firing
Division
Time
Time
Time
Frequency
angle in
degree

INFERENCE

Time Time Time Frequency angle in degree INFERENCE RESULT QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What
Time Time Time Frequency angle in degree INFERENCE RESULT QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What

RESULT

QUESTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the need for cycloconverter?

List out the various configuration of cycloconverter?

Name few application of step up and step down cycloconverter?

How the variable frequency is achieved in the cycloconverter?

Compare step up and step down cycloconverter?

6. What are the limitations of cycloconverter?

cycloconverter? 6. What are the limitations of cycloconverter? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 65
cycloconverter? 6. What are the limitations of cycloconverter? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 65

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Ex. No. 6 Date:

CURRENT COMMUTATED CHOPPER

AIM:

To construct a chopper circuit and study its time ratio (TRC) controls.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

and study its time ratio (TRC) controls. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO NAME OF THE COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY
S.NO NAME OF THE COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY 1 Input source DC power supply Output :0-30V/2ADC
S.NO
NAME OF THE COMPONENTS
SPECIFICATIONS
QUANTITY
1 Input source DC power supply
Output :0-30V/2ADC
1
2 control modules
Chopper module
1
3 Output load
Resistance -1kohms/1A
1
4 Measuring instruments
Oscilloscope dual trace D.C.
1
Voltmeter (0-100v)
1
5 Connecting wires
As required
.
THEORY:
Chopper converts fixed DC voltage to variable DC voltage through the use of
semiconductor devices. The DC to DC converters have gained popularity in modern
industry .Some practical applications of DC to DC converter include armature voltage
applications of DC to DC converter include armature voltage control of DC motors converting one DC

control of DC motors converting one DC voltage level to another level, and controlling

DC power for wide variety of industrial process. The time ratio controller (TRC) is a

form of control for DC to DC conversion.

Time ratio controller (TRC) or chopper is basically a thyristor switch

connector between the source and the load. The switch is closed and opened periodically

such that the load is connected to, and disconnected from, the supply alternatively. Thus

the average voltage impressed on the load is controlled by controlling the ratio of ON

state interval to one cycle duration.

The average voltage of the chopper is given by

Var= (T ON /T) V

Where V is input voltage, T ON is the time duration of the chopper.

is input voltage, T O N is the time duration of the chopper. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 66
is input voltage, T O N is the time duration of the chopper. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 66

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 67
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 67
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 67
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 67

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MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 68
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 68
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 68
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 68
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 68

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The ratio (T ON /T) is called the duty ratio of the chopper. The most important factor that governs the performance of the chopper is the duty ratio. The duty ratio can be controlled in many ways, such as by changing the ON period duration or by changing frequency keeping ON period constant. The third alternative method is to change both ON period and Frequency. Changing the frequency of the chopper introduces different harmonics at different frequencies. At some frequency of operation the harmonic contents are larger than the tolerable limits. Therefore fixed frequency choppers with a variable on period technique are generally used.

with a variable on period technique are generally used. Chopper circuit shown is class-B current commutation

Chopper circuit shown is class-B current commutation circuit. In this circuit source voltage source voltage Vs charge capacitor C to voltages Vs with the top side positive as shown. Main thyristor T1 and auxiliary thyristor TA are off. Positive direction of capacitor voltage and capacitor current ic are established in the load circuit .Here ,for simplicity ,load current is assumed constant .For initiating the commutation of main thyristor T1 ,auxiliary thyristor TA is triggered. With TA is on ,a resonant current ic begin to flow from C through TA ,L and back to C .Then capacitor is charged to –Vs ,Resonant current ic no build through L ,D and T1 .As this current I C grows opposite to forward thyristor current of T1, net forward current It1 =Io –ic begins to decreases .Finally ,when ic in the reverse direction attains the value Io ,forward current in T1 (IT1=Io-I0) is reduced to zero and the device is turned off .For reliable commutation ,peak resonant current Ip must be greater than load current Io .As thyristor is commutated by the gradual built up of resonant current in the reverse direction , this method of commutation is called current commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation.

commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 69
commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 69
commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 69
commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 69
commutation, Class–B commutation or resonant pulse commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 69

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TABULATION:

NO OF DIVISION: SL DUTY THEORETICAL PRACTICAL VALUE NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF
NO OF DIVISION:
SL
DUTY
THEORETICAL
PRACTICAL VALUE
NO
CYCLE (ms)
VALUE(V)
(V)
TON
TOFF
PRACTICAL VALUE NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 70
PRACTICAL VALUE NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 70
PRACTICAL VALUE NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 70

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PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the chopper firing circuit, check for the firing pulses.

2. Circuit connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram by connecting rheostat as load with input DC voltage at 24 V.

3. The gate cathode terminals of the 2SCR’S are connected to the respective points on the firing module.

4. Check all the connections and confirm connections made are correct before switching on the equipments.

5. Switch on the DC power supply to the chopper and also firing circuit.

the DC power supply to the chopper and also firing circuit. 6. Keeping frequency constant vary

6. Keeping frequency constant vary duty cycle of the chopper firing circuit in steps and note down corresponding load voltage for each step.

and note down corresponding load voltage for each step. 7. The output wave forms are seen
and note down corresponding load voltage for each step. 7. The output wave forms are seen

7. The output wave forms are seen on a CRO.

8. Keeping frequency constant vary duty cycle of the chopper firing circuit in steps and down corresponding load voltage for each step.

9. Plot a graph of duty cycle against load voltage.

INFERENCE: RESULT:
INFERENCE:
RESULT:
a graph of duty cycle against load voltage. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 71
a graph of duty cycle against load voltage. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 71

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. In Dc choppers, if Ton is the on period and f is the chopping frequency then

output voltage in terms of input voltage Vs is given by

2. In Dc Choppers per unit ripple is maximum when duty cycle α is

respectively.

4. For type- A chopper, Vs is the source voltage, R is the load resistance and α is the duty cycle. The average output voltage and current for this chopper are

3. In Dc Chopper the waveforms for input and output voltages are

Dc Chopper the waveforms for input and output voltages are respectively. 5. For a chopper,Vs is

respectively.

5. For a chopper,Vs is the source voltage R is the load resistance and α is the duty cycle rms and average values of thyristor currents for this chopper are

6. A chopper has Vs as the source voltage, R as the load resistance and α as the duty cycle. For this chopper rms value of output voltage is

duty cycle. For this chopper rms value of output voltage is 7. A load commutated chopper,

7. A load commutated chopper, fed from 200v dc source, has a constant load current of 50A. For a duty cycle of 0.4 and a chopping frequency of 2 kHz, the value of commutating capacitor and the turn off time for 1 thyristor pair are respectively

8. For a Type-A chopper; Vs,R,Io and α are respectively the dc source voltage, load resistance, constant load current and duty cycle for this chopper, average and rms values of free wheeling diode currents are

average and rms values of free wheeling diode currents are A step up chopper has Vs

A step up chopper has Vs as the source voltage and α as the duty cycle. The output voltage for this chopper is given by A regulated power supply should be able to maintain output voltage within specified limits in spite of

9. 10.
9.
10.
output voltage within specified limits in spite of 9. 10. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 72
output voltage within specified limits in spite of 9. 10. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 72

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Ex. No. 7 Date:

VOLTAGE COMMUTATED CHOPPER

AIM:

To construct a chopper circuit and study its time ratio (TRC) controls.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

and study its time ratio (TRC) controls. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO NAME OF THE COMPONENTS QUANTITY 1
S.NO NAME OF THE COMPONENTS QUANTITY 1 Chopper power module 1 2 Chopper firing unit
S.NO
NAME OF THE COMPONENTS
QUANTITY
1 Chopper power module
1
2 Chopper firing unit
1
3 Loading rheostat (50 ohm/5W)
1
4 CRO
1
5 Multimeter
1
6 Patch cards
As required

THEORY:

Chopper converts fixed dc voltage to variable dc voltage through the use of

of control for dc to dc conversion.
of control for dc to dc conversion.

semiconductor devices .the dc to dc converters have gained popularity in modern

industry. Some practical applications of dc to dc converter include armature voltage

control of dc motors converting one dc voltage level to another level, and controlling dc

power for wide variety of industrial processes. The time ratio controller (TRC) is a form

The time ratio controller (TRC) or chopper is basically a thyristor switch as

shown in figure connector between the source and load. The switch is closed and opened

periodically such that the load is connected to, and disconnected from, the supply

alternatively. Thus the average voltage impressed on the load is controlled by controlling

the ratio of ON state interval to one cycle duration.

The average output voltage of the chopper is given by

Var= (T ON /T) V

output voltage of the chopper is given by Var= (T O N /T) V http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page
output voltage of the chopper is given by Var= (T O N /T) V http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 74
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 74
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 74
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 74
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 74

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MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 75
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 75
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 75
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 75
MODEL GRAPH: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 75

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Where V is input voltage, TON is time duration of chopper. The ratio TON/T is called the duty ratio of the chopper .The most important factor that governs the performance of the chopper is the duty ratio. The duty ratio can be controlled in many ways, such as by changing the on period duration by keeping frequency constant or by changing frequency keeping on period constant. The third alternative method is to change both ON period and frequency. Changing the frequency of the chopper introduce different harmonics at different frequencies. At some frequency of operation the harmonic contents are larger than tolerable limits. Therefore fixed frequency chopper with a variable on period techniques are generally used.

with a variable on period techniques are generally used. Chopper circuits shown is class D commutation

Chopper circuits shown is class D commutation circuit here an auxiliary thyristor is used to turn OFF the main SCR TM. It is assumed that the capacitor is initially charged to voltage EC with the polarity shown. When TM is turned ON, the capacitor will discharged through it, and through inductor L. At the end of discharge cycle the capacitor voltage will reverse and will be held by diode D to stay with this polarity when TA is fired, the capacitor will discharge through TM and will turned it off. Since a reverse voltage is applied across the TM immediately after turning ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation.

ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 76
ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 76
ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 76
ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 76
ON the SCR, this phenomenon is known as voltage commutation. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 76

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TABULATION:

NO OF DIVISION: DUTY THEORETICAL PRACTICAL VALUE S. NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF
NO OF DIVISION:
DUTY
THEORETICAL
PRACTICAL VALUE
S. NO
CYCLE (ms)
VALUE(V)
(V)
TON
TOFF
PRACTICAL VALUE S. NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 77
PRACTICAL VALUE S. NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 77
PRACTICAL VALUE S. NO CYCLE (ms) VALUE(V) (V) TON TOFF http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 77

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PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the chopper firing circuit, check for the firing pulses.

2. Circuit connection are made as shown in the circuit diagram by connecting rheostat as load with input DC voltage at 24V.

3. The gate cathode terminals of the 2 SCR’s are connected to the respective points on the Firing module.

4. Check all the connections and confirm connections made are correct before switching on the equipments.

5. Switch on the DC power supply to the chopper and also firing circuit.

the DC power supply to the chopper and also firing circuit. 6. Keeping frequency constant vary

6. Keeping frequency constant vary duty cycle of the chopper firing circuit in steps and note down corresponding load voltage for each step.

7. The output waveforms are seen on a CRO.

8. Keeping duty cycle constant vary frequency of the chopper firing circuit in steps and note down corresponding load voltage for each step.

and note down corresponding load voltage for each step. 9. Plot a graph of duty cycle
and note down corresponding load voltage for each step. 9. Plot a graph of duty cycle

9. Plot a graph of duty cycle against load voltage. 10. Tabulate theoretical and practical values. 11. A graph of Vdc (av) versus duty cycle is plotted. 12. Draw the following waveforms. a. Load voltage waveform. b.Voltage across the capacitor.

INFERENCE:
INFERENCE:

RESULT:

waveform. b.Voltage across the capacitor. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 78
waveform. b.Voltage across the capacitor. INFERENCE: RESULT: http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 78

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by voltage commutation?

2. In Type-A chopper, source voltage is 100V Dc, on period=100µs, off period=150µs and load RLE consists of R=2Ω,L=5mH,E=10V for continuous conduction, average output voltage and average output current for this chopper

output voltage and average output current for this chopper are respectively 3. In Dc chopper if

are

respectively

3. In Dc chopper if T is the chopping period, then output voltage can be controlled

by PWM by varying

4. Linear isolated power supplies will generally be superior to switched-mode power supplies (outputting isolated voltage) in respect to the following

(outputting isolated voltage) in respect to the following 5. High frequency transformers are used for output

5. High frequency transformers are used for output voltage isolation and scaling in the following type of power supplies

and scaling in the following type of power supplies 6. A 60watt, 15V ± 0.2V, power

6. A 60watt, 15V ± 0.2V, power supply specified to deliver regulated output for input supply (50Hz) variation from 180 volts to 270 volts will be different from another power supply with identical output rating but capable of outputting regulated voltage over input range of 90 volts to 270 volts in respect of

7. What kind of output rectifier and filter circuit is used in a fly back converter?

8. A fly-back converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode with fixed ON duration of the switch in each switching cycle. Assuming input voltage and the resistive load at the output to remain constant, how will the output voltage change with change in switching frequency? (Assume discontinuous conduction throughout and neglect circuit losses.)

9.
9.

A fly-back converter has primary to secondary turns ratio of 15:1. The input voltage is constant at 200 volts and the output voltage is maintained at 18 volts. What should be the snubber capacitor voltage under steady state?

10. What are the advantages of voltage commutated chopper?

state? 10. What are the advantages of voltage commutated chopper? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 79
state? 10. What are the advantages of voltage commutated chopper? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 79

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Ex No: 8 Date :

SINGLE PHASE SERIES INVERTER

AIM

To study and obtain the characteristics of SCR series inverter for its effects of variation
To study and obtain the characteristics of SCR series inverter for its effects of
variation of the triggering frequency on the output voltage.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No
Components Name
Range/Type
Quantity
1 Electro Technique Thyristors set-19m
-
1
2 Multimeter
-
1
3 CRO and probe
-
1
4 Regulated power supply
30V,1A
1
3 CRO and probe - 1 4 Regulated power supply 30V,1A 1 THEORY The DC to
3 CRO and probe - 1 4 Regulated power supply 30V,1A 1 THEORY The DC to

THEORY

The DC to AC power converters are known as inverters. In other words, an

inverter is a circuit, which converters a DC power into an AC power at desired output

voltage and frequency. The AC output voltage could be fixed at a fixed or variable

frequency. This conversion can be achieved either by controlled turn-on and turn-off

devices (e.g., BJTs, MOSFETs, IGBTs, SITs, GTOs, and SITHs) or forced commutation

thyristors, depending on applications. For low and medium power outputs, the above

used. 1. 2.
used.
1.
2.

mentioned power devices are suitable but for high power outputs, thyristors should be

The Thyristor inverter can be classified in the following categories:

According to the method of commutation and

According to the connections.

According to the connections of thyristors and commutating components, the

inverters can be three groups, these are,

1. Series Inverters

2. Parallel Inverters

3. Bridge Inverters

1. Series Inverters 2. Parallel Inverters 3. Bridge Inverters http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 80
1. Series Inverters 2. Parallel Inverters 3. Bridge Inverters http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 80

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In some inverters, the commutating elements may come in series with the load or in parallel with the load during operation. In this type of inverters, as indicated by the name, the commutating elements, and viz. L and C are connected in series with the load. This constitutes a series R-L-C resonant circuit. If the load is purely resistive, it only has resistance in the circuit. In case of load being inductive or capacitive part is added to commutating elements. This type of thyristorised inverter produces an approximately sinusoidal waveform at a high output frequency, ranging from 200Hz to100Hz, and is commonly used in relatively fixed output applications such as ultrasonic generators. Induction heating, sonar transmitter, fluorescent lighting, etc. due to the high-switching frequency, the size of commutating components is small.

frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81
frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81
frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81
frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81
frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81
frequency, the size of commutating components is small. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 81

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BASIC SERIES INVETER

BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82
BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82
BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82
BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82
BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82
BASIC SERIES INVETER POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 82

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MODEL WAVEFORM

MODEL WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 83
MODEL WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 83
MODEL WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 83
MODEL WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 83
MODEL WAVEFORM http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 83

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PROCEDURE

1. Connect 30V DC supply to the unit and turn on.

2. Turn “the output frequency” pot fully anticlockwise (i.e.). Minimum frequency and connect one beam of the oscilloscope between its top and DC.

3. Connect the other beam of the oscilloscope between its top and DC.

4. Observe both waveforms, vary the frequency pot clockwise and observe the waveforms and note the changes in the output pulse frequency.

5. Disconnect the 30V DC supply.

6. Connect G and G 1 by short links.

7. Connect “load voltage DC side” across “load” terminals and oscilloscope across the individual terminals.

terminals and oscilloscope across the individual terminals. 8. Connect one current sensing resistor between lower end
terminals and oscilloscope across the individual terminals. 8. Connect one current sensing resistor between lower end

8. Connect one current sensing resistor between lower end of ‘C’ and the SCR anode. The voltage drop across this gives the diode current waveform.

voltage drop across this gives the diode current waveform. 9. Connect another current sensing resistor between

9. Connect another current sensing resistor between lower end of ‘C’ and the diode cathode. The voltage drop across this gives the diode current waveform.

10. Connect DC supply. Turn ON frequency pot fully anticlockwise and put the DC ON.

11. Observe the various voltage and current waveform.

12. Observe the above waveform by slowly varying the trigger frequency.

INFERENCE RESULT
INFERENCE
RESULT
by slowly varying the trigger frequency. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 84
by slowly varying the trigger frequency. INFERENCE RESULT http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 84

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VIVA QUESTIONS

1. What is the difference between series inverter and parallel inverter?

2. What is the commutation circuit involved in the series inverter?

3. Why it is called as series inverter?

4. Why the series components are under damped?

5. What happens if T2 is not present?

are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85
are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85
are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85
are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85
are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85
are under damped? 5. What happens if T2 is not present? http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 85

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Ex No: 9 Date :

SINGLE PHASE PWM INVERTER

AIM

To study the working principle of single phase PWM inverter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED S.NO Components name Range/ Type Quantity 1 IGBT based Single Phase PWM inverter
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO
Components name
Range/ Type
Quantity
1
IGBT based Single Phase
PWM inverter kit
-
1
2
Single Phase Resistive (R) and
Inductive (L) Load
-
-
3
Voltmeter
(0-300V)/MI
1
4
CRO with probes
-
1
5
Patch cords
-
As req
THEORY
Output voltage from an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control
within the inverter itself. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-width
modulation control used within an inverter. In this method, a fixed DC input voltage is
(PWM) control.
(PWM) control.

given to the inverter, and a controlled AC output voltage is obtained by adjusting the ON

and OFF periods of the inverter components. This is the most popular method of

controlling the output voltage and this method is termed as pulse-width modulation

voltage and this method is termed as pulse-width modulation http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 86
voltage and this method is termed as pulse-width modulation http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 86

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PULSE-WIDTH MODULATED INVERTERS

PWM inverters are gradually taking over other types of inverters in industrial applications. PWM techniques are characterized by constant amplitude pulses. The width of these pulses is, however, modulated to obtain inverter output voltage control and to reduce its harmonic content. Different PWM techniques are as under.

its harmonic content. Different PWM techniques are as under. One of the most promising means of

One of the most promising means of controlling the inverter output and voltage is to incorporate time ratio control within the inverter. These inverters are called as Pulse Width Modulated Inverters. This control of inverter in this method a fixed DC input voltage is given to the inverter through the bridge rectifier and a controlled AC output voltage is obtained by adjusting the ON/OFF periods of inverter components.

by adjusting the ON/OFF periods of inverter components. PWM techniques are characterized by constant amplitude
by adjusting the ON/OFF periods of inverter components. PWM techniques are characterized by constant amplitude

PWM techniques are characterized by constant amplitude pulses. The width of these pulse is however, modulated to obtain inverter output voltage control and reduce the harmonic content.

output voltage control and reduce the harmonic content. Different PWM techniques are as follows: 1. Single

Different PWM techniques are as follows:

1.

Single Pulse Modulation(SPM)

2. 3.
2.
3.

Multiple Pulse Modulation(MPM) and

Sinusoidal Pulse Modulation (SPWM)

In PWM inverters, forced commutation is essential. The three PWM techniques mentioned above differ from each other in the harmonic content in their respective output voltages. The choice of a particular PWM technique depends upon the permissible harmonic content in the output voltage. In out experiment we are employing SPWM technique. In this modulation also several pulses per half cycle is used.

In this modulation also several pulses per half cycle is used. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 87
In this modulation also several pulses per half cycle is used. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 87

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However the pulse width is made sinusoidal function of the angular position of the pulses as shown in sample waveform. The frequencies of the triangular wave decide the number of pulses per half cycle and the frequency of the reference sinusoidal signal decides the frequency of the output. The output voltage is controlled by the varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal reference voltage.

varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal reference voltage. In PWM inverters, forced commutation is essential. The

In PWM inverters, forced commutation is essential. The three PWM techniques mentioned above differ from each other in the harmonic content in their respective output voltages. The choice of a particular PWM technique depends upon the permissible harmonic content in the output voltage. In industrial applications PWM inverter supplied from a diode bridge rectifier and an LC filter.

supplied from a diode bridge rectifier and an LC filter. Advantages  The output voltage control
supplied from a diode bridge rectifier and an LC filter. Advantages  The output voltage control
supplied from a diode bridge rectifier and an LC filter. Advantages  The output voltage control

Advantages

The output voltage control with this method can be obtained without any additional components.

It is possible to substantially reduce or eliminate lower order harmonic frequencies. The higher order harmonics can by filtered by the load inductance itself. Hence no filter circuit is required even if required it will have lower size and hence the cost is less.



The main disadvantages of this method are that the SCR’s are expensive as they must possess low turn-on and turn-off times.

expensive as they must possess low turn-on and turn-off times. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 88
expensive as they must possess low turn-on and turn-off times. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 88

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POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

BASIC BRIDGE PWM INVERTER

POWER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM BASIC BRIDGE PWM INVERTER MODEL GRAPH Ig1 Ig2 0 wt Ig3 Ig4 0
MODEL GRAPH Ig1 Ig2 0 wt Ig3 Ig4 0 wt output voltage V s Vo
MODEL GRAPH
Ig1
Ig2
0
wt
Ig3
Ig4
0
wt
output voltage
V s
Vo
2T
0
wt
T
-Vs
wt Ig3 Ig4 0 wt output voltage V s Vo 2T 0 wt T -Vs http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/
wt Ig3 Ig4 0 wt output voltage V s Vo 2T 0 wt T -Vs http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/

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http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 90

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TABULATION

Carrier signal Reference signal PWM signal Output current Time Time Time Time S.NO Amplitude Amplitude
Carrier signal
Reference signal
PWM signal
Output current
Time
Time
Time
Time
S.NO
Amplitude
Amplitude
Amplitude
Amplitude
Period
Period
Period
Period
(V)
(V)
(V) (ms)
(V) (ms)
(ms)
(ms)
SINGLE PHASE FULL BRIDGE INVERTER
In the circuit there are four IGBT Power switches are there S 1 to S 4 . During the

positive half cycle + ve voltage is obtained by firing S 1 and S 2 . Zero level of the output

other IGBT.
other IGBT.

voltage for a general load is obtained by turning OFF S 2 and firing S 3 , since gate pulses

are available for both S 2 and S 3 , depending on the nature of the load inductive the load

current flows through one of these IGBT’s and the diode connected in parallel with the

In the negative half cycle, the output voltage level negative is obtained by turning

ON S 3 and S 4 . The zero level of the output voltage for a general load is obtained by

turning OFF S 3 and Firing S 2 .Depending upon the nature of the load, the current flows

through one of the two switches (S 2 or S 4 ) and the diode connected in parallel with the

other IGBT.

4 ) and the diode connected in parallel with the other IGBT. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 91
4 ) and the diode connected in parallel with the other IGBT. http://annauniversitystudymaterials.blogspot.in/ Page 91

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PROCEDURE

1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. The control circuit and input AC mains supply are switched ON.(Ensure the that pulse release is in OFF position, potentiometers at zero position).

is in OFF position, potentiometers at zero position). 3. The DC voltmeter reading is noted down.

3. The DC voltmeter reading is noted down.

4. The input triggering pulse is switched ON.

5. The frequency, Amplitude controller knobs are adjusted to obtain the variable output voltage and frequency.

6. Voltmeter, Frequency meter readings for various load conditions are noted down.

meter readings for various load conditions are noted down. 7. The triggering pulse circuit is switched

7. The triggering pulse circuit is switched OFF and then AC mains supply is switched OFF.

INFERENCE RESULT